The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
The feasibility and effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) were evaluated in children younger than 3 yr of age with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Tandem HDCT/autoSCT was administered following six cycles of induction chemotherapy. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered if the tumor relapsed or progressed, otherwise, it was administered after 3 yr of age. Tumors relapsed or progressed during induction chemotherapy in 5 of 9 patients enrolled; 3 of these 5 received tandem HDCT/autoSCT as a salvage treatment. One patient died from sepsis during induction chemotherapy. The remaining 3 patients proceeded to tandem HDCT/autoSCT; however, 2 of these patients showed tumor relapse/progression after tandem HDCT/autoSCT. All 7 relapses/progressions occurred at primary sites even in patients with leptomeningeal seeding. Toxicities during tandem HDCT/autoSCT were manageable. A total of 5 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 20 (range 16-70) months from diagnosis. Four of 5 patients who received RT after relapse/progression are alive. The probability of overall survival at 3 yr from diagnosis was 53.3% ± 17.3%. Our tandem HDCT/autoSCT is feasible; however, early administration of RT prior to tandem HDCT/autoSCT should be considered to improve the outcome after tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
Rhabdoid Tumor; Central Nervous System; Drug Therapy; Stem Cell Transplantation; Radiotherapy; Child
Although high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) have improved the prognosis for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (NB), event-free survival rates remain in the range of 30 to 40%, which is unsatisfactory. To further improve outcomes, several clinical trials, including tandem HDCT/autoSCT, high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment, and immunotherapy with NB specific antibody, have been undertaken and pilot studies have reported encouraging results. Nonetheless, about half of high-risk NB patients still experience treatment failure and have no realistic chance for cure with conventional treatment options alone after relapse. Therefore, a new modality of treatment is warranted for these patients. In recent years, several groups of investigators have examined the feasibility and effectiveness of reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RI alloSCT) for the treatment of relapsed/progressed NB. Although a graft-versus-tumor effect has not yet been convincingly demonstrated in the setting of relapsed NB, the strategy of employing RI alloSCT has provided hope that treatment-related mortality will be reduced and a therapeutic benefit will emerge. However, alloSCT for NB is still investigational and there remain many issues to be elucidated in many areas. At present, alloSCT is reserved for specific clinical trials testing the immunomodulatory effect against NB.
Neuroblastoma; High-dose chemotherapy; Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Transformed non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (TL) arising from follicular lymphoma carries a poor prognosis and the median survival time after transformation is approximately 10-12 months. Standard chemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy have offered promising responses however; the duration of response does not appear to last long. Several studies evaluating the role of autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) as a salvage regimen have been reported and a subset of patients benefit from this modality of treatment. With an improvement in supportive care, outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has been improved significantly over past decades, however very limited data are available in TL. In the era of emerging novel therapies, the actual timing, optimal conditioning regimens and long term impact of the type of stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT vs. allo-SCT) is unclear. This review addresses the approaches to the management of patients with TL.
Transformed lymphoma; autologous stem cell transplant; allogeneic stem cell transplant; radioimmunotherapy
Despite the favorable prognosis of most patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL), 15–20% of patients remain refractory to chemoradiotherapy, and 20–40% experience relapses following autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) being used as salvage approach in this situation. Long-term survival of only 20% was reported for patients who failed this option. As some authors suggested the presence of a graft versus HL effect, allogeneic SCT was introduced as a further option. Myeloablative strategies were reported to be able to achieve cure in some younger patients, but high nonrelapse mortality remains a problem. Reduced intensity conditioning, in turn, was found to be associated with high posttransplant relapse rates. As there is currently no standard in the management of HL patients who failed autologous SCT, we here review the literature on allogeneic stem cell transplantation in HL patients with a special focus on the outcomes and risk factors being reported in the largest studies.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC SCT) has the potential to lead to long-term remissions for patients with lymphoma. However, the role of RIC SCT in the treatment of lymphoma is still unclear. Specifically, the relative benefit of RIC SCT across lymphoma histologies and the prognostic factors in this population are incompletely defined. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 87 patients with advanced lymphoma who underwent RIC SCT at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute over a 6-year period with a homogeneous conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine and low-dose busulfan. Thirty-six patients had Hodgkin disease (HD) and 51 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Sixty-eight percent had undergone prior autologous transplantation. The 1-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 13%, and the 3-year cumulative incidence of progression was 49%. The incidence of grade 3–4 acute GVHD was 11%. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 68%, and its development was associated with a decreased risk of progression and an improved progression-free survival. Three-year overall survival (OS) was 56% for patients with HD, 81% for indolent NHL, 42% for aggressive NHL, and 40% for mantle cell lymphoma. The corresponding figures for 3-year PFS were 22%, 59%, 22%, and 30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified elevated pre-transplantation LDH as an adverse factor for PFS, while indolent NHL histology was favorable. For OS, advanced age and elevated pre-transplantation LDH were adverse factors, while indolent NHL histology was favorable. Low early donor chimerism was not predictive of poor outcome in univariate or multivariate analyses. Moreover, progression was not associated with loss of chimerism. These results emphasize the importance of lymphoma histology for patients undergoing RIC SCT, as well as the lack of relevance of donor chimerism for outcome in this patient population.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) associated with poor progression-free and overall survival. There is a high relapse rate with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Intensive combination chemotherapy including rituximab, dose intense CHOP- (cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone) like regimens, high dose cytarabine, and/or consolidation with autologous stem cell transplant (autoSCT) have shown promise in significantly prolonging remissions. Data from phase II studies show that even in patients with chemotherapy refractory MCL, allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) can lead to long term disease control. Most patients with MCL are not candidates for myeloablative alloSCT due to their age, comorbidities, and performance status. The advent of less toxic reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, which rely more on the graft-versus-lymphoma (GVL) effect, have expanded the population of patients who would be eligible for alloSCT. RIC regimens alter the balance of toxicity and efficacy favoring its use. Treatment decisions are complicated by introduction of novel agents which are attractive options for older, frail patients. Further studies are needed to determine the role and timing of alloSCT in MCL. Currently, for selected fit patients with chemotherapy resistant MCL or those who progress after autoSCT, alloSCT may provide long term survival.
mantle cell lymphoma; allogeneic SCT; nonmyeloablative; GVL
Hodgkin's lymphoma has high rates of cure, but in 15% to 20% of general patients and between 35% and 40% of those in advanced stages, the disease will progress or will relapse after initial treatment. For this group, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered one option of salvage therapy.
To evaluate a group of 106 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who suffered relapse or who were refractory to treatment, submitted to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single transplant center.
A retrospective study was performed with data collected from patient charts. The analysis involved 106 classical Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who were consecutively submitted to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplants in a single institution from April 1993 to December 2006.
The overall survival rates of this population at five and ten years were 86% and 70%, respectively. The disease-free survival was approximately 60% at five years. Four patients died of procedure-related causes but relapse of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma after transplant was the most frequent cause of death. Univariate analysis shows that sensitivity to pre-transplant treatment and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL at diagnosis had an impact on patient survival. Unlike other studies, B-type symptoms did not seem to affect overall survival. Lactic dehydrogenase and serum albumin concentrations analyzed at diagnosis did not influence patient survival either.
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment strategy for early and late relapse in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma for cases that were responsive to pre-transplant chemotherapy. Refractory to treatment is a sign of worse prognosis. Additionally, a hemoglobin concentration below 10 g/dL at diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma has a negative impact on the survival of patients after transplant. As far as we know this relationship has not been previously reported.
Hodgkin's lymphoma; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Autologous transplantation; Doxorubicin; Bleomycynm; Vinblastine; Dacarbazine; Study retrospective
Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma are usually cured by primary therapy using chemotherapy alone or combined modality therapy with external beam radiation. Patients who do not experience a complete remission or those who experience relapse may by salvaged by high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Success of this approach is largely dependent on the tumor being sensitive to salvage chemotherapy before transplant. More studies are showing the predictive value of functional imaging in this setting. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has greater risk of nonrelapse mortality and is generally reserved for patients who experience relapse post-ASCT, but may provide long-term survival for some patients through graft-versus-tumor immune effects.
Hodgkin lymphoma; autologous; allogeneic; transplantation
Multiple RBC transfusions inevitably lead to a state of iron overload before and after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT). Nonetheless, iron status during post-SCT follow-up remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated post-SCT ferritin levels, factors contributing to its sustained levels, and organ functions affected by iron overload in 49 children with high-risk neuroblastoma who underwent tandem HDCT/autoSCT. Although serum ferritin levels gradually decreased during post-SCT follow-up, 47.7% of the patients maintained ferritin levels above 1,000 ng/mL at 1 yr after the second HDCT/autoSCT. These patients had higher serum creatinine (0.62 vs 0.47 mg/mL, P = 0.007) than their counterparts (< 1,000 ng/mL). Post-SCT transfusion amount corresponded to increased ferritin levels at 1 yr after the second HDCT/autoSCT (P < 0.001). A lower CD34+ cell count was associated with a greater need of RBC transfusion, which in turn led to a higher serum ferritin level at 1 yr after HDCT/autoSCT. The number of CD34+ cells transplanted was an independent factor for ferritin levels at 1 yr after the second HDCT/autoSCT (P = 0.019). Consequently, CD34+ cells should be transplanted as many as possible to prevent the sustained iron overload after tandem HDCT/autoSCT and consequent adverse effects.
High-Dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation; Iron Overload; Deferasirox; Iron Chelation Treatment; Neuroblastoma
The management of patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma is discussed and several newer agents showing clinical promise are discussed.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is diagnosed in 20,000 men and women annually in North America and Europe. Despite treatment advancements for HL resulting in an overall survival rate of 80%, patients with advanced stage disease continue to have suboptimal outcomes, with relapse rates of 30%–40%. An additional 10%–15% of patients present with primary refractory disease. For patients who relapse after initial treatment, salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplant in those with chemotherapy-sensitive disease is the standard of care. Patients who relapse after second-line therapy have a median survival time in the range of 6–36 months, and the optimal management of these patients remains unclear. Unfortunately, there have been no new agents approved for relapsed HL treatment since the 1970s. Consequently, clinical decision making in this population is difficult. Recently however, several agents have emerged that have shown clinical promise in this poor-risk population. This review discusses the management of these patients and also discusses several newer agents showing clinical promise in the treatment of HL.
Up to 40% of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) become refractory or relapsed after current standard chemotherapy, among which primary refractory HL confers a particularly poor outcome. With intensive salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, the long-term remission rate for these patients was only 30%, but more selective treatments with higher therapeutic index are needed. We report the experience of using a new anti-CD30 immunotoxin, brentuximab vedotin, in salvage treatment of a 30-year-old woman with primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient presented with SVC syndrome due to the bulky mediastinal tumor and was confirmed to have classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type, stage IIIA. The tumor responded to induction chemotherapy transiently, but local progression was noted during subsequent cycles of treatment. Salvage radiotherapy to the mediastinal tumor, obtained no remission but was followed by rapid in-field progression and then lung metastasis. She declined stem cell transplantation and received salvage brentuximab vedotin (BV) therapy, which induced dramatic shrinkage of tumor without significant side effects. Serial followup of PET/CT imaging confirmed a rapid and continuous complete remission for 12 months. Although durability of the remission needs further observation, this case illustrates the excellent efficacy of brentuximab vedotin in primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.
New developments in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation are summarized including modern prognostic markers, the role of functional imaging, the role of newer drugs, different conditioning regimens, and maintenance therapy.
Despite the relatively high long-term disease-free survival (DFS) rate for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with modern combination chemotherapy or combined modality regimens, ∼20% of patients die from progressive or relapsed disease. The standard treatment for relapsed and primary refractory HL is salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), which has shown a 5-year progression-free survival rate of ∼50%–60%. Recent developments in a number of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have begun to improve these results. Functional imaging, refinement of clinical prognostic factors, and development of novel biomarkers have improved the predictive algorithms, allowing better patient selection and timing for ASCT. In addition, these algorithms have begun to identify a group of patients who are candidates for more aggressive treatment beyond standard ASCT. Novel salvage regimens may potentially improve the rate of complete remission prior to ASCT, and the use of maintenance therapy after ASCT has become a subject of current investigation. We present a summary of developments in each of these areas.
Autologous stem cell transplant; Hodgkin's lymphoma; High-dose chemotherapy
We assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of reduced-dose craniospinal (CS) radiotherapy (RT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) in reducing late adverse effects without jeopardizing survival among children with high-risk medulloblastoma (MB).
From October 2005 through September 2010, twenty consecutive children aged >3 years with high-risk MB (presence of metastasis and/or postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2) were assigned to receive 2 cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy, CSRT (23.4 or 30.6 Gy) combined with local RT to the primary site (total 54.0 Gy), and 4 cycles of post-RT chemotherapy followed by tandem HDCT/autoSCT. Carboplatin-thiotepa-etoposide and cyclophosphamide-melphalan regimens were used for the first and second HDCT, respectively.
Of 20 patients with high-risk MB, 17 had metastatic disease and 3 had a postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2 without metastasis. The tumor relapsed/progressed in 4 patients, and 2 patients died of toxicities during the second HDCT/autoSCT. Therefore, 14 patients remained event-free at a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 23−82) from diagnosis. The probability of 5-year event-free survival was 70.0% ± 10.3% for all patients and 70.6% ± 11.1% for patients with metastases. Late adverse effects evaluated at a median of 36 months (range, 12−68) after tandem HDCT/autoSCT were acceptable.
In children with high-risk MB, CSRT dose might be reduced when accompanied by tandem HDCT/autoSCT without jeopardizing survival. However, longer follow-up is needed to evaluate whether the benefits of reduced-dose CSRT outweigh the long-term risks of tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
autologous stem cell transplantation; high-dose chemotherapy; late effect; medulloblastoma; radiotherapy
Background. Dose-dependent response makes certain pediatric brain tumors appropriate targets for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue (HDCT-AHSCR). Methods. The clinical outcomes and toxicities were analyzed retrospectively for 18 consecutive patients ≤19 y/o treated with HDCT-AHSCR at UCLA (1999–2009). Results. Patients' median age was 2.3 years. Fourteen had primary and 4 recurrent tumors: 12 neural/embryonal (7 medulloblastomas, 4 primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and a pineoblastoma), 3 glial/mixed, and 3 germ cell tumors. Eight patients had initial gross-total and seven subtotal resections. HDCT mostly consisted of carboplatin and/or thiotepa ± etoposide (n = 16). Nine patients underwent a single AHSCR and nine ≥3 tandems. Three-year progression-free and overall survival probabilities were 60.5% ± 16 and 69.3% ± 11.5. Ten patients with pre-AHSCR complete remissions were alive/disease-free, whereas 5 of 8 with measurable disease were deceased (median followup: 2.3 yrs). Nine of 13 survivors avoided radiation. Single AHSCR regimens had greater toxicity than ≥3 AHSCR (P < .01). Conclusion. HDCT-AHSCR has a definitive, though limited role for selected pediatric brain tumors with poor prognosis and pretransplant complete/partial remissions.
Although the number of studies using tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) for the treatment of high-risk pediatric solid tumors has been increasing, documentation of hematologic recovery after tandem HDCT/autoSCT is very limited. For this reason, we retrospectively analyzed the hematologic recovery of 236 children with high-risk solid tumors who underwent tandem HDCT/autoSCT. The median numbers of CD34+ cells transplanted during the first and second HDCT/autoSCT were 4.3 × 106/kg (range 0.6-220.2) and 4.1 × 106/kg (range 0.9-157.6), respectively (P = 0.664). While there was no difference in neutrophil recovery between the first and second HDCT/autoSCT, platelet and RBC recoveries were significantly delayed in the second HDCT/autoSCT (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Delayed recovery in the second HDCT/autoSCT was more prominent when the number of transplanted CD34+ cells was lower, especially if it was < 2 × 106/kg. A lower CD34+ cell count was also associated with increased RBC transfusion requirements and a higher serum ferritin level after tandem HDCT/autoSCT. More CD34+ cells need to be transplanted during the second HDCT/autoSCT in order to achieve the same hematologic recovery as the first HDCT/autoSCT.
High-Dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation; CD34+ Cells; Hematologic Recovery; Iron Overload
In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and treatment results of osteosarcoma during the past 7 years, and evaluated the role of high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients who were diagnosed as osteosarcoma at our center from January, 2000 to December, 2007.
The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival of the patients were 72.6% and 55.9%, respectively. Seventeen (41.5%) patients showed disease progression during treatment or relapse after the end of treatment. The patients who had metastasis at diagnosis or who had a lower grade of necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed decreased overall and event-free survival. Four patients received ASCT after HDCT, and 3 of them are alive without disease.
The patients who relapsed or had refractory osteosarcoma or who had metastasis at diagnosis or a lower grade of necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed poor prognosis. HDCT with ASCT could be an alternative treatment option for these patients.
Osteosarcoma; Autologous stem cell transplantation; High dose chemotherapy; Pediatrics
In all, 651 from 680 centers in 48 countries reported 35 660 hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in 32 075 patients (13 470 allogeneic (42%), 18 605 autologous (58%)) to the 2011 survey. Main indications were: leukemias; 10 113 (32% 94% allogeneic); lymphoid neoplasias; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, plasma cell disorders; 18 433 (57% 12% allogeneic); solid tumours; 1573 (5% 5% allogeneic); and non-malignant disorders; 1830 (6% 92% allogeneic). There were more unrelated donors than HLA identical sibling donors (54% versus 39%); proportion of peripheral blood as stem cell source was 99% for autologous and 73% for allogeneic HSCT. Cord blood was only used in allogeneic transplants (6% of total). In the past 10 years, the overall number of transplants has increased by 53%. Allogeneic HSCT have doubled (from 7272 to 14 549) while, autologous have increased by 32% and continue to increase by about 1100 HSCT per year since 2001. In the past 2 years, an increase of >2000 HSCT per year was seen. Transplant activity is shown by team size. For allogeneic HSCT, we show use of reduced-intensity conditioning versus myeloablative conditioning across Europe and use of post-transplant donor lymphocyte infusions with considerable variation across different countries.
haematopoietic SCT; reduced-intensity conditioning; transplant rates; trends; indications
High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was applied to improve the prognosis of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma. From January 1997 to December 2006, 28 patients were newly diagnosed as stage 3 neuroblastoma. Nine of 11 patients with N-myc amplification and 5 of 17 patients without N-myc amplification (poor response in 2 patients, persistent residual tumor in 2 and relapse in 1) underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Patients without high-risk features received conventional treatment modalities only. While 8 of 9 patients underwent single HDCT/ASCR and the remaining one patient underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the early study period, all 5 patients underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the late period. Toxicities associated with HDCT/ASCR were tolerable and there was no treatment-related mortality. While the tumor relapsed in two of eight patients in single HDCT/ASCR group, all six patients in tandem HDCT/ASCR group remained relapse free. The 5-yr event-free survival (EFS) from diagnosis, in patients with N-myc amplification, was 71.6±14.0%. In addition, 12 of 14 patients who underwent HDCT/ASCR remained event free resulting in an 85.1±9.7% 5-yr EFS after the first HDCT/ASCR. The present study demonstrates that HDCT/ASCR may improve the survival of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma.
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Rescue; Prognosis; N-myc
The outcome and management of relapsed lymphoma after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is difficult. Therapeutic options may include donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), reduction of immunosuppression (RIS), chemotherapy, radiation, immunotherapy, second HCT and experimental treatments, but reported data contrasting the response and efficacy of these salvage treatments is limited. We describe the treatments, response, prognosis and long-term survival of 72 patients with relapse of lymphoma after allogeneic HCT.
Between 1991 and 2007, 227 lymphoma patients underwent allogeneic HCT. Of these, 72 (32%) developed relapse/progression after their HCT at a median of 99 days (0–1898 days); 37 had early (<100 days) post-HCT relapse. Forty-four had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (7 mantle cell, 5 indolent, 15 diffuse large B cell, 4 Burkitt's and 13 T/Natural Killer cell) and 28 patients had Hodgkin's lymphoma. At the time of HCT, 62 patients were in remission (22 in complete [CR] and 40 in partial [PR]), one had stable while 9 had progressive disease. Seventeen cases received myeloablative and 55 received a reduced intensity conditioning regimen. At relapse, most patients had generalized lymphadenopathy, extranodal organ involvement and advanced disease. Five patients received no intervention for the post-HCT relapse. Immunosuppressive treatment was reduced or withdrawn as the first line therapy in 58 patients (80.5%); 47 were treated using combinations of conventional chemotherapy (n=22), rituximab (n=27), interferon (IFN) (n=1), DLI (n=7), second HCT (n=2), local radiation (n=23) and other therapy (n=6). Thirty-eight patients had an objective response (CR in 30, PR in 8) and 2 had stable disease (SD). At the post-HCT relapse, favorable prognostic factors for survival after HCT included good ECOG performance status (0–2), normal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), early stage disease (stage I–III), isolated extranodal organ involvement and later relapse (>100 days) post-HCT. Three year survival after HCT was significantly better in late than early relapse (53% (95% confidence interval (CI) [34–69%] vs. 36%, [20–52%], p=0.02). Of 72 relapsed patients, 29 (40%) survive at a median of 34 (3–148) months post transplant. The most common cause of death was underlying lymphoma (79%).
The overall prognosis of relapsed/progressive lymphoma after allogeneic HCT is disappointing, yet half of patients respond to withdrawal of immunosuppression and additional therapies. Novel treatments can control lymphoma with acceptable morbidity. Particularly for patients with later relapse, ongoing treatment after relapse can yield meaningful benefit and prolonged survival.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation; lymphoma; relapse
The role of high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the treatment armamentarium of aggressive B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is still a matter of debate. In the pre-Rituximab era, the PARMA study demonstrated the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage chemotherapy in chemosensitive, relapsed patients. Subsequently, HDT/ASCT has become a standard approach for relapsed NHL. With the advent of Rituximab in the landscape of NHL, transplantation as part of first-line therapy has been challenged. However, no benefit in terms of disease-free or overall survival of HDT/ASCT over standard therapy was shown when Rituximab was added to both arms. Moreover, the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage therapy in patients relapsing from first-line therapy including Rituximab was not confirmed. From these disappointing results, novel strategies, which can enhance the anti-lymphoma effect, at the same time reducing toxicity have been developed, with the aim of improving the outcome of HDT/ASCT in aggressive NHL. In T-cell lymphoma, few publications demonstrated that consolidation of complete remission with HDT/ASCT is safe and feasible. However, up to one-third of patients may never receive transplant, mostly due to progressive disease, and relapse still remains a major concern even after transplant.
We previously reported that three risk factors (RF): initial remission duration <1 year, active B symptoms, and extranodal disease predict outcome in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Our goal was to improve event-free survival (EFS) for patients with multiple RF and to determine if response to salvage therapy impacted outcome. We conducted a phase II intent-to-treat study of tailored salvage treatment: patients with 0 or 1 RF received standard-dose ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE); patients with 2 RF received augmented ICE; patients with 3 RF received high-dose ICE with stem cell support. This was followed by evaluation with both computed tomography and functional imaging (FI); those with chemosensitive disease underwent high-dose chemoradiotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). There was no treatment-related mortality. Compared to historical controls this therapy eliminated the difference in EFS between the 3 prognostic groups. Pre-ASCT FI predicted outcome; 4-year EFS rates was 33% vs. 77% for patients transplanted with positive vs negative FI respectively, p=0.00004, hazard ratio 4.61. Risk-adapted augmentation of salvage treatment in patients with HL is feasible and improves EFS in poorer-risk patients. Our data suggest that normalization of FI pre-ASCT predicts outcome, and should be the goal of salvage treatment.
Hodgkin Lymphoma; HSCT; high-dose chemoradiotherapy
We performed a pilot study to determine the benefit of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoPBSCT) for patients with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.
We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who received HDCT/autoPBSCT at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. Patients with relapsed, metastatic, or centrally located tumors were eligible for the study.
A total of 9 patients (3 male, 6 female), with a median age at HDCT/autoPBSCT of 13.4 years (range, 7.1 to 28.2 years), were included in this study. Patients underwent conventional chemotherapy and local control either by surgery or radiation therapy, and had achieved complete response (CR, n=7), partial response (n=1), or stable disease (n=1) prior to HDCT/autoPBSCT. There was no transplant-related mortality. However, the median duration of overall survival and event-free survival after HDCT/autoPBSCT were 13.3 months (range, 5.3 to 44.5 months) and 6.2 months (range, 2.1 to 44.5 months), respectively. At present, 4 patients are alive and 5 patients who experienced adverse events (2 metastasis, 2 local recur, and 1 progressive disease) survived for a median time of 2.8 months (range, 0.1 to 10.7 months). The 2-year survival after HDCT/autoPBSCT was 44.4%±16.6% and disease status at the time of HDCT/autoPBSCT tended to influence survival (57.1%±18.7% of cases with CR vs. 0% of cases with non-CR, P=0.07).
Disease status at HDCT/autoPBSCT tended to influence survival. Further studies are necessary to define the role of HDCT/autoPBSCT and to identify subgroup of patients who might benefit from this investigational treatment.
Ewing sarcoma; High-dose chemotherapy; Stem cell transplantation
Purpose. to evaluate the outcome of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent autologous transplantation at KHCC bone marrow transplant program. Patients and Methods. Over 6 years, 63 patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplant. There were 25.4% patients in complete remission (CR), 71.4% with chemotherapy responsive disease at the time of transplant. Prior to conditioning regimen, 56% received two chemotherapy lines, and, 44% received more than two lines. Results. The main outcomes of the study are the rate of complete remission at day 100, overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), The impact of the following variables on OS and RFS: (a) disease status at the time of transplant, (b) number of chemotherapy lines prior to conditioning, (c) age group, (d) time of relapse < or >12 months were investigated.
The CR at day 100 was 57%. The median overall survival for the whole group was 40.6 months; the median RFS was 20 months. The only factor which significantly impacts the study outcomes was the number of chemotherapy lines prior to conditioning on OS in favor of patients received two lines. Conclusion. In our study only the number of chemotherapy lines received before conditioning had statistically significant impact on OS.
The management of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL) is a success story of modern multi-agent haemato-oncology. Prior to the middle of the twentieth century CHL was fatal in the majority of cases. Introduction of single agent radiotherapy (RT) demonstrated for the first time that these patients could be cured. Developments in chemotherapy including the mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisolone (MOPP) and Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) regimens have resulted in cure rates of over 80%. Even in relapse, CHL patients can be salvaged with high dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Challenges remain, however, in finding new strategies to manage the small number of patients who continue to relapse or progress. In addition, the young age of many Hodgkin's patients forces difficult decisions in balancing the benefit of early disease control against the survival disadvantage of late toxicity. In this article we aim to summarise past trials, define the current standard of care and appraise future developments in the management of CHL.