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1.  No Child or Mother Left Behind; Implications for the US from Cuba’s Maternity Homes 
Background: Cuba, a “resource-poor” country, provides high-quality, free maternal care despite relatively low per capita health expenditures in comparison to similar expenditures in “resource rich” nations such as Canada and the US. This paper assesses maternal and child healthcare in Cuba, details the system of community-based regional maternity homes, and outlines specific recommendations for the US.
Methods: Based on observations during a visit to Cuba, and supplemental research on international health expenditures and health indicators such as infant and maternal mortality, this paper details maternal and child health in Cuba.
Results: Cuba utilizes community-based regional maternity homes to provide comprehensive care for women with high-risk pregnancies. This effective strategy of investing in maternal health by safeguarding pregnancies has lowered infant and maternal mortality rates significantly. Cuba has achieved neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates that are better than or on par with resource rich nations such as the US. Additionally, within the Latin American and Caribbean region, Cuba has a low rate of maternal mortality.
Conclusion: Positioning maternal and child health priorities to the policy foreground were a critical step in saving the lives of Cuban women and children. The US may benefit from Cuba's example with respect to maternal and child health. Cuba's model provides important health; rights and policy lessons for all nations—are they resource rich or poor.
doi:10.5681/hpp.2012.002
PMCID: PMC3963654  PMID: 24688913
Maternal and child health; Community health; Public health; Cuba
2.  Clinical Research After Catastrophic Disasters: Lessons Learned From Hurricane Katrina 
When catastrophic disasters such as Hurricane Katrina strike, psychologists and other mental health professionals often wonder how to use resources and fill needed roles. We argue that conducting clinical research in response to disasters is 1 important way that these professionals can contribute. However, we recognize that designing and implementing a clinical research study can be a daunting task, particularly in the context of the personal and system-wide chaos that follows most disasters. Thus, we offer a detailed description of our own experiences with conducting clinical research as part of our response to Hurricane Katrina. We describe our study design, recruitment and data collection efforts, and summarize and synthesize the lessons we have learned from this endeavor. Our hope is that others who may wish to conduct disaster-related research will learn from our mistakes and successes.
doi:10.1037/0735-7028.39.1.107
PMCID: PMC2631178  PMID: 19177173
clinical research; disasters; Hurricane Katrina; roles
3.  Five Years Later: Recovery from Post Traumatic Stress and Psychological Distress Among Low-Income Mothers Affected by Hurricane Katrina 
Social science & medicine (1982)  2011;74(2):150-157.
Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005, exposed area residents to trauma and extensive property loss. However, little is known about the long-run effects of the hurricane on the mental health of those who were exposed. This study documents long-run changes in mental health among a particularly vulnerable group—low income mothers—from before to after the hurricane, and identifies factors that are associated with different recovery trajectories. Longitudinal surveys of 532 low-income mothers from New Orleans were conducted approximately one year before, 7 to 19 months after, and 43 to 54 months after Hurricane Katrina. The surveys collected information on mental health, social support, earnings and hurricane experiences. We document changes in post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), as measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of psychological distress (PD), as measured by the K6 scale. We find that although PTSS has declined over time after the hurricane, it remained high 43 to 54 months later. PD also declined, but did not return to pre-hurricane levels. At both time periods, psychological distress before the hurricane, hurricane-related home damage, and exposure to traumatic events were associated with PTSS that co-occurred with PD. Hurricane-related home damage and traumatic events were associated with PTSS without PD. Home damage was an especially important predictor of chronic PTSS, with and without PD. Most hurricane stressors did not have strong associations with PD alone over the short or long run. Over the long run, higher earnings were protective against PD, and greater social support was protective against PTSS. These results indicate that mental health problems, particularly PTSS alone or in co-occurrence with PD, among Hurricane Katrina survivors remain a concern, especially for those who experienced hurricane-related trauma and had poor mental health or low socioeconomic status before the hurricane.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.10.004
PMCID: PMC3286602  PMID: 22137245
Mental health; natural disasters; Hurricane Katrina; USA; women
4.  The Nontraditional Role of Pharmacists After Hurricane Katrina: Process Description and Lessons Learned 
Public Health Reports  2009;124(2):217-223.
SYNOPSIS
In the week before Hurricane Katrina's landfall in August 2005, emergency management officials in Jefferson County (Birmingham), Alabama, began to make plans for the potential influx of evacuees from the Gulf Coast. No pharmacy component to the plan was in place at that time. The Jefferson County Department of Health (JCDH) discovered that local pharmacies and hospital emergency departments were dealing with significant requests for medication refills. JCDH, in cooperation with a local school of pharmacy, developed a plan for addressing the unforeseen need for routine prescription refills by evacuees. This article discusses this novel pharmacy plan and lessons learned from the event, and may serve as a model for other municipalities and/or states interested in preparing a pharmacy response to future natural disasters.
PMCID: PMC2646478  PMID: 19320363
5.  Lessons from Hurricane Sandy: a Community Response in Brooklyn, New York 
The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events have increased in recent decades; one example is Hurricane Sandy. If the frequency and severity continue or increase, adaptation and mitigation efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations and improve daily life under changed weather conditions. This field report examines the devastation due to Hurricane Sandy experienced in Red Hook, Brooklyn, New York, a neighborhood consisting of geographically isolated low-lying commercial and residential units, with a concentration of low-income housing, and disproportionate rates of poverty and poor health outcomes largely experienced by Black and Latino residents. Multiple sources of data were reviewed, including street canvasses, governmental reports, community flyers, and meeting transcripts, as well as firsthand observations by a local nonprofit Red Hook Initiative (RHI) and community members, and social media accounts of the effects of Sandy and the response to daily needs. These data are considered within existing theory, evidence, and practice on protecting public health during extreme weather events. Firsthand observations show that a community-based organization in Red Hook, RHI, was at the center of the response to disaster relief, despite the lack of staff training in response to events such as Hurricane Sandy. Review of these data underscores that adaptation and response to climate change and likely resultant extreme weather is a dynamic process requiring an official coordinated governmental response along with on-the-ground volunteer community responders.
doi:10.1007/s11524-013-9832-9
PMCID: PMC3795193  PMID: 24022182
Climate change; Vulnerable populations; Community engagement
6.  Public health and Hurricane Katrina: lessons learned and what we can do now. 
Keith C. Ferdinand, MD, FACC, presently resides in Atlanta, GA, displaced from his native New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina, September 2005. The hurricane destroyed hiss cardiovascular center and severely damaged his home. In Atlanta, he is director of the Association of Black Cardiologists Hurricane Katrina Relief.
PMCID: PMC2595083  PMID: 16708514
7.  Health Care: Lessons from China and Cuba 
Health has improved in Cuba and China during the past quarter of a century. Some of the improvements in health occurred as economic conditions improved in both countries, but there are other similarities of health care delivery in China and Cuba. Collective activity plays an important role in health care in both nations; both do health planning centrally, but local communities control the daily activities of the health services that they use. Techniques that have improved health in underdeveloped nations might be applied in underserved areas of the United States.
PMCID: PMC2552869  PMID: 7120476
8.  Trends in Serious Emotional Disturbance among Youths Exposed to Hurricane Katrina 
Objective
To examine patterns and predictors of trends in DSM-IV serious emotional disturbance (SED) among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina.
Method
A probability sample of adult pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Katrina completed baseline and follow-up telephone surveys 18-27 months post-hurricane and 12-18 months later. Baseline adult respondents residing with children (ages 4-17) provided informant reports about the emotional functioning of these youths (n = 576) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The surveys also assessed hurricane-related stressors and ongoing stressors experienced by respondent families.
Results
SED prevalence decreased significantly across survey waves from 15.1% to 11.5%, although even the latter prevalence was considerably higher than the pre-hurricane prevalence of 4.2% estimated in the US National Health Interview Survey. Trends in hurricane-related SED were predicted by both stressors experienced in the hurricane and ongoing stressors, with SED prevalence decreasing significantly only among youths with moderate stress exposure (16.8% vs. 6.5%). SED prevalence did not change significantly between waves among youths with either high stress exposure (30.0% vs. 41.9%) or low stress exposure (3.5% vs. 3.4%). Pre-hurricane functioning did not predict SED persistence among youths with high stress exposure, but did predict SED persistence among youth with low-moderate stress exposure.
Conclusions
The prevalence of SED among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina remains significantly elevated several years after the storm despite meaningful decrease since baseline. Youths with high stress exposure have the highest risk of long-term hurricane-related SED and consequently represent an important target for mental health intervention.
doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.06.012
PMCID: PMC3228600  PMID: 20855044
Hurricane Katrina; SED; natural disaster; child mental health; stress
9.  Services Oriented Architectures and Rapid Deployment of Ad-Hoc Health Surveillance Systems: Lessons from Katrina Relief Efforts 
During the Hurricane Katrina relief efforts, a new city was born overnight within the City of Houston to provide accommodation and health services for thousands of evacuees deprived of food, rest, medical attention, and sanitation [1]. The hurricane victims had been exposed to flood water, toxic materials, physical injury, and mental stress. This scenario was an invitation for a variety of public health hazards, primarily infectious disease outbreaks. Early detection and monitoring of morbidity and mortality among evacuees due to unattended health conditions was an urgent priority and called for deployment of real-time surveillance to collect and analyze data at the scene, and to enable and guide appropriate response and planning activities [2].
To address this need, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSC) and the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) deployed an ad hoc surveillance system overnight by leveraging Internet-based technologies and Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) [3, 4].
The system was post-coordinated through the orchestration of Web Services such as information integration, natural language processing, UMLS terminology services, syndromic case finding, and online analytical processing (OLAP) [5]. Here we will report the use of Internet-based and distributed architectures in providing timely, novel, and customizable solutions just in time for unprecedented events such as natural disasters.
PMCID: PMC1839532  PMID: 17238405
10.  THE ACTION TO CONTROL CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN DIABETES (ACCORD) TRIAL AND HURRICANE KATRINA: LESSONS FOR MANAGING CLINICAL TRIALS DURING AND AFTER A NATURAL DISASTER 
Contemporary clinical trials  2008;29(5):756-761.
Hurricane Katrina was one of the most catastrophic natural disasters to hit the United States. It had a major impact on health care in New Orleans, LA and the surrounding region, not only in relation to acute illness but also chronic disease. When Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans on August 29, 2005, there were 193 participants being followed in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Trial at Tulane University Health Sciences Center. In the immediate aftermath of the storm, the Tulane University ACCORD Study site, in collaboration with the Study Coordinating Center and the Southeast Clinical Center Network office of the trial at Wake Forest University Health Sciences in North Carolina, took several actions in order to locate the participants, ensure their safety, and maintain the scientific integrity of the trial. We describe the actions taken and the relative success/failure of such actions.
doi:10.1016/j.cct.2008.05.006
PMCID: PMC2607140  PMID: 18577469
11.  Predicting Mothers’ Reports of Children’s Mental Health Three Years after Hurricane Katrin 
This study explored pathways through which hurricane-related stressors affected the psychological functioning of elementary school aged children who survived Hurricane Katrina. Participants included 184 mothers from the New Orleans area who completed assessments one year pre-disaster (Time 1), and one and three years post-disaster (Time 2 and Time 3, respectively). Mothers rated their children’s behavior problems at Time 3 only (n = 251 children; 53.0% male; Mean age: 10.19 years, SD = 1.68 years). A path analytic model indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with increased maternal psychological distress and school mobility in the first post-disaster year, which were associated with higher child internalizing and externalizing symptoms three years post-disaster. Mediation analysis indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with child symptoms indirectly, through their impact on maternal psychological distress. Findings underscore the importance of interventions that boost maternal and child mental health and support children through post-disaster school transitions.
doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2012.09.002
PMCID: PMC3587107  PMID: 23471125
natural disasters; elementary school students; low-income families; maternal psychological distress; child behavior problems
12.  Exposure to Hurricane Katrina, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Birth Outcomes 
Background
Little is known about the effects of natural disasters on pregnancy outcomes. We studied mental health and birth outcomes among women exposed to Hurricane Katrina.
Methods
We collected data prospectively from a cohort of 301 women from New Orleans and Baton Rouge. Pregnant women were interviewed during pregnancy about their experiences during the hurricane, as well as whether they had experienced symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression. High hurricane exposure was defined as having three or more of the eight severe hurricane experiences, such as feeling that one's life was in danger, walking through floodwaters, or having a loved one die.
Results
The frequency of low birth weight was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (14.0%) than women without high hurricane exposure (4.7%), with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13−9.89; p<0.01. The frequency of preterm birth was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (14.0%) than women without high hurricane exposure (6.3%), with aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 0.82−6.38; p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the frequency of low birth weight or preterm birth between women with PTSD or depression and women without PTSD or depression (p>0.05).
Conclusions
Women who had high hurricane exposure were at an increased risk of having low birth weight infants. Rather than a general exposure to disaster, exposure to specific severe disaster events and the intensity of the disaster experience may be better predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes. To prevent poor pregnancy outcomes during and after disasters, future disaster preparedness may need to include the planning of earlier evacuation of pregnant women to minimize their exposure to severe disaster events.
doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318180f21c
PMCID: PMC2635112  PMID: 18703903
Depression; disaster; low birth weight; post-traumatic stress disorder; pregnancy
13.  Child health nurses in the Solomon Islands: lessons for the Pacific and other developing countries 
Objectives
To understand the roles of nurses with advanced training in paediatrics in the Solomon Islands, and the importance of these roles to child health. To understand how adequately equipped child health nurses feel for these roles, to identify the training needs, difficulties and future opportunities.
Design
Semi-structured interviews.
Settings
Tertiary hospital, district hospitals and health clinics in the Solomon Islands.
Participants
Twenty-one paediatric nurses were interviewed out of a total of 27 in the country.
Results
All nurses were currently employed in teaching, clinical or management areas. At least one or two nurses were working in each of 7 of the 9 provinces; in the two smaller provinces there were none. Many nurses were sole practitioners in remote locations without back-up from doctors or other experienced nurses; all had additional administrative or public health duties. Different types of courses were identified: a residential diploma through the University of Papua New Guinea or New Zealand and a diploma by correspondence through the University of Sydney.
Conclusions
Child health nurses in the Solomon Islands fulfill vital clinical, public health, teaching and administrative roles. Currently they are too few in number, and this is a limiting factor for improving the quality of child health services in that country. Current methods of training require overseas travel, or are expensive, or lack relevance, or remove nurses from their work-places and families for prolonged periods of time. A local post-basic child health nursing course is urgently needed, and models exist to achieve this.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-10-45
PMCID: PMC3545833  PMID: 23171144
Solomon Islands; Child health; Nurses; Developing countries; Pacific Islands
14.  Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific 
Background
Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs) by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region.
Methods
We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region.
Results
Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries.
Conclusions
The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students return from Cuba, some PICs may face substantial rises in salary expenditure which could significantly strain already stretched government budgets. Finally, the Cuban engagement in the Pacific has implications for the wider geo-political and health sector support environment as the relatively few major bilateral donors, notably Australia (through AusAID) and New Zealand (through NZAID), and multilaterals such as the World Bank will need to accommodate an additional player with whom existing links are limited.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-10-10
PMCID: PMC3447691  PMID: 22558940
15.  Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Following Hurricane Katrina: A Prospective Analysis of the Effect of Parental Distress and Parenting Practices* 
Journal of traumatic stress  2010;23(5):582-590.
Research exhibits a robust relation between child hurricane exposure, parent distress, and child posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study explored parenting practices that could further explicate this association. Participants were 381 mothers and their children exposed to Hurricane Katrina. It was hypothesized that 3–7 months (T1) and 14–17 months (T2) post-Katrina: (a) hurricane exposure would predict child PTSD symptoms after controlling for history of violence exposure and (b) hurricane exposure would predict parent distress and negative parenting practices, which, in turn, would predict increased child PTSD symptoms. Hypotheses were partially supported. Hurricane exposure directly predicted child PTSD at T1 and indirectly at T2. Additionally, several significant paths emerged from hurricane exposure to parent distress and parenting practices, which were predictive of child PTSD.
doi:10.1002/jts.20573
PMCID: PMC4231140  PMID: 20925099
16.  Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis 
Environmental Health  2013;12:63.
Background
The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature.
Presentation of the hypothesis
By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation.
Testing of the hypothesis
A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90.
Implications of the hypothesis
If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.
doi:10.1186/1476-069X-12-63
PMCID: PMC3765590  PMID: 23947741
Food contamination; Food export import; Human secondary sex ratio; Radiation induced genetic effects; Radioactive fallout
17.  Understanding the mental health of youth living with perinatal HIV infection: lessons learned and current challenges 
Introduction
Across the globe, children born with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) are reaching adolescence and young adulthood in large numbers. The majority of research has focused on biomedical outcomes yet there is increasing awareness that long-term survivors with PHIV are at high risk for mental health problems, given genetic, biomedical, familial and environmental risk. This article presents a review of the literature on the mental health functioning of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents, corresponding risk and protective factors, treatment modalities and critical needs for future interventions and research.
Methods
An extensive review of online databases was conducted. Articles including: (1) PHIV+ youth; (2) age 10 and older; (3) mental health outcomes; and (4) mental health treatment were reviewed. Of 93 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria, the vast majority from the United States and Europe.
Results
These studies suggest that PHIV+ youth experience emotional and behavioural problems, including psychiatric disorders, at higher than expected rates, often exceeding those of the general population and other high-risk groups. Yet, the specific role of HIV per se remains unclear, as uninfected youth with HIV exposure or those living in HIV-affected households displayed similar prevalence rates in some studies, higher rates in others and lower rates in still others. Although studies are limited with mixed findings, this review indicates that child-health status, cognitive function, parental health and mental health, stressful life events and neighbourhood disorder have been associated with worse mental health outcomes, while parent–child involvement and communication, and peer, parent and teacher social support have been associated with better function. Few evidence-based interventions exist; CHAMP+, a mental health programme for PHIV+ youth, shows promise across cultures.
Conclusions
This review highlights research limitations that preclude both conclusions and full understanding of aetiology. Conversely, these limitations present opportunities for future research. Many PHIV+ youth experience adequate mental health despite vulnerabilities. However, the focus of research to date highlights the identification of risks rather than positive attributes, which could inform preventive interventions. Development and evaluation of mental health interventions and preventions are urgently needed to optimize mental health, particularly for PHIV+ youth growing up in low-and-middle income countries.
doi:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18593
PMCID: PMC3687078  PMID: 23782478
mental health; psychiatric disorders; emotional and behavioural problems; perinatal HIV infection; adolescence; paediatric HIV
18.  Lessons Learned From Early Implementation of Option B+: The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Experience in 11 African Countries 
Background:
“Option B+” is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+.
Methods:
This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies.
Results:
Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality.
Discussion:
Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000372
PMCID: PMC4251909  PMID: 25436817
prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; antiretroviral therapy; Option B+; implementation science
19.  Telling Children They Have HIV: Lessons Learned from Findings of a Qualitative Study in Sub-Saharan Africa 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2010;24(4):247-256.
Abstract
HIV-infected children in developing countries are living longer lives as they gain access to antiretroviral treatment programs. As they grow older, their parents/guardians are faced with the difficult decision of if, when, and how to inform their child of his/her HIV status. Both negative and positive social, psychological, and behavioral impacts of disclosure to children have been reported, including improved adherence to medication regimens. Understanding the disclosure process from the perspective of HIV positive children, therefore, is critical to developing these interventions. Through children's experiences we can learn about what works well, what needs to be strengthened, and what is missing in current disclosure practices. We conducted in-depth interviews with eight caregiver–child dyads in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The children were in a comprehensive HIV pediatric care and treatment program and had already been told their HIV diagnosis. For the analysis we placed particular emphasis on children's reports of communication with their caregivers and health care providers about their illness. Patterns emerged of limited communication between children and their caregivers as well as their providers, before, during, and after disclosure. From the perspective of children in this study, disclosure was largely a discrete event rather than a process. Sociocultural contexts surrounding HIV/AIDS, as well as health status, variations in parent–child communication and the relationships between health providers and children under their care, should inform psychosocial interventions delivered alongside treatment programs.
doi:10.1089/apc.2009.0217
PMCID: PMC2864057  PMID: 20397899
20.  The Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) Intervention: A Decade of Lessons Learned 
Objective
To describe lessons learned in developing the CEASE tobacco control intervention.
Methods
Descriptive report.
Results
Tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure harm families in a multitude of ways. The child health care setting is the ideal location to address parental smoking and tobacco smoke exposure in children. Few interventions have been developed specifically for families in the child health care setting. One such intervention, the CEASE program, was developed with assistance from tobacco control experts, pediatric researchers, policy makers, and child health care clinicians to address parental smoking.
Conclusion
An effective tobacco cessation intervention can be developed in a systematic way that may not require extensive resources and expertise.
PMCID: PMC3874254  PMID: 24379645
21.  Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect 
Background
The most effective way to provide support to caregivers with infants in order to promote good health, social, emotional and developmental outcomes is the subject of numerous debates in the literature. In Canada, each province adopts a different approach which range from universal to targeted programs. Nonetheless, each year a group of vulnerable infants is identified to the child welfare system with concerns about their well-being and safety. This study examines maltreatment-related investigations in Canada involving children under the age of one year to identify which factors determine service provision at the conclusion of the investigation.
Methods
A secondary analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect CIS-2008 (PHAC, 2010) dataset was conducted. Multivariate analyses were conducted to understand the profile of investigations involving infants (n=1,203) and which predictors were significant in the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services at the conclusion of the investigation. Logistic Regression and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome and predictors.
Results
The results suggest that there are three main sources that refer infants to the Canadian child welfare system: hospital, police, and non-professionals. Infant maltreatment-related investigations involve young caregivers who struggle with poverty, single-parenthood, drug/solvent and alcohol abuse, mental health issues, lack of social supports, and intimate partner violence. Across the three referral sources, primary caregiver risk factors are the strongest predictor of the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services.
Conclusions
Multivariate analyses indicate that the presence of infant concerns does not predict ongoing service provision, except when the infant is identified with positive toxicology at birth. The opportunity for early intervention and the need to tailor interventions for specific caregiver risk factors is discussed.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-7-4
PMCID: PMC3575393  PMID: 23406620
Child welfare; Child maltreatment; Infants; Young parents; Referral source; Decision-making; Ongoing services
22.  Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament 
Maternal and child health journal  2009;14(4):511-518.
To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and “difficult temperament” was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with 3 or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15–2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at one year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22–8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81–5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother’s mental health.
doi:10.1007/s10995-009-0486-x
PMCID: PMC3472436  PMID: 19554438
infant temperament; natural disaster; postpartum depression; post-traumatic stress disorder
23.  Lessons learned from scaling up a community-based health program in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana 
The original CHPS model deployed nurses to the community and engaged local leaders, reducing child mortality and fertility substantially. Key scaling-up lessons: (1) place nurses in home districts but not home villages, (2) adapt uniquely to each district, (3) mobilize local resources, (4) develop a shared project vision, and (5) conduct “exchanges” so that staff who are initiating operations can observe the model working in another setting, pilot the approach locally, and expand based on lessons learned.
The original CHPS model deployed nurses to the community and engaged local leaders, reducing child mortality and fertility substantially. Key scaling-up lessons: (1) place nurses in home districts but not home villages, (2) adapt uniquely to each district, (3) mobilize local resources, (4) develop a shared project vision, and (5) conduct “exchanges” so that staff who are initiating operations can observe the model working in another setting, pilot the approach locally, and expand based on lessons learned.
ABSTRACT
Ghana's Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) initiative is envisioned to be a national program to relocate primary health care services from subdistrict health centers to convenient community locations. The initiative was launched in 4 phases. First, it was piloted in 3 villages to develop appropriate strategies. Second, the approach was tested in a factorial trial, which showed that community-based care could reduce childhood mortality by half in only 3 years. Then, a replication experiment was launched to clarify appropriate activities for implementing the fourth and final phase—national scale up. This paper discusses CHPS progress in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana, where the pace of scale up has been much more rapid than in the other 9 regions of the country despite exceedingly challenging economic, ecological, and social circumstances. The UER employed 5 strategies that facilitated scale up: (1) nurse recruitment from their home districts to improve worker morale and cultural grounding, balanced with some social distance from the village community to ensure client confidentiality, particularly regarding family planning use; (2) prioritization of CHPS planning and continuous review in management meetings to make necessary modifications to the initiative's approach; (3) community engagement and advocacy to local politicians to mobilize resources for financing start-up costs; (4) a shared and consistent vision about CHPS among health administration leaders to ensure appropriate resources and commitment to the initiative; and (5) knowledge exchange visits between new and advanced CHPS implementers to facilitate learning and scale up within and between districts.
doi:10.9745/GHSP-D-12-00012
PMCID: PMC4168550  PMID: 25276522
24.  Disruption of Existing Mental Health Treatments and Failure to Initiate New Treatments After Hurricane Katrina 
Objective:
To examine disruption of ongoing treatments among pre-existing cases and failure to initiate treatments among cases with new onset disorders in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina.
Methods:
A telephone survey was administered to a probability sample of 1,043 English-speaking adult Katrina survivors between January 19 and March 31, 2006. The survey assessed post-hurricane treatment of emotional problems and barriers to treatment among respondents with self-reported pre-hurricane mental disorders and those with post-hurricane onsets of mental disorders.
Results:
Among respondents who had pre-existing mental disorders and used services in the year before the hurricane, 22.9% experienced reductions or terminations of their treatments after Katrina. Among those without pre-hurricane disorders who developed new-onset ones, 18.5% received some form of treatment for emotional problems since the disaster. Reasons for failing to continue treatments among pre-existing cases largely involved structural barriers to treatment, while reasons for failing to seek treatment among new-onset cases largely involved low perceived needs for treatment. The majority (64.5%) of respondents using post-Katrina treatments received them from general medical providers and received medication but no psychotherapy. Treatment of new-onset cases was positively related to age and income, while continued treatment of pre-existing cases was positively related to being Non-Hispanic White and having health insurance.
Conclusions:
Hurricane Katrina survivors with mental disorders experienced large unmet needs for treatment, including frequent disruptions of existing care and widespread failure to initiate treatments among those with new onset disorders. Future disaster management plans should anticipate both types of need.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07030502
PMCID: PMC2248271  PMID: 18086749
Hurricane Katrina; mental illness; mental health services
25.  Booster seats for child passengers: lessons for increasing their use 
Injury Prevention  2001;7(3):210-213.
Objective—To explore parental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to use of booster seats in cars for 4–8 year old children.
Methods—Three focus groups conducted by a professional marketing firm.
Results—Many parents were confused about the appropriate weight and age of children who should be in booster seats; most parents incorrectly identified the age at which it was safe to use a lap-shoulder belt. Legislation was viewed as a positive factor in encouraging use. Cost of seats was frequently cited as a barrier to ownership, as were child resistance, peer pressure from older children, the need to accommodate other children in the vehicle, and the belief that a lap belt was adequate. Messages from health care providers, emergency medical services, or law enforcement personnel were believed to be most effective.
Conclusion—Campaigns to promote booster seat use should address issues of knowledge about appropriate age and size of the child, cost, inadequacy of lap belts, and resistance to use by the child.
doi:10.1136/ip.7.3.210
PMCID: PMC1730742  PMID: 11565986

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