Myogenic differentiation plays an important role in muscle regeneration and is regulated by two transcription factor families, MRFs and MEF2, which induce differentiation of myoblasts through expression of the muscle-specific gene, myogenin. In addition, many intracellular signaling pathways are also involved in myogenic differentiation, including p38 MAPK, ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT. The JAK-STAT pathway is activated by various cytokines and positively or negatively regulates the differentiation of myoblasts. JAK1 plays a notable role in proliferation; whereas, JAK2 and JAK3 function mainly in differentiation. The STATs, molecules downstream of JAK, regulate myogenesis. With JAK1, STAT1 promotes proliferation, while STAT3 has a dual effect on proliferation and differentiation. The JAK-STAT negative regulator, SOCS, is also associated with myogenesis; although, its role is controversial. In this review, we will discuss the role of the JAK-STAT pathway on myogenic differentiation.
JAK1; JAK2; JAK3; STAT1; STAT2; STAT3; SOCS; myogenic differentiation
Skeletal muscle stem cell–derived myoblasts are mainly responsible for postnatal muscle growth and injury-induced muscle regeneration. However, the cellular signaling pathways controlling the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts are not fully understood. We demonstrate that Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for myoblast proliferation and that it also functions as a checkpoint to prevent myoblasts from premature differentiation. Deliberate knockdown of JAK1 in both primary and immortalized myoblasts induces precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell proliferation. This is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of MyoD, myocyte enhancer–binding factor 2 (MEF2), p21Cip1, and p27Kip1, a faster down-regulation of Id1, and an increase in MEF2-dependent gene transcription. Downstream of JAK1, of all the signal transducer and activator of transcriptions (STATs) present in myoblasts, we find that only STAT1 knockdown promotes myogenic differentiation in both primary and immortalized myoblasts. Leukemia inhibitory factor stimulates myoblast proliferation and represses differentiation via JAK1–STAT1–STAT3. Thus, JAK1–STAT1–STAT3 constitutes a signaling pathway that promotes myoblast proliferation and prevents premature myoblast differentiation.
The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is involved in many cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation, immune functions and cancer. It is activated by various cytokines, growth factors, and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and regulates the transcription of many genes. Of the four JAK isoforms and seven STAT isoforms known, JAK2 and STAT3 are highly expressed in the brain where they are present in the postsynaptic density (PSD). Here, we demonstrate a new neuronal function for the JAK/STAT pathway. Using a variety of complementary approaches, we show that the JAK/STAT pathway plays an essential role in the induction of NMDA-receptor dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD) in the hippocampus. Therefore, in addition to established roles in cytokine signaling, the JAK/STAT pathway is involved in synaptic plasticity in the brain.
► Identification of a specific role of the JAK/STAT pathway in synaptic plasticity ► Activation of JAK2 and STAT3 is required for NMDAR-LTD ► Activation of STAT3 in dendrites and nucleus during NMDAR-LTD ► Nuclear translocation of STAT3 is not required for NMDAR-LTD
The authors demonstrate a new neuronal function for the JAK/STAT pathway in the induction of NMDA-receptor-dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD) in the hippocampus.
Immune and inflammatory systems are controlled by multiple cytokines, including interleukins (ILs) and interferons. These cytokines exert their biological functions through Janus tyrosine kinases and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) transcription factors. We recently identified two intrinsic Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, JAK binding protein (JAB; also referred to as suppressor of cytokine signaling [SOCS1]/STAT-induced STAT inhibitor [SSI1]) and cytokine-inducible SH2 protein (CIS)3 (or SOCS3/SSI3), which play an essential role in the negative regulation of cytokine signaling. We have investigated the role of STATs and these JAK inhibitors in intestinal inflammation. Among STAT family members, STAT3 was most strongly tyrosine phosphorylated in human ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients as well as in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Development of colitis as well as STAT3 activation was significantly reduced in IL-6–deficient mice treated with DSS, suggesting that STAT3 plays an important role in the perpetuation of colitis. CIS3, but not JAB, was highly expressed in the colon of DSS-treated mice as well as several T cell–dependent colitis models. To define the physiological role of CIS3 induction in colitis, we developed a JAB mutant (F59D-JAB) that overcame the inhibitory effect of both JAB and CIS3 and created transgenic mice. DSS induced stronger STAT3 activation and more severe colitis in F59D-JAB transgenic mice than in their wild-type littermates. These data suggest that hyperactivation of STAT3 results in severe colitis and that CIS3 plays a negative regulatory role in intestinal inflammation by downregulating STAT3 activity.
Janus kinase; CIS/SOCS; interleukin 6; ulcerative colitis; negative regulation
Janus tyrosine kinases (JAKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factors (STATs), especially STAT3, are constitutively activated in human cancers. The function of STAT3 in the pathogenesis of meningioma remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of JAK1/STAT3 regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the occurrence and progression of human meningioma.
We detected the expression of JAK1, p-JAK1, STAT3, p-STAT3, and VEGF in human meningioma and normal dura tissues by RT–PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry.
JAK1, p-JAK1, STAT3, p-STAT3, and VEGF showed high expression in grade I and grade II meningioma. The level of STAT3 activation was associated with VEGF expression; all meningioma tumors that expressed p-STAT3 also expressed VEGF. Both frequency of positivity and expression were enhanced with increasing tumor grade; high frequencies and levels were found in grade II tumors, with no expression detected in normal dura tissues (P < 0.05).
VEGF is directly regulated by constitutive STAT3 activity and associated with meningioma differentiation. STAT3 has an important role in the occurrence and development of human meningioma by regulating VEGF expression.
Constitutive activation; Human meningioma; p-STAT3; STAT3; VEGF
Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is persistently activated and contributes to malignant progression in various cancers. Janus kinases (JAKs) phosphorylate STAT3 in response to stimulation with cytokines or growth factors. The STAT3 signaling pathway has been validated as a promising target for development of anti-cancer therapeutics. Small-molecule inhibitors of JAK/STAT3 signaling represent potential molecular-targeted cancer therapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated the role of JAK/STAT3 signaling in 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (6BIO) mediated growth inhibition of human melanoma cells and assessed 6BIO as an anticancer drug candidate. We found that 6BIO is a pan-JAK inhibitor that induced apoptosis of human melanoma cells. 6BIO directly inhibited JAK family kinase activity both in vitro and in cancer cells. Apoptosis of human melanoma cells induced by 6BIO was associated with reduced phosphorylation of JAKs and STAT3 in both a dose- and time-dependent manners. Consistent with inhibition of STAT3 signaling, the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 was down-regulated. In contrast to the decreased levels of phosphorylation of JAKs and STAT3, phosphorylation levels of the AKT and MAPK signaling proteins were not inhibited in cells treated with 6BIO. Importantly, 6BIO suppressed tumor growth in vivo with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 6BIO is a novel pan-JAK inhibitor that can selectively inhibit STAT3 signaling and induced tumor cell apoptosis. Our findings support further development of 6BIO as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic agent that targets JAK/STAT3 signaling in tumor cells.
bromoindirubin; JAK inhibitor; STAT3 signaling; apoptosis; melanoma
Activation of early response genes by interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines requires tyrosine phosphorylation of a family of transcription factors termed signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stats). The Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2) is required for cytokine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization of the Stat proteins. In order for IFNs to stimulate maximal expression of Stat1alpha-regulated genes, phosphorylation of a serine residue in the carboxy terminus by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is also required. In HeLa cells, both IFN-beta and oncostatin M (OSM) stimulated MAPK and Raf-1 enzyme activity, in addition to Stat1 and Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation. OSM stimulation of Raf-1 correlated with GTP loading of Ras, whereas IFN-beta activation of Raf-1 was Ras independent. IFN-beta- and OSM-induced Raf-1 activity could be coimmunoprecipitated with either Jak1 or Tyk2. Furthermore, HeLa cells lacking Jak1 displayed no activation of STAT1alpha, STAT3, and Raf-1 by IFN-beta or OSM and also demonstrated no increase in the relative level of GTP-bound p21ras in response to OSM. The requirement for Jak1 for IFN-beta- and OSM-induced activation of Raf-1 was also seen in Jak1-deficient U4A fibrosarcoma cells. Interestingly, basal MAPK, but not Raf-1, activity was constitutively enhanced in Jak1-deficient HeLa cells. Transient expression of Jak1 in both Jak-deficient HeLa cells and U4A cells reconstituted the ability of IFN-beta and OSM to activate Raf-1 and decreased the basal activity of MAPK, while expression of a kinase-inactive form of the protein showed no effect. Moreover, U4A cells selected for stable expression of Jak1, or COS cells transiently expressing Jak1 or Tyk2 but not Jak3, exhibited enhanced Raf-1 activity. Therefore, it appears that Jak1 is required for Raf-1 activation by both IFN-beta and OSM. These results provide evidence for a link between the Jaks and the Raf/MAPK signaling pathways.
Postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle requires a population of resident myogenic precursors named satellite cells. The transcription factor Pax7 is critical for satellite cell biogenesis and survival and has been also implicated in satellite cell self-renewal; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Previously, we showed that Pax7 overexpression in adult primary myoblasts down-regulates MyoD and prevents myogenin induction, inhibiting myogenesis. We show that Pax7 prevents muscle differentiation independently of its transcriptional activity, affecting MyoD function. Conversely, myogenin directly affects Pax7 expression and may be critical for Pax7 down-regulation in differentiating cells. Our results provide evidence for a cross-inhibitory interaction between Pax7 and members of the muscle regulatory factor family. This could represent an additional mechanism for the control of satellite cell fate decisions resulting in proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal, necessary for skeletal muscle maintenance and repair.
In the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, oxidative stress is involved in the activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway and cytokine expression. High serum levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) have been reported in patients with acute pancreatitis, and treatment with cerulein, a CCK analogue, induces acute pancreatitis in a rodent model. Recent studies have shown that cerulein-activated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase elicits reactive oxygen species, which trigger the phosphorylation of the JAK1, STAT1, and STAT3 proteins and induce the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, in pancreatic acinar cells. The JAK/STAT pathway also stimulates cell proliferation and malignant transformation and inhibits apoptosis in the pancreas. This review discusses the possible role of the JAK/STAT pathway in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in response to oxidative stress.
JAK/STAT; Pancreatitis; Pancreatic cancer; Oxidative stress
Quiescent satellite cells are myogenic progenitors that enable regeneration of skeletal muscle. One of the early events of satellite cell activation following myotrauma is the induction of the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, which eventually induces terminal differentiation and muscle function gene expression. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which MyoD is induced during activation of satellite cells in mouse muscle undergoing regeneration. We show that Six1, a transcription factor essential for embryonic myogenesis, also regulates MyoD expression in muscle progenitor cells. Six1 knock-down by RNA interference leads to decreased expression of MyoD in myoblasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that Six1 binds the Core Enhancer Region of MyoD. Further, transcriptional reporter assays demonstrate that Core Enhancer Region reporter gene activity in myoblasts and in regenerating muscle depends on the expression of Six1 and on Six1 binding sites. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that Six1 is required for the proper chromatin structure at the Core Enhancer Region, as well as for MyoD binding at its own enhancer. Together, our results reveal that MyoD expression in satellite cells depends on Six1, supporting the idea that Six1 plays an important role in adult myogenesis, in addition to its role in embryonic muscle formation.
The type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β), which are crucial in antiviral defense and immune regulation, signal via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway with activation of STAT1 and STAT2. Here, the function of STAT2 was studied in transgenic mice (termed GIFN/STAT2–/–) with CNS production of IFN-α. Surprisingly, GIFN/STAT2–/–, but not GIFN/STAT1-null, transgenic mice, with CNS production of IFN-α, died prematurely with medulloblastoma. An immune response also induced in the brain of the GIFN/STAT2–/– mice was associated with IFN-γ gene expression by CD3+ T cells and the activation of the STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, and STAT5 molecules. Expression of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and the downstream transcriptional factor Gli-1 genes, implicated in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, was found to be significantly increased and cotranscribed in cerebellar granule neurons of the GIFN/STAT2–/– mice. IFN-γ, but not IFN-α, induced STAT1-dependent expression of the Shh gene in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Thus, there is an unexpected and extraordinarily adverse biological potency of IFN-α in the CNS when the primary signal transduction molecule STAT2 is absent. Moreover, a hitherto unknown role is indicated for the immune system in the pathogenesis of developmental disorders and tumorigenesis of the CNS via dysregulated Shh signaling mediated by IFN-γ.
In many tissues, two or more types of stem cells share a niche, and how the stem cells coordinate their self-renewal and differentiation is poorly understood. In the Drosophila testis, germ line stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst progenitor cells (CPCs) contact each other and share a niche (the hub). The hub expresses a growth factor Unpaired (Upd) that activates the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in GSCs to regulate the stem cell self-renewal. Here, we demonstrate that the JAK/STAT signaling also regulates CPCs self-renewal. We also show that a negative regulator, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 36E (SOCS36E), suppresses JAK/STAT signaling in somatic cells, preventing them from out-competing the GSCs. Furthermore, through selectively manipulating the JAK/STAT signaling level in either CPCs or GSCs, we demonstrate that the somatic JAK/STAT signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of both CPCs and GSCs. These data suggest that a single JAK/STAT signal from the niche orchestrate the competitive and dependent co-existence of GSCs and CPCs in the Drosophila testis niche.
Drosophila; stem cell; germline stem cells; somatic stem cells; signal transduction; JAK/STAT; stem cell interaction
Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process which is not yet completely understood. Evidence suggested that the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway may have a role in myogenesis. In this study, we aim to explore the possible role of STAT1 in muscle regeneration.
Wild-type and STAT1 knockout mice were used in this study. Tibialis anterior muscle injury was conducted by cardiotoxin (CTX) injection. Bone marrow transplantation and glucocorticoid treatment were performed to manipulate the immune system of the mice.
Muscle regeneration was accelerated in STAT1−/− mice after CTX injury. Bone marrow transplantation experiments showed that the regeneration process relied on the type of donor mice rather than on recipient mice. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, were significantly higher in STAT1−/− mice at 1 day and/or 2 days post-injury, while levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, were lower in STAT1−/− mice at 2 days and 3 days post-injury. Levels of IGF-1 were significantly higher in the STAT1−/− mice at 1 day and 2 days post-injury. Furthermore, the muscle regeneration process was inhibited in glucocorticoid-treated mice.
Loss of STAT1 in bone marrow–derived cells accelerates skeletal muscle regeneration.
Precise regulation of gene expression is crucial to myogenesis and is thought to require the cooperation of various transcription factors. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis of gene regulatory sequences, we hypothesized that myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), key regulators of skeletal myogenesis, cooperate with members of the SIX family of transcription factors, known to play important roles during embryonic skeletal myogenesis. To this day little is known regarding the exact molecular mechanism by which SIX factors regulate muscle development. We have conducted a functional genomic study of the role played by SIX1 and SIX4 during the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts, a model of adult muscle regeneration. We report that SIX factors cooperate with the members of the MRF family to activate gene expression during myogenic differentiation, and that their function is essential to this process. Our findings also support a model where SIX factors function not only ‘upstream’ of the MRFs during embryogenesis, but also ‘in parallel’ to them during myoblast differentiation. We have identified new essential nodes that depend on SIX factor function, in the myogenesis regulatory network, and have uncovered a novel way by which MRF function is modulated during differentiation.
Islet1 (Isl1) belongs to the LIM homeodomain transcription factor family. Its roles in differentiation of motor neurons and organogenesis of pancreas and heart have been revealed. However, less is known about its regulatory mechanism and the target genes. In this study, we identified interactions between Isl1 and Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK), as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3, but not Stat1 and Stat5, in mammalian cells. We found that Isl1 not only forms a complex with Jak1 and Stat3 but also triggers the tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and its kinase activity, thereby elevating the tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding activity, and target gene expression of Stat3. In vivo, the tyrosine-phosphorylated Stat3 was colocalized with Isl1 in the nucleus of the mouse motor neurons in spinal cord after nerve injury. Correspondingly, electroporation of Isl1 and Stat3 into the neural tube of chick embryos resulted in the activation of a reporter gene expression controlled by a Stat3 regulatory sequence, and cotransfection of Isl1 and Stat3 promoted the proliferation of the mouse motor neuron cells. Our data suggest a novel role of Isl1 as an adaptor for Jak1 and Stat3 and reveal a possible functional link between LIM homeodomain transcription factors and the Jak-Stat pathway.
Integrin-mediated adhesion induces several signaling pathways leading to regulation of gene transcription, control of cell cycle entry and survival from apoptosis. Here we investigate the involvement of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway in integrin-mediated signaling. Plating primary human endothelial cells from umbilical cord and the human endothelial cell line ECV304 on matrix proteins or on antibody to β1- or αv-integrin subunits induces transient tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT5A. Consistent with a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in regulation of gene transcription, adhesion to matrix proteins leads to the formation of STAT5A-containing complexes with the serum-inducible element of c-fos promoter. Stable expression of a dominant negative form of STAT5A in NIH3T3 cells reduces fibronectin-induced c-fos mRNA expression, indicating the involvement of STAT5A in integrin-mediated c-fos transcription. Thus these data present a new integrin-dependent signaling mechanism involving the JAK/STAT pathway in response to cell–matrix interaction.
Cytokines are cell-secreted signaling molecules that modulate various cellular functions, with the best-characterized roles in immune responses. The expression of numerous cytokines in skeletal muscle tissues and muscle cells has been reported, but their function in skeletal myogenesis, the formation of skeletal muscle, has been largely underexplored. To systematically examine the potential roles of cytokines in skeletal myogenesis, we undertook an RNAi screen of 134 mouse cytokine genes for their involvement in the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Our results have uncovered 29 cytokines as strong candidates for novel myogenic regulators, potentially conferring positive and negative regulation at distinct stages of myogenesis. These candidates represent a diverse collection of cytokine families, including interleukins, TNF-related factors, and chemokines. Our findings suggest the fundamental importance of cytokines in the cell-autonomous regulation of myoblast differentiation, and may facilitate future identification of novel therapeutic targets for improving muscle regeneration and growth in health and diseases.
Adenoviral evolution has generated mechanisms to resist host cell defense systems, but the biochemical basis for evasion of multiple antiviral pathways in the airway by adenoviruses is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that adenoviruses modulate airway epithelial responses to type I interferons by altering the levels and activation of specific Janus family kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling components. In this study, specific effects of adenovirus type 5 (AdV) on selected JAK-STAT signal transduction pathways were identified in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells, with focus on type I interferon–dependent signaling and gene expression. We found that wild-type AdV infection inhibited IFN-α–induced expression of antiviral proteins in epithelial cells by blocking phosphorylation of the Stat1 and Stat2 transcription factors that are required for activation of type I interferon–dependent genes. These effects correlated with AdV-induced down-regulation of expression of the receptor-associated tyrosine kinase Jak1 through a decrease in Jak1 mRNA levels. Phosphorylation of Stat3 in response to IL-6 and oncostatin M was also lost in AdV-infected cells, indicating loss of epithelial cell responses to other cytokines that depend on Jak1. In contrast, IL-4– and IL-13–dependent phosphorylation of Stat6 was not affected during AdV infection, indicating that the virus modulates specific signaling pathways, as these Stat6-activating pathways can function independent of Jak1. Taken together, the results indicate that AdV down-regulates host epithelial cell Jak1 to assure inhibition of the antiviral effects of multiple mediators to subvert airway defense responses and establish a productive infection.
JAK-STAT signaling; interferon; interleukin
Stat (signal transducers and activators of transcription) and Jak (Janus kinases) proteins are central components in the signal transduction events in hematopoietic and epithelial cells. They are rapidly activated by various cytokines, hormones, and growth factors. Upon ligand binding and cytokine receptor dimerization, Stat proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by Jak kinases. Activated Stat proteins form homo- or heterodimers, translocate to the nucleus, and induce transcription from responsive genes. Stat5 and Stat6 are transcription factors active in mammary epithelial cells and immune cells. Prolactin activates Stat5, and interleukin-4 (IL-4) activates Stat6. Both cytokines are able to stimulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We investigated the transactivation potential of Stat6 and found that it is not restricted to lymphocytes. IL-4-dependent activation of Stat6 was also observed in HC11 mammary epithelial cells. In these cells, Stat6 activation led to the induction of the beta-casein gene promoter. The induction of this promoter was confirmed in COS7 cells. The glucocorticoid receptor was able to further enhance IL-4-induced gene transcription through the action of Stat6. Deletion analysis of the carboxyl-terminal region of Stat6 and recombination of this region with a heterologous DNA binding domain allowed the delimitation and characterization of the transactivation domain of Stat6. The potencies of the transactivation domains of Stat5, Stat6, and viral protein VP16 were compared. Stat6 had a transactivation domain which was about 10-fold stronger than that of Stat5. In pre-B cells (Ba/F3), the transactivation domain of Stat6 was IL-4 regulated, independently from its DNA binding function.
Ixodes scapularis transmits the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, among other pathogens. The mechanisms used by the tick to control Anaplasma phagocytophilum are not known. We demonstrate that the I. scapularis Janus kinase (JAK)–signaling transducer activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays a critical role in A. phagocytophilum infection of ticks. The A. phagocytophilum burden increases in salivary glands and hemolymph when the JAK-STAT pathway is suppressed by RNA interference. The JAK-STAT pathway exerts its anti-Anaplasma activity presumably through STAT-regulated effectors. A salivary gland gene family encoding 5.3-kDa antimicrobial peptides is highly induced upon A. phagocytophilum infection of tick salivary glands. Gene expression and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the 5.3-kDa antimicrobial peptide–encoding genes are regulated by tick STAT. Silencing of these genes increased A. phagocytophilum infection of tick salivary glands and transmission to mammalian host. These data suggest that the JAK-STAT signaling pathway plays a key role in controlling A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks by regulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides.
Differential use of cellular and molecular components shapes immune responses, but understanding of how these are regulated to promote defense and health during infections is still incomplete. Examples include signaling from members of the Janus activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) cytokine family. Following receptor stimulation, individual JAK-STAT cytokines have preferences for particular key STAT molecules to lead to specific cellular responses. Certain of these cytokines, however, can conditionally activate alternative STATs as well as elicit pleiotropic and paradoxical effects. Studies examining basal and infection conditions are revealing intrinsic and induced cellular differences in various intracellular STAT concentrations to control the biological consequences of cytokine exposure. The system can be likened to changing partners at a dance based on competition and relative availability, and sets a framework for understanding the particular conditions promoting subset biological functions of cytokines as needed during evolving immune responses to infections.
STAT levels; immune responses; NK cells; CD8 T cells; viral infections
TEL-JAK2 fusion proteins, which are a result of t(9;12)(p24;p13) translocations associated with human leukemia, activate Stat5 in vitro and in vivo and cause a myelo- and lymphoproliferative disease in a murine bone marrow transplant model. We report that Socs-1, a member of the SOCS family of endogenous inhibitors of JAKs and STATs, inhibits transformation of Ba/F3 cells by TEL-JAK2 but has no effect on Ba/F3 cells transformed by BCR-ABL, TEL-ABL, or TEL–platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta. TEL-JAK2, in addition to activating Stat5, associates with Shc and Grb2 and induces activation of Erk2, and expression of Socs-1 inhibits engagement of each of these signaling molecules. TEL-JAK2 kinase activity is inhibited by Socs-1, as assessed by in vitro kinase assays. In addition, Socs-1 induces proteasomal degradation of TEL-JAK2. Mutational analysis indicates that the SOCS box of Socs-1 is required for proteasomal degradation and for abrogation of growth of TEL-JAK2-transformed cells. Furthermore, murine bone marrow transplant assays demonstrate that expression of Socs-1 prolongs latency of TEL-JAK2-mediated disease in vivo. Collectively, these data indicate that Socs-1 inhibits TEL-JAK2 in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of kinase activity and induction of TEL-JAK2 protein degradation.
The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) pathway mediates important responses in immune cells. Activation of any of the four JAK family members leads to phosphorylation of one or more of seven STAT family members. Phosphorylation of STAT family members leads to their dimerization and translocation into the nucleus, in which they bind specific DNA sequences to activate gene transcription. Regulation of JAKs and STATs therefore has a significant effect on signal transduction and subsequent cellular responses. Mast cells are important mediators of allergic disease and asthma. These cells have the ability to cause profound inflammation and vasodilation upon the release of preformed mediators, as well as subsequent synthesis of new inflammatory mediators. The regulation of mast cells is therefore of intense interest for the treatment of allergic disease. An important regulator of mast cells, STAT5, is activated downstream of the receptors for immunoglobulin E, interleukin-3 and stem cell factor. STAT5 contributes to mast cell homeostasis, by mediating proliferation, survival, and mediator release. Regulators of the JAK–STAT pathway, such as the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins, are required to fine tune the immune response and maintain homeostasis. A better understanding of the role and regulation of JAKs and STATs in mast cells is vital for the development of new therapeutics.
mast cell; JAK; STAT; allergy; IgE
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the etiologic agent for adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), induces cytokine-independent proliferation of T-cells, associated with the acquisition of constitutive activation of Janus kinases (Jak) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) proteins. Our purposes in this study were to determine whether activation of Jak-Stat pathway is responsible for the proliferation and survival of ATL cells, and to explore mechanisms by which inhibition of Jak-Stat pathway kills ATL cells.
Constitutive activation of Stat3 and Stat5 was observed in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and primary ATL cells, but not in HTLV-1-negative T-cell lines. Using AG490, a Jak-specific inhibitor, we demonstrated that the activation of Stat3 and Stat5 was mediated by the constitutive phosphorylation of Jak proteins. AG490 inhibited the growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and primary ATL cells by inducing G1 cell-cycle arrest mediated by altering the expression of cyclin D2, Cdk4, p53, p21, Pim-1 and c-Myc, and by apoptosis mediated by the reduced expression of c-IAP2, XIAP, survivin and Bcl-2. Importantly, AG490 did not inhibit the growth of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Our results indicate that activation of Jak-Stat pathway is responsible for the proliferation and survival of ATL cells. Inhibition of this pathway may provide a new approach for the treatment of ATL.
In Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV)-transformed cells, members of the Janus kinase (Jak) family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of signaling proteins are constitutively activated. In these cells, the v-Abl oncoprotein and the Jak proteins physically associate. To define the molecular mechanism of constitutive Jak-STAT signaling in these cells, the functional significance of the v-Abl–Jak association was examined. Mapping the Jak1 interaction domain in v-Abl demonstrates that amino acids 858 to 1080 within the carboxyl-terminal region of v-Abl bind Jak1 through a direct interaction. A mutant of v-Abl lacking this region exhibits a significant defect in Jak1 binding in vivo, fails to activate Jak1 and STAT proteins, and does not support either the proliferation or the survival of BAF/3 cells in the absence of cytokine. Cells expressing this v-Abl mutant show extended latency and decreased frequency in generating tumors in nude mice. In addition, inducible expression of a kinase-inactive mutant of Jak1 protein inhibits the ability of v-Abl to activate STATs and to induce cytokine-independent proliferation, indicating that an active Jak1 is required for these v-Abl-induced signaling pathways in vivo. We propose that Jak1 is a mediator of v-Abl-induced STAT activation and v-Abl induced proliferation in BAF/3 cells, and may be important for efficient transformation of immature B cells by the v-abl oncogene.