Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common tumors in the world. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of adenoviral transduction of human melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (MDA-7) gene on hepatocellular carcinoma, so as to provide a theoretical basis for gene therapy of the disease. The human MDA-7 gene was cloned into replication-defective adenovirus specific to HepG2 cells using recombinant virus technology. RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to determine the expression of human MDA-7 mRNA and MDA-7 protein in HepG2 cells in vitro. Induction of apoptosis by overexpression of the human MDA-7 gene was determined by flow cytometry. In-vivo efficacy of adenoviral delivery of the human MDA-7 gene was assessed in nude mice bearing HepG2 cell lines in vivo by determining inhibition of tumor growth, VEGF and CD34 expression, and microvascular density (MVD). The results showed that AdGFP/MDA-7 induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in vitro and significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo (P < 0.05). The intratumoral MVD decreased significantly in the treated tumors (P < 0.05). We conclude the recombination adenovirus AdGFP/MDA-7 can effectively express biologically active human MDA-7, which leads to inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma growth.
MDA-7; adenovirus; hepatocellular carcinoma; gene therapy; angiogenesis
Adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapy represents a potentially viable strategy for treating colorectal cancer. The infectivity of serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad.5), routinely used as a transgene delivery vector, is dependent on Coxsackie-adenovirus receptors (CAR). CAR expression is downregulated in many cancers thus preventing optimum therapeutic efficiency of Ad.5-based therapies. To overcome the low CAR problem, a serotype chimerism approach was used to generate a recombinant Ad (Ad.5/3) that is capable of infecting cancer cells via Ad.3 receptors in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated the improved transgene delivery and efficacy of Ad.5/3 recombinant virus expressing melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), an effective wide-spectrum cancer-selective therapeutic. In low CAR human colorectal cancer cells RKO, wild-type Ad.5 virus expressing mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.5-mda-7) failed to infect efficiently resulting in lack of expression of MDA-7/IL-24 or induction of apoptosis. However, a recombinant Ad.5/3 virus expressing mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.5/3-mda-7) efficiently infected RKO cells resulting in higher MDA-7/IL-24 expression and inhibition of cell growth both in vitro and in nude mice xenograft models. Addition of the novel Bcl-2 family pharmacological inhibitor Apogossypol derivative BI-97C1 (Sabutoclax) significantly augmented the efficacy of Ad.5/3-mda-7. A combination regimen of suboptimal doses of Ad.5/3-mda-7 and BI-97C1 profoundly enhanced cytotoxicity in RKO cells both in vitro and in vivo. Considering the fact that Ad.5-mda-7 has demonstrated significant objective responses in a Phase I clinical trial for advanced solid tumors, Ad.5/3-mda-7 alone or in combination with BI-97C1 would be predicted to exert significantly improved therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer patients.
Viral gene therapy; Mcl-1 inhibition; apoptosis induction; anti-tumor activity
One of the objectives in adenovirus (Ad) vector development is to target gene delivery to specific cell types. Major attention has been given to modification of the Ad fiber knob, which is thought to determine virus tropism. However, among the human Ad serotypes with different tissue tropisms, not only the knob but also the length of the fiber shaft domain varies significantly. In this study we attempted to delineate the role of fiber length in coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR)- and non-CAR-mediated infection. A series of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) capsid-based vectors containing long or short fibers with knob domains derived from Ad5, Ad9, or Ad35 was constructed and tested in adsorption, internalization, and transduction studies. For Ad5 or Ad9 knob-possessing vectors, a long-shafted fiber was critical for efficient adsorption/internalization and transduction of CAR/αv integrin-expressing cells. Ad5 capids containing short CAR-recognizing fibers were affected in cell adsorption and infection. In contrast, for the chimeric vectors possessing Ad35 knobs, which enter cells by a CAR/αv integrin-independent pathway, fiber shaft length had no significant influence on binding or infectibility on tested cells. The weak attachment of short-shafted Ad5 or Ad9 knob-possessing vectors seems to be causally associated with a charge-dependent repulsion between Ad5 capsid and acidic cell surface proteins. The differences between short- and long-shafted vectors in attachment or infection were abrogated by preincubation of cells with polycations. This study demonstrates that the fiber-CAR interaction is not the sole determinant for tropism of Ad vectors containing chimeric fibers. CAR- and αv integrin-mediated infections are influenced by other factors, including the length of the fiber shaft.
Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a novel cytokine displaying selective apoptosis-inducing activity in transformed cells without harming normal cells. The present studies focused on clarifying the mechanism(s) by which glutathione S-transferase (GST)-MDA-7 altered cell survival of human renal carcinoma cells in vitro. GST-MDA-7 caused plasma membrane clustering of CD95 and the association of CD95 with procaspase-8. GST-MDA-7 lethality was suppressed by inhibition of caspase-8 or by overexpression of short-form cellular FLICE inhibitory protein, but only weakly by inhibition of cathepsin proteases. GST-MDA-7–induced CD95 clustering (and apoptosis) was blocked by knockdown of acidic sphingomyelinase or, to a greater extent, ceramide synthase-6 expression. GST-MDA-7 killing was, in parallel, dependent on inactivation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 and on CD95-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase-1/2 signaling. Knockdown of CD95 expression abolished GST-MDA-7–induced phosphorylation of protein kinase R–like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. GST-MDA-7 lethality was suppressed by knockout or expression of a dominant negative protein kinase R–like endoplasmic reticulum kinase that correlated with reduced c-jun NH2-terminal kinase-1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and maintained extracellular signal–regulated kinase-1/2 phosphorylation. GST-MDA-7 caused vacuolization of LC3 through a mechanism that was largely CD95 dependent and whose formation was suppressed by knockdown of ATG5 expression. Knockdown of ATG5 suppressed GST-MDA-7 toxicity. Our data show that in kidney cancer cells GST-MDA-7 induces ceramide-dependent activation of CD95, which is causal in promoting an endoplasmic reticulum stress response that activates multiple proapoptotic pathways to decrease survival.
Previous studies have revealed altered expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-family members and their endogenous inhibitor leucine-rich and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we analyzed the gene expression levels of EGFR-family members and LRIG1, and their possible associations with clinical parameters in various types of RCC.
Gene expression levels of EGFR–family members and LRIG1 were analyzed in 104 RCC samples, including 81 clear cell RCC (ccRCC), 15 papillary RCC (pRCC), and 7 chromophobe RCC (chRCC) by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Associations between gene expression levels and clinical data, including tumor grade, stage, and patient survival were statistically assessed.
Compared to kidney cortex, EGFR was up-regulated in ccRCC and pRCC, LRIG1 and ERBB2 were down-regulated in ccRCC, and ERBB4 was strongly down-regulated in all RCC types. ERBB3 expression did not differ between RCC types or between RCC and the kidney cortex. The expression of the analyzed genes did not correlate with patient outcome.
This study revealed that the previously described up-regulation of EGFR and down-regulation of ERBB4 occurred in all analyzed RCC types, whereas down-regulation of ERBB2 and LRIG1 was only present in ccRCC. These observations illustrate the need to evaluate the different RCC types individually when analyzing molecules of interest and potential biological markers.
Renal cell carcinoma; EGFR; ERBB2; ERBB3; ERRB4; LRIG1; Survival
Infections with RNA viruses are sensed by the innate immune system through membrane-bound Toll-like receptors or the cytoplasmic RNA helicases RIG-I and MDA-5. It is believed that MDA-5 is crucial for sensing infections by picornaviruses, but there have been no studies on the role of this protein during infection with poliovirus, the prototypic picornavirus. Beginning at 4 h postinfection, MDA-5 protein is degraded in poliovirus-infected cells. Levels of MDA-5 declined beginning at 6 h after infection with rhinovirus type 1a or encephalomyocarditis virus, but the protein was stable in cells infected with rhinovirus type 16 or echovirus type 1. Cleavage of MDA-5 is not carried out by either poliovirus proteinase 2Apro or 3Cpro. Instead, degradation of MDA-5 in poliovirus-infected cells occurs in a proteasome- and caspase-dependent manner. Degradation of MDA-5 during poliovirus infection correlates with cleavage of poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP), a hallmark of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by puromycin leads to cleavage of both PARP and MDA-5. The MDA-5 cleavage product observed in cells treated with puromycin is ∼90 kDa, similar in size to the putative cleavage product observed in poliovirus-infected cells. Poliovirus-induced cleavage of MDA-5 may be a mechanism to antagonize production of type I interferon in response to viral infection.
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has the highest mortality rate of the genitourinary cancers and the incidence of RCC has risen steadily. If detected early, RCC is curable by surgery although a minority are at risk of recurrence. Increasing incidental detection and an ageing population has led to active surveillance as an option for patients with small renal masses. RCC is heterogeneous and comprises several histological cell types with different genetics, biology and behavior. The identification of the genes predisposing to inherited syndromes with RCC has provided much of our knowledge of the molecular basis of early sporadic RCC. Many of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are mutated leading to pathway dysregulation in RCC remain to be elucidated. Global studies of copy number, gene sequencing, gene expression, miRNA expression and gene methylation in primary RCC will lead towards this goal. The natural history of RCC indicated by candidate precursor lesions, multifocal or bilateral disease, growth rate of small renal masses under surveillance, and high risk populations provide insight into the behavior of this disease. The use of molecular markers for early detection and prognosis merits more attention with ongoing advances in omics technologies. This review focuses on early RCC, that is disease confined within the renal capsule.
RCC; Genetics; Epigenetics; Natural history
Adenovirus (Ad) entry into cells is initiated by the binding of the fiber knob to a cell surface receptor. The coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) functions as the attachment receptor for many, but not all, Ad serotypes. Ad type 37 (Ad37), a subgroup D virus that causes keratoconjunctivitis in humans, does not infect cells via CAR despite demonstrated binding of the Ad37 knob to CAR. We have pseudotyped a fiber deletion Ad5 vector with the Ad37 fiber (Ad37f), and this vector retains the ocular tropism of Ad37. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of Ad37f that shows the entire Ad37 fiber, including the shaft and knob domains. We have previously proposed that Ad37 may not utilize CAR for cell entry because of the geometric constraints imposed by a rigid fiber (E. Wu, J. Fernandez, S. K. Fleck, D. Von Seggern, S. Huang, and G. R. Nemerow, Virology 279:78–89, 2001). Consistent with this hypothesis, our structural results show that the Ad37 fiber is straight and rigid. Modeling of the interaction between Ad37f and host cell receptors indicates that fiber flexibility or rigidity, as well as length, can affect receptor usage and cellular tropism.
Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) frequently express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) stimulates tumor cell proliferation and neoangiogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) comprise an important cellular component of these tumors. We analyzed the GRP/GRP-R network in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and non-clear cell RCC (non-ccRCC) with special regard to its expression by macrophages, tumor cells and microvessels.
Gastrin-releasing peptide and GRP-R expression in 17 ccRCC and 9 non-ccRCC were analyzed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence staining.
Tumor-associated macrophages expressed GRP and GRP receptor in ccRCC. Tumor cells and microvessels showed low to intermediate GRP-R expression in nearly all cases. In 12 ccRCC tumor epithelia also expressed low levels of GRP. Microvascular GRP expression was found in nine cases of ccRCC. For non-RCC, the expression of GRP and GRP receptor expression pattern was similar.
Tumor-associated macrophages are the main source of GRP in RCC. GRP receptor on TAM, tumor epithelia and microvessels might be a molecular base of a GRP/GRP receptor network, potentially acting as a paracrine/autocrine modulator of TAM recruitment, tumor growth and neoangiogenesis.
Tumor-associated macrophages; Renal cell carcinoma; Gastrin-releasing peptide; Growth factor
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). ChRCC is diagnosed mainly in 6th decade of life. An incidence of ChRCC is similar in both men and woman. Eighty six percent of ChRCCs cases are diagnosed in stage 1 or 2. Prognosis of ChRCC is better than in other types of RCC. Five- and 10-year disease free survival (DFS) for ChRCC was 83.9% and 77.9%, respectively. Expression of immunohistological markers: cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CD10 could be potentially helpful in diagnosis of different subtypes of RCC. From all conventional RCC, CD 117 was detected (overexpression) in membrane of cells ChRCC.
Overexpression of CD117 on cellular membranes of ChRCC could be a potential target for kinase inhibitors like: imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib. The potential targets for other kinase inhibitors (sunitinib and sorafenib) in ChRCC seem to be VEGFR and PDGFR. On the basis for formulating research hypotheses which should be verified by prospective studies.
The adenovirus fiber protein is used for attachment of the virus to a specific receptor on the cell surface. Structurally, the protein consists of a long, thin shaft that protrudes from the vertex of the virus capsid and terminates in a globular domain termed the knob. To verify that the knob is the domain which interacts with the cellular receptor, we have cloned and expressed the knob from adenovirus type 5 together with a single repeat of the shaft in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified by conventional chromatography and functionally characterized for its interaction with the adenovirus receptor. The recombinant knob domain bound about 4,700 sites per HeLa cell with an affinity of 3 x 10(9) M-1 and blocked adenovirus infection of human cells. Antibodies raised against the knob also blocked virus infection. By gel filtration and X-ray diffraction analysis of protein crystals, the knob was shown to consist of a homotrimer of 21-kDa subunits. The results confirm that the trimeric knob is the ligand for attachment to the adenovirus receptor.
Chickens lack the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and sense avian influenza virus (AIV) infections by means of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 product (chMDA5). Plasmid-driven expression of the N-terminal half of chMDA5 containing the caspase activation and recruitment domains [chMDA5(1-483)] triggers interferon-β responses in chicken cells. We hypothesized that mimicking virus infection by chMDA5(1-483) expression may enhance vaccine-induced adaptive immunity. In order to test this, the potential genetic adjuvant properties of chMDA5(1-483) were evaluated in vivo in combination with a suboptimal quantity of a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing haemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 AIV. Co-administration of the HA plasmid with plasmid DNA for chMDA5(1-483) expression resulted in approximately 10-fold higher HA-specific antibody responses than injection of the HA plasmid mixed with empty vector DNA as control. Accordingly, compared with HA DNA vaccination alone, the chMDA5(1-483)-adjuvanted HA DNA vaccine mediated enhanced protection against a lethal H5N1 challenge infection in chickens, with reduced clinical signs and cloacal virus shedding. These data demonstrate that innate immune activation by expression of signaling domains of RIG-I-like receptors can be exploited to enhance vaccine efficacy.
The RNA helicases encoded by melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda-5) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) detect foreign cytoplasmic RNA molecules generated during the course of a virus infection, and their activation leads to induction of type I interferon synthesis. Paramyxoviruses limit the amount of interferon produced by infected cells through the action of their V protein, which binds to and inhibits mda-5. Here we show that activation of both mda-5 and RIG-I by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) leads to the formation of homo-oligomers through self-association of the helicase domains. We identify a region within the helicase domain of mda-5 that is targeted by all paramyxovirus V proteins and demonstrate that they inhibit activation of mda-5 by blocking dsRNA binding and consequent self-association. In addition to this commonly targeted domain, some paramyxovirus V proteins target additional regions of mda-5. In contrast, V proteins cannot bind to RIG-I and consequently have no effect on the ability of RIG-I to bind dsRNA or to form oligomers.
The present studies focused on determining whether the autophagy-inducing drug OSU-03012 (AR-12) could enhance the toxicity of recombinant adenoviral delivery of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. The toxicity of a recombinant adenovirus to express MDA-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) was enhanced by OSU-03012 in a diverse panel of primary human GBM cells. The enhanced toxicity correlated with reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of MCL-1 and BCL-XL, and was blocked by molecular activation of ERK1/2 and by inhibition of the intrinsic, but not the extrinsic, apoptosis pathway. Both OSU-03012 and expression of MDA-7/IL-24 increased phosphorylation of PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) that correlated with increased levels of autophagy and expression of dominant negative PERK blocked autophagy induction and tumor cell death. Knockdown of ATG5 or Beclin1 suppressed OSU-03012 enhanced MDA-7/IL-24-induced autophagy and blocked the lethal interaction between the two agents. Ad.mda-7-infected GBM cells secreted MDA-7/IL-24 into the growth media and this conditioned media induced expression of MDA-7/IL-24 in uninfected GBM cells. OSU-03012 interacted with conditioned media to kill GBM cells and knockdown of MDA-7/IL-24 in these cells suppressed tumor cell killing. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the induction of autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction by a combinatorial treatment approach represents a potentially viable strategy to kill primary human GBM cells.
ROS; caspase; ER stress; CD95; cell death
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), a unique member of the IL-10 gene family, displays a broad range of antitumor properties including cancer-specific induction of apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and modulation of anti-tumor immune responses. Here we identify clusterin (CLU) as a MDA-7/IL-24 interacting protein in DU-145 cells and investigate the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in regulating CLU expression and mediating the antitumor properties of mda-7/IL-24 in prostate cancer. Ad.mda-7 decreased expression of soluble CLU (sCLU) and increased expression of nuclear CLU (nCLU). In the initial phase of Ad.mda-7 infection sCLU expression increased and CLU interacted with MDA-7/IL-24 producing a cytoprotective effect. Infection of stable clones of DU-145 prostate cancer cells expressing sCLU with Ad.mda-7 resulted in generation of nCLU that correlated with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. In the presence of mda-7/IL-24, sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed G2/M phase arrest followed by apoptosis. Similarly, Ad.mda-7 infection decreased cell migration by altering cytoskeleton in sCLU-DU-145 cells. Ad.mda-7-treated sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed a significant reduction in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models and reduced angiogenesis when compared to the vector control group. Tumor tissue lysates demonstrated enhanced nCLU generated from sCLU with increased apoptosis in the presence of MDA-7/IL-24. Our findings reveal novel aspects relative to the role of sCLU/nCLU in regulating the anticancer properties of MDA-7/IL-24 that may be exploited for developing enhanced therapies for prostate cancer.
MDA-7/IL-24; soluble clusterin; nuclear clusterin; G2/M arrest; apoptosis
The transduction efficacy of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector in human renal carcinoma cells is generally low due to the down-regulated expression of Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in target cells. By contrast, the infectivity of adenovirus serotype 35 vectors depends on the binding rate to CD46 receptor, independent of CAR. In this study, we examined whether an adenovirus vector containing chimeric type 5 and type 35 fiber proteins (Ad5/F35) increases transduction efficiency compared to Ad5 vector in human renal carcinoma cells in vitro. The expression of CAR was much lower in the human renal carcinoma cells than in control HEK293 cells. By contrast, the expression of CD46 was similar and perhaps at a higher level in the human renal carcinoma cells than in the HEK293 cells. The transduction efficacy of Ad5/F35 vector was dramatically higher compared to that of Ad5 in human renal carcinoma cells, and was correlated to the expression of CD46. Thus, Ad5/35 vector may be useful for the development of novel gene therapy approaches to renal cell carcinoma.
adenovirus vector; transduction efficacy; adenovirus serotype 5/35 vector; renal cell carcinoma
Loss of function in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene occurs in familial and most sporadic renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). VHL has been linked to the regulation of cell cycle cessation (G0) and to control of expression of various mRNAs such as for vascular endothelial growth factor. RCC cells express the Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and Met mediates invasion and branching morphogenesis in many cell types in response to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We examined the HGF/SF responsiveness of RCC cells containing endogenous mutated (mut) forms of the VHL protein (VHL-negative RCC) with that of isogenic cells expressing exogenous wild-type (wt) VHL (VHL-positive RCC). We found that VHL-negative 786-0 and UOK-101 RCC cells were highly invasive through growth factor-reduced (GFR) Matrigel-coated filters and exhibited an extensive branching morphogenesis phenotype in response to HGF/SF in the three-dimensional (3D) GFR Matrigel cultures. In contrast, the phenotypes of A498 VHL-negative RCC cells were weaker, and isogenic RCC cells ectopically expressing wt VHL did not respond at all. We found that all VHL-negative RCC cells expressed reduced levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) relative to the wt VHL-positive cells, implicating VHL in the regulation of this molecule. However, consistent with the more invasive phenotype of the 786-0 and UOK-101 VHL-negative RCC cells, the levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were reduced and levels of the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were elevated compared to the noninvasive VHL-positive RCC cells. Moreover, recombinant TIMPs completely blocked HGF/SF-mediated branching morphogenesis, while neutralizing antibodies to the TIMPs stimulated HGF/SF-mediated invasion in vitro. Thus, the loss of the VHL tumor suppressor gene is central to changes that control tissue invasiveness, and a more invasive phenotype requires additional genetic changes seen in some but not all RCC lines. These studies also demonstrate a synergy between the loss of VHL function and Met signaling.
The adenovirus (Ad) fiber protein mediates Ad binding to the coxsackievirus and Ad receptor (CAR) and is thus a major determinant of viral tropism. The fiber contains three domains: an N-terminal tail that anchors the fiber to the viral capsid, a central shaft region of variable length and flexibility, and a C-terminal knob domain that binds to cell receptors. Ad type 37 (Ad37), a subgroup D virus associated with severe ocular infections, is unable to use CAR efficiently to infect host cells, despite containing a CAR binding site in its fiber knob. We hypothesized that the relatively short, inflexible Ad37 fiber protein restricts interactions with CAR at the cell surface. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the infectivity and binding of recombinant Ad particles containing modified Ad37 or Ad5 fiber proteins. Ad5 particles equipped with a truncated Ad5 fiber or with a chimeric fiber protein comprised of the Ad5 knob fused to the short, rigid Ad37 shaft domain had significantly reduced infectivity and attachment. In contrast, placing the Ad37 knob onto the long, flexible Ad5 shaft allowed CAR-dependent virus infection and cell attachment, demonstrating the importance of the shaft domain in receptor usage. Increasing fiber rigidity by substituting the predicted flexibility modules in the Ad5 shaft with the corresponding regions of the rigid Ad37 fiber dramatically reduced both virus infection and cell attachment. Cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) single-particle analysis demonstrated the increased rigidity of this chimeric fiber. These studies demonstrate that both length and flexibility of the fiber shaft regulate CAR interaction and provide a molecular explanation for the use of alternative receptors by subgroup D Ad with ocular tropism. We present a molecular model for Ad-CAR interactions at the cell surface that explains the significance of fiber flexibility in cell attachment.
Management of various tumor metastases to bone has dramatically improved, but this is not so for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is a difficult surgical problem due to its great vascularity. Furthermore, the unique mechanisms that mediate RCC vasculogenesis in bone remain unknown. To understand this process we developed a xenograft model that recapitulates highly vascular RCC vs. less vascular tumors that metastasize to bone. Human tumor cell lines of RCC (786-O), prostate cancer (PC3), lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MDA-MB231) and melanoma (A375) were transfected with firefly luciferase (Luc), injected into the tibiae of nude mice, and differences in growth, osteolysis and vascularity were assessed by longitudinal bioluminescent imaging (BLI), micro-CT for measurement of calcified tissues and vascularity and histology. The results showed that while RCC-Luc has reduced growth and osteolytic potential vs. the other tumor lines, it displayed a significant increase in vascular volume (p<0.05). This expansion was due to 3- and 5-fold increases in small and large vessel numbers respectively. In vitro gene expression profiling revealed that RCC-Luc expresses significantly (p<0.05) more vegf-a (10-fold) and 20-30-fold less ang-1 vs. the other lines. These data demonstrate the utility of this model to study the unique vasculogenic properties of RCC bone metastases.
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC); vasculogenesis; bone metastasis; xenograft
Renal cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence but the molecular mechanisms regulating its growth remain elusive. Co-expression of the monocytic growth factor CSF-1 and its receptor CSF-1R on renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) will promote proliferation and anti-apoptosis during regeneration of renal tubules. Here we show that a CSF-1-dependent autocrine pathway is also responsible for the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CSF-1 and CSF-1R were co-expressed in RCC and TEC proximally adjacent to RCC. CSF-1 engagement of CSF-1R promoted RCC survival and proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in support of the likelihood that CSF-1R effector signals mediate RCC growth. In vivo CSF-1R blockade using a CSF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreased RCC proliferation and macrophage infiltration in a manner associated with a dramatic reduction in tumor mass. Further mechanistic investigations linked CSF-1 and EGF signaling in RCC. Taken together, our results suggest that budding RCC stimulates the proximal adjacent microenvironment in the kidney to release mediators of CSF-1, CSF-1R and EGF expression in RCC. Further, our findings imply that targeting CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling may be therapeutically effective in RCC.
Tubular epithelial cells; Macrophages; Renal carcinoma; CSF-1R; CSF-1
The initial recognition and binding of adenovirus vector to the host cell surface is mediated by interaction between the adenovirus fiber knob protein and its receptor, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). This natural tropism of adenovirus vector needs to be ablated in order to achieve targeted gene transfer. To this end, we noted that adenovirus serotype 40 (Ad40) contains two distinct long and short fibers; the short fiber is unable to recognize CAR, while the long fiber binds CAR. We generated adenovirus serotype 5-based mutants with chimeric Ad40-derived fibers, which were composed of either long or short shafts together with CAR binding or nonbinding knobs. The capacity of these adenovirus mutants for in vitro and in vivo gene transfer to liver cells was examined. In the case of primary human hepatocytes displaying a high expression level of CAR and αv integrin, both CAR binding ability and fiber shaft length played important roles in efficient transduction. Most significantly, the high transduction efficiency observed in the liver and spleen following intravenous administration of adenovirus vector was dramatically reduced by both ablation of fiber-CAR interaction and the use of replaceable short fiber. In other tissues displaying a low level of transduction, no significant differences in transduction efficiency were observed among adenovirus vector mutants. Furthermore, incorporation of a 7-lysine-residue motif at the C-terminal end of CAR-nonbinding short fiber efficiently achieved transduction of target cells via the heparan-containing receptor. Our results demonstrated that the natural tropism of adenovirus in vivo is influenced not only by fiber-CAR interaction but also by fiber shaft length. Furthermore, our strategy may be useful for retargeting adenovirus to particular tumors and tissue types with specific receptors.
The innate immune system senses RNA virus infections through membrane-bound Toll-like receptors or the cytoplasmic proteins RIG-I and MDA-5. RIG-I is believed to recognize the 5′-triphosphate present on many viral RNAs, and hence is important for sensing infections by paramyxoviruses, influenza viruses, rhabdoviruses, and flaviviruses. MDA-5 recognizes dsRNA, and senses infection with picornaviruses, whose RNA 5′-ends are linked to a viral protein, VPg, not a 5′-triphosphate. We previously showed that MDA-5 is degraded in cells infected with different picornaviruses, and suggested that such cleavage might be a mechanism to antagonize production of type I IFN in response to viral infection. Here we examined the state of RIG-I during picornavirus infection. RIG-I is degraded in cells infected with poliovirus, rhinoviruses, echovirus, and encephalomyocarditis virus. In contrast to MDA-5, cleavage of RIG-I is not accomplished by cellular caspases or the proteasome. Rather, the viral proteinase 3Cpro cleaves RIG-I, both in vitro and in cells. Cleavage of RIG-I during picornavirus infection may constitute another mechanism for attenuating the innate response to viral infection.
poliovirus; picornavirus; innate immunity; interferon; pathogenesis
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single entity, but comprises a group of tumors including clear cell RCC, papillary RCC and chromophobe RCC, which arise from the epithelium of renal tubules. The majority of clear cell RCCs, the major histological subtype, have genetic or epigenetic inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Germline mutations in the MET and fumarate hydratase (FH) genes lead to the development of type 1 and type 2 papillary RCCs, respectively, and such mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene increase the risk of RCC. Genome-wide copy number alteration analysis has suggested that loss of chromosome 3p and gain of chromosomes 5q and 7 may be copy number aberrations indispensable for the development of clear cell RCC. When chromosome 1p, 4, 9, 13q or 14q is also lost, more clinicopathologically aggressive clear cell RCC may develop. Since renal carcinogenesis is associated with neither chronic inflammation nor persistent viral infection, and hardly any histological change is evident in corresponding non-tumorous renal tissue from patients with renal tumors, precancerous conditions in the kidney have been rarely described. However, regional DNA hypermethylation on C-type CpG islands has already accumulated in such non-cancerous renal tissues, suggesting that, from the viewpoint of altered DNA methylation, the presence of precancerous conditions can be recognized even in the kidney. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in precancerous conditions are basically inherited by the corresponding clear cell RCCs developing in individual patients: DNA methylation alterations at the precancerous stage may further predispose renal tissue to epigenetic and genetic alterations, generate more malignant cancers, and even determine patient outcome. The list of tumor-related genes silenced by DNA hypermethylation has recently been increasing. Genetic and epigenetic profiling provides an optimal means of prognostication for patients with RCCs. Recently developed high-throughput technologies for genetic and epigenetic analyses will further accelerate the identification of key molecules for use in the prevention, diagnosis and therapy of RCCs.
Renal cell carcinoma; copy number alteration; DNA methylation; precancerous condition; prognostication
Infection of dendritic and glial cells with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces various cytokines via Toll-like receptor- and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-dependent pathways. However, the involvement and role of MDA5 in cytokine gene activation and the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that MDA5 plays a critical role in the production of TMEV-induced alpha interferon (IFN-α) during early viral infection and in protection against the development of virus-induced demyelinating disease. Our results indicate that MDA5-deficient 129SvJ mice display significantly higher viral loads and apparent demyelinating lesions in the central nerve system (CNS) accompanied by clinical symptoms compared with wild-type 129SvJ mice. During acute viral infection, MDA5-deficient mice produced elevated levels of chemokines, consistent with increased cellular infiltration, but reduced levels of IFN-α, known to control T cell responses and cellular infiltration. Additional studies with isolated CNS glial cells from these mice suggest that cells from MDA5-deficient mice are severely compromised in the production of IFN-α upon viral infection, which results in increased cellular infiltration and viral loads in the CNS. Despite inadequate stimulation, the overall T cell responses to the viral determinants were significantly elevated in MDA5-deficient mice, reflecting the increased cellular infiltration. Therefore, the lack of MDA5-mediated IFN-α production may facilitate a massive viral load and elevated cellular infiltration in the CNS during early viral infection, leading to the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease.
We developed several adenoviral vectors designed to target MDA-7 expression to different subcellular compartments (ie, ER, mitochondria, nucleus, and cytosol) and evaluated their ability to enhance apoptosis. Adenoviral ER-targeted mda-7/IL-24 vector (Ad-ER-mda7) selectively and effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of lung (A549 and H1299) and esophageal (Seg1 and Bic1) cancer cells by enhancing cell killing. Both Ad-mda7 and Ad-ER-mda7 activated a novel pathway of ER stress-induced apoptosis characterized by unregulated expression of phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), phosphorylated cJun (p-cJun), and phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase (p-PKR). Caspase-4 activation mediated Ad-mda7- and Ad-ER-mda7-induced cell death. In addition, Ad-mda7- and Ad-ER-mda7-mediated growth inhibition correlated with activation of ER molecular markers PKR and JNK both in vitro (in Ad-mda7- or Ad-ER-mda7-treated lung cancer cells) and in vivo. These findings suggest that vectors targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (Ad-ER-mda7) may be more effective in cancer gene therapy possibly through more effective induction or ER stress pathways.
Apoptosis; MDA-7; adenovirus; gene therapy