Overactive bladder (OAB) is subtyped into OAB-wet and OAB-dry, based on the presence or absence, respectively, of urgency incontinence. In order to better understand patient and physician perspectives on symptoms among women with OAB-wet and OAB-dry, we conducted patient focus groups and interviews with experts in urinary incontinence.
Materials and Methods
Five focus groups totaling 33 patients with OAB symptoms, including three groups of OAB-wet and 2 groups of OAB-dry patients, were conducted. Topics addressed patients’ perceptions of OAB symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Twelve expert interviews were then conducted in which experts were asked to describe their views on OAB-wet and OAB-dry. Focus groups and expert interviews were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data analysis was performed using Grounded Theory methodology, as described by Charmaz.
During the focus groups sessions, women screened as OAB-dry shared the knowledge that they would probably leak if no toilet is available. This knowledge was based on a history of leakage episodes in the past. Those few patients with no history of leakage had a clinical picture more consistent with painful bladder syndrome than OAB. Physician expert interviews revealed the belief that many patients labeled as OAB–dry may actually be mild OAB-wet.
Qualitative data from focus groups and interviews with experts suggest that a spectrum exists between very mild OAB-wet and severe OAB-wet. Scientific investigations are needed to determine if urgency without fear of leakage constitutes a unique clinical entity.
focus groups; qualitative research; urge urinary incontinence; grounded theory; overactive bladder
We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months.
In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups.
Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O.
Overactive urinary bladder; Stress urinary incontinence
Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence.
Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB), a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency.
Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution) and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected.
At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation.
At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM). After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17%) considered that their urinary condition had improved enough to repeat the treatment. At 1 and 3 months after RTX the number of episodes of urgency decreased to 39 ± 9 (p = 0.002) and 37 ± 6 (p = 0.02), respectively (p indicates statistical differences against vehicle). The percentage of patients with subjective improvement after RTX and willing to repeat the instillation at a later occasion was 69%.
In OAB patients with refractory urgency bladder desensitization should be further investigated as an alternative to the standard management. Additionally, the specific effect of RTX on TRPV1 receptors suggests that urothelium and sub-urothelial C-fibers play an important role to the generation of urgency sensation.
We evaluated the influence of preoperative physical examination (PE) and urodynamic study (UDS) findings on objective postoperative bladder emptying, the subjective development of bladder storage symptoms, and patient-reported success of correction of stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Materials and Methods
From January 2007 to August 2008, a total of 159 female patients with SUI underwent transobturator midurethral sling surgery (TOT). The patients were selected for SUI, with no overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, no detrusor overactivity (DO) on UDS, no pelvic organ prolapse, and no history of prior anti-incontinence surgery. Of these patients, 128 patients (aged 38-74 years; mean age, 51.8±7.1 years) with follow-up of at least 12 months were included in the analysis. All patients had PE and UDS findings, including Q-tip testing, free maximal flow rates (Qmax), filling cystometry, Valsalva leak point pressure, detrusor pressure at maximal flow, and maximal urethral closing pressure. The primary outcome was postoperative voiding dysfunction, defined as the subjective feeling of not empting one's bladder completely and a postvoid residual ≥100 ml. A secondary outcome, "cure" of SUI, was defined as "a negative result on the cough stress test and no subjective complaint of urine leakage." We analyzed the preoperative parameters by univariate and multivariate regression for voiding dysfunction, de novo OAB, cure rate, and the patients' satisfaction.
Patients with a preoperative Qmax < 15 ml/s (7 patients) had a tendency for postoperative voiding dysfunction compared with those with a Qmax 15 ml/s (15 patients) (35.0% vs. 13.9%, respectively; p=0.046). No other preoperative parameters had a statistically significant influence on postoperative voiding dysfunction. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that Qmax was a good predictor because the area under the ROC curve value of Qmax was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.89, p<0.001). The univariate and multivariate analysis of the preoperative PE and UDS parameters demonstrated that no significant differences and no independent risk factors were related to the postoperative de novo OAB, cure rate, or the patients' satisfaction.
These findings suggest that preoperative UDS results, especially Qmax, could be used to predict postoperative voiding dysfunction after the TOT procedure.
Urinary Incontinence; Treatment outcome; Urodynamics
Overactive bladder (OAB), as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.
Antimuscarinics; bladder training; overactive bladder
Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB) in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness.
A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL.
The diabetic (third group) and nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group) and the nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group) had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group) and without (fourth group) OAB was not significant.
This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar.
Overactive urinary bladder; Urinary bladder; Diabetes mellitus
Objectives. To evaluate whether there are any demographic or urodynamic differences in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (I-OAB) that respond and do not respond to intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A). Methods. This represents a secondary analysis of data collected from an investigator initiated randomized trial designed to evaluate clinical differences in outcomes for 100 versus 150 U BTX-A in patients with I-OAB. Preinjection demographic and urodynamic data were collected. Patients were evaluated 12 weeks after injection and were determined to be responders or nonresponders as defined by our criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between groups.
Results. In patients with overactive bladder without incontinence (OAB-Dry), there were no variables that could be used to predict response to BTX-A. On univariate analysis, younger patients with overactive bladder with incontinence (OAB-Wet) were more likely to respond to BTX-A than older patients. However, this relationship was no longer statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. We were unable to identify any preinjection demographic or urodynamic parameters that could aid in predicting which patients will achieve clinical response to BTX-A. Future studies are necessary to further evaluate this question.
To evaluate the effect of caffeine at the dose of 4.5 mg/kg on bladder function in overactive bladder (OAB) adults.
Materials and Methods:
Nine women and three men aged 21-40 years with OAB symptoms were included. Each subject drank 8 ml/kg of water with and without caffeine at two separate sessions. Cystometry and uroflowmetry were performed 30 minutes after each drink. The effects of caffeine on urodynamic parameters were compared.
After caffeine ingestion, the mean volume at bladder filling phase decreased at first desire to void and normal desire to void (P<0.05), compared to the mean volume after taking water (control) drink. The mean volume at strong desire to void, urgency and maximum cystometric capacity also tended to decrease. No change in the detrusor pressure at filling phase was found. At voiding phase, the maximal flow rate, average flow rate and voided volume were increased (P<0.05). The urine flow time and time to maximal flow rate were not changed.
Caffeine at 4.5 mg/kg caused diuresis and decreased the threshold of sensation at filling phase, with an increase in flow rate and voided volume. So, caffeine can promote early urgency and frequency of urination. Individuals with lower urinary tract symptom should avoid or be cautious in consuming caffeine containing foodstuffs.
Caffeine; overactive bladder; uroflowmetry
Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is the term used to describe the symptom complex of urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia. Drug treatment continues to have an important role in the management of women with OAB. Other treatment options include conservative management with lifestyle interventions, modification of fluid intake, and physiotherapy including bladder retraining. Surgery remains the last resort in the treatment and is usually reserved for intractable detrusor overactivity, as it is associated with significant morbidity. This article reviews the management of the overactive bladder with specific focus on newer developments in the medical treatment of OAB in women.
To investigate the association between overactive bladder (OAB) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a population-based sample of men and women.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
Epidemiological survey of urological symptoms among men and women aged 30–79 years. A multi-stage stratified cluster design was used to randomly sample 5503 adults from the city of Boston. Analyses were conducted on 1898 men and 1854 women with available CRP levels.
The International Continence Society defines OAB as ‘Urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia.’ OAB was defined as: (1) urgency, (2) urgency with frequency, and (3) urgency with frequency and nocturia.
Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of the CRP and OAB association were estimated using logistic regression.
Prevalence of OAB increased with CRP levels in both men and women.
In men, adjusted ORs (95% CI) per log10(CRP) levels were 1.90 (1.26–2.86) with OAB defined as urgency, 1.65 (1.06–2.58) with OAB defined as urgency and frequency, and 1.92 (1.13–3.28) with OAB defined as urgency, frequency and nocturia.
The association was more modest in women with ORs (95% CI) of 1.53 (1.07–2.18) for OAB as defined urgency, 1.51 (1.02–2.23) for OAB defined as urgency and frequency, and 1.34 (0.85–2.12) for OAB defined as urgency, frequency and nocturia.
Results show a consistent association of increasing CRP levels and OAB among both men and women.
These results support our hypothesis for the role of inflammation in the development of OAB and a possible role for anti-inflammatory agents in its treatment.
C-reactive protein; epidemiology; inflammation; overactive bladder
This study assessed the benefit of adding behavioural modification to darifenacin treatment for overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and methods
The ABLE trial was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre study of 12 weeks of darifenacin treatment [with voluntary up-titration from 7.5 mg once daily (qd) to 15 mg qd at week 2] alone or in combination with a Behavioural Modification Programme (BMP) for men and women with dry or wet OAB. Efficacy was assessed as the change in the number (per day) of micturitions (primary variable), urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, urgency episodes, pads used and nocturnal voids. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated. Tolerability and safety assessments included adverse events and the number of discontinuations.
Of 592 patients screened, 395 were randomised, 190 to darifenacin alone and 205 to darifenacin + BMP. At baseline, the majority of subjects were dry (mean 2.8 and three UUI episodes per day in the darifenacin and darifenacin + BMP groups respectively). At study end, darifenacin alone and darifenacin + BMP both produced significant reductions from baseline in median numbers of micturitions, UUI episodes, urgency episodes and nocturnal voids (all p < 0.05), but not in the number of pads used. HRQoL also improved. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in efficacy or HRQoL variables.
Darifenacin treatment provides a degree of normalisation of micturition variables and improvement in HRQoL that cannot be further enhanced by behavioural therapy of the type used in this study. Whether behavioural modification would add benefit over darifenacin treatment in patients with more pronounced incontinence problems remains to be determined.
Methods: We examined 11 patients (eight men, three women; age range 65–81; disease duration 2–14 years) with probable DLB. Urodynamic studies consisted of: measurement of postvoid residual in all patients, uroflowmetry in five, and electromyography (EMG) cystometry in seven.
Results: All patients had symptoms of LUT: urinary incontinence (urgency type/functional type due to dementia and immobility/both urgency and stress type in 7/2/1 patients, respectively); night-time frequency; urgency; and daytime frequency and voiding difficulty. Seven had postvoid residuals, and three had residual urine volume >100 ml. Decreased urinary flow was seen in all five and detrusor overactivity in 5/7 patients who underwent flowmetry and EMG cystometry, respectively. Low compliance detrusor (storage phase, n = 2; with bethanechol supersensitivity), an underactive detrusor (n = 4), an acontractile detrusor (n = 1), and detrusor–sphincter dyssynergia (voiding phase) (n = 1) were also seen; 2/3 patients who underwent motor unit potential analysis had neurogenic changes.
Conclusion: LUT dysfunction is a common feature in DLB, not only due to dementia and immobility, but also to central and peripheral types of somato-autonomic dysfunction.
With the ultimate goal of improving the quality of care provided to aging women with overactive bladder, we sought to better understand aging women’s experience with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and the care they receive.
Women seen in outpatient female urology clinics were identified by ICD-9 codes for OAB and recruited. Patients with painful bladder syndrome, mixed stress and urge incontinence, prolapse, or recent pelvic surgery were excluded. Patient focus groups were conducted by trained non-clinician moderators incorporating topics related to patients’ perceptions of OAB physiology, symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, treatments, and outcomes. Qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology.
Five focus groups totaling 33 women with OAB were conducted. Average patient age was 67 years (range 39–91). Older women with OAB lacked knowledge about the physiology of their disease and had poor understanding regarding the rationale for many diagnostic tests, including urodynamics and cystoscopy. The results of diagnostic studies often were not understood by older patients. Many women were dissatisfied with the care they had received. This lack of knowledge and understanding was more apparent among the elderly women in the group.
Findings demonstrated a poor understanding of the physiology of overactive bladder and the rationale for various diagnostic modalities and treatments. This was associated with dissatisfaction with care. There is a need for better communication with older women experiencing OAB symptoms about the physiology of the condition.
Focus groups; qualitative research; aging; urinary incontinence; grounded theory
Examining the clinical efficacy on the interferential low frequency therapy (IF) for elderly nonneurogenic (idiopathic) overactive bladder patients with urgent urinary incontinence (wet OAB) prospectively, for whom anticholinergics were not effective.
Materials and Methods
Subjects are elderly 80 patients (69-78, median age 72.0) with urinary incontinence, who are clinically diagnosed with wet OAB without urodynamics (pressure/flow study). For 3 months, they were administered anticholinergics (propiverine hydrochloride 20 mg/once per day in the morning), but all their quality of life (QOL) score were 4 or over due to poor control of storage symptoms and urinary incontinence. We selected patients for whom anticholinergics were not effective (above-mentioned 80 patients) and they were provided with IF alone for 3 months with informed consent. Before and after IF, the followings were examined. (1) frequency of IF treatment required to show optimal effects, (2) average weekly frequency of incontinence, (3) 60-min pad test, (4) frequency and voided volume in the daytime and nighttime, (5) fluid intake volume, (6) International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, (7) Uroflowmetry, (8) postvoid residual urine volume, (9) specific gravity of urine, (10) average hours spent outdoors, (11) average radius of action and activities of daily life score, (12) standing blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, (13) clinical laboratory findings, (14) adverse events, (15) plasma osmotic pressure (OP), and (16) Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP).
(1) The patients showed improvements for eight treatments (median). Improvement was observed in the followings: (2), (3), (4) voiding frequency, (6), (7) voided volume, maximum and average flow rate, (10), (11), (12) BP, (15) OP, and (16).
The IF has safe and better effects than anticholinergics on the elderly wet OAB patients.
Elderly wet OAB; interferential low frequency therapy; QOL
To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment.
Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.
Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Overactive urinary bladder; Ureaplasma urealyticum
To determine if pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements differed between women with dry overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and asymptomatic controls.
To determine whether pelvic floor muscle performance was associated with anxiety scores, quality of life and life stress measures
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We enrolled 28 women with urinary urgency and frequency without urinary incontinence, and 28 age-matched controls.
sEMG was used to assess pelvic muscle performance.
Participants also completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire and Recent Life Changes Questionnaire.
Anxiety scores were significantly higher in women with dry OAB than in controls.
No significant differences were found in sEMG measures of pelvic muscle contraction or relaxation between the two groups
There was no significant correlation between sEMG pretest resting baseline measurements and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire or life stress scores among symptomatic women
As expected, women with dry OAB had significantly higher scores on the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire.
This study supports a relationship between dry OAB symptoms and anxiety that warrants further exploration.
Resting sEMG baselines were not elevated and did not support the hypothesis that women with dry OAB are unable to relax their pelvic floor muscles.
urogynaecology; pelvic floor; overactive bladder
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy.
overactive bladder; urinary incontinence; pharmacologic management; antimuscarinic agents; anticholinergics
An overactive bladder (OAB) may be defined as urgency that is a sudden, compelling, difficult to defer desire to pass urine that is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia and possibly by incontinence. Obesity and old age are two factors in various causes of OAB. Several epidemiologic studies have identified positive associations among obesity, old age, urinary incontinence, and OAB. However, although exercise has been known to improve obesity and reduce incontinent urine loss, little research has been done in elderly women. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on obesity-related metabolic factors, blood lipid factors, and OAB symptoms in elderly Korean women.
Twenty-one women aged between 69 and 72 years were recruited from the Seoul senior towers in Korea. All subjects worked out on a motorized treadmill and stationary cycle for 40 minutes, respectively, and performed resistance exercise for 30 minutes once a day for 52 weeks. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, OAB symptom score, and King's health questionnaire were investigated and analyzed.
Before performing physical exercise, all subjects showed increased OAB symptoms in association with enhanced body mass index (BMI), percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles. However, physical exercise for 52 weeks suppressed BMI, percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles and thus improved OAB symptoms.
We suggest that long-term physical exercise can be a valuable tool for remarkable improvement of OAB.
Overactive urinary bladder; Obesity; Exercise; Overactive bladder symptom score; King's health questionnaire
To compare urgency symptoms in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and Methods
Women with diagnoses of IC/BPS (n = 194) and OAB (n = 85) were recruited from the clinical practices of Urologists (n = 8) and Gynecologists (n = 16) with recognized expertise in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Subjects completed a comprehensive telephone survey about their current symptoms. The questionnaire included 11 questions about urinary urgency. Responses were compared between the two groups.
Urgency was commonly reported as a symptom by women with both conditions (81% IC/BPS and 91% OAB). Compared with IC/BPS, urgency in OAB more often resulted in leakage, and was perceived to be more of a problem. In IC/BPS, the urgency was primarily reported as due to pain, pressure, or discomfort, while in OAB the urgency was more commonly due to fear of leakage. However, approximately 40% of women with OAB also report urgency due to pain, pressure, or discomfort. Similar proportions of both groups (~60%) indicated that the urgency occurred “suddenly” instead of more gradually over a period of minutes or hours.
Urgency symptoms differed in women diagnosed with IC/BPS versus those diagnosed with OAB, but there was significant overlap. This suggests that “urgency” is not a well-defined and commonly understood symptom that can be utilized to clearly discriminate between IC/BPS and OAB. These findings reinforce the clinical observation that it is often challenging to differentiate between these two conditions.
sensations; specificity; symptoms
An overactive bladder (OAB) affects a person's quality of life. Patients who suffer from OAB run to the toilet frequently to prevent incontinence, and this behavior increases their risk of falling and fear of falling. This study evaluated the influence of OAB on falls and concern about falling in females aged 40 and over living in urban and rural communities.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) and a questionnaire regarding falls, in females aged 40 and over in Guri city and Yangpyeong county. The data from 514 responders were analyzed. The definition of OAB was 'moderately' or 'a lot' of urgency, or urge incontinence in KHQ. Falls was defined as experience of falls in the last year. High fear of falling was defined as a score of 24 or over in KFES-I. The factors were analyzed by the exact chi-square test and Student's t-test. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in order to examine the effects of OAB on falls and concern about falling.
Of the 514 responders, 98 fitted the criterion of OAB. Eighty-nine (17.3%) of the responders had experienced falls in the last year: twenty-seven (27.5%) in the group with OAB and 62 (14.9%) in the group without OAB. There was a significant association between falls and OAB (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.08; P=0.0485), and between high fear of falling and OAB (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.20; P=0.0024).
Urgency and symptoms of urge incontinence increase the risk of falls in women aged 40 or older in the community. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may prevent falls and improve quality of life in OAB patients.
Urinary bladder; Overactive; Urinary incontinence; Urge; Accidental falls
The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: α-adrenergic blockers, 5-α reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB.
anticholinergic; benign prostatic hypertrophy; overactive bladder
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition. In women, studies have shown that the prevalence of OAB is positively related to increasing body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to define a relationship between BMI and OAB through correlation with urodynamic study (UDS).
A prospective study was conducted. Ambulatory women aged 18 years or older who had symptoms of OAB for at least 3 months were enrolled. Patients answered a questionnaire, had their weight and height recorded, and underwent UDS. Patients were categorized into 3 groups as follows: group 1, BMI<25; group 2, BMI 25 to 29.9; and group 3, BMI≥30.
A total of 113 patients were examined (group 1, n=32; group 2, n=40; group 3, n=41). The patients' mean ages were 50, 55, and 59 years for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.05). Group 3 showed a significant increase in the incidence of subjective mixed leakage and the number of pads used compared with groups 1 and 2. No significant differences were seen among the groups in duration of symptoms, OAB V-8 score, or the incidence of subjective urgency or stress leakage. The UDS parameters of groups 1, 2, and 3 showed no statistically significant differences for most variables. Group 3 showed a significant increase in the incidence of urge leakage by UDS compared with group 2 only.
Increasing BMI was age related. A BMI≥30 showed a higher incidence of subjective urinary mixed leakage and pad use. UDS showed no significant correlation between OAB and any BMI category for most UDS parameters.
Overactive urinary bladder; Body mass index; Urodynamics; Risk factors
The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in relation to neuronal activity using rats.
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=8 in each group): control group, OAB-induced group, OAB-induced and 0.01 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, OAB-induced and 0.1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, and OAB-induced and 1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group. OAB was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) every third day for 10 days. The rats in the tamsulosin-treated groups orally received tamsulosin once a day for 14 consecutive days at the respective dose of the groups, starting 1 day after the induction of OAB. Cystometry for bladder pressure determination, immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the neuronal voiding centers and western blot for inducible NOS in the bladder were conducted.
Cyclophosphamide injection enhanced contraction pressure and time, representing the induction of OAB. Contraction pressure and time were significantly suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. c-Fos and NOS expressions in the neuronal voiding centers were enhanced by induction of OAB. OAB-induced c-Fos and NOS expressions were suppressed by tamsulosin treatment.
Tamsulosin exerts inhibitory effect on neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers of OAB. The present results suggest the possibility that tamsulosin is effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of OAB.
Overactive bladder; Cyclophosphamide; Tamsulosin; Rats
Research has focused on treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women with the goal of cure. The objective of this study was to assess women’s perceptions of their OAB symptoms, treatment experience, and outcomes by conducting patient focus groups.
Women seen in our academic center female urology referral clinics were identified by ICD-9 codes for OAB symptoms and recruited to participate in one of five focus groups, totaling 33 patients. Non-clinician moderators conducted the focus group sessions incorporating topics related to patients’ perceptions of OAB symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Data analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology.
Qualitative analysis yielded several preliminary themes: impact of OAB on quality of life, strategies to control wetness, medications and side effects, and triggers. The majority of focus group participants reported only a partial response to medication and other physician-recommended treatments for OAB. They therefore developed self-reliant personalized strategies to improve their quality of life. These strategies included fluid restriction, preventive toileting, and, most importantly, the use of incontinence pads.
The majority of the women who participated in the focus groups reported only a partial response to medical and other treatments for OAB. As a result, they developed personalized self-management strategies to improve their quality of life. Although most studies addressing the treatment of OAB aim at curing the condition, such a strategy may be unrealistic. Applying a chronic care model that uses a patient-centered symptom management approach to OAB may optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.
focus groups; qualitative research; urinary incontinence; grounded theory
The relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for the occurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is poorly understood.
To (1) estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB), and other LUTS and (2) to assess the heritability of these symptoms.
Design, setting, and participants
Cross-sectional survey of LUTS in a national population-based cohort of Swedish twins 20–46 yr of age (n = 42 582) from the Swedish Twin Registry.
Prevalence rates were determined and heritability of LUTS (in female twins) was assessed using indicators of twin similarity.
Results and limitations
A total of 25 364 twins completed the questionnaire (response rate: 59.6%). LUTS were more common in women (UI: 7%; OAB: 9%; nocturia: 61%; micturition frequency: 18%) than in men (UI: 1%; OAB: 5%; nocturia: 40%; micturition frequency: 11%), and prevalence increased with age. The strongest genetic effects were observed for UI, frequency, and nocturia. The lowest estimate for genetic effects was observed for OAB where environmental effects dominated, and more specifically shared family environment accounted for a third or more of the total variation. For stress UI, a fifth of the total variation in susceptibility to the disorder could be attributed to shared environment. Nonshared environmental effects were seen in the range of 45–65% for the various LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS was low in the men, and there were too few male cases to compute measures of similarity or heritability estimates.
This study provides robust evidence of a genetic influence for susceptibility to UI, frequency, and nocturia in women. In contrast, shared environmental factors seem more important for the predisposition to develop OAB, which may reflect familial patterns such as learning from parental behaviours.