DNA damage-induced phospho-signaling has been studied for decades, with a focus mainly on initiation of the signaling cascade, and the kinases activated by DNA lesions. It is widely accepted that the balance of phosphorylation needs to be restored and/or maintained by phosphatases, yet there have only been sporadic efforts to investigate the impact of phosphatases on DNA repair. Recent advances in phosphoproteomic strategies and implementation of large genetic screens indicate that these enzymes play pivotal roles in these signaling networks. Dephosphorylation of repair proteins is critical for efficient DNA repair, and the recommencement of cell division post-repair. Here, we focus on serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in dephosphorylation of DNA repair factors, summarizing recent findings and speculating on un-tested roles of phosphatases in the DNA damage response (DDR).
Showing convergence with budding yeast mitotic exit network signaling, the LATS1/WARTS kinase phosphorylates the MYPT1 phosphatase to control PLK1 at the G2 DNA damage checkpoint.
In the mitotic exit network of budding yeast, Dbf2 kinase phosphorylates and regulates Cdc14 phosphatase. In contrast, no phosphatase substrates of LATS1/WARTS kinase, the mammalian equivalent of Dbf2, has been reported. To address this discrepancy, we performed phosphoproteomic screening using LATS1 kinase. Screening identified MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase–targeting subunit 1) as a new substrate for LATS1. LATS1 directly and preferentially phosphorylated serine 445 (S445) of MYPT1. An MYPT1 mutant (S445A) failed to dephosphorylate Thr 210 of PLK1 (pololike kinase 1), thereby activating PLK1. This suggests that LATS1 promotes MYPT1 to antagonize PLK1 activity. Consistent with this, LATS1-depleted HeLa cells or fibroblasts from LATS1 knockout mice showed increased PLK1 activity. We also found deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage–induced LATS1 activation caused PLK1 suppression via the phosphorylation of MYPT1 S445. Furthermore, LATS1 knockdown cells showed reduced G2 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. These results indicate that LATS1 phosphorylates a phosphatase as does the yeast Dbf2 and demonstrate a novel role of LATS1 in controlling PLK1 at the G2 DNA damage checkpoint.
The green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii serves as model for studying structural and functional features of flagella. The axoneme of C. reinhardtii anchors a network of kinases and phosphatases that control motility. One of them, Casein Kinase 1 (CK1), is known to phosphorylate the Inner Dynein Arm I1 Intermediate Chain 138 (IC138), thereby regulating motility. CK1 is also involved in regulating the circadian rhythm of phototaxis and is relevant for the formation of flagella. By a comparative phosphoproteome approach, we determined phosphoproteins in the flagellum that are targets of CK1. Thereby, we applied the specific CK1 inhibitor CKI-7 that causes significant changes in the flagellum phosphoproteome and reduces the swimming velocity of the cells. In the CKI-7-treated cells, 14 phosphoproteins were missing compared to the phosphoproteome of untreated cells, including IC138, and four additional phosphoproteins had a reduced number of phosphorylation sites. Notably, inhibition of CK1 causes also novel phosphorylation events, indicating that it is part of a kinase network. Among them, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 is of special interest, because it is involved in the phosphorylation of key clock components in flies and mammals and in parallel plays an important role in the regulation of assembly in the flagellum.
Signal transduction in metazoans regulates almost all aspects of biological function, and aberrant signaling is involved in many diseases. Perturbations in phosphorylation-based signaling networks are typically studied in a hypothesis-driven approach, using phospho-specific antibodies. Here we apply quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine the systems response to the depletion of one signaling component. Drosophila cells were metabolically labeled using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and the phosphatase Ptp61F, the ortholog of mammalian PTB1B, a drug target for diabetes, was knocked down by RNAi. In total we detected more than 10,000 phosphorylation sites in the phosphoproteome of Drosophila Schneider cells and trained a phosphorylation site predictor with this data. SILAC-based quantitation after phosphatase knock-down showed that apart from the phosphatase, the proteome was minimally affected whereas 288 of 6,478 high-confidence phosphorylation sites changed significantly. Responses at the phosphotyrosine level included the already described Ptp61F substrates Stat92E and Abi. Our analysis highlights a connection of Ptp61F to cytoskeletal regulation through GTPase regulating proteins and focal adhesion components.
Following recent advances in high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics, the numbers of identified phosphoproteins and their phosphosites have greatly increased in a wide variety of organisms. Although a critical role of phosphorylation is control of protein signaling, our understanding of the phosphoproteome remains limited. Here, we report unexpected, large-scale connections revealed between the phosphoproteome and protein interactome by integrative data-mining of yeast multi-omics data. First, new phosphoproteome data on yeast cells were obtained by MS-based proteomics and unified with publicly available yeast phosphoproteome data. This revealed that nearly 60% of ∼6,000 yeast genes encode phosphoproteins. We mapped these unified phosphoproteome data on a yeast protein–protein interaction (PPI) network with other yeast multi-omics datasets containing information about proteome abundance, proteome disorders, literature-derived signaling reactomes, and in vitro substratomes of kinases. In the phospho-PPI, phosphoproteins had more interacting partners than nonphosphoproteins, implying that a large fraction of intracellular protein interaction patterns (including those of protein complex formation) is affected by reversible and alternative phosphorylation reactions. Although highly abundant or unstructured proteins have a high chance of both interacting with other proteins and being phosphorylated within cells, the difference between the number counts of interacting partners of phosphoproteins and nonphosphoproteins was significant independently of protein abundance and disorder level. Moreover, analysis of the phospho-PPI and yeast signaling reactome data suggested that co-phosphorylation of interacting proteins by single kinases is common within cells. These multi-omics analyses illuminate how wide-ranging intracellular phosphorylation events and the diversity of physical protein interactions are largely affected by each other.
To date, high-throughput proteome technologies have revealed that hundreds to thousands of proteins in each of many organisms are phosphorylated under the appropriate environmental conditions. A critical role of phosphorylation is control of protein signaling. However, only a fraction of the identified phosphoproteins participate in currently known protein signaling pathways, and the biological relevance of the remainder is unclear. This has raised the question of whether phosphorylation has other major roles. In this study, we identified new phosphoproteins in budding yeast by mass spectrometry and unified these new data with publicly available phosphoprotein data. We then performed an integrative data-mining of large-scale yeast phosphoproteins and protein–protein interactions (complex formation) by an exhaustive analysis that incorporated yeast protein information from several other sources. The phosphoproteome data integration surprisingly showed that nearly 60% of yeast genes encode phosphoproteins, and the subsequent data-mining analysis derived two models interpreting the mutual intracellular effects of large-scale protein phosphorylation and binding interaction. Biological interpretations of both large-scale intracellular phosphorylation and the topology of protein interaction networks are highly relevant to modern biology. This study sheds light on how in vivo protein pathways are supported by a combination of protein modification and molecular dynamics.
We have assembled a reliable phosphoproteomic data set for budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have investigated its properties. Twelve publicly available phosphoproteome data sets were triaged to obtain a subset of high-confidence phosphorylation sites (p-sites), free of “noisy” phosphorylations. Analysis of this combined data set suggests that the inventory of phosphoproteins in yeast is close to completion, but that these proteins may have many undiscovered p-sites. Proteins involved in budding and protein kinase activity have high numbers of p-sites and are highly over-represented in the vast majority of the yeast phosphoproteome data sets. The yeast phosphoproteome is characterized by a few proteins with many p-sites and many proteins with a few p-sites. We confirm a tendency for p-sites to cluster together and find evidence that kinases may phosphorylate off-target amino acids that are within one or two residues of their cognate target. This suggests that the precise position of the phosphorylated amino acid is not a stringent requirement for regulatory fidelity. Compared with nonphosphorylated proteins, phosphoproteins are more ancient, more abundant, have longer unstructured regions, have more genetic interactions, more protein interactions, and are under tighter post-translational regulation. It appears that phosphoproteins constitute the raw material for pathway rewiring and adaptation at various evolutionary rates.
Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation pathway has been identified as a viable strategy for anti-tumor therapy based on its broad effects on cell proliferation. By the same token, the variety of elicited effects confounds the interpretation of cell-based experiments using proteasome inhibitors such as MG132. It has been proposed that MG132 treatment reduces growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), at least in part through upregulation of dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs). Here, we show that the effects of MG132 treatment on ERK signaling are more widespread, leading to a reduction in activation of the upstream kinase MEK. This suggests that MG132 systemically perturbs the intracellular phosphoproteome, impacting ERK signaling by reducing phosphorylation status at multiple levels of the kinase cascade.
The regulatory networks of the DNA damage response (DDR) encompass many proteins and posttranslational modifications. Here, we use mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze the systems-wide response to DNA damage by parallel quantification of the DDR-regulated phosphoproteome, acetylome and proteome. We show that phosphorylation-dependent signaling networks are regulated more strongly compared to acetylation. Among the phosphorylated proteins identified are many putative substrates of DNA-PK, ATM and ATR kinases, but a majority of phosphorylated proteins do not share the ATM/ATR/DNA-PK target consensus, suggesting an important role of downstream kinases in amplifying DDR signals. We show that the splicing-regulator phosphatase PPM1G is recruited to sites of DNA damage, while the splicing-associated protein THRAP3 is excluded from these regions. Moreover, THRAP3 depletion causes cellular hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents, thus suggesting an important link between RNA metabolism and DNA repair. Our results broaden the knowledge of DNA damage signaling networks and identify novel components of the DDR.
The regulation mechanisms of any plant-pathogen interaction are complex and dynamic. A proteomic approach is necessary in understanding regulatory networks because it identifies new proteins in relation to their function and ultimately aims to clarify how their expression, accumulation and modification is controlled. One of the major control mechanisms for protein activity in plant-pathogen interactions is protein phosphorylation, and an understanding of the significance of protein phosphorylation in plant-pathogen interaction can be overwhelming. Due to the high number of protein kinases and phosphatases in any single plant genome and specific limitations of any technologies, it is extremely challenging for us to fully delineate the phosphorylation machinery. Current proteomic approaches and technology advances have demonstrated their great potential in identifying new components. Recent studies in well-developed plantpathogen systems have revealed novel phosphorylation pathways, and some of them are off the core phosphorylation cascades. Additional phosphoproteomic studies are needed to increase our comprehension of the different mechanisms and their fine tuning involved in the host resistance response to pathogen attacks.
protein phosphorylation; phosphoproteomics; plant-pathogen interaction; kinase
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are crucial components of cellular signal transduction pathways. We report here that red blood cells (RBCs) from mice lacking PTPε (Ptpre−/−) exhibit abnormal morphology and increased Ca2+-activated-K+ channel activity, which was partially blocked by the Src-Family-Kinases (SFKs) inhibitor PP1. In Ptpre−/− mouse RBCs, the activity of Fyn and Yes, two SFKs, were increased, suggesting a functional relationship between SFKs, PTPε and Ca2+-activated-K+-channel. The absence of PTPε markedly affected the RBC membrane tyrosine (Tyr-) phosphoproteome, indicating a perturbation of RBCs signal transduction pathways. Using signaling network computational analysis of the Tyr-phosphoproteomic data, we identified 7 topological clusters. We studied cluster 1, containing Syk-Tyr-kinase: Syk-kinase activity was higher in wild-type than in Ptpre−/− RBCs, validating the network computational analysis and indicating a novel signaling pathway, which involves Fyn and Syk in regulation of red cell morphology.
Tyrosine-phosphorylation; Fyn; Syk; Gardos channel
The nitrogen regulator II (NRII or NtrB)-NRI (NtrC) two-component signal transduction system regulates the transcription of nitrogen-regulated genes in Escherichia coli. The NRII protein has both kinase and phosphatase activities and catalyzes the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of NRI, which activates transcription when phosphorylated. The phosphatase activity of NRII is activated by the PII signal transduction protein. We showed that PII was also an inhibitor of the kinase activity of NRII. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that the kinase and phosphatase activities of two-component system kinase/phosphatase proteins are coordinately and reciprocally regulated. The ability of PII to regulate NRII is allosterically controlled by the small-molecule effector 2-ketoglutarate, which binds to PII. We studied the effect of 2-ketoglutarate on the regulation of the kinase and phosphatase activities of NRII by PII, using a coupled enzyme system to measure the rate of cleavage of ATP by NRII. The data were consistent with the following hypothesis: when not complexed with 2-ketoglutarate, PII cannot bind to NRII and has no effect on its competing NRI kinase and phosphatase activities. Under these conditions, the kinase activity of NRII is dominant. At low 2-ketoglutarate concentrations, PII trimers complexed with a single molecule of 2-ketoglutarate interact with NRII to inhibit its kinase activity and activate its phosphatase activity. However, at high 2-ketoglutarate concentrations, PII binds additional ligand molecules and is rendered incapable of binding to NRII, thereby releasing inhibition of NRII’s kinase activity and effectively inhibiting its phosphatase activity (by failing to stimulate it).
A comparison of phosphoproteomics datasets of six eukaryotes shows significant overlap between phosphoproteomes.
Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is involved in a wide range of processes, ranging from signaling cascades to regulation of protein complex assembly. Little is known about the structure and evolution of phosphorylation networks. Recent high-throughput phosphoproteomics studies have resulted in the rapid accumulation of phosphopeptide datasets for many model organisms. Here, we exploit these novel data for the comparative analysis of phosphorylation events between different species of eukaryotes.
Comparison of phosphoproteomics datasets of six eukaryotes yields an overlap ranging from approximately 700 sites for human and mouse (two large datasets of closely related species) to a single site for fish and yeast (distantly related as well as two of the smallest datasets). Some conserved events appear surprisingly old; those shared by plant and animals suggest conservation over the time scale of a billion years. In spite of the hypothesized incomprehensive nature of phosphoproteomics datasets and differences in experimental procedures, we show that the overlap between phosphoproteomes is greater than expected by chance and indicates increased functional relevance. Despite the dynamic nature of the evolution of phosphorylation, the relative overlap between the different datasets is identical to the phylogeny of the species studied.
This analysis provides a framework for the generation of biological insights by comparative analysis of high-throughput phosphoproteomics datasets. We expect the rapidly growing body of data from high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis to make comparative phosphoproteomics a powerful tool for elucidating the evolutionary and functional dynamics of reversible phosphorylation.
Although most tissues in an organism are genetically identical, the biochemistry of each is optimized to fulfill its unique physiological roles, with important consequences for human health and disease. Each tissue’s unique physiology requires tightly regulated gene and protein expression coordinated by specialized, phosphorylation-dependent intracellular signaling. To better understand the role of phosphorylation in maintenance of physiological differences among tissues, we performed proteomic and phosphoproteomic characterizations of nine mouse tissues. We identified 12,039 proteins, including 6296 phosphoproteins harboring nearly 36,000 phosphorylation sites. Comparing protein abundances and phosphorylation levels revealed specialized, interconnected phosphorylation networks within each tissue while suggesting that many proteins are regulated by phosphorylation independently of their expression. Our data suggest that the ‘typical’ phosphoprotein is widely expressed, yet displays variable, often tissue-specific phosphorylation that tunes protein activity to the specific needs of each tissue. We offer this dataset as an online resource for the biological research community.
Nuclear export of the transcription factor Swi6 during the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle is known to require phosphorylation of the Swi6 serine 160 residue. We show that Clb6/Cdc28 kinase is required for this nuclear export. Furthermore, Cdc28 combined with the S-phase cyclin Clb6 specifically phosphorylates serine 160 of Swi6 in vitro. Nuclear import of Swi6 occurs concomitantly with dephosphorylation of serine 160 in late M phase. We show that Cdc14 phosphatase, the principal effector of the mitotic exit network, can trigger nuclear import of Swi6 in vivo and that Cdc14 dephosphorylates Swi6 at serine 160 in vitro. Taken together, these observations show how Swi6 dephosphorylation and phosphorylation are integrated into changes of Cdc28 activity governing entry and exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle.
Melanoma and other cancers harbor oncogenic mutations in the protein kinase B-Raf, which leads to constitutive activation and dysregulation of MAP kinase signaling. In order to elucidate molecular determinants responsible for B-Raf control of cancer phenotypes, we present a method for phosphoprotein profiling, using negative ionization mass spectrometry to detect phosphopeptides based on their fragment ion signature caused by release of PO3−. The method provides an alternative strategy for phosphoproteomics, circumventing affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides and isotopic labeling of samples. Ninety phosphorylation events were regulated by oncogenic B-Raf signaling, based on their responses to treating melanoma cells with MKK1/2 inhibitor. Regulated phosphoproteins included known signaling effectors and cytoskeletal regulators. We investigated MINERVA/FAM129B, a target belonging to a protein family with unknown category and function, and established the importance of this protein and its MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation in controlling melanoma cell invasion into 3-dimensional collagen matrix.
Cellular signaling networks have evolved to enable swift and accurate responses, even in the face of genetic or environmental perturbation. Thus, genetic screens may not identify all the genes that regulate different biological processes. Moreover, although classical screening approaches have succeeded in providing parts lists of the essential components of signaling networks, they typically do not provide much insight into the hierarchical and functional relations that exist among these components. We describe a high-throughput screen in which we used RNA interference to systematically inhibit two genes simultaneously in 17,724 combinations to identify regulators of Drosophila JUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Using both genetic and phosphoproteomics data, we then implemented an integrative network algorithm to construct a JNK phosphorylation network, which provides structural and mechanistic insights into the systems architecture of JNK signaling.
Sea urchin is a major model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization research. However, identification of proteins involved in larval skeleton formation and mineralization processes in the embryo and adult, and the molecular characterization of such proteins, has just gained momentum with the sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the introduction of high-throughput proteomics into the field.
The present report contains the determination of test (shell) and tooth organic matrix phosphoproteomes. Altogether 34 phosphoproteins were identified in the biomineral organic matrices. Most phosphoproteins were specific for one compartment, only two were identified in both matrices. The sea urchin phosphoproteomes contained several obvious orthologs of mammalian proteins, such as a Src family tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C-delta 1, Dickkopf-1 and other signal transduction components, or nucleobindin. In most cases phosphorylation sites were conserved between sea urchin and mammalian proteins. However, the majority of phosphoproteins had no mammalian counterpart. The most interesting of the sea urchin-specific phosphoproteins, from the perspective of biomineralization research, was an abundant highly phosphorylated and very acidic tooth matrix protein composed of 35 very similar short sequence repeats, a predicted N-terminal secretion signal sequence, and an Asp-rich C-terminal motif, contained in [Glean3:18919].
The 64 phosphorylation sites determined represent the most comprehensive list of experimentally identified sea urchin protein phosphorylation sites at present and are an important addition to the recently analyzed Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth proteomes. The identified phosphoproteins included a major, highly phosphorylated protein, [Glean3:18919], for which we suggest the name phosphodontin. Although not sequence-related to such highly phosphorylated acidic mammalian dental phosphoproteins as phosphoryn or dentin matrix protein-1, phosphodontin may perform similar functions in the sea urchin tooth. More than half of the detected proteins were not previously identified at the protein level, thus confirming the existence of proteins only known as genomic sequences previously.
In the quest for the origin and evolution of protein phosphorylation, the major regulatory post-translational modification in eukaryotes, the members of archaea, the “third domain of life”, play a protagonistic role. A plethora of studies have demonstrated that archaeal proteins are subject to post-translational modification by covalent phosphorylation, but little is known concerning the identities of the proteins affected, the impact on their functionality, the physiological roles of archaeal protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, and the protein kinases/phosphatases involved. These limited studies led to the initial hypothesis that archaea, similarly to other prokaryotes, use mainly histidine/aspartate phosphorylation, in their two-component systems representing a paradigm of prokaryotic signal transduction, while eukaryotes mostly use Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation for creating highly sophisticated regulatory networks. In antithesis to the above hypothesis, several studies showed that Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation is also common in the bacterial cell, and here we present the first genome-wide phosphoproteomic analysis of the model organism of archaea, Halobacterium salinarum, proving the existence/conservation of Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in the “third domain” of life, allowing a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the so-called “Nature's premier” mechanism for regulating the functional properties of proteins.
Analysis of the phosphoproteomes and the gene interaction networks of divergent yeast species defines the relative contribution of changes in protein phosphorylation pathways to the generation of phenotypic diversity.
The extent by which different cellular components generate phenotypic diversity is an ongoing debate in evolutionary biology that is yet to be addressed by quantitative comparative studies. We conducted an in vivo mass-spectrometry study of the phosphoproteomes of three yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) in order to quantify the evolutionary rate of change of phosphorylation. We estimate that kinase–substrate interactions change, at most, two orders of magnitude more slowly than transcription factor (TF)–promoter interactions. Our computational analysis linking kinases to putative substrates recapitulates known phosphoregulation events and provides putative evolutionary histories for the kinase regulation of protein complexes across 11 yeast species. To validate these trends, we used the E-MAP approach to analyze over 2,000 quantitative genetic interactions in S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe, which demonstrated that protein kinases, and to a greater extent TFs, show lower than average conservation of genetic interactions. We propose therefore that protein kinases are an important source of phenotypic diversity.
Natural selection at a population level requires phenotypic diversity, which at the molecular level arises by mutation of the genome of each individual. What kinds of changes at the level of the DNA are most important for the generation of phenotypic differences remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. One well-studied source of phenotypic diversity is mutation in gene regulatory regions that results in changes in gene expression, but what proportion of phenotypic diversity is due to such mutations is not entirely clear. We investigated the relative contribution to phenotypic diversity of mutations in protein-coding regions compared to mutations in gene regulatory sequences. Given the important regulatory role played by phosphorylation across biological systems, we focused on mutations in protein-coding regions that alter protein–protein interactions involved in the binding of kinases to their substrate proteins. We studied the evolution of this “phosphoregulation” by analyzing the in vivo complement of phosphorylated proteins (the “phosphoproteome”) in three highly diverged yeast species—the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe—and integrating those data with existing data on thousands of known genetic interactions from S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe. We show that kinase–substrate interactions are altered at a rate that is at most two orders of magnitude slower than the alteration of transcription factor (TF)–promoter interactions, whereas TFs and kinases both show a faster than average rate of functional divergence estimated by the cross-species analysis of genetic interactions. Our data provide a quantitative estimate of the relative frequencies of different kinds of functionally relevant mutations and demonstrate that, like mutations in gene regulatory regions, mutations that result in changes in kinase–substrate interactions are an important source of phenotypic diversity.
Cilia and flagella are cell organelles that are highly conserved throughout evolution. For many years, the green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has served as a model for examination of the structure and function of its flagella, which are similar to certain mammalian cilia. Proteome analysis revealed the presence of several kinases and protein phosphatases in these organelles. Reversible protein phosphorylation can control ciliary beating, motility, signaling, length, and assembly. Despite the importance of this posttranslational modification, the identities of many ciliary phosphoproteins and knowledge about their in vivo phosphorylation sites are still missing. Here we used immobilized metal affinity chromatography to enrich phosphopeptides from purified flagella and analyzed them by mass spectrometry. One hundred forty-one phosphorylated peptides were identified, belonging to 32 flagellar proteins. Thereby, 126 in vivo phosphorylation sites were determined. The flagellar phosphoproteome includes different structural and motor proteins, kinases, proteins with protein interaction domains, and many proteins whose functions are still unknown. In several cases, a dynamic phosphorylation pattern and clustering of phosphorylation sites were found, indicating a complex physiological status and specific control by reversible protein phosphorylation in the flagellum.
Protein phosphorylation is an extremely important mechanism of cellular regulation. A large-scale study of phosphoproteins in a whole-cell lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously identified 383 phosphorylation sites in 216 peptide sequences. However, the protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the identified proteins have not previously been assigned.
We used Predikin in combination with other bioinformatic tools, to predict which of 116 unique protein kinases in yeast phosphorylates each experimentally determined site in the phosphoproteome. The prediction was based on the match between the phosphorylated 7-residue sequence and the predicted substrate specificity of each kinase, with the highest weight applied to the residues or positions that contribute most to the substrate specificity. We estimated the reliability of the predictions by performing a parallel prediction on phosphopeptides for which the kinase has been experimentally determined.
The results reveal that the functions of the protein kinases and their predicted phosphoprotein substrates are often correlated, for example in endocytosis, cytokinesis, transcription, replication, carbohydrate metabolism and stress response. The predictions link phosphoproteins of unknown function with protein kinases with known functions and vice versa, suggesting functions for the uncharacterized proteins. The study indicates that the phosphoproteins and the associated protein kinases represented in our dataset have housekeeping cellular roles; certain kinases are not represented because they may only be activated during specific cellular responses. Our results demonstrate the utility of our previously reported protein kinase substrate prediction approach (Predikin) as a tool for establishing links between kinases and phosphoproteins that can subsequently be tested experimentally.
MAK (male germ cell-associated protein kinase) and MRK/ICK (MAK-related kinase/intestinal cell kinase) are human homologs of Ime2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Mde3 and Pit1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and are similar to human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). MAK and MRK require dual phosphorylation in a TDY motif catalyzed by an unidentified human threonine kinase and tyrosine autophosphorylation. Herein, we establish that human CDK-related kinase CCRK (cell cycle-related kinase) is an activating T157 kinase for MRK, whereas active CDK7/cyclin H/MAT1 complexes phosphorylate CDK2 but not MRK. Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) interacts with MRK in a complex and dephosphorylates MRK at T157 in vitro and in situ. Thus, CCRK and PP5 are yin-yang regulators of T157 phosphorylation. To determine a substrate consensus, we screened a combinatorial peptide library with active MRK. MRK preferentially phosphorylates R-P-X-S/T-P sites, with the preference for arginine at position −3 (P−3) being more stringent than for prolines at P−2 and P+1. Using the consensus, we identified a putative phosphorylation site (RPLT1080S) for MRK in human Scythe, an antiapoptotic protein that interacts with MRK. MRK phosphorylates Scythe at T1080 in vitro as determined by site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry, supporting the consensus and suggesting Scythe as a physiological substrate for MRK.
Adaptive gene expression in prokaryotes is mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. These regulatory proteins mediate phosphorylation of histidine or aspartate in two-component systems and serine/threonine or tyrosine in eukaryotic and eukaryote-like protein kinase systems. The genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, does not possess a defined tyrosine kinase. Nevertheless, it encodes for protein tyrosine phosphatases. Here, we report that Map1985, is a functional low-molecular tyrosine phosphatase that is secreted intracellularly upon macrophage infection. This finding suggests that Map1985 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by dephosphorylating essential macrophage signaling and/or adaptor molecules.
The two-component phosphorylation network is of critical importance for bacterial growth and physiology. Here, we address plasticity and interconnection of distinct signal transduction pathways within this network. In Caulobacter crescentus antagonistic activities of the PleC phosphatase and DivJ kinase localized at opposite cell poles control the phosphorylation state and subcellular localization of the cell fate determinator protein DivK. We show that DivK functions as an allosteric regulator that switches PleC from a phosphatase into an autokinase state and thereby mediates a cyclic di-GMP-dependent morphogenetic program. Through allosteric activation of the DivJ autokinase, DivK also stimulates its own phosphorylation and polar localization. These data suggest that DivK is the central effector of an integrated circuit that operates via spatially organized feedback loops to control asymmetry and cell fate determination in C. crescentus. Thus, single domain response regulators can facilitate crosstalk, feedback control, and long-range communication among members of the two-component network.
Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are important regulators of cellular and extracellular events. The purpose of this study was to define how these events regulate cartilage matrix calcification in a cell culture system that mimics endochondral ossification. The presence of casein kinase II (CK2), an enzyme known to phosphorylate matrix proteins, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The importance of phosphoprotein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation was examined by comparing effects of inhibiting CK2 or phosphoprotein phosphatases on mineral accretion relative to untreated mineralizing controls. Specific inhibitors were added to differentiating chick limb bud mesenchymal cell micromass cultures during the development of a mineralized matrix at the times of cell differentiation, proliferation, formation of the mineralized matrix, or proliferation of the mineral crystals. The mineralizing media for these cultures contained 4mM inorganic phosphate and no organic-phosphate esters; control cultures had 1mM inorganic phosphate. Mineralization was monitored based on 45Ca uptake and infrared characterization of the mineral; cell viability was assessed by three independent methods. Treatments that caused cell toxicity were excluded from the analysis.
Inhibition of CK2 activity with apigenin or CK2 inhibitor II reduced the rate of mineral deposition, but did not block mineral accretion. Effects were greatest during the time of mineralized matrix formation. Inhibition of phosphoprotein phosphatase activities with okadaic acid, calyculin A, and microcystin LR, at early time points also markedly inhibited mineral accretion. Inhibition after mineralization had commenced increased the mineral yield. Levamisole, an alkaline phosphatase inhibitor, had no effect on mineral accretion in this system, suggesting the involvement of other phosphatases. Adding additional inorganic phosphate to the inhibited cultures after mineralization had started, but not earlier, reversed the inhibition indicating the phosphatases were, in part, providing a source of inorganic phosphate.
To characterize the roles of specific phosphoproteins blocking studies were performed. Blocking with anti-osteopontin antibody confirmed osteopontin’s previously reported role as a mineralization inhibitor. Blocking antibodies to bone sialoprotein added from day 9 or on days 9 and 11 retarded mineralization, supporting its role as a mineralization nucleator. Antibodies to osteonectin slightly stimulated early mineralization, but had no effect after the time that initial mineral deposition occurs. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the importance of the phosphorylation state of extracellular matrix proteins in regulating mineralization in this culture system.
micromass culture; avian; mineralization; casein kinase II; phosphoprotein phosphatase