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1.  Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(9):e1001517.
In a pooled analysis of data collected from invasive pneumococcal disease surveillance databases, Daniel Feikin and colleagues examine serotype replacement after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction.
Methods and Findings
Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥2 years before and ≥1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0·55, 95% CI 0·46–0·65) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0·49, 95% CI 0·35–0·68). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0·03, 95% CI 0·01–0·10), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2·81, 95% CI 2·12–3·71). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18–49 year-olds [RR 0·52, 95% CI 0·29–0·91], 50–64 year-olds [RR 0·84, 95% CI 0·77–0·93], and ≥65 year-olds [RR 0·74, 95% CI 0·58–0·95]).
Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not represent the experience in low-income countries or the effects after introduction of higher valency PCVs. High-quality, population-based surveillance of serotype-specific IPD rates is needed to monitor vaccine impact as more countries, including low-income countries, introduce PCVs and as higher valency PCVs are used.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors’ Summary
Pneumococcal disease–a major cause of illness and death in children and adults worldwide–is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium that often colonizes the nose and throat harmlessly. Unfortunately, S. pneumoniae occasionally spreads into the lungs, bloodstream, or covering of the brain, where it causes pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis, respectively. These invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) can usually be successfully treated with antibiotics but can be fatal. Consequently, it is better to avoid infection through vaccination. Vaccination primes the immune system to recognize and attack disease-causing organisms (pathogens) rapidly and effectively by exposing it to weakened or dead pathogens or to pathogen molecules that it recognizes as foreign (antigens). Because there are more than 90 S. pneumoniae variants or “serotypes,” each characterized by a different antigenic polysaccharide (complex sugar) coat, vaccines that protect against S. pneumoniae have to include multiple serotypes. Thus, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV7, which was introduced into the US infant immunization regimen in 2000, contains polysaccharides from the seven S. pneumoniae serotypes mainly responsible for IPD in the US at that time.
Why Was This Study Done?
Vaccination with PCV7 was subsequently introduced in several other high- and middle-income countries, and IPD caused by the serotypes included in the vaccine declined substantially in children and in adults (because of reduced bacterial transmission and herd protection) in the US and virtually all these countries. However, increases in IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes occurred in some settings, presumably because of “serotype replacement.” PCV7 prevents both IPD caused by the serotypes it contains and carriage of these serotypes. Consequently, after vaccination, previously less common, non-vaccine serotypes can colonize the nose and throat, some of which can cause IPD. In July 2010, a World Health Organization expert consultation on serotype replacement called for a comprehensive analysis of the magnitude and variability of pneumococcal serotype replacement following PCV7 use to help guide the introduction of PCVs in low-income countries, where most pneumococcal deaths occur. In this pooled analysis of data from multiple surveillance sites, the researchers investigate serotype-specific changes in IPD after PCV7 introduction using a standardized approach.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 21 databases that had data about the rate of IPD for at least 2 years before and 1 year after PCV7 introduction. They estimated whether changes in IPD rates had occurred after PCV7 introduction by calculating site-specific rate ratios–the observed IPD rate for each post-PCV7 year divided by the expected IPD rate in the absence of PCV7 extrapolated from the pre-PCV7 rate. Finally, they used a statistical approach (random effects meta-analysis) to estimate summary (pooled) rate ratios. For children under 5 years old, the overall number of observed cases of IPD in the first year after the introduction of PCV7 was about half the expected number; this reduction in IPD continued through year 7 after PCV7 introduction. Notably, the rate of IPD caused by the S. pneumonia serotypes in PCV7 decreased every year, but the rate of IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes increased annually. By year 7, the number of cases of IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes was 3-fold higher than expected, but was still smaller than the decrease in vaccine serotypes, thereby leading to the decrease in overall IPD. Finally, smaller decreases in overall IPD also occurred among adults but occurred later than in children 2 years or more after PCV7 introduction.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that consistent, rapid, and sustained decreases in overall IPD and in IPD caused by serotypes included in PCV7 occurred in children and thus support the use of PCVs. The small increases in IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes that these findings reveal are likely to be the result of serotype replacement, but changes in antibiotic use and other factors may also be involved. These findings have several important limitations, however. For example, PCV7 is no longer made and extrapolation of these results to newer PCV10 and PCV13 formulations should be done cautiously. On the other hand, many of the serotypes causing serotype replacement after PCV7 are included in these higher valency vaccines. Moreover, because the data analyzed in this study mainly came from high-income countries, these findings may not be generalizable to low-income countries. Nevertheless, based on their analysis, the researchers make recommendations for the collection and analysis of IPD surveillance data that should allow valid interpretations of the effect of PCVs on IPD to be made, an important requisite for making sound policy decisions about vaccination against pneumococcal disease.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information for patients and health professionals on all aspects of pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal vaccination, including personal stories
Public Health England provides information on pneumococcal disease and on pneumococcal vaccines
The World Health Organization also provides information on pneumococcal vaccines
The not-for-profit Immunization Action Coalition has information on pneumococcal disease, including personal stories
MedlinePlus has links to further information about pneumococcal infections (in English and Spanish)
The International Vaccine Access Center at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has more information on introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in low-income countries
PMCID: PMC3782411  PMID: 24086113
2.  Effects of Community-Wide Vaccination with PCV-7 on Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage in The Gambia: A Cluster-Randomized Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(10):e1001107.
In a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Gambian villages, Anna Roca and colleagues find that vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage even among nonvaccinated older children and adults.
Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) of limited valency is justified in Africa by the high burden of pneumococcal disease. Long-term beneficial effects of PCVs may be countered by serotype replacement. We aimed to determine the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in rural Gambia.
Methods and Findings
A cluster-randomized (by village) trial of the impact of PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage was conducted in 21 Gambian villages between December 2003 to June 2008 (5,441 inhabitants in 2006). Analysis was complemented with data obtained before vaccination. Because efficacy of PCV-9 in young Gambian children had been shown, it was considered unethical not to give PCV-7 to young children in all of the study villages. PCV-7 was given to children below 30 mo of age and to those born during the trial in all study villages. Villages were randomized (older children and adults) to receive one dose of PCV-7 (11 vaccinated villages) or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (10 control villages). Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs) to collect nasopharyngeal swabs were conducted before vaccination (2,094 samples in the baseline CSS), and 4–6, 12, and 22 mo after vaccination (1,168, 1,210, and 446 samples in CSS-1, -2, and -3, respectively).
A time trend analysis showed a marked fall in the prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in all age groups following vaccination (from 23.7% and 26.8% in the baseline CSS to 7.1% and 8.5% in CSS-1, in vaccinated and control villages, respectively). The prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage was lower in vaccinated than in control villages among older children (5 y to <15 y of age) and adults (≥15 y of age) at CSS-2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [95% CI 0.04–0.57] and OR = 0.32 [95% CI 0.10–0.98], respectively) and at CSS-3 (OR = 0.37 [95% CI 0.15–0.90] for older children, and 0% versus 7.6% for adults in vaccinated and control villages, respectively). Differences in the prevalence of non-vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage between vaccinated and control villages were small.
Vaccination of Gambian children reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage across all age groups, indicating a “herd effect” in non-vaccinated older children and adults. No significant serotype replacement was detected.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
The prevention of pneumococcal disease, especially in children in developing countries, is a major international public health priority. Despite all the international attention on the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4—to reduce deaths in children under five years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015—pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis together compose more than 25% of the 10 million deaths occurring in children less than five years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading bacterial cause of these diseases, and the World Health Organization estimates that approximately 800,000 children die each year of invasive pneumococcal disease.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are currently available and protect against the serotypes that most commonly cause invasive pneumococcal disease in young children in North America and Europe. Such vaccines have been highly successful in reducing the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in both vaccinated children and in the non-vaccinated older population by reducing nasopharyngeal carriage (presence of pneumococcal bacteria in the back of the nose) in vaccinated infants, resulting in decreased transmission to contacts—the so-called herd effect. However, few countries with the highest burden of invasive pneumococcal disease, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa, have introduced the vaccine into their national immunization programs.
Why Was This Study Done?
The features of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease in sub-Saharan Africa are different than in other regions. Therefore, careful evaluation of the immune effects of vaccination requires long-term, longitudinal studies. As an alternative to such long-term observational studies, and to anticipate the potential long-term effects of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in sub-Saharan Africa, the researchers conducted a cluster-randomized (by village) trial in The Gambia in which the whole populations of some villages were immunized with the vaccine PCV-7, and other villages received a control.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
With full consent from communities, the researchers randomized 21 similar villages in a rural region of western Gambia to receive pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or a control—meningococcal serogroup C conjugated vaccine, which is unlikely to affect pneumococcal carriage rates. For ethical reasons, the researchers only randomized residents aged over 30 months—all young infants received PCV-7, as a similar vaccine had already been shown to be effective in young infants. Before immunization began, the researchers took nasopharyngeal swabs from a random selection of village residents to determine the baseline pneumococcal carriage rates of both the serotypes of pneumococci covered by the vaccine (vaccine types, VTs) and the serotypes of pneumococci not covered in the vaccine (non-vaccine types, NVTs). The researchers then took nasopharyngeal swabs from a random sample of 1,200 of village residents in both groups of villages in cross-sectional surveys at 4–6, 12, and 22 months after vaccination. Villagers and laboratory staff were unaware of which vaccine was which (that is, they were blinded).
Before immunization, the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in both groups was high, at 71.1%, and decreased with age. After vaccination, the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in all three surveys was similar between vaccinated and control villages, showing a marked fall. However, the prevalence of carriage of VT pneumococci was significantly lower in vaccinated than in control villages in all surveys for all age groups. The prevalence of carriage of NVT pneumococci was similar in vaccinated and in control villages, except for a slightly higher prevalence of NVT pneumococci among vaccinated communities in adults at 4–6 months after vaccination. The researchers also found that the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage fell markedly after vaccination and reached minimum levels at 12 months in both study arms and in all age groups.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that vaccination of young Gambian children reduced carriage of VT pneumococci in vaccinated children but also in vaccinated and non-vaccinated older children and adults, revealing a potential herd effect from vaccination of young children. Furthermore, the immunological pressure induced by vaccinating whole communities did not lead to a community-wide increase in carriage of NVT pneumococci during a two-year period after vaccination. The researchers plan to conduct more long-term follow-up studies to determine nasopharyngeal carriage in these communities.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The World Health Organization has information about pneumococcus
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information about pneumococcal conjugate vaccination
PMCID: PMC3196470  PMID: 22028630
3.  Prevention of pneumococcal diseases in the post-seven valent vaccine era: A European perspective 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:207.
The burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in young children decreased dramatically following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae now reflects infections caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. Recently introduced higher valency pneumococcal vaccines target the residual burden of invasive and non-invasive infections, including those caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. This review is based on presentations made at the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in June 2011.
Surveillance data show increased circulation of the non-PCV7 vaccine serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 6C, 7 F and 19A in countries with routine vaccination. Preliminary evidence suggests that broadened serotype coverage offered by higher valency vaccines may be having an effect on invasive disease caused by some of those serotypes, including 19A, 7 F and 6C. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia remains a difficult clinical diagnosis. However, recent reports indicate that pneumococcal vaccination has reduced hospitalisations of children for vaccine serotype pneumonia. Variations in serotype circulation and occurrence of complicated and non-complicated pneumonia caused by non-PCV7 serotypes highlight the potential of higher valency vaccines to decrease the remaining burden. PCVs reduce nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM) caused by vaccine serotypes. Recent investigations of the interaction between S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae suggest that considerable reduction in severe, complicated AOM infections may be achieved by prevention of early pneumococcal carriage and AOM infections. Extension of the vaccine serotype spectrum beyond PCV7 may provide additional benefit in preventing the evolution of AOM. The direct and indirect costs associated with pneumococcal disease are high, thus herd protection and infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes both have strong effects on the cost effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination. Recent evaluations highlight the public health significance of indirect benefits, prevention of pneumonia and AOM and coverage of non-PCV7 serotypes by higher valency vaccines.
Routine vaccination has greatly reduced the burden of pneumococcal diseases in children. The pneumococcal serotypes present in the 7-valent vaccine have greatly diminished among disease isolates. The prevalence of some non-vaccine serotypes (e.g. 1, 7 F and 19A) has increased. Pneumococcal vaccines with broadened serotype coverage are likely to continue decreasing the burden of invasive disease, and community acquired pneumonia in children. Further reductions in pneumococcal carriage and increased prevention of early AOM infections may prevent the evolution of severe, complicated AOM. Evaluation of the public health benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines should include consideration of non-invasive pneumococcal infections, indirect effects of vaccination and broadened serotype coverage.
PMCID: PMC3462147  PMID: 22954038
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Invasive pneumococcal disease; Community-acquired pneumonia; Acute otitis media; Vaccine serotype coverage; Epidemiology-incidence
4.  The PneuCarriage Project: A Multi-Centre Comparative Study to Identify the Best Serotyping Methods for Examining Pneumococcal Carriage in Vaccine Evaluation Studies 
PLoS Medicine  2015;12(11):e1001903.
The pneumococcus is a diverse pathogen whose primary niche is the nasopharynx. Over 90 different serotypes exist, and nasopharyngeal carriage of multiple serotypes is common. Understanding pneumococcal carriage is essential for evaluating the impact of pneumococcal vaccines. Traditional serotyping methods are cumbersome and insufficient for detecting multiple serotype carriage, and there are few data comparing the new methods that have been developed over the past decade. We established the PneuCarriage project, a large, international multi-centre study dedicated to the identification of the best pneumococcal serotyping methods for carriage studies.
Methods and Findings
Reference sample sets were distributed to 15 research groups for blinded testing. Twenty pneumococcal serotyping methods were used to test 81 laboratory-prepared (spiked) samples. The five top-performing methods were used to test 260 nasopharyngeal (field) samples collected from children in six high-burden countries. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were determined for the test methods and the reference method (traditional serotyping of >100 colonies from each sample).
For the alternate serotyping methods, the overall sensitivity ranged from 1% to 99% (reference method 98%), and PPV from 8% to 100% (reference method 100%), when testing the spiked samples. Fifteen methods had ≥70% sensitivity to detect the dominant (major) serotype, whilst only eight methods had ≥70% sensitivity to detect minor serotypes. For the field samples, the overall sensitivity ranged from 74.2% to 95.8% (reference method 93.8%), and PPV from 82.2% to 96.4% (reference method 99.6%). The microarray had the highest sensitivity (95.8%) and high PPV (93.7%). The major limitation of this study is that not all of the available alternative serotyping methods were included.
Most methods were able to detect the dominant serotype in a sample, but many performed poorly in detecting the minor serotype populations. Microarray with a culture amplification step was the top-performing method. Results from this comprehensive evaluation will inform future vaccine evaluation and impact studies, particularly in low-income settings, where pneumococcal disease burden remains high.
Catherine Satzke and collaborators exploit a panel of spiked and field pneumococcal samples to compare serotyping methods used for nasopharyngeal carriage studies.
Editors' Summary
About 800,000 young children, mostly living in low-income countries, die annually from pneumococcal diseases, illnesses caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium. S. pneumoniae is transmitted through contact with infected respiratory secretions and harmlessly colonizes the nose and throat of many healthy children (nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal carriage). Occasionally, however, S. pneumoniae spreads into the lungs, the blood stream, or the covering of the brain, where it causes pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis, respectively. These potentially fatal invasive pneumococcal diseases can be treated with antibiotics but can also be prevented by vaccination. Vaccination primes the immune system to attack disease-causing organisms (pathogens) by exposing it to weakened or dead pathogens or to pathogen molecules that it recognizes as foreign (antigens). Because there are more than 90 S. pneumoniae variants, or “serotypes,” each characterized by an immunologically distinct complex sugar coat, S. pneumoniae vaccines have to include multiple serotypes. “Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines” (PCVs) effectively prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases caused by common serotypes in resource-rich countries and are now being introduced into resource-poor countries.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although vaccination with PCVs reduces the carriage of the pneumococcal serotypes contained in them (vaccine serotypes), in the absence of these serotypes, non-vaccine serotypes can rapidly colonize the nasopharynx and become more common in both carriage and disease. Thus, “serotype replacement,” which may be more pronounced in low-income settings, threatens the global control of pneumococcal disease through vaccination; thus, when evaluating the impact of pneumococcal vaccines, it is important to analyze the carriage of multiple serotypes. Unfortunately, the traditional serotyping method—in which bacterial colonies are grown and a small number of colonies are typed using tests called the Quellung reaction and latex agglutination—is cumbersome and frequently misses the carriage of multiple serotypes. Several new serotyping methods have been developed over the past decade, and, here, in a multi-center comparative study (the PneuCarriage project), the researchers investigate which of these new methods is best for the examination of pneumococcal carriage in vaccine evaluation studies.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used 15 clinical isolates containing a mixture of pneumococcal serotypes to prepare 81 “spiked” samples, which they distributed to 15 laboratories for testing with 20 serotyping methods. They determined the sensitivity (the percentage of serotypes in the samples that were correctly identified) and the positive predictive value (PPV; the proportion of identified positives that were true positives) for each method and used the five top-performing methods (those with the highest sensitivity and PPV; a perfect test has a sensitivity and a PPV of 100%) to test 260 nasopharyngeal (field) samples collected from children in six high-burden countries. When testing the spiked samples, traditional serotyping of over 100 colonies per sample had a sensitivity of 98% and a PPV of 100% overall, whereas the sensitivity of the alternative methods ranged from 1% to 99%, and their PPV ranged from 8% to 100%. Fifteen methods detected the major serotype in the spiked samples with ≥70% sensitivity, but only eight detected the minor serotypes with the same sensitivity. For the field samples, the sensitivity and PPV of the top-performing tests ranged from 74.2% to 95.8% and from 82.2% to 96.4%, respectively (the sensitivity and PPV of the traditional method were 93.8% and 99.6%, respectively); a culture microarray method had the best overall performance (95.8% sensitivity and 93.7% PPV).
What Do These Findings Mean?
A pneumococcal serotyping method for use in carriage studies needs to have high sensitivity, to detect multiple serotypes in individual samples, and to detect most or all serotypes. These findings show that although most of the recently developed serotyping methods detected the dominant serotype in a sample, many failed to detect minor serotypes. Moreover, the performance of similar methods varied markedly, and methods optimized for testing pure isolates did not necessarily work well when testing more complex samples. These findings identified microarray with a culture amplification step as the top-performing method, but, importantly, this study did not test all the available serotyping methods. Also, because it assessed each method in only a single laboratory, no conclusions can be reached about the reproducibility of these methods or their suitability for use in less-experienced laboratories or in resource-limited settings. Nevertheless, these findings should help to guide future vaccine evaluation and impact studies, particularly in low-income settings, where the burden of pneumococcal disease remains high.
Additional Information
This list of resources contains links that can be accessed when viewing the PDF on a device or via the online version of the article at
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on all aspects of pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal vaccination, including personal stories (including some information in Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information about pneumococcal disease
Kidshealth, a website provided by the US-based not-for-profit Nemours Foundation, includes information on pneumococcal vaccination (in English and Spanish)
Public Health England provides guidance on pneumococcal disease and vaccination
The not-for-profit Immunization Action Coalition has information on pneumococcal disease, including personal stories
Gavi, a not-for-profit global vaccine alliance, is helping to roll out pneumococcal vaccination in resource-poor countries
More information about the PneuCarriage project is available
MedlinePlus provides links to other resources about pneumococcal infections (in English and Spanish)
The World Health Organization provides information about pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal vaccines.
PMCID: PMC4648509  PMID: 26575033
5.  Systematic Evaluation of Serotypes Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children Under Five: The Pneumococcal Global Serotype Project 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(10):e1000348.
Hope Johnson and colleagues calculate the global and regional burden of serotype-specific pneumococcal disease in children under the age of five.
Approximately 800,000 children die each year due to pneumococcal disease and >90% of these deaths occur in developing countries where few children have access to life-saving serotype-based vaccines. Understanding the serotype epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children is necessary for vaccine development and introduction policies. The aim of this study was to systematically estimate the global and regional distributions of serotypes causing IPD in children <5 years of age.
Methods and Findings
We systematically reviewed studies with IPD serotype data among children <5 years of age from the published literature and unpublished data provided by researchers. Studies conducted prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction, from 1980 to 2007, with ≥12 months of surveillance, and reporting ≥20 serotyped isolates were included. Serotype-specific proportions were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis and combined with PD incidence and mortality estimates to infer global and regional serotype-specific PD burden. Of 1,292, studies reviewed, 169 were included comprising 60,090 isolates from 70 countries. Globally and regionally, six to 11 serotypes accounted for ≥70% of IPD. Seven serotypes (1, 5, 6A, 6B, 14, 19F, 23F) were the most common globally; and based on year 2000 incidence and mortality estimates these seven serotypes accounted for >300,000 deaths in Africa and 200,000 deaths in Asia. Serotypes included in both the 10- and 13-valent PCVs accounted for 10 million cases and 600,000 deaths worldwide.
A limited number of serotypes cause most IPD worldwide. The serotypes included in existing PCV formulations account for 49%–88% of deaths in Africa and Asia where PD morbidity and mortality are the highest, but few children have access to these life-saving vaccines.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Despite all the international attention on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4—to reduce deaths in children under 5 years by two thirds by 2015—pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis together comprise >25% of the 10 million deaths occurring annually in children <5 years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading bacterial cause of these diseases and the World Health Organization estimates that approximately 800,000 children die each year of invasive pneumococcal disease. Three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are currently available and protect against the serotypes most commonly causing invasive pneumococcal disease in young children in North America. However, few countries with the highest burden of invasive pneumococcal disease have introduced the vaccines into their national immunization programs. Not only is it important to introduce a vaccine, but also to use a vaccine covering the appropriate serotypes prevalent in a susceptible region.
Why Was This Study Done?
Over the past few years, data on serotyping in many high burden countries has become available. The authors conducted this study (a systematic review and meta-analysis) to quantify the serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in children <5 years of age in order to estimate the global and regional serotype distribution and serotype-specific disease burden. This information can then be used to estimate the potential public health impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations and help to inform decision making for both pneumococcal vaccine development and the introduction of a vaccine into a specific region.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Using published studies and unpublished data provided by researchers, the researchers systematically reviewed studies that included data on invasive pneumococcal disease serotype among children <5 years of age. The researchers then used statistical tools to pool the serotype-specific proportions and combined this information with pneumococcal disease incidence and mortality estimates to calculate the global and regional burden of serotype-specific pneumococcal disease.
The researchers reviewed 1,292 studies and included 169 suitable studies in their analysis, which included information on 60,090 isolates from 70 countries. The researchers produced regional estimates of the serotypes that caused invasive pneumococcal disease among under five-year-olds in different regions: six serotypes were identified as causing most invasive pneumococcal disease in North America; nine serotypes were identified in Africa; and 11 serotypes were identified in Asia. The researchers also found that seven serotypes (1, 5, 6A, 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) were the most common globally and that these seven serotypes accounted for 58%–66% of invasive pneumococcal disease in every region. On the basis of incidence and mortality estimates of invasive pneumococcal disease for the year 2000 (before pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced), the researchers found that these serotypes represented >300,000 deaths in Africa and 200,000 deaths in Asia.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This study shows that a limited number of serotypes cause most invasive pneumococcal disease worldwide. This finding contradicts the conventional supposition that the most common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease vary greatly across geographic regions. Crucially, the findings of this study also show that the serotypes currently included in existing pneumococcal conjugate formulations account for 49%–74% of deaths in Africa and Asia where the morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal disease are the highest and where most children do not have access to current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Although the authors do not provide country-level estimates of serotype distribution, country-specific vaccine impact estimates can be made using country-level pneumococcal disease burden numbers combined with the regional serotype estimates provided in this study. This means that national policy makers can assess the potential impact of serotypes included in different conjugate vaccines, which should contribute to their decision-making process. In addition, manufacturers can now work from a consensus set of serotype coverage estimates to plan and design future serotype-based vaccine formulations to target the pneumococcal disease burden.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The World Health Organization provides information about pneumococcus
The PneumoACTION provides information about pneumonia and pneumococcal disease
The Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunisation has information on all aspects of vaccination and immunization
The US Centers for Disease Control provides information about pneumococcal conjugate vaccination
The Word Pneumonia Day coalition provides information about pneumonia
PMCID: PMC2950132  PMID: 20957191
6.  The Serotype Distribution among Healthy Carriers before Vaccination Is Essential for Predicting the Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Invasive Disease 
PLoS Computational Biology  2015;11(4):e1004173.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal disease. The impact of the 7-valent PCV on all-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children was reported to vary between high-income countries. We investigate the ability to predict this heterogeneity from pre-vaccination data. We propose a parsimonious model that predicts the impact of PCVs from the odds of vaccine serotype (VT) among carriers and IPD cases in the pre-PCV period, assuming that VT are eliminated in a mature PCV programme, that full serotype replacement occurs in carriage and that invasiveness of the NVT group is unchanged. We test model performance against the reported impact of PCV7 on childhood IPD in high-income countries from a recent meta-analysis. The odds of pre-PCV7 VT IPD, PCV schedule, PCV coverage and whether a catch up campaign was used for introduction was gathered from the same analysis. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to obtain the odds of pre-PCV7 VT carriage in the respective settings. The model predicted the reported impact on childhood IPD of mature PCV programmes; the ratio of predicted and observed incidence risk ratios was close to 1 in all settings. In the high income settings studied differences in schedule, coverage, and catch up campaigns were not associated with the observed heterogeneity in impact of PCV7 on childhood all-serotype IPD. The pre-PCV7 proportion of VT IPD alone also had limited predictive value. The pre-PCV7 proportion of VT carriage and IPD are the main determinants for the impact of PCV7 on childhood IPD and can be combined in a simple model to provide predictions of the vaccine preventable burden of IPD.
Author Summary
Pneumococcal vaccines (PCVs) that protect children against 7, 10 and 13 of the most pathogenic pneumococcal serotypes have substantially reduced childhood morbidity and mortality. A recent analysis that evaluated the impact of the 7 valent PCV in multiple high income settings in North America, Europe and Oceania found that the magnitude of all-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease reduction varied greatly between settings (24%-83%). We explored potential sources for that variation, including differences in disease epidemiology before vaccination, vaccine coverage, vaccine schedules and the use of catch-up campaigns for introduction. We find that differences in reported disease impact among mature PCV programmes are likely to be unrelated to the differences in the vaccine programme but can be predicted from a simple model based on pre-vaccination epidemiology, in particular the proportion of vaccine serotypes detected among patients with invasive pneumococcal disease and the proportion of vaccine serotypes that are found in the nasopharynx of healthy individuals. This model presents a useful tool to estimate the potential impact of PCVs (as a relative rate reduction), highlights the essential role of pre-vaccination carriage in healthy individuals for disease impact of PCVs and can estimate the prevented burden of disease where disease surveillance is unavailable.
PMCID: PMC4400047  PMID: 25879748
7.  Pneumococcal serotype evolution in Western Europe 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2015;15:419.
Pneumococcal diseases remain a leading cause of vaccine-preventable death worldwide in children <5 years of age. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was approved in 2001 in Europe and was introduced into the national immunization programmes of many European countries from 2006–2008. In 2009, higher-valent PCVs (PCV10 and PCV13) became available, replacing PCV7 from 2009–2011. This article describes the evolution of vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) following the introduction of PCVs in Western Europe, based on data from publicly-available medical publications and national surveillance systems from January 2010 to May 2015.
In countries with high vaccine uptake, 5–7 years after PCV7 introduction IPD caused by vaccine serotypes has almost disappeared in children. Non-PCV7 serotypes have emerged, particularly serotypes 19A, 7 F, 3 and 1. A rapid and significant reduction of the additional serotypes included in higher-valent vaccines has been observed consistently following the introduction of these vaccines. A significant and rapid decline of serotypes 19A, 7 F, 1 and 6A in both vaccine-eligible and older age groups has been observed in countries using PCV13 while serotype 19A and 3 has increased in countries using PCV10. Serotype 3 has become one of the most prevalent serotypes in adults, with some reduction only in the UK and France. Serotype diversity increased and varied by age group, the type of vaccine in use, and the time since the introduction of higher-valent PCVs. Serotypes that are currently more frequent include 24 F, 22 F, 8 and 15A in countries that use PCV13, and serotypes 19A and 3 in countries that use PCV10. Compared with the time before the introduction of higher valent PCVs, to date, there is no single ‘19A-like’ serotype emerging across countries and most of the newly emerging non-PCV13 vaccine types are less invasive with a low case-carrier ratio.
It is important to closely monitor not only evolving serotypes but also the magnitude of the effect in order to evaluate the overall impact of pneumococcal vaccination programmes and to initiate the appropriate vaccination strategy. Emerging serotypes may also need to be considered for the future development of new vaccines.
PMCID: PMC4606906  PMID: 26468008
Invasive pneumococcal diseases; Pneumococcal serotype; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
8.  Pneumococcal Serotypes and Mortality following Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(5):e1000081.
Analyzing population-based data collected over 30 years in more than 18,000 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, Zitta Harboe and colleagues find specific pneumococcal serotypes to be associated with increased mortality.
Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).
Methods and Findings
In a nationwide population-based cohort study of IPD in Denmark during 1977–2007, 30-d mortality associated with pneumococcal serotypes was examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 18,858 IPD patients were included. Overall 30-d mortality was 18%, and 3% in children younger than age 5 y. Age, male sex, meningitis, high comorbidity level, alcoholism, and early decade of diagnosis were significantly associated with mortality. Among individuals aged 5 y and older, serotypes 31, 11A, 35F, 17F, 3, 16F, 19F, 15B, and 10A were associated with highly increased mortality as compared with serotype 1 (all: adjusted odds ratio ≥3, p<0.001). In children younger than 5 y, associations between serotypes and mortality were different than in adults but statistical precision was limited because of low overall childhood-related mortality.
Specific pneumococcal serotypes strongly and independently affect IPD associated mortality.
Editors' Summary
Pneumococcal diseases—illnesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria—are leading causes of illness and death around the world. S. pneumoniae is transmitted through contact with infected respiratory secretions and usually causes noninvasive diseases such as ear infections and bronchitis. Sometimes, however, the bacteria invade the lungs (where they cause pneumonia), the bloodstream (where they cause bacteremia), or the covering of the brain (where they cause meningitis). These invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) are often fatal. One million children die annually from pneumococcal disease, many of them in developing countries. In the developed world, however, IPDs mainly affect elderly people and patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes and alcoholism. Although pneumococcal diseases can sometimes be treated successfully with antibiotics, many patients die or develop long-term complications. Consequently, vaccination with “pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine” (PPV) is recommended for everyone over 65 years old and for people between 2 and 65 years old who are at high risk of developing IPD; vaccination with “pneumococcal conjugate vaccine” (PCV) is recommended for children younger than 2 years old who are at high risk of IPDs.
Why Was This Study Done?
S. pneumoniae is not a single organism. There are actually more than 90 S. pneumoniae variants or “serotypes.” These variants are coated with different polysaccharides (complex sugar molecules) that are, in part, responsible for the deleterious effects of S. pneumonia infections. The same molecules also trigger the human immune response that kills the bacteria. Consequently, pneumococcal vaccines contain polysaccharide mixtures isolated from the S. pneumoniae serotypes responsible for most pneumococcal disease. But are these serotypes also responsible for most of the deaths caused by IPD? Until now, the few studies that have investigated the association between S. pneumoniae serotypes and death from IPD have yielded conflicting results. Here, therefore, the researchers undertook a large population-based study to discover whether there is an association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and death following IPD.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers linked data on the serotype of S. pneumoniae isolates sent to the Danish National Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Center between 1977 and 2007 with clinical data from national medical databases. After allowing for other factors that might affect a person's likelihood of dying from IPD (for example, age and other illnesses), the researchers used multivariate logistic regression analysis (a statistical approach) to look for associations between S. pneumoniae serotypes and death within 30 days of admission to hospital for pneumococcal bacteremia or meningitis. Overall, 18% of the nearly 19,000 people included in this analysis died within 30 days of hospital admission; among the children younger than 5 years included in the study, the death rate was 3%. Among patients 5 years old or older, nine S. pneumoniae serotypes were associated with a more than 3-fold higher death rate (mostly from bacteremia) than serotype 1, the most common serotype isolated during the study. Interestingly, in young children, a different set of serotypes seemed to be associated with death. However, because so few children died from IPD, this result is statistically uncertain. The researchers' results also show that age, gender, having meningitis, having other illnesses, and alcoholism all affected a patient's chances of dying from IPD.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that specific pneumococcal serotypes strongly affect the likelihood that a person aged 5 years or over will die within 30 days of admission to hospital with IPD. Importantly, unlike previous studies, this study was large and comprehensive—the Danish surveillance center covers more than 90% of the Danish population—and the researchers carefully took other factors into account that might have affected a patient's chances of dying from IPD. Thus, these new insights into which pneumococcal serotypes are most deadly could help in the design of new pneumococcal vaccines, at least for people aged 5 years or older. For younger children, however, the results are not as informative and a similar study now needs to be done in developing countries, where more young people die from IPD.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information for patients and health professionals on all aspects of pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal vaccination
The US National Foundation for Infectious Diseases has a fact sheet on pneumococcal disease
The UK Health Protection Agency also provides background information on pneumococcal disease
The GAVI's Pneumococcal Vaccines Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan focuses on pneumococcal vaccines for children
PMCID: PMC2680036  PMID: 19468297
9.  Effects of PCV7 and PCV13 on invasive pneumococcal disease and carriage in Stockholm, Sweden 
The European Respiratory Journal  2016;47(4):1208-1218.
The effects of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) need to be investigated. In Stockholm County, Sweden, PCV7 was introduced in the childhood immunisation programme in 2007 and changed to PCV13 in 2010.
Over 90% of all invasive isolates during 2005–2014 (n=2336) and carriage isolates, 260 before and 647 after vaccine introduction, were characterised by serotyping, molecular typing and antibiotic susceptibility, and serotype diversity was calculated. Clinical information was collected for children and adults with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).
The IPD incidence decreased post-PCV7, but not post-PCV13, in vaccinated children. Beneficial herd effects were seen in older children and adults, but not in the elderly. The herd protection was more pronounced post-PCV7 than post-PCV13. PCV7 serotypes decreased. IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes 3 and 19A increased post-PCV7. Post-PCV13, serotypes 6A and 19A, but not serotype 3, decreased. The serotype distribution changed in carriage and IPD to nonvaccine types, also in nonvaccinated populations. Expansion of non-PCV13 serotypes was largest following PCV13 introduction. Serotype diversity increased and nonvaccine clones emerged, such as CC433 (serotype 22F) in IPD and CC62 (serotype 11A) in carriage. In young children, meningitis, septicaemia and severe rhinosinusitis, but not bacteraemic pneumonia, decreased.
Pneumococcal vaccination leads to expansion of new or minor serotypes/clones, also in nonvaccinated populations.
New or minor serotypes/clones expanded, also in nonvaccinated populations, affecting future vaccine strategies
PMCID: PMC4819883  PMID: 26797033
10.  Optimal Serotype Compositions for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination under Serotype Replacement 
PLoS Computational Biology  2014;10(2):e1003477.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination has proved highly effective in eliminating vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage and disease. However, the potential adverse effects of serotype replacement remain a major concern when implementing routine childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination programmes. Applying a concise predictive model, we present a ready-to-use quantitative tool to investigate the implications of serotype replacement on the net effectiveness of vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and to guide in the selection of optimal vaccine serotype compositions. We utilise pre-vaccination data on pneumococcal carriage and IPD and assume partial or complete elimination of vaccine-type carriage, its replacement by non-vaccine-type carriage, and stable case-to-carrier ratios (probability of IPD per carriage episode). The model predicts that the post-vaccination IPD incidences in Finland for currently available vaccine serotype compositions can eventually decrease among the target age group of children <5 years of age by 75%. However, due to replacement through herd effects, the decrease among the older population is predicted to be much less (20–40%). We introduce a sequential algorithm for the search of optimal serotype compositions and assess the robustness of inferences to uncertainties in data and assumptions about carriage and IPD. The optimal serotype composition depends on the age group of interest and some serotypes may be highly beneficial vaccine types in one age category (e.g. 6B in children), while being disadvantageous in another. The net effectiveness will be improved only if the added serotype has a higher case-to-carrier ratio than the average case-to-carrier ratio of the current non-vaccine types and the degree of improvement in effectiveness depends on the carriage incidence of the serotype. The serotype compositions of currently available pneumococcal vaccines are not optimal and the effectiveness of vaccination in the population at large could be improved by including new serotypes in the vaccine (e.g. 22 and 9N).
Author Summary
The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major contributor to child mortality worldwide. Hence, effective pneumococcal vaccination programmes are globally among the most cost-effective public health interventions. Three different conjugate vaccine compositions, targeting 7, 10 or 13 pneumococcal serotypes, have been used in infant vaccination programmes. The use of these vaccines has both decreased the disease burden and changed the patterns of pneumococcal carriage in locations where they have been in use. However, due to serotype replacement, where the lost vaccine serotype carriage is replaced by carriage of the non-vaccine serotypes, the net effect of vaccination on the disease burden has generally been milder than expected. Here, we apply a concise model for serotype replacement and present a ready-to-use tool for the prediction of patterns in post-vaccination pneumococcal incidence of carriage and invasive disease. We introduce a sequential algorithm for the identification of the most optimal additional serotypes to current vaccine formulations and demonstrate how differences in the invasiveness across serotypes imply that the disease incidence may either decrease or increase after vaccination. The methods we outline have direct relevance in decision making while reviewing the performance of the current pneumococcal vaccination programmes.
PMCID: PMC3923658  PMID: 24550722
11.  Using Pneumococcal Carriage Data to Monitor Postvaccination Changes in Invasive Disease 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;178(9):1488-1495.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced worldwide. However, few developing countries have high-quality surveillance systems available for monitoring vaccine impact. We evaluated whether data from nasopharyngeal carriage studies can be used to accurately monitor post-PCV changes in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children under 5 years of age. For various dates during 1991–2010, data on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and on IPD before and after administration of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) were available from England and Wales, the Netherlands, the Navajo and White Mountain Apache American Indian populations, and the US states of Massachusetts and Alaska. We estimated the change in carriage prevalence for each serotype in each study and then either calculated the average change (inverse variance-weighted) among vaccine and nonvaccine serotypes (model 1) or used mixed-effects models to estimate the change for each serotype individually, pooling serotype data within or between studies (models 2 and 3). We then multiplied these values by the proportion of IPD caused by each serotype during the pre-PCV7 period to obtain an estimate of post-PCV7 disease incidence. Model 1 accurately captured overall changes in IPD incidence following PCV7 introduction for most studies, while the more detailed models, models 2 and 3, were less accurate. Carriage data can be used in this simple model to estimate post-PCV changes in IPD incidence.
PMCID: PMC3813314  PMID: 24013204
carriage; conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal; pneumococcus; surveillance; vaccine effectiveness; vaccines
12.  Value Added by the Prevnar 13 Childhood Immunization Program in Alberta, Canada (2010–2015) 
Drugs - Real World Outcomes  2015;2(3):311-318.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen causing acute respiratory infections, as well as meningitis and bacteremia. The province of Alberta, Canada, began vaccinating infants against seven S. pneumoniae serotypes in 2002 using Prevnar 7 (PCV7). However, a 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in 2010 to address changes in the distribution of serotypes causing disease. PCV13 targets 13 serotypes including six additional serotypes to the previously adopted PCV7.
In this study, we estimate the impact of the new PCV13 immunization program on the burden of disease and related healthcare costs in Alberta.
Serotype-specific passive surveillance invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) data were drawn from the Alberta Public Health Laboratory. These data were used to estimate average annual IPD incidence of the six additional serotypes included in PCV13 during the PCV7 era (2000–2009), and after the introduction of PCV13 (2011–2015). The difference in estimated cases pre-/post-PCV13 was used to estimate associated changes in direct health service costs.
Following the replacement of PCV7 with PCV13 in 2010, the number of cases of IPD caused by the additional serotypes contained in PCV13 has declined significantly across all ages. The expected number of IPD cases prevented annually is an estimated 1.6 per 100,000. Direct health service costs are expected to be averted as a result of the implementation of PCV13 universal vaccination in Alberta. Indirect benefits are experienced by ages >20 years as IPD incidence significantly declines following the PCV13 infant immunization in Alberta.
The impact on direct healthcare costs of replacing PCV7 with PCV13 in Alberta’s public immunization program are estimated to be CAN$3.5 million as of 2015.
PMCID: PMC4883219  PMID: 27747577
13.  High Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Non-Vaccine Serotypes in Western Australian Aboriginal People Following 10 Years of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82280.
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA) since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program.
We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml) was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%), 19F (4.9%) and 16F (3.2%) isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml) in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%), 19A (41.3%), 16F (29.0%). Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin.
Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried pneumococci. A large proportion of circulating serotypes are not covered by any currently licensed vaccine.
PMCID: PMC3857785  PMID: 24349245
14.  Expansion of Serotype Coverage in the Universal Pediatric Vaccination Calendar: Short-Term Effects on Age- and Serotype-Dependent Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Clinical Presentations in Madrid, Spain 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2013;20(10):1524-1530.
In Madrid, Spain, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the pediatric universal vaccination calendar in June 2010. A prospective clinical surveillance that included all children hospitalized with culture- and/or PCR-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was performed in all Madrid hospitals. The incidence rates (IRs) (defined as the number of cases/100,000 inhabitants aged <15 years) in the PCV7 (May 2007 to April 2010) versus PCV13 (May 2011 to April 2012) periods were compared. There were 499 cases in the PCV7 period and 79 cases in the PCV13 period. Globally, the IR significantly decreased from 17.09 (PCV7 period) to 7.70 (PCV13 period), with significant decreases (PCV7 versus PCV13 periods) in all age groups for bacteremic pneumonia (5.51 versus 1.56), parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE) (5.72 versus 3.12), and meningitis (2.16 versus 0.97). In the PCV13 period, significant reductions (the IR in the PCV7 period versus the IR in the PCV13 period) were found in IPDs caused by PCV13 serotypes (13.49 versus 4.38), and specifically by serotypes 1 (globally [4.79 versus 2.53], for bacteremic pneumonia [2.23 versus 0.97], and for PPE [2.26 versus 1.17]), serotype 5 (globally [1.88 versus 0.00], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.89 versus 0.00], and for PPE [0.55 versus 0.00]), and serotype 19A (globally [3.77 versus 0.49], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.72 versus 0.00], for PPE [0.89 versus 0.00], and for meningitis [0.62 versus 0.00]). IPDs caused by non-PCV13 serotypes did not increase (IR, 3.60 in the PCV7 period versus 3.31 in the PCV13 period), regardless of age or presentation. No IPDs caused by the PCV13 serotypes were found in children who received 3 doses of PCV13. The number of hospitalization days and sanitary costs were significantly lower in the PCV13 period. The switch from PCV7 to PCV13 in the universal pediatric vaccination calendar provided sanitary and economical benefits without a replacement by non-PCV13 serotypes.
PMCID: PMC3807202  PMID: 23925887
15.  7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in England and Wales: Is It Still Beneficial Despite High Levels of Serotype Replacement? 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26190.
The UK introduced the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the national vaccination program in September 2006. Previous modelling assumed that the likely impact of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) would be similar to the US experience with PCV7. However, recent surveillance data show a more rapid replacement of PCV7 IPD cases by non-PCV7 IPD cases than was seen in the US.
Methods and Findings
A previous model of pneumococcal vaccination was re-parameterised using data on vaccine coverage and IPD from England and Wales between 2006 and 2009. Disease incidence was adjusted for the increasing trend in reported IPD cases prior to vaccination. Using this data we estimated that individuals carrying PCV7 serotypes have much higher protection (96%;95% CI 72%-100%) against acquisition of NVT carriage than the 15% previously estimated from US data, which leads to greater replacement. However, even with this level of replacement, the annual number of IPD cases may be 560 (95% CI, -100 to 1230) lower ten years after vaccine introduction compared to what it may have been without vaccination. A particularly marked fall of 39% in children under 15 years by 2015/6 is predicted.
Our model suggests that PCV7 vaccination could result in a decrease in overall invasive pneumococcal disease, particularly in children, even in an environment of rapid replacement with non-PCV7 serotypes within 5 years of vaccine introduction at high coverage.
PMCID: PMC3193519  PMID: 22022559
16.  Mathematical Modelling Long-Term Effects of Replacing Prevnar7 with Prevnar13 on Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in England and Wales 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39927.
England and Wales recently replaced the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) with its 13-valent equivalent (PCV13), partly based on projections from mathematical models of the long-term impact of such a switch compared to ceasing pneumococcal conjugate vaccination altogether.
A compartmental deterministic model was used to estimate parameters governing transmission of infection and competition between different groups of pneumococcal serotypes prior to the introduction of PCV13. The best-fitting parameters were used in an individual based model to describe pneumococcal transmission dynamics and effects of various options for the vaccination programme change in England and Wales. A number of scenarios were conducted using (i) different assumptions about the number of invasive pneumococcal disease cases adjusted for the increasing trend in disease incidence prior to PCV7 introduction in England and Wales, and (ii) a range of values representing serotype replacement induced by vaccination of the additional six serotypes in PCV13.
Most of the scenarios considered suggest that ceasing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use would cause an increase in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence, while replacing PCV7 with PCV13 would cause an overall decrease. However, the size of this reduction largely depends on the level of competition induced by the additional serotypes in PCV13. The model estimates that over 20 years of PCV13 vaccination, around 5000–62000 IPD cases could be prevented compared to stopping pneumococcal conjugate vaccination altogether.
Despite inevitable uncertainty around serotype replacement effects following introduction of PCV13, the model suggests a reduction in overall invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in all cases. Our results provide useful evidence on the benefits of PCV13 to countries replacing or considering replacing PCV7 with PCV13, as well as data that can be used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such a switch.
PMCID: PMC3396640  PMID: 22808073
17.  Using the Indirect Cohort Design to Estimate the Effectiveness of the Seven Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in England and Wales 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28435.
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was introduced in the United Kingdom in 2006 with a 2,3 and 13month schedule, and has led to large decreases in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by the vaccine serotypes in both vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. We estimated the effectiveness of PCV-7 against IPD.
Methods and Findings
We used enhanced surveillance data, collated at the Health Protection Agency, on vaccine type (n = 153) and non vaccine type (n = 919) IPD cases eligible for PCV-7. The indirect cohort method, a case-control type design which uses non vaccine type cases as controls, was used to estimate effectiveness of various numbers of doses as well as for each vaccine serotype. Possible bias with this design, caused by differential serotype replacement in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, was estimated after deriving formulae to quantify the bias. The results showed good effectiveness, increasing from 56% (95% confidence interval (CI): -7-82) for a single dose given under one year of age to 93% (95% CI: 70-98) for two doses under one year of age plus a booster dose in the second year of life. Serotype specific estimates indicated higher effectiveness against serotypes 4, 14 and 18C and lower effectiveness against 6B. Under the assumption of complete serotype replacement by non vaccine serotypes in carriage, we estimated that effectiveness estimates may be overestimated by about 2 to 5%.
This study shows high effectiveness of PCV-7 under the reduced schedule used in the UK. This finding agrees with the large reductions seen in vaccine type IPD in recent years in England and Wales. The formulae derived to assess the bias of the indirect cohort method for PCV-7 can also be used when using the design for other vaccines that affect carriage such as the recently introduced 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
PMCID: PMC3229580  PMID: 22164292
18.  Effect of Serotype on Focus and Mortality of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Coverage of Different Vaccines and Insight into Non-Vaccine Serotypes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39150.
Differences in pathogenicity between pneumococcal serotypes are important when assessing the potential benefit of different valency vaccines. We investigated the effect of serotype on clinical presentation, outcome, and quality of life lost from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the context of the 7, 10, and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, PCV13).
Serotyped IPD cases in England were linked to the national dataset of hospital admissions for April 2002 to March 2011. Based on patients’ diagnostic codes and vital status at the end of the admission, disease focus (meningitis, empyema, sepsis, or respiratory disease) and case fatality rates by serotype and age group (5, 5–64, and 65 years and over) were obtained. Using these data the quality adjusted life years (QALY) lost from the IPD remaining when use of PCV7 stopped in 2010 was estimated for the serotypes covered by higher valency vaccines.
The linked dataset contained 23,688 cases with information on diagnosis, mortality, and serotype. There were significant differences between serotypes in the propensity to cause meningitis, death, and QALY loss in each of the investigated age groups. As a result, vaccines’ coverage of disease burden differed by endpoint. For example, in children under 5 years in 2009/10, PCV10 covered 39% of meningitis, 19% of deaths and 28% of the QALY loss of attributable to IPD, whereas the respective percentages for PCV13 were 65%, 67%, and 66%. The highest QALY loss per serotype in this age group was for 6A. Non-PCV serotypes causing the highest QALY loss were 22F and 33F in <5 year olds and 31 in older individuals.
Marked differences exist between serotypes in clinical presentation and outcome, and these should be considered when evaluating the potential impact of higher valency vaccines on overall disease burden and associated QALY loss.
PMCID: PMC3398022  PMID: 22815698
19.  Incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in the Island of Majorca (2008-2010), an area with non-universal vaccination, and estimations of serotype & children population coverage by available conjugate vaccines 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:503.
The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitoring the impact of vaccination. These analyses should be conducted in specific geographical areas and should be aimed to evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), by age groups, clinical presentation, and vaccine serotypes (and non-vaccine serotypes to detect possible replacement). This study aimed to monitor the evolution of IPD incidence in children <15 years requiring hospitalization in the Island of Majorca.
A prospective clinical surveillance of all culture and/or PCR-confirmed IPD in children <15 years was performed in all hospitals in the Island of Majorca (approximately 900,000 inhabitants) from January 2008 to December 2010. Incidence rate (IR) was calculated as cases/100000 inhabitants using children population data.
66 IPDs were identified: 39 (59.1%) parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE), 16 (24.2%) bacteremic pneumonia (BP), 7 (10.6%) primary bacteremia, 3 (4.5%) meningitis, and 1 (1.5%) osteomyelitis. IRs in the three-year study period were: 64.22 for children 12- < 24 months, 37.21 for those 24-59 months, 22.62 for those <12 months, and 3.98 for children >59 months. By study year, IRs were 21.25 in 2008, 19.89 in 2009 and 9.80 in 2010. The reduction found in 2010 was significant and due to significant reductions in IRs of IPDs caused by serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13. Overall, estimated serotype coverage by conjugate vaccines was 12.1% for PCV7, 37.9% for PCV10 and 65.2% for PCV13. Of the 66 hospitalized children with IPD, 20 had received at least one dose of PCV7 (13 cases with identified serotype). None of these 13 cases was caused by PCV7 serotypes, all were caused by PCV13 serotypes and only 53.8% by PCV10 serotypes.
The results of the present study evidence the importance of expanding the number of serotypes covered by PCV, and the added value of PCV13 with respect to PCV10 and PCV7, even in an area of low prevalence of 19A as the Island of Majorca.
PMCID: PMC3826596  PMID: 24498901
Majorca; PCV7; PCV10; PCV13; Invasive pneumococcal disease; Incidence rate
20.  Identifying an appropriate PCV for use in Senegal, recent insights concerning Streptococcus pneumoniae NP carriage and IPD in Dakar 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:627.
Since 2000, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and WHO have supported the introduction of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) in the immunization programs of developing countries. The highest pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage rates have been reported (40-60%) in these countries, and the highest incidence and case fatality rates of pneumococcal infections have been demonstrated in Africa.
Studies concerning nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and pneumococcal infection in children less than 5 years old were conducted in Dakar from 2007 to 2008. Serotype, antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. In addition, among 17 overall publications, 6 manuscripts of the Senegalese literature published from 1972 to 2013 were selected for data comparisons.
Among the 264 children observed, 132 (50%) children generated a nasopharyngeal (NP) positive culture with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The five most prevalent serotypes, were 6B (9%), 19 F (9%), 23 F (7.6%), 14 (7.6%) and 6A (6.8%). Fifteen percent of the strains (20/132) showed reduced susceptibility to penicillin and 3% (4/132) showed reduced susceptibility to anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolones. Among the 196 suspected pneumococcal infections, 62 (31.6%) Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated. Serogroup 1 was the most prevalent serotype (21.3%), followed by 6B (14.9%), 23 F (14.9%) and 5 (8.5%). Vaccine coverage for PCV-7, PCV-10 and PCV-13, were 36.2% (17/47), 66% (31/47) and 70.2% (33/47) respectively. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin and anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolones was 6.4% and 4.3%, respectively, and the overall lethality was 42.4% (14/33).
This study confirms a high rate of carriage and disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes contained within the current generation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and consistent with reports from other countries in sub-Saharan Africa prior to PCV introduction. Antimicrobial resistance in this small unselected sample confirms a low rate of antibiotic resistance. Case-fatality is high. Introduction of a high valency pneumococcal vaccine should be a priority for health planners with the establishment of an effective surveillance system to monitor post vaccine changes.
PMCID: PMC4258793  PMID: 25471219
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Nasopharyngeal carriage; Invasive pneumococcal disease; Serotypes; Antibiotic resistance; Children; Sub-Saharan Africa; Senegal
21.  Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Routine Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children, England and Wales 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(1):61-68.
Nonvaccine serotypes occur more often among children with comorbid conditions.
We assessed known risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children 3–59 months of age after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in England and Wales. During September 2006–March 2010, a total of 1,342 IPD episodes occurred in 1,332 children; 14.9% (198/1,332) had comorbidities. Compared with IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes (44/248; 17.7%), comorbidities were less common for the extra 3 serotypes in the 10-valent vaccine (15/299; 5.0%) but similar to the 3 additional PCV13 serotypes (45/336; 13.4%) and increased for the 11 extra serotypes in 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) (39/186; 21.0%) and non-PPV23 serotypes (38/138; 27.5%). Fifty-two (3.9%) cases resulted from PCV7 failure; 9 (0.7%) case-patients had recurrent IPD. Case-fatality rate was 4.4% (58/1,332) but higher for meningitis (11.0%) and children with comorbidities (9.1%). Thus, comorbidities were more prevalent in children with IPD caused by non-PCV13 serotypes and were associated with increased case fatality.
PMCID: PMC3557991  PMID: 23259937
Invasive pneumococcal disease; risk factors; serotypes; meningitis; outcome; vaccination; bacteria; England; Wales; children
22.  Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule 
mBio  2016;7(5):e01053-16.
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions.
The capsule determines >90 different pneumococcal serotypes, which vary in capsule size, virulence, duration, and prevalence of carriage. Current serotype-specific vaccines elicit anticapsule antibodies. Pneumococcus can take up exogenous DNA by transformation and insert it into its chromosome by homologous recombination. This mechanism has disseminated drug resistance and generated vaccine escape variants. It is hence crucial to pneumococcal evolutionary response to interventions, but there has been no systematic study quantifying whether serotypes vary in recombination and whether this is associated with serotype-specific properties such as capsule size or carriage duration. Larger capsules could physically inhibit DNA uptake, or given the longer carriage duration for larger capsules, this may promote recombination. We find that recombination varies among capsules and is associated with capsule size, carriage duration, and carriage prevalence and negatively associated with invasiveness. The consequence of this work is that serotypes with different capsules may respond differently to selective pressures like vaccines.
PMCID: PMC5040112  PMID: 27677790
23.  Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Asymptomatic Carriage in a Pre-vaccination Period, in Algeria 
In Algeria, few data is available concerning the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and respective antibiotic resistance for the current pre-vaccination period, which is a public health concern. We identified the most frequent Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup/types implicated in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; n = 80) and carriage (n = 138) in Algerian children younger than 5 years old. Serogroup/types of 78 IPD isolates were identified by capsular typing using a sequential multiplex PCR. Overall, serotypes 14, 19F, 6B, 23F, 18C, 1, 5, 7F, 19A, and 3 (55% of PCV7 serotypes, 71.3% of PCV10, and 90% of PCV13) were identified. Additionally, 7.5% of the non-vaccine serotypes 6C, 9N/L, 20, 24F, 35B, and 35F, were observed. In the case of S. pneumoniae asymptomatic children carriers, the most common serogroup/types were 6B, 14, 19F, 23F, 4, 9V/A, 1, 19A, 6A, and 3 (42.7% of PCV7 serotypes, 44.2% of PCV10, and 58% of PCV13). For 6.1% of the cases co-colonization was detected. Serotypes 14, 1, 5, and 19A were more implicated in IPD (p < 0.01), whereas serotype 6A was exclusively isolated from carriers (p < 0.01). Deaths associated with IPD were related to serotypes 19A, 14, 18C, and one non-typeable isolate. Among IPD related to vaccine serotypes, the rates of penicillin non-susceptible isolates were higher in no meningitis cases (80%) than in meningitis (66.7%), with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, and 23F presenting the highest MIC levels (>2μg/ml). Resistance to cefotaxime was higher in isolates from meningitis (40.5%); however, resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (>40%) was more pronounced in no-meningeal forms. Overall, our results showed that PCV13 conjugate vaccine would cover up to 90% of the circulating isolates associated with IPD in Algeria, highlighting the importance of monitoring the frequency of S. pneumoniae serogroups/types during pre- and post-vaccination periods.
PMCID: PMC4905970  PMID: 27379023
pneumococci serotype; antibiotic susceptibility; invasive disease; pneumococcal carriage; children; vaccine; Algeria
24.  Insight Into Resistance Phenotypes of Emergent Non 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Type Pneumococci Isolated From Invasive Disease After 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Implementation in France 
Open Forum Infectious Diseases  2016;3(1):ofw020.
Implementation of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in France has led to an overall antibiotic resistance decrease among invasive pneumococcal isolates. However, among emerging non-PCV13 serotypes, 12F, 24F, 15A and 35B are associated to antibiotic resistance and should be further monitored.
Background. In 2010, the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 6 additional serotypes including the multidrug-resistant 19A, replaced the PCV7 in France. This study aimed at analyzing trends in antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates in France after PCV13 introduction.
Methods. A total of 5243 pneumococci isolated from IPD in 2008–2009 (late PCV7 era) and 2011–2012 (PCV13 era) were studied according to their serotype and antibiotic resistance profile. Multilocus sequence typing analysis was performed on strains of the predominant serotypes (12F and 24F) isolated from young children.
Results. Overall, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance decreased in France (−21.5% for penicillin from 2008–2009 to 2011–2012), mainly driven by the decline of the 19A serotype. Among non-PCV13 serotypes that concomitantly emerged, serotypes 12F, 24F, 15A, and 35B were consistently associated with resistance to 1 or more antibiotics. In children under 2 years, serotypes 15A, 35B, and 24F accounted together for 37.8% and 31.9% of penicillin-nonsusceptible and erythromycin-resistant isolates, respectively. Chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole resistance were mainly associated with serotypes 12F and 24F, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that although emergence of serotype 12F pneumococci resulted from the expansion of various pre-existing lineages, increase in serotype 24F was related to the clonal expansion of the ST162 penicillin-susceptible cotrimoxazole-resistant lineage.
Conclusions. We showed that decline of PCV13-related IPD was associated with a decline in antibiotic resistance in France, but that it likely favored the spread of several resistant nonvaccine serotypes. However, antibiotic resistance does not seem to be the only element that may drive this phenomenon.
PMCID: PMC4777900  PMID: 26955644
antibiotic resistance; invasive disease; serotype; Streptococcus pneumoniae; 13-valent conjugate vaccine
25.  Serotype 3 Remains the Leading Cause of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Adults in Portugal (2012–2014) Despite Continued Reductions in Other 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine Serotypes 
Since 2010 the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) as the leading pneumococcal vaccine used in children through the private sector. Although, neither of the PCVs were used significantly in adults, changes in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were expected due to herd protection. We characterized n = 1163 isolates recovered from IPD in adults in 2012–2014 with the goal of documenting possible changes in serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. Among the 54 different serotypes detected, the most frequent, accounting for half of all IPD, were serotypes: 3 (14%), 8 (11%), 19A (7%), 22F (7%), 14 (6%), and 7F (5%). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes remained stable during the study period (14%), but was smaller than in the previous period (19% in 2009–2011, p = 0.003). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes decreased from 51% in 2012 to 38% in 2014 (p < 0.001), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 7F and 19A. However, PCV13 serotype 3 remained relatively stable and the most frequent cause of adult IPD. Non-PCV13 serotypes continued the increase initiated in the late post-PCV7 period, with serotypes 8 and 22F being the most important emerging serotypes. Serotype 15A increased in 2012–2014 (0.7% to 3.5%, p = 0.011) and was strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance. However, the decreases in resistant isolates among serotypes 14 and 19A led to an overall decrease in penicillin non-susceptibility (from 17 to 13%, p = 0.174) and erythromycin resistance (from 19 to 13%, p = 0.034). Introduction of PCV13 in the NIP for children, as well as its availability for adults may further alter the serotypes causing IPD in adults in Portugal and lead to changes in the proportion of resistant isolates.
PMCID: PMC5064670  PMID: 27790208
Streptococcus pneumoniae; conjugate vaccines; polysaccharide vaccine; antimicrobial resistance; invasive disease; serotype

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