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1.  Effect of Oppositely Charged Polymer and Dissolution Media on Rheology of Spray-Dried Ionic Complexes 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(1):226-232.
The purpose of this research was to address the utility of rheological study in understanding the influence of oppositely charged polymers on release of naproxen sodium encapsulated in chitosan particles. The interaction between oppositely charged κ-carrageenan (κ-Ca) and chitosan leads to relatively higher gel strength, which is proportional to the ability to retard the drug release at acidic pH. The oscillatory tests within the linear viscoelastic range where the stress is proportional to the applied strain were performed on the hydrated sample matrices containing chitosan-naproxen sodium spray-dried complexes and k-Ca or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in various ratios. It was observed that the effect of pH change on the dynamic moduli in spray-dried complexes containing κ-Ca was much stronger than that with HPMC reflecting presence of strong ionic interaction between κ-Ca and chitosan. The combination of oppositely charged polymers in different ratios proved to be useful in modulating the rheological properties of the hydrated formulations and their release-retarding properties. Dynamic moduli can be used to measure gel strength and are significant for the interpretation of oral sustained release spray-dried complexes.
PMCID: PMC2850499  PMID: 20131020
gel strength; ionic complexes; rheology
2.  Reduced Ulcerogenic Potential and Antiarthritic Effect of Chitosan–Naproxen Sodium Complexes 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(3):896-902.
The purpose of this research was to address the utility of naproxen sodium–chitosan spray-dried complexes for antiulcer and antiarthritic activities. The cold stress technique was used to examine the ulcerogenic potential of naproxen sodium (NPX) and spray-dried formulations in the different doses. The ulcerations reduced with the dose of spray-dried complexes of naproxen sodium and chitosan. The conspicuous hemorrhagic lesions were visible in the morphological features of the animal treated with naproxen 50 mg/kg (p.o.). Thus, the results suggest that the spray-dried naproxen sodium–chitosan complex (NPXF) was not corrosive to the gastric mucosa at high doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (p.o.) under stressful conditions. It is evident from the present investigation that NPXF does not possess any ulcerogenic potential in comparison to naproxen which, under stressful conditions, led to the hypersecretion of HCl, culminating to petichial hemorrhages in the gastric mucosa of the animals. The biphasic pattern was observed in the various arthritic parameters. The rise in paw volume, joint diameter, WBC count, arthritis score, and fall in body weight was significantly ameliorated in the animals treated with NPXF (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, p.o). At the end of the study, slight erythema was visible in the naproxen-treated animals. However, no erythema, redness, or ulcers were visible in the animals treated with NPXF. Thus, the direct compression properties and reduced ulcerogenic activity, combined with the demonstrated solubilizing power and analgesic effect enhancer ability toward the drug, make naproxen sodium–chitosan spray-dried complexes particularly suitable for developing a reduced-dose, fast-release, solid oral dosage form of naproxen.
PMCID: PMC3429684  PMID: 22711255
antiarthritic; chitosan complexes; ulcer
3.  Design and Characterization of a Silk-Fibroin-Based Drug Delivery Platform Using Naproxen as a Model Drug 
Journal of Drug Delivery  2012;2012:490514.
The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to develop a platform for controlled drug delivery based on silk fibroin (SF) and to explore the feasibility of using SF in oral drug delivery. The SF-containing matrixes were prepared via spray-drying and film casting, and the release profile of the model drug naproxen sodium was evaluated. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been used to observe conformational changes in SF- and drug-containing compositions. SF-based films, spray-dried microparticles, and matrixes loaded with naproxen were prepared. Both FTIR spectra and in vitro dissolution data demonstrated that SF β-sheet conformation regulates the release profile of naproxen. The controlled release characteristics of the SF-containing compositions were evaluated as a function of SF concentration, temperature, and exposure to dehydrating solvents. The results suggest that SF may be an attractive polymer for use in controlled drug delivery systems.
PMCID: PMC3312329  PMID: 22506122
4.  Effects of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of the Tramadol-Hcl microparticles containing Eudragit® RS and RL 
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences  2012;4(Suppl 1):S50-S53.
The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug–polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit® RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix composition on microparticle properties were characterized by Laser Light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction study, FT-infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The spray-dried microparticles were evaluated in terms of shape (SEM), size distribution (Laser light scattering method), production yield, drug content, initial drug loding and encapsulation efficiency. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveals the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency (EE), and product yield were depended on polymeric composition and polymeric ratios of the microspheres prepared. Tramadol microspheres based on Eudragit® blend can be prepared by spray-drying and the nebulization parameters do not influence significantly on particle properties.
PMCID: PMC3467858  PMID: 23066205
Tramadol; spray-drying parameters; microspheres; Eudragit®
5.  Effect of oppositely charged polymer and dissolution medium on swelling, erosion, and drug release from chitosan matrices 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2007;8(2):E110-E118.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential use of anionick-carrageenan and nonionic hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC, K4) to improve the matrix integrity of directly compressed chitosan tablets containing naproxen sodium, an anionic drug. The influence of buffer pH and drug:polymer ratio on the water uptake, matrix erosion, and drug release were studied. The rapid release of naproxen sodium was seen from matrices containing 100% chitosan due to loss in the matrix cohesiveness; whereas, it was relatively slow for matrices containing optimum concentration ofk-carrageenan. In-situ interaction between oppositely charged moieties resulted in the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with stoichiometric charge ratios of unity. Fourier transform in frared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) data confirmed the importance of ionic bonds in polyelectrolyte complexation. The ionic interactions between polymers were absent in matrices containing HPMC and the integrity of tablets was improved owing to the presence of viscous gel barrier.
The reasons for retarded release of naproxen sodium from the chitosan matrices at different pH include poor aqueous solubility of drug, the formation of a rate-limiting polymer gel barrier along the periphery of matrices, the interaction of naproxen sodium with protonated amino, groups of chitosan, and the interaction of ionized amino groups of chitosan with ionized sulfate groups ofk-carrageenan.
PMCID: PMC2750359  PMID: 17622119
Charged polymers; naproxen sodium; insitu complexation; sustained release matrices; chitosan; k-carrageenan
6.  Effects of Spray Drying on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Acid Salts 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2011;12(2):637-649.
The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid were used as solvents in the process. The physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated by means of solid-state CP-MAS 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and near-infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of spray-dried chitosan acid salts showed tendency toward higher sphericity when higher temperatures in a spray-drying process were applied. Analysis by XRPD indicated that all chitosan acid salts studied were amorphous solids. Solid-state 13C NMR spectra revealed the evidence of the partial conversion of chitosan acetate to chitin and also conversion to acetyl amide form which appears to be dependent on the spray-drying process. The FTIR spectra suggested that the organic acids applied in spray drying may interact with chitosan at the position of amino groups to form chitosan salts. With all three chitosan acid salts, the FTIR bands at 1,597 and 1,615 cm−1 were diminished suggesting that –NH groups are protonated. The FTIR spectra of all chitosan acid salts exhibited ammonium and carboxylate bands at 1,630 and 1,556 cm−1, respectively. In conclusion, spray drying is a potential method of preparing acid salts from chitosan obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (P. argus) origin.
PMCID: PMC3134675  PMID: 21560022
chitin; chitosan salt; lobster (Panulirus argus); physicochemical properties; spray drying
7.  Preparation and in vivo absorption evaluation of spray dried powders containing salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery 
The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs) with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats.
The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined.
sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders.
The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were prepared to have appropriate aerodynamic properties for pulmonary delivery. The developed system was able to deliver sCT via a pulmonary route into the systemic circulation.
PMCID: PMC3770519  PMID: 24039397
Salmon calcitonin; chitosan; nanoparticles; mannitol; spray dried powders; pulmonary delivery
8.  Drying of a plasmid containing formulation: chitosan as a protecting agent 
Along with research on development of more efficient gene delivery systems, it is necessary to search on stabilization processes to extend their active life span. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biocompatible and available gene delivery carrier. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of this polymer to preserve transfection efficiency during spray-drying and a modified freeze-drying process in the presence of commonly used excipients.
Molecular weight of chitosan was reduced by a chemical reaction and achieved low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) was complexed with pDNA. Obtained nanocomplex suspensions were diluted by solutions of lactose and leucine, and these formulations were spray dried or freeze dried using a modified technique. Size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, intensity of supercoiled DNA band on gel electrophoresis, and transfection efficiency of reconstituted nanocomplexes were compared with freshly prepared ones.
Results and conclusion
Size distribution profiles of both freeze dried, and 13 out of 16 spray-dried nanocomplexes remained identical to freshly prepared ones. LMWC protected up to 100% of supercoiled structure of pDNA in both processes, although DNA degradation was higher in spray-drying of the nanocomplexes prepared with low N/P ratios. Both techniques preserved transfection efficiency similarly even in lower N/P ratios, where supercoiled DNA content of spray dried formulations was lower than freeze-dried ones. Leucine did not show a significant effect on properties of the processed nanocomplexes. It can be concluded that LMWC can protect DNA structure and transfection efficiency in both processes even in the presence of leucine.
PMCID: PMC3555911  PMID: 23352037
Nanocomplex; Polymeric gene delivery; Gene therapy; Spray-drying; Freeze-drying
9.  Drying of a plasmid containing formulation: chitosan as a protecting agent 
The purpose of the study. Along with research on development of more efficient gene delivery systems, it is necessary to search on stabilization processes to extend their active life span. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biocompatible and available gene delivery carrier. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of this polymer to preserve transfection efficiency during spray-drying and a modified freeze-drying process in the presence of commonly used excipients.
Molecular weight of chitosan was reduced by a chemical reaction and achieved low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) was complexed with pDNA. Obtained nanocomplex suspensions were diluted by solutions of lactose and leucine, and these formulations were spray dried or freeze dried using a modified technique. Size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, intensity of supercoiled DNA band on gel electrophoresis, and transfection efficiency of reconstituted nanocomplexes were compared with freshly prepared ones.
Results and major conclusion
Size distribution profiles of both freeze dried, and 13 out of 16 spray-dried nanocomplexes remained identical to freshly prepared ones. LMWC protected up to 100% of supercoiled structure of pDNA in both processes, although DNA degradation was higher in spray-drying of the nanocomplexes prepared with low N/P ratios. Both techniques preserved transfection efficiency similarly even in lower N/P ratios, where supercoiled DNA content of spray dried formulations was lower than freeze-dried ones. Leucine did not show a significant effect on properties of the processed nanocomplexes. It can be concluded that LMWC can protect DNA structure and transfection efficiency in both processes even in the presence of leucine.
PMCID: PMC3556052  PMID: 23351334
Nanocomplex; Polymeric gene delivery; Gene therapy; Spray-drying; Freeze-drying
10.  Preparation and characterization of etoricoxib solid dispersions using lipid carriers by spray drying technique 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2005;6(3):E405-E409.
The basic objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble drug etoricoxib using lipid carriers by spray drying technique. The properties of solid dispersions were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hotstage microscopy (HSM), radiograph powder diffraction (XRPD), and dissolution studies. The absence of etoricoxib peaks in XRPD profiles of solid dispersions suggests the transformation of crystalline etoricoxib into an amorphous form. In the HSM examination of solid dispersions, the dissolution of drug in the lipid carriers was observed, which was also confirmed by the absence of etoricoxib peak in DSC curves of solid dispersions. The DRIFTS spectra revealed the presence of hydrogen bonding in solid dispersions. The in vitro dissolution rate of solid dispersions as compared with pure etoricoxib, spray-dried etoricoxib, and physical mixtures of drug with lipid carriers. Therefore, the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug etoricoxib can be significantly enhanced by the preparation of solid dispersions using lipid carriers by spray drying technique.
PMCID: PMC2750384  PMID: 16353998
spray drying; Gelucire; solid dispersion; amorphous
11.  Mucoadhesive vaginal tablets as veterinary delivery system for the controlled release of an antimicrobial drug, acriflavine 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2002;3(3):32-38.
The aim of the study was the development of mucoadhesive vaginal tablets designed for the local controlled release of acriflavine, an antimicrobial drug used as a model. The tablets were prepared using drug-loaded chitosan microspheres and additional excipients (methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, or. Carbopol 974). The microspheres were prepared by a spray-drying method, using the drug to polymer weight ratios 1∶1 and 1∶2 and were characterized in terms of morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release behavior, as MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration), MBC (Minimum Bacterial Concentration), and killing time (KT). The tablets were prepared by direct compression, characterized by in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesive tests. The microparticles have sizes of 4 to 12 μm; the mean encapsulation yields are about 90%. Acriflavine, encapsulated into the polymer, maintains its antibacterial activity; killing time of the encapsulated drug is similar to that of the free drug. In vitro release profiles of tablets show differences depending on the excipient used. In particular Carbopol 974, which is highly cross-linked, is able to determine a drug-controlled release from the matrix tablets for more than 8 hours. The in vitro adhesion tests, carried out on the same formulation, show a good adhesive behavior. The formulation containing microspheres with drug to polymer weight ratios of 1∶1 and Carbopol 974 is characterized by the best release behavior and shows good mucoadhesive properties. These preliminary data indicate that this formulation can be proposed as a mucoadhesive vaginal delivery system for the controlled release of acriflavine.
PMCID: PMC2784049  PMID: 12916935
Chitosan; acriflavine; veterinary dosage form; vaginal delivery systems; microspheres; mucoadhesive tablets
12.  Modification of the Solid-State Nature of Sulfathiazole and Sulfathiazole Sodium by Spray Drying 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(2):647-660.
Solid-state characterisation of a drug following pharmaceutical processing and upon storage is fundamental to successful dosage form development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using different solvents, feed concentrations and spray drier configuration on the solid-state nature of the highly polymorphic model drug, sulfathiazole (ST) and its sodium salt (STNa). The drugs were spray-dried from ethanol, acetone and mixtures of these organic solvents with water. Additionally, STNa was spray-dried from pure water. The physicochemical properties including the physical stability of the spray-dried powders were compared to the unprocessed materials. Spray drying of ST from either acetonic or ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in a closed cycle mode yielded crystalline powders. In contrast, the powders obtained from ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in an open cycle mode were amorphous. Amorphous ST crystallised to pure form I at ≤35 % relative humidity (RH) or to polymorphic mixtures at higher RH values. The usual crystal habit of form I is needle-like, but spherical particles of this polymorph were generated by spray drying. STNa solutions resulted in an amorphous material upon processing, regardless of the solvent and the spray drier configuration employed. Moisture induced crystallisation of amorphous STNa to a sesquihydrate, whilst crystallisation upon heating gave rise to a new anhydrous polymorph. This study indicated that control of processing and storage parameters can be exploited to produce drugs with a specific/desired solid-state nature.
PMCID: PMC3364403  PMID: 22549223
amorphous state; dynamic vapour sorption; particle habit; physical stability; polymorphism; sulfathiazole
13.  Hydrogels containing redispersible spray-dried melatonin-loaded nanocapsules: a formulation for transdermal-controlled delivery 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):251.
The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal system for controlled delivery of melatonin combining three strategies: nanoencapsulation of melatonin, drying of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules, and incorporation of nanocapsules in a hydrophilic gel. Nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were spray-dried using water-soluble excipients. In vitro drug release profiles were evaluated by the dialysis bag method, and skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz cells with porcine skin as the membrane. The use of 10% (w/v) water-soluble excipients (lactose or maltodextrin) as spray-drying adjuvants furnished redispersible powders (redispersibility index approximately 1.0) suitable for incorporation into hydrogels. All formulations showed a better controlled in vitro release of melatonin compared with the melatonin solution. The best controlled release results were achieved with hydrogels prepared with dried nanocapsules (hydrogels > redispersed dried nanocapsules > nanocapsule suspension > melatonin solution). The skin permeation studies demonstrated a significant modulation of the transdermal melatonin permeation for hydrogels prepared with redispersible nanocapsules. In this way, the additive effect of the different approaches used in this study (nanoencapsulation, spray-drying, and preparation of semisolid dosage forms) allows not only the control of melatonin release, but also transdermal permeation.
PMCID: PMC3463463  PMID: 22587614
Hydrogels; Maltodextrin; Melatonin; Nanocapsules; Spray-drying; Lactose; Skin permeation; Transdermal delivery
14.  Solid Lipid Budesonide Microparticles for Controlled Release Inhalation Therapy 
The AAPS Journal  2009;11(4):771-778.
A solid lipid microparticle system containing budesonide was prepared by oil in water emulsification followed by spray drying. The solid lipid system was studied in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, crystallinity, thermal properties, aerosol performance, and dissolution/diffusion release. The microparticle system was also compared to conventional spray-dried crystalline and amorphous budesonide samples. The particle size distributions of the crystalline, amorphous, and solid lipid microparticles, measured by laser diffraction, were similar; however, the microparticle morphology was more irregular than the spray-dried drug samples. The thermal response of the solid lipid microparticles suggested polymorphic transition and melting of the lipid, glycerol behenate (at ~48°C and ~72°C). No budesonide melting or crystallisation peaks were observed, suggesting that the budesonide was integrated into the matrix. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the crystalline and amorphous budesonide were consistent with previous studies while the solid lipid microparticles showed two peaks, at approximately 21.3 and 23.5 2θ suggesting the metastable sub-α and primarily β′ form. Analysis of the in vitro diffusion/dissolution of the formulations was studied using a flow through model and curves analysed using difference/similarity factors and fitted using the Higuchi model. Regression analysis of this data set indicated differences in the t0.5, where values of 49.7, 35.3, and 136.9 min were observed for crystalline, amorphous, and the solid lipid microparticles, respectively. The aerosol performance (<5 μm), measured by multistage liquid impinger, was 29.5%, 27.3%, and 21.1 ± 0.6% for the crystalline, amorphous, and the solid lipid microparticles, respectively. This study has shown that solid lipid microparticles may provide a useful approach to controlled release respiratory therapy.
PMCID: PMC2782082  PMID: 19908147
controlled release; dry powder inhalation; solid lipid microparticles
15.  Spray-dried mucoadhesive microspheres: Preparation and transport through nasal cell monolayer 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2006;7(1):E79-E88.
The purpose of this research was to prepare spray-dried mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal delivery. Microspheres composed of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (H), chitosan (CS), carbopol 934P (CP) and various combinations of these mucoadhesive polymers, and maltodextrin (M), colloidal silicon dioxide (A), and propylene glycol (P) as filler and shaper, were prepared by spray-drying technique. Using propranolol HCl as a model drug, microspheres were prepared at loadings exceedings 80% and yields between 24% and 74%. Bulky, free flowing microspheres that had median particle size between 15 and 23 μm were obtained. Their zeta potential was according to the charge of polymer. Adhesion time of mucoadhesive microspheres on isolated pig intestine was ranked, CS>CP: H>CP>H, while the rank order of swelling was CP>CS>H. Increasing the amount of CP in CP∶H formulations increased the percentage of swelling. Infrared (IR) spectra showed no interaction between excipients used except CS with acetic acid. The release of drug from CP and CP∶H microspheres was slower than the release from H and CS microspheres, correlated to their viscosity and swelling. Long lag time from the CP microspheres could be shortened when combined with H. The permeation of drug through nasal cell monolayer corresponded to their release profiles. These microspheres affected the integrity of tight junctions, relative to their swelling and charge of polymer. Cell viability was not affected except from CS microspheres, but recovery could be obtained. In conclusion, spray-dried microspheres of H, CS, CP, and CP∶H could be prepared to deliver drug through nasal cell monolayer via the opening of tight junction without cell damaging.
PMCID: PMC2750719  PMID: 16584142
mucoadhesive polymers; spray-dried microspheres; nasal cell monolayer; permeation; cell viability
16.  Application of spray granulation for conversion of mixed phospholipid-bile salt micelles to dry powder form: influence of drug hydrophobicity on nanoparticle reagglomeration 
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using spray granulation as a drying method to convert phospholipid (PL)-sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-mixed micelles (MMs) containing a water-insoluble drug to a solid dosage form and to evaluate how drugs with significantly different physicochemical properties affect the spray granulation process and subsequent in vitro and in vivo processes. Cucurbitacin B (Cu B) and glycyrrhizin (GL) were used as the model drugs. After spray granulation, the dried Cu B-PL/SDC-MM powder was completely redispersible within 15 minutes in vitro. Meanwhile, the area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0–24) and peak serum concentration from the dried powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the values from Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo. However, a better result was obtained for GL, ie, the drug was redispersed completely within 5 minutes in vitro. Further, absorption from the dried GL-PL/SDC-MM powder was increased to the same level as that for GL-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo compared with the control group. The difference in these results can be found in Cu B and GL. Cu B nanoparticles reagglomerated when released, resulting in slower redispersibility and less absorption compared with the original PL-SDC-MMs. However, no agglomeration or delay was observed for GL. A possible explanation is the difference in surface hydrophobicity between Cu B and GL. The results of this study not only show that spray granulation is an effective drying technique that can complement spray-drying and freeze-drying, but also confirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug have a significant influence on the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dried powder obtained after spray granulation.
PMCID: PMC3896289  PMID: 24531119
cucurbitacin B; glycyrrhizin; mixed phospholipid-bile salt micelles; fluid bed granulation; poorly water soluble drugs
17.  A Statistical Approach to Optimize the Spray Drying of Starch Particles: Application to Dry Powder Coating 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(3):1257-1267.
This article describes the preparation of starch particles, by spray drying, for possible application to a dry powder coating process. Dry powder coating consists of spraying a fine powder and a plasticizer on particles. The efficiency of the coating is linked to the powder morphological and dimensional characteristics. Different experimental parameters of the spray-drying process were analyzed, including type of solvent, starch concentration, rate of polymer feeding, pressure of the atomizing air, drying air flow, and temperature of drying air. An optimization and screening of the experimental parameters by a design of the experiment (DOE) approach have been done. Finally, the produced spray-dried starch particles were conveniently tested in a dry coating process, in comparison to the commercial initial starch. The obtained results, in terms of coating efficiency, demonstrated that the spray-dried particles led to a sharp increase of coating efficiency value.
PMCID: PMC2974136  PMID: 20706878
dry coating; microparticles; spray drying; starch
18.  A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets 
Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics.
PMCID: PMC3124395  PMID: 21720502
scopolamine hydrobromide; chitosan; nanoparticles-in-microparticles system; spray-drying; orally disintegrating tablets
19.  Formulation development and rheological studies of palatable cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride dry powder suspension 
Background and the purpose of the study
Because of its intense bitter taste and susceptibility to moisture Cefetamet Pivoxil (CPH) is presently available only in the form of tablet. The aim of this study was to develop taste masked CPH dry powder suspension.
Methods employed for formulations were: a) Film coating of CPH using Eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers such as spray-dried lactose, sodium starch glycolate and spray-dried mannitol and b) Complexation of CPH with three different ion exchange resins indion 234 amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69.
Taste viz evaluation as recognized by volunteers revealed that coating with Eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers do not mask the bitter taste of the drug. Suspensions prepared using amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69 were extremely palatable with no bitter after taste. They showed pseudoplastic flow behavior and were too viscous even after shearing for sufficient duration of time and exhibited poor pourability. The suspension made with indion 234 was palatable with slight or no bitter after taste. It demonstrated plastic flow with negligible thixotropy. It had moderate viscosity at rest and could be poured after a reasonable amount of shaking. CPH dry powder suspensions were very unstable under different conditions except under refrigeration. A 5% degradation of drug was occurred in reconstituted suspension in 4 days period when stored at room temperature.
Dry powder suspension prepared with indion 234 having 5% overages was stable even after 4th day of reconstitution and palatable with slight or no bitter after taste.
PMCID: PMC3232094  PMID: 22615648
Complexation; Indion 239; Thixotropy; Eudragit E100
20.  Evaluation of Ionotropic Cross-Linked Chitosan/Gelatin B Microspheres of Tramadol Hydrochloride 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;12(1):28-34.
Microspheres of tramadol hydrochloride (TM) for oral delivery were prepared by complex coacervation method without the use of chemical cross-linking agents such as glutaraldehyde to avoid the toxic reactions and other undesirable effects of the chemical cross-linking agents. Alternatively, ionotropic gelation was employed by using sodium-tripolyphosphate as cross-linking agent. Chitosan and gelatin B were used as polymer and copolymer, respectively. All the prepared microspheres were subjected to various physicochemical studies, such as drug–polymer compatibility by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, frequency distribution, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release characteristics and release kinetics. The physical state of drug in the microspheres was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TLC and FTIR studies indicated no drug–polymer incompatibility. All the microspheres showed initial burst release followed by a fickian diffusion mechanism. DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the TM trapped in the microspheres existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. From the preliminary trials, it was observed that it may be possible to formulate TM microspheres by using biodegradable natural polymers such as chitosan and gelatin B to overcome the drawbacks of TM and to increase the patient compliance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9537-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3066349  PMID: 21161459
chitosan; complex coacervation; gelatin B; microspheres; tramadol hydrochloride
21.  Formulation and evalution of montelukast sodium - chitosan based spray dried microspheres for pulmonary drug delivery 
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences  2012;4(Suppl 1):S110-S111.
The objective of present work was to prepare microspheres of montelukast sodium using a natural polymer- chitosan by spray drying method by using glutaraldehyde as a cross linking agent. The microspheres were characterized for size, shape, dissolution, swelling and mucoadhesion. It was observed that, all microspheres were spherical in shape with narrow size distribution. Microspheres had mean particle size of 7-12 μm, with % encapsulation efficiency of 78-86%. The % yield was 32-49% and drug load was 48-53%. With the increase in proportion of chitosan in formulation mucoadhesive strength was increase and also increased in particle size of microspheres. As the drug:polymer ratio increase drug loading was increase and % encapsulation efficiency was also increase.
PMCID: PMC3467819  PMID: 23066182
Chitosan; gluteraldehyde; microspheres; montelukast sodium; mucosdhesion; spray dryer
22.  Physicochemical Characterization, in vitro Release and Permeation Studies of Respirable Rifampicin-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes 
The inclusion complexes of rifampicin with sucralose and β-cyclodextrins were prepared by spray drying method. The complexes were characterized by size analyses, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction methods. The results indicated the amorphous nature of resultant products. The solubility, in vitro release and skin permeation of the drug were enhanced after formation of inclusion complexes. The in vitro release and permeation of the inclusion complexes were greater in simulated lung fluid as compared to pure drug.
PMCID: PMC2846468  PMID: 20376216
Rifampicin; β-cyclodextrins; inclusion complexes; in vitro release; spray drying
23.  Development of Budesonide Microparticles Using Spray-Drying Technology for Pulmonary Administration: Design, Characterization, In Vitro Evaluation, and In Vivo Efficacy Study 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2009;10(3):993-1012.
The purpose of this research was to generate, characterize, and investigate the in vivo efficacy of budesonide (BUD) microparticles prepared by spray-drying technology with a potential application as carriers for pulmonary administration with sustained-release profile and improved respirable fraction. Microspheres and porous particles of chitosan (drug/chitosan, 1:2) were prepared by spray drying using optimized process parameters and were characterized for different physicochemical parameters. Mass median aerodynamic diameter and geometric standard deviation for conventional, microspheres, and porous particles formulations were 2.75, 4.60, and 4.30 µm and 2.56, 1.75, and 2.54, respectively. Pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats by intratracheal administration of either placebo or developed dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated (Ka, Ke, Tmax, Cmax, AUC, and Vd) and these results indicated that developed formulations extended half life compared to conventional formulation with onefold to fourfold improved local and systemic bioavailability. Estimates of relative bioavailability suggested that developed formulations have excellent lung deposition characteristics with extended T1/2 from 9.4 to 14 h compared to conventional formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity of BUD and developed formulations was compared and found to be similar. Cytotoxicity was determined in A549 alveolar epithelial cell line and found to be not toxic. In vivo pulmonary deposition of developed conventional formulation was studied using gamma scintigraphy and results indicated potential in vitro–in vivo correlation in performance of conventional BUD DPI formulation. From the DPI formulation prepared with porous particles, the concentration of BUD increased fourfold in the lungs, indicating pulmonary targeting potential of developed formulations.
PMCID: PMC2802174  PMID: 19649711
budesonide; dry powder inhaler; gamma scintigraphy; microparticles; spray drying
24.  Taste Masking by Spray-Drying Technique 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2008;9(4):1159-1164.
The purpose of this research was to develop the taste-masked microspheres of intensely bitter drug ondansetron hydrochloride (OSH) by spray-drying technique. The bitter taste threshold value of OSH was determined. Three different polymers viz. Chitosan, Methocel E15 LV, and Eudragit E100 were used for microsphere formation, and the effect of different polymers and drug–polymer ratios on the taste masking and release properties of microspheres was investigated. The microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Drug loading, in vitro bitter taste evaluation, and drug-release properties. The taste masking was absent in methocel microspheres at all the drug–polymer ratios. The Eudragit microspheres depicted taste masking at 1:2 drug–polymer ratio whereas with Chitosan microspheres the taste masking was achieved at 1:1 drug–polymer ratio. The drug release was about 96.85% for eudragit microspheres and 40.07% for Chitosan microspheres in 15 min.
PMCID: PMC2628278  PMID: 19016332
microspheres; spray drying; taste masking
25.  Biodegradable nano-micro carrier systems for sustained pulmonary drug delivery: (I) Self-assembled nanoparticles encapsulated in respirable/swellable semi-IPN microspheres 
International journal of pharmaceutics  2010;395(0):10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.05.032.
Design of appropriate inhaled carriers with adequate aerodynamic properties, drug release, biodegradation and evasion of macrophage uptake is a major challenge for controlled release pulmonary drug delivery. In this study, PEG graft copolymerized onto N-phthaloyl chitosan (NPHCs) was synthesized then characterized using FTIR, EA, DSC and 2D-XRD. The resulting PEG-g-NPHCs copolymers were self-assembled into drug loaded nanoparticles and encapsulated in respirable/swellable sodium alginate semi-IPN hydrogel microspheres as novel biodegradable carriers for controlled release pulmonary drug delivery. The developed nano-/microspheres carrier systems were formed via spray drying followed by ionotropic crosslinking in mild aqueous medium. The size of the developed self-assembled nanoparticles and the microspheres was measured using dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction, respectively. Morphology, moisture content, in-vitro biodegradation and dynamic swelling studies were also investigated for the developed carriers. A model protein was entrapped and the in-vitro release profiles were determined in PBS, pH 7.4 at 37°C. A dry powder aerosolization study was conducted using a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The developed microspheres had suitable aerodynamic diameters (1.02–2.63 μm) and an excellent fine particle fraction, FPF of 31.52%. The microspheres showed also a very fast initial swelling within the first 2 min and started to enzymatically degrade within the first two hours. Moreover, the microspheres entrapped up 90% of the model drug and showed promising in-vitro sustained release profiles as compared to the control formulation.
PMCID: PMC3654806  PMID: 20580794
Nanoparticles; microspheres; chitosan; PEG; pulmonary; sustained; lung; drug delivery

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