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1.  LATS1/WARTS phosphorylates MYPT1 to counteract PLK1 and regulate mammalian mitotic progression 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2012;197(5):625-641.
Showing convergence with budding yeast mitotic exit network signaling, the LATS1/WARTS kinase phosphorylates the MYPT1 phosphatase to control PLK1 at the G2 DNA damage checkpoint.
In the mitotic exit network of budding yeast, Dbf2 kinase phosphorylates and regulates Cdc14 phosphatase. In contrast, no phosphatase substrates of LATS1/WARTS kinase, the mammalian equivalent of Dbf2, has been reported. To address this discrepancy, we performed phosphoproteomic screening using LATS1 kinase. Screening identified MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase–targeting subunit 1) as a new substrate for LATS1. LATS1 directly and preferentially phosphorylated serine 445 (S445) of MYPT1. An MYPT1 mutant (S445A) failed to dephosphorylate Thr 210 of PLK1 (pololike kinase 1), thereby activating PLK1. This suggests that LATS1 promotes MYPT1 to antagonize PLK1 activity. Consistent with this, LATS1-depleted HeLa cells or fibroblasts from LATS1 knockout mice showed increased PLK1 activity. We also found deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage–induced LATS1 activation caused PLK1 suppression via the phosphorylation of MYPT1 S445. Furthermore, LATS1 knockdown cells showed reduced G2 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. These results indicate that LATS1 phosphorylates a phosphatase as does the yeast Dbf2 and demonstrate a novel role of LATS1 in controlling PLK1 at the G2 DNA damage checkpoint.
PMCID: PMC3404884  PMID: 22641346
2.  Integrative Features of the Yeast Phosphoproteome and Protein–Protein Interaction Map 
PLoS Computational Biology  2011;7(1):e1001064.
Following recent advances in high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics, the numbers of identified phosphoproteins and their phosphosites have greatly increased in a wide variety of organisms. Although a critical role of phosphorylation is control of protein signaling, our understanding of the phosphoproteome remains limited. Here, we report unexpected, large-scale connections revealed between the phosphoproteome and protein interactome by integrative data-mining of yeast multi-omics data. First, new phosphoproteome data on yeast cells were obtained by MS-based proteomics and unified with publicly available yeast phosphoproteome data. This revealed that nearly 60% of ∼6,000 yeast genes encode phosphoproteins. We mapped these unified phosphoproteome data on a yeast protein–protein interaction (PPI) network with other yeast multi-omics datasets containing information about proteome abundance, proteome disorders, literature-derived signaling reactomes, and in vitro substratomes of kinases. In the phospho-PPI, phosphoproteins had more interacting partners than nonphosphoproteins, implying that a large fraction of intracellular protein interaction patterns (including those of protein complex formation) is affected by reversible and alternative phosphorylation reactions. Although highly abundant or unstructured proteins have a high chance of both interacting with other proteins and being phosphorylated within cells, the difference between the number counts of interacting partners of phosphoproteins and nonphosphoproteins was significant independently of protein abundance and disorder level. Moreover, analysis of the phospho-PPI and yeast signaling reactome data suggested that co-phosphorylation of interacting proteins by single kinases is common within cells. These multi-omics analyses illuminate how wide-ranging intracellular phosphorylation events and the diversity of physical protein interactions are largely affected by each other.
Author Summary
To date, high-throughput proteome technologies have revealed that hundreds to thousands of proteins in each of many organisms are phosphorylated under the appropriate environmental conditions. A critical role of phosphorylation is control of protein signaling. However, only a fraction of the identified phosphoproteins participate in currently known protein signaling pathways, and the biological relevance of the remainder is unclear. This has raised the question of whether phosphorylation has other major roles. In this study, we identified new phosphoproteins in budding yeast by mass spectrometry and unified these new data with publicly available phosphoprotein data. We then performed an integrative data-mining of large-scale yeast phosphoproteins and protein–protein interactions (complex formation) by an exhaustive analysis that incorporated yeast protein information from several other sources. The phosphoproteome data integration surprisingly showed that nearly 60% of yeast genes encode phosphoproteins, and the subsequent data-mining analysis derived two models interpreting the mutual intracellular effects of large-scale protein phosphorylation and binding interaction. Biological interpretations of both large-scale intracellular phosphorylation and the topology of protein interaction networks are highly relevant to modern biology. This study sheds light on how in vivo protein pathways are supported by a combination of protein modification and molecular dynamics.
PMCID: PMC3029238  PMID: 21298081
3.  Evaluation and Properties of the Budding Yeast Phosphoproteome* 
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP  2012;11(6):M111.009555.
We have assembled a reliable phosphoproteomic data set for budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have investigated its properties. Twelve publicly available phosphoproteome data sets were triaged to obtain a subset of high-confidence phosphorylation sites (p-sites), free of “noisy” phosphorylations. Analysis of this combined data set suggests that the inventory of phosphoproteins in yeast is close to completion, but that these proteins may have many undiscovered p-sites. Proteins involved in budding and protein kinase activity have high numbers of p-sites and are highly over-represented in the vast majority of the yeast phosphoproteome data sets. The yeast phosphoproteome is characterized by a few proteins with many p-sites and many proteins with a few p-sites. We confirm a tendency for p-sites to cluster together and find evidence that kinases may phosphorylate off-target amino acids that are within one or two residues of their cognate target. This suggests that the precise position of the phosphorylated amino acid is not a stringent requirement for regulatory fidelity. Compared with nonphosphorylated proteins, phosphoproteins are more ancient, more abundant, have longer unstructured regions, have more genetic interactions, more protein interactions, and are under tighter post-translational regulation. It appears that phosphoproteins constitute the raw material for pathway rewiring and adaptation at various evolutionary rates.
PMCID: PMC3433898  PMID: 22286756
4.  What Goes On Must Come Off: phosphatases gate-crash the DNA damage response 
Trends in Biochemical Sciences  2011;36(11):569-577.
DNA damage-induced phospho-signaling has been studied for decades, with a focus mainly on initiation of the signaling cascade, and the kinases activated by DNA lesions. It is widely accepted that the balance of phosphorylation needs to be restored and/or maintained by phosphatases, yet there have only been sporadic efforts to investigate the impact of phosphatases on DNA repair. Recent advances in phosphoproteomic strategies and implementation of large genetic screens indicate that these enzymes play pivotal roles in these signaling networks. Dephosphorylation of repair proteins is critical for efficient DNA repair, and the recommencement of cell division post-repair. Here, we focus on serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in dephosphorylation of DNA repair factors, summarizing recent findings and speculating on un-tested roles of phosphatases in the DNA damage response (DDR).
PMCID: PMC3402068  PMID: 21930385
5.  The Yeast Sks1p Kinase Signaling Network Regulates Pseudohyphal Growth and Glucose Response 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(3):e1004183.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic growth transition from its unicellular form to a filamentous state, marked by the formation of pseudohyphal filaments of elongated and connected cells. Yeast pseudohyphal growth is regulated by signaling pathways responsive to reductions in the availability of nitrogen and glucose, but the molecular link between pseudohyphal filamentation and glucose signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identify the glucose-responsive Sks1p kinase as a signaling protein required for pseudohyphal growth induced by nitrogen limitation and coupled nitrogen/glucose limitation. To identify the Sks1p signaling network, we applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics, profiling over 900 phosphosites for phosphorylation changes dependent upon Sks1p kinase activity. From this analysis, we report a set of novel phosphorylation sites and highlight Sks1p-dependent phosphorylation in Bud6p, Itr1p, Lrg1p, Npr3p, and Pda1p. In particular, we analyzed the Y309 and S313 phosphosites in the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit Pda1p; these residues are required for pseudohyphal growth, and Y309A mutants exhibit phenotypes indicative of impaired aerobic respiration and decreased mitochondrial number. Epistasis studies place SKS1 downstream of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR1 and the G-protein RAS2 but upstream of or at the level of cAMP-dependent PKA. The pseudohyphal growth and glucose signaling transcription factors Flo8p, Mss11p, and Rgt1p are required to achieve wild-type SKS1 transcript levels. SKS1 is conserved, and deletion of the SKS1 ortholog SHA3 in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans results in abnormal colony morphology. Collectively, these results identify Sks1p as an important regulator of filamentation and glucose signaling, with additional relevance towards understanding stress-responsive signaling in C. albicans.
Author Summary
Eukaryotic cells respond to nutritional and environmental stress through complex regulatory programs controlling cell metabolism, growth, and morphology. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, conditions of limited nitrogen and/or glucose can initiate a dramatic growth transition wherein the yeast cells form extended multicellular filaments resembling the true hyphal tubes of filamentous fungi. The formation of these pseudohyphal filaments is governed by core regulatory pathways that have been studied for decades; however, the mechanism by which these signaling systems are integrated is less well understood. We find that the protein kinase Sks1p contributes to the integration of signals for nitrogen and/or glucose limitation, resulting in pseudohyphal growth. We implemented a mass spectrometry-based approach to profile phosphorylation events across the proteome dependent upon Sks1p kinase activity and identified phosphorylation sites important for mitochondrial function and pseudohyphal growth. Our studies place Sks1p in the regulatory context of a well-known pseudohyphal growth signaling pathway. We further find that SKS1 is conserved and required for stress-responsive colony morphology in the principal opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Thus, Sks1p is part of the mechanism integrating glucose-responsive cell signaling and pseudohyphal growth, and its function is required for colony morphology linked with virulence in C. albicans.
PMCID: PMC3945295  PMID: 24603354
6.  Application of Phosphoproteomics to Find Targets of Casein Kinase 1 in the Flagellum of Chlamydomonas 
The green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii serves as model for studying structural and functional features of flagella. The axoneme of C. reinhardtii anchors a network of kinases and phosphatases that control motility. One of them, Casein Kinase 1 (CK1), is known to phosphorylate the Inner Dynein Arm I1 Intermediate Chain 138 (IC138), thereby regulating motility. CK1 is also involved in regulating the circadian rhythm of phototaxis and is relevant for the formation of flagella. By a comparative phosphoproteome approach, we determined phosphoproteins in the flagellum that are targets of CK1. Thereby, we applied the specific CK1 inhibitor CKI-7 that causes significant changes in the flagellum phosphoproteome and reduces the swimming velocity of the cells. In the CKI-7-treated cells, 14 phosphoproteins were missing compared to the phosphoproteome of untreated cells, including IC138, and four additional phosphoproteins had a reduced number of phosphorylation sites. Notably, inhibition of CK1 causes also novel phosphorylation events, indicating that it is part of a kinase network. Among them, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 is of special interest, because it is involved in the phosphorylation of key clock components in flies and mammals and in parallel plays an important role in the regulation of assembly in the flagellum.
PMCID: PMC3536430  PMID: 23316220
7.  Clb6/Cdc28 and Cdc14 Regulate Phosphorylation Status and Cellular Localization of Swi6 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2004;24(6):2277-2285.
Nuclear export of the transcription factor Swi6 during the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle is known to require phosphorylation of the Swi6 serine 160 residue. We show that Clb6/Cdc28 kinase is required for this nuclear export. Furthermore, Cdc28 combined with the S-phase cyclin Clb6 specifically phosphorylates serine 160 of Swi6 in vitro. Nuclear import of Swi6 occurs concomitantly with dephosphorylation of serine 160 in late M phase. We show that Cdc14 phosphatase, the principal effector of the mitotic exit network, can trigger nuclear import of Swi6 in vivo and that Cdc14 dephosphorylates Swi6 at serine 160 in vitro. Taken together, these observations show how Swi6 dephosphorylation and phosphorylation are integrated into changes of Cdc28 activity governing entry and exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle.
PMCID: PMC355859  PMID: 14993267
8.  Comparative phosphoproteomics reveals evolutionary and functional conservation of phosphorylation across eukaryotes 
Genome Biology  2008;9(10):R144.
A comparison of phosphoproteomics datasets of six eukaryotes shows significant overlap between phosphoproteomes.
Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is involved in a wide range of processes, ranging from signaling cascades to regulation of protein complex assembly. Little is known about the structure and evolution of phosphorylation networks. Recent high-throughput phosphoproteomics studies have resulted in the rapid accumulation of phosphopeptide datasets for many model organisms. Here, we exploit these novel data for the comparative analysis of phosphorylation events between different species of eukaryotes.
Comparison of phosphoproteomics datasets of six eukaryotes yields an overlap ranging from approximately 700 sites for human and mouse (two large datasets of closely related species) to a single site for fish and yeast (distantly related as well as two of the smallest datasets). Some conserved events appear surprisingly old; those shared by plant and animals suggest conservation over the time scale of a billion years. In spite of the hypothesized incomprehensive nature of phosphoproteomics datasets and differences in experimental procedures, we show that the overlap between phosphoproteomes is greater than expected by chance and indicates increased functional relevance. Despite the dynamic nature of the evolution of phosphorylation, the relative overlap between the different datasets is identical to the phylogeny of the species studied.
This analysis provides a framework for the generation of biological insights by comparative analysis of high-throughput phosphoproteomics datasets. We expect the rapidly growing body of data from high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis to make comparative phosphoproteomics a powerful tool for elucidating the evolutionary and functional dynamics of reversible phosphorylation.
PMCID: PMC2760871  PMID: 18828897
9.  Systems-wide Analysis of a Phosphatase Knock-down by Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics 
Signal transduction in metazoans regulates almost all aspects of biological function, and aberrant signaling is involved in many diseases. Perturbations in phosphorylation-based signaling networks are typically studied in a hypothesis-driven approach, using phospho-specific antibodies. Here we apply quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine the systems response to the depletion of one signaling component. Drosophila cells were metabolically labeled using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and the phosphatase Ptp61F, the ortholog of mammalian PTB1B, a drug target for diabetes, was knocked down by RNAi. In total we detected more than 10,000 phosphorylation sites in the phosphoproteome of Drosophila Schneider cells and trained a phosphorylation site predictor with this data. SILAC-based quantitation after phosphatase knock-down showed that apart from the phosphatase, the proteome was minimally affected whereas 288 of 6,478 high-confidence phosphorylation sites changed significantly. Responses at the phosphotyrosine level included the already described Ptp61F substrates Stat92E and Abi. Our analysis highlights a connection of Ptp61F to cytoskeletal regulation through GTPase regulating proteins and focal adhesion components.
PMCID: PMC2722773  PMID: 19429919
10.  Systemic Perturbation of the ERK Signaling Pathway by the Proteasome Inhibitor, MG132 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50975.
Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation pathway has been identified as a viable strategy for anti-tumor therapy based on its broad effects on cell proliferation. By the same token, the variety of elicited effects confounds the interpretation of cell-based experiments using proteasome inhibitors such as MG132. It has been proposed that MG132 treatment reduces growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), at least in part through upregulation of dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs). Here, we show that the effects of MG132 treatment on ERK signaling are more widespread, leading to a reduction in activation of the upstream kinase MEK. This suggests that MG132 systemically perturbs the intracellular phosphoproteome, impacting ERK signaling by reducing phosphorylation status at multiple levels of the kinase cascade.
PMCID: PMC3511445  PMID: 23226437
11.  Evolution of Phosphoregulation: Comparison of Phosphorylation Patterns across Yeast Species 
PLoS Biology  2009;7(6):e1000134.
Analysis of the phosphoproteomes and the gene interaction networks of divergent yeast species defines the relative contribution of changes in protein phosphorylation pathways to the generation of phenotypic diversity.
The extent by which different cellular components generate phenotypic diversity is an ongoing debate in evolutionary biology that is yet to be addressed by quantitative comparative studies. We conducted an in vivo mass-spectrometry study of the phosphoproteomes of three yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) in order to quantify the evolutionary rate of change of phosphorylation. We estimate that kinase–substrate interactions change, at most, two orders of magnitude more slowly than transcription factor (TF)–promoter interactions. Our computational analysis linking kinases to putative substrates recapitulates known phosphoregulation events and provides putative evolutionary histories for the kinase regulation of protein complexes across 11 yeast species. To validate these trends, we used the E-MAP approach to analyze over 2,000 quantitative genetic interactions in S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe, which demonstrated that protein kinases, and to a greater extent TFs, show lower than average conservation of genetic interactions. We propose therefore that protein kinases are an important source of phenotypic diversity.
Author Summary
Natural selection at a population level requires phenotypic diversity, which at the molecular level arises by mutation of the genome of each individual. What kinds of changes at the level of the DNA are most important for the generation of phenotypic differences remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. One well-studied source of phenotypic diversity is mutation in gene regulatory regions that results in changes in gene expression, but what proportion of phenotypic diversity is due to such mutations is not entirely clear. We investigated the relative contribution to phenotypic diversity of mutations in protein-coding regions compared to mutations in gene regulatory sequences. Given the important regulatory role played by phosphorylation across biological systems, we focused on mutations in protein-coding regions that alter protein–protein interactions involved in the binding of kinases to their substrate proteins. We studied the evolution of this “phosphoregulation” by analyzing the in vivo complement of phosphorylated proteins (the “phosphoproteome”) in three highly diverged yeast species—the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe—and integrating those data with existing data on thousands of known genetic interactions from S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe. We show that kinase–substrate interactions are altered at a rate that is at most two orders of magnitude slower than the alteration of transcription factor (TF)–promoter interactions, whereas TFs and kinases both show a faster than average rate of functional divergence estimated by the cross-species analysis of genetic interactions. Our data provide a quantitative estimate of the relative frequencies of different kinds of functionally relevant mutations and demonstrate that, like mutations in gene regulatory regions, mutations that result in changes in kinase–substrate interactions are an important source of phenotypic diversity.
PMCID: PMC2691599  PMID: 19547744
12.  Regulation of Autophosphorylation of Escherichia coli Nitrogen Regulator II by the PII Signal Transduction Protein 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(6):1906-1911.
The nitrogen regulator II (NRII or NtrB)-NRI (NtrC) two-component signal transduction system regulates the transcription of nitrogen-regulated genes in Escherichia coli. The NRII protein has both kinase and phosphatase activities and catalyzes the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of NRI, which activates transcription when phosphorylated. The phosphatase activity of NRII is activated by the PII signal transduction protein. We showed that PII was also an inhibitor of the kinase activity of NRII. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that the kinase and phosphatase activities of two-component system kinase/phosphatase proteins are coordinately and reciprocally regulated. The ability of PII to regulate NRII is allosterically controlled by the small-molecule effector 2-ketoglutarate, which binds to PII. We studied the effect of 2-ketoglutarate on the regulation of the kinase and phosphatase activities of NRII by PII, using a coupled enzyme system to measure the rate of cleavage of ATP by NRII. The data were consistent with the following hypothesis: when not complexed with 2-ketoglutarate, PII cannot bind to NRII and has no effect on its competing NRI kinase and phosphatase activities. Under these conditions, the kinase activity of NRII is dominant. At low 2-ketoglutarate concentrations, PII trimers complexed with a single molecule of 2-ketoglutarate interact with NRII to inhibit its kinase activity and activate its phosphatase activity. However, at high 2-ketoglutarate concentrations, PII binds additional ligand molecules and is rendered incapable of binding to NRII, thereby releasing inhibition of NRII’s kinase activity and effectively inhibiting its phosphatase activity (by failing to stimulate it).
PMCID: PMC93592  PMID: 10074086
13.  Proteomic investigations reveal a role for RNA processing factor THRAP3 in the DNA damage response 
Molecular cell  2012;46(2):212-225.
The regulatory networks of the DNA damage response (DDR) encompass many proteins and posttranslational modifications. Here, we use mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze the systems-wide response to DNA damage by parallel quantification of the DDR-regulated phosphoproteome, acetylome and proteome. We show that phosphorylation-dependent signaling networks are regulated more strongly compared to acetylation. Among the phosphorylated proteins identified are many putative substrates of DNA-PK, ATM and ATR kinases, but a majority of phosphorylated proteins do not share the ATM/ATR/DNA-PK target consensus, suggesting an important role of downstream kinases in amplifying DDR signals. We show that the splicing-regulator phosphatase PPM1G is recruited to sites of DNA damage, while the splicing-associated protein THRAP3 is excluded from these regions. Moreover, THRAP3 depletion causes cellular hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents, thus suggesting an important link between RNA metabolism and DNA repair. Our results broaden the knowledge of DNA damage signaling networks and identify novel components of the DDR.
PMCID: PMC3565437  PMID: 22424773
14.  Phosphoproteomics of collagen receptor networks reveals SHP-2 phosphorylation downstream of wild-type DDR2 and its lung cancer mutants 
Biochemical Journal  2013;454(Pt 3):501-513.
Collagen is an important extracellular matrix component that directs many fundamental cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation and motility. The signalling networks driving these processes are propagated by collagen receptors such as the β1 integrins and the DDRs (discoidin domain receptors). To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of collagen receptor signalling, we have performed a quantitative analysis of the phosphorylation networks downstream of collagen activation of integrins and DDR2. Temporal analysis over seven time points identified 424 phosphorylated proteins. Distinct DDR2 tyrosine phosphorylation sites displayed unique temporal activation profiles in agreement with in vitro kinase data. Multiple clustering analysis of the phosphoproteomic data revealed several DDR2 candidate downstream signalling nodes, including SHP-2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2), NCK1 (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1), LYN, SHIP-2 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing inositol phosphatase 2], PIK3C2A (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2α) and PLCL2 (phospholipase C-like 2). Biochemical validation showed that SHP-2 tyrosine phosphorylation is dependent on DDR2 kinase activity. Targeted proteomic profiling of a panel of lung SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) DDR2 mutants demonstrated that SHP-2 is tyrosine-phosphorylated by the L63V and G505S mutants. In contrast, the I638F kinase domain mutant exhibited diminished DDR2 and SHP-2 tyrosine phosphorylation levels which have an inverse relationship with clonogenic potential. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that SHP-2 is a key signalling node downstream of the DDR2 receptor which may have therapeutic implications in a subset of DDR2 mutations recently uncovered in genome-wide lung SCC sequencing screens.
The present study characterizes integrin and DDR2 signalling networks activated by collagen. Using clustering approaches, DDR2-specific signalling components such as SHP-2 were identified. We further demonstrate that SHP-2 is phosphorylated by a subset of DDR2 lung cancer mutants.
PMCID: PMC3893797  PMID: 23822953
cell signalling; collagen; discoidin domain receptor; lung cancer; mass spectrometry; phosphoproteomics; CDK1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1; DDR, discoidin domain receptor; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; DYRK1A, dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERK, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; EV, empty vector; GO, Gene Ontology; HEK, human embryonic kidney; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; IL, interleukin; IMAC, immobilized metal-ion-affinity chromatography; KD, kinase domain; mAb, monoclonal antibody; MCAM, multiple clustering analysis methodology; NCK1, non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1; PIK3C2A, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2α; PLCL2, phospholipase C-like 2; RFB, radiometric filter binding; RTK, receptor tyrosine kinase; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; SHIP-2, SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing inositol phosphatase 2; SHP-2, Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2; SRM, selective reaction monitoring; TDA, template-directed assembly; TEAB, triethylammonium bicarbonate; TFA, trifluoroacetic acid
15.  Protein kinases associated with the yeast phosphoproteome 
BMC Bioinformatics  2006;7:47.
Protein phosphorylation is an extremely important mechanism of cellular regulation. A large-scale study of phosphoproteins in a whole-cell lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously identified 383 phosphorylation sites in 216 peptide sequences. However, the protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the identified proteins have not previously been assigned.
We used Predikin in combination with other bioinformatic tools, to predict which of 116 unique protein kinases in yeast phosphorylates each experimentally determined site in the phosphoproteome. The prediction was based on the match between the phosphorylated 7-residue sequence and the predicted substrate specificity of each kinase, with the highest weight applied to the residues or positions that contribute most to the substrate specificity. We estimated the reliability of the predictions by performing a parallel prediction on phosphopeptides for which the kinase has been experimentally determined.
The results reveal that the functions of the protein kinases and their predicted phosphoprotein substrates are often correlated, for example in endocytosis, cytokinesis, transcription, replication, carbohydrate metabolism and stress response. The predictions link phosphoproteins of unknown function with protein kinases with known functions and vice versa, suggesting functions for the uncharacterized proteins. The study indicates that the phosphoproteins and the associated protein kinases represented in our dataset have housekeeping cellular roles; certain kinases are not represented because they may only be activated during specific cellular responses. Our results demonstrate the utility of our previously reported protein kinase substrate prediction approach (Predikin) as a tool for establishing links between kinases and phosphoproteins that can subsequently be tested experimentally.
PMCID: PMC1373605  PMID: 16445868
16.  Revealing plant defense signaling 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2011;6(10):1469-1474.
The regulation mechanisms of any plant-pathogen interaction are complex and dynamic. A proteomic approach is necessary in understanding regulatory networks because it identifies new proteins in relation to their function and ultimately aims to clarify how their expression, accumulation and modification is controlled. One of the major control mechanisms for protein activity in plant-pathogen interactions is protein phosphorylation, and an understanding of the significance of protein phosphorylation in plant-pathogen interaction can be overwhelming. Due to the high number of protein kinases and phosphatases in any single plant genome and specific limitations of any technologies, it is extremely challenging for us to fully delineate the phosphorylation machinery. Current proteomic approaches and technology advances have demonstrated their great potential in identifying new components. Recent studies in well-developed plantpathogen systems have revealed novel phosphorylation pathways, and some of them are off the core phosphorylation cascades. Additional phosphoproteomic studies are needed to increase our comprehension of the different mechanisms and their fine tuning involved in the host resistance response to pathogen attacks.
PMCID: PMC3256373  PMID: 21897123
protein phosphorylation; phosphoproteomics; plant-pathogen interaction; kinase
Proteomics  2008;8(22):4695-4708.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are crucial components of cellular signal transduction pathways. We report here that red blood cells (RBCs) from mice lacking PTPε (Ptpre−/−) exhibit abnormal morphology and increased Ca2+-activated-K+ channel activity, which was partially blocked by the Src-Family-Kinases (SFKs) inhibitor PP1. In Ptpre−/− mouse RBCs, the activity of Fyn and Yes, two SFKs, were increased, suggesting a functional relationship between SFKs, PTPε and Ca2+-activated-K+-channel. The absence of PTPε markedly affected the RBC membrane tyrosine (Tyr-) phosphoproteome, indicating a perturbation of RBCs signal transduction pathways. Using signaling network computational analysis of the Tyr-phosphoproteomic data, we identified 7 topological clusters. We studied cluster 1, containing Syk-Tyr-kinase: Syk-kinase activity was higher in wild-type than in Ptpre−/− RBCs, validating the network computational analysis and indicating a novel signaling pathway, which involves Fyn and Syk in regulation of red cell morphology.
PMCID: PMC3008556  PMID: 18924107
Tyrosine-phosphorylation; Fyn; Syk; Gardos channel
18.  A Tissue-Specific Atlas of Mouse Protein Phosphorylation and Expression 
Cell  2010;143(7):1174-1189.
Although most tissues in an organism are genetically identical, the biochemistry of each is optimized to fulfill its unique physiological roles, with important consequences for human health and disease. Each tissue’s unique physiology requires tightly regulated gene and protein expression coordinated by specialized, phosphorylation-dependent intracellular signaling. To better understand the role of phosphorylation in maintenance of physiological differences among tissues, we performed proteomic and phosphoproteomic characterizations of nine mouse tissues. We identified 12,039 proteins, including 6296 phosphoproteins harboring nearly 36,000 phosphorylation sites. Comparing protein abundances and phosphorylation levels revealed specialized, interconnected phosphorylation networks within each tissue while suggesting that many proteins are regulated by phosphorylation independently of their expression. Our data suggest that the ‘typical’ phosphoprotein is widely expressed, yet displays variable, often tissue-specific phosphorylation that tunes protein activity to the specific needs of each tissue. We offer this dataset as an online resource for the biological research community.
PMCID: PMC3035969  PMID: 21183079
19.  Derepressed Hyphal Growth and Reduced Virulence in a VH1 Family-related Protein Phosphatase Mutant of the Human Pathogen Candida albicans 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1997;8(12):2539-2551.
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are pivotal components of eukaryotic signaling cascades. Phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues activates MAP kinases, but either dual-specificity or monospecificity phosphatases can inactivate them. The Candida albicans CPP1 gene, a structural member of the VH1 family of dual- specificity phosphatases, was previously cloned by its ability to block the pheromone response MAP kinase cascade in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cpp1p inactivated mammalian MAP kinases in vitro and acted as a tyrosine-specific enzyme. In C. albicans a MAP kinase cascade can trigger the transition from the budding yeast form to a more invasive filamentous form. Disruption of the CPP1 gene in C. albicans derepressed the yeast to hyphal transition at ambient temperatures, on solid surfaces. A hyphal growth rate defect under physiological conditions in vitro was also observed and could explain a reduction in virulence associated with reduced fungal burden in the kidneys seen in a systemic mouse model. A hyper-hyphal pathway may thus have some detrimental effects on C. albicans cells. Disruption of the MAP kinase homologue CEK1 suppressed the morphological effects of the CPP1 disruption in C. albicans. The results presented here demonstrate the biological importance of a tyrosine phosphatase in cell-fate decisions and virulence in C. albicans.
PMCID: PMC25726  PMID: 9398674
20.  Regulation of yeast central metabolism by enzyme phosphorylation 
A strategy is presented that combines metabolic fluxes with targeted phosphoproteomics measurements to drive testable hypotheses for the functionality of post-translational regulation in S. cerevisiae central metabolism.
Discovery-driven mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics identified 35 differentially phosphorylated enzymes of yeast central metabolism.Phosphoenzymes are predominant in upper glycolysis, around the pyruvate node and in carbohydrate storage pathways.A targeted phosphoproteomics method was developed to quantify total, phospho and non-phosphoprotein directly from crude cell extracts.Correlation of phosphoprotein levels with metabolic fluxes across conditions provided functional evidence for five novel phosphoregulated enzymes.Functional follow-ups demonstrated the inhibitory role of phosphorylation in controlling metabolic fluxes realised by Gpd1, Pda1 and Pfk2.
As a frequent post-translational modification, protein phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes. Although several hundred phosphorylation sites have been mapped to metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, functionality was demonstrated for few of them. Here, we describe a novel approach to identify in vivo functionality of enzyme phosphorylation by combining flux analysis with proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Focusing on the network of 204 enzymes that constitute the yeast central carbon and amino-acid metabolism, we combined protein and phosphoprotein levels to identify 35 enzymes that change their degree of phosphorylation during growth under five conditions. Correlations between previously determined intracellular fluxes and phosphoprotein abundances provided first functional evidence for five novel phosphoregulated enzymes in this network, adding to nine known phosphoenzymes. For the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 α subunit Pda1 and the newly identified phosphoregulated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gpd1 and phosphofructose-1-kinase complex β subunit Pfk2, we then validated functionality of specific phosphosites through absolute peptide quantification by targeted mass spectrometry, metabolomics and physiological flux analysis in mutants with genetically removed phosphosites. These results demonstrate the role of phosphorylation in controlling the metabolic flux realised by these three enzymes.
PMCID: PMC3531909  PMID: 23149688
metabolic flux; metabolism; phosphoproteome; post-translational regulation; selected reaction monitoring
21.  Functional Proteomics Identifies Targets of Phosphorylation by B-Raf Signaling in Melanoma 
Molecular cell  2009;34(1):115-131.
Melanoma and other cancers harbor oncogenic mutations in the protein kinase B-Raf, which leads to constitutive activation and dysregulation of MAP kinase signaling. In order to elucidate molecular determinants responsible for B-Raf control of cancer phenotypes, we present a method for phosphoprotein profiling, using negative ionization mass spectrometry to detect phosphopeptides based on their fragment ion signature caused by release of PO3−. The method provides an alternative strategy for phosphoproteomics, circumventing affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides and isotopic labeling of samples. Ninety phosphorylation events were regulated by oncogenic B-Raf signaling, based on their responses to treating melanoma cells with MKK1/2 inhibitor. Regulated phosphoproteins included known signaling effectors and cytoskeletal regulators. We investigated MINERVA/FAM129B, a target belonging to a protein family with unknown category and function, and established the importance of this protein and its MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation in controlling melanoma cell invasion into 3-dimensional collagen matrix.
PMCID: PMC2735263  PMID: 19362540
22.  High-Throughput Screening of the Yeast Kinome: Identification of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases That Phosphorylate the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(7):3502-3513.
The hepatitis C virus NS5A protein plays a critical role in virus replication, conferring interferon resistance to the virus through perturbation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Since NS5A is a phosphoprotein, it is of considerable interest to understand the role of phosphorylation in NS5A function. In this report, we investigated the phosphorylation of NS5A by taking advantage of 119 glutathione S-transferase-tagged protein kinases purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to perform a global screening of yeast kinases capable of phosphorylating NS5A in vitro. A database BLAST search was subsequently performed by using the sequences of the yeast kinases that phosphorylated NS5A in order to identify human kinases with the highest sequence homologies. Subsequent in vitro kinase assays and phosphopeptide mapping studies confirmed that several of the homologous human protein kinases were capable of phosphorylating NS5A. In vivo phosphopeptide mapping revealed phosphopeptides common to those generated in vitro by AKT, p70S6K, MEK1, and MKK6, suggesting that these kinases may phosphorylate NS5A in mammalian cells. Significantly, rapamycin, an inhibitor commonly used to investigate the mTOR/p70S6K pathway, reduced the in vivo phosphorylation of specific NS5A phosphopeptides, strongly suggesting that p70S6 kinase and potentially related members of this group phosphorylate NS5A inside the cell. Curiously, certain of these kinases also play a major role in mRNA translation and antiapoptotic pathways, some of which are already known to be regulated by NS5A. The findings presented here demonstrate the use of high-throughput screening of the yeast kinome to facilitate the major task of identifying human NS5A protein kinases for further characterization of phosphorylation events in vivo. Our results suggest that this novel approach may be generally applicable to the screening of other protein biochemical activities by mechanistic class.
PMCID: PMC371080  PMID: 15016873
23.  Phosphorylation Networks Regulating JNK Activity in Diverse Genetic Backgrounds 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2008;322(5900):453-456.
Cellular signaling networks have evolved to enable swift and accurate responses, even in the face of genetic or environmental perturbation. Thus, genetic screens may not identify all the genes that regulate different biological processes. Moreover, although classical screening approaches have succeeded in providing parts lists of the essential components of signaling networks, they typically do not provide much insight into the hierarchical and functional relations that exist among these components. We describe a high-throughput screen in which we used RNA interference to systematically inhibit two genes simultaneously in 17,724 combinations to identify regulators of Drosophila JUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Using both genetic and phosphoproteomics data, we then implemented an integrative network algorithm to construct a JNK phosphorylation network, which provides structural and mechanistic insights into the systems architecture of JNK signaling.
PMCID: PMC2581798  PMID: 18927396
24.  Ser/Thr/Tyr Protein Phosphorylation in the Archaeon Halobacterium salinarum—A Representative of the Third Domain of Life 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(3):e4777.
In the quest for the origin and evolution of protein phosphorylation, the major regulatory post-translational modification in eukaryotes, the members of archaea, the “third domain of life”, play a protagonistic role. A plethora of studies have demonstrated that archaeal proteins are subject to post-translational modification by covalent phosphorylation, but little is known concerning the identities of the proteins affected, the impact on their functionality, the physiological roles of archaeal protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, and the protein kinases/phosphatases involved. These limited studies led to the initial hypothesis that archaea, similarly to other prokaryotes, use mainly histidine/aspartate phosphorylation, in their two-component systems representing a paradigm of prokaryotic signal transduction, while eukaryotes mostly use Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation for creating highly sophisticated regulatory networks. In antithesis to the above hypothesis, several studies showed that Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation is also common in the bacterial cell, and here we present the first genome-wide phosphoproteomic analysis of the model organism of archaea, Halobacterium salinarum, proving the existence/conservation of Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in the “third domain” of life, allowing a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the so-called “Nature's premier” mechanism for regulating the functional properties of proteins.
PMCID: PMC2652253  PMID: 19274099
25.  P3DB 3.0: From plant phosphorylation sites to protein networks 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(D1):D1206-D1213.
In the past few years, the Plant Protein Phosphorylation Database (P3DB, has become one of the most significant in vivo data resources for studying plant phosphoproteomics. We have substantially updated P3DB with respect to format, new datasets and analytic tools. In the P3DB 3.0, there are altogether 47 923 phosphosites in 16 477 phosphoproteins curated across nine plant organisms from 32 studies, which have met our multiple quality standards for acquisition of in vivo phosphorylation site data. Centralized by these phosphorylation data, multiple related data and annotations are provided, including protein–protein interaction (PPI), gene ontology, protein tertiary structures, orthologous sequences, kinase/phosphatase classification and Kinase Client Assay (KiC Assay) data—all of which provides context for the phosphorylation event. In addition, P3DB 3.0 incorporates multiple network viewers for the above features, such as PPI network, kinase-substrate network, phosphatase-substrate network, and domain co-occurrence network to help study phosphorylation from a systems point of view. Furthermore, the new P3DB reflects a community-based design through which users can share datasets and automate data depository processes for publication purposes. Each of these new features supports the goal of making P3DB a comprehensive, systematic and interactive platform for phosphoproteomics research.
PMCID: PMC3965113  PMID: 24243849

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