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1.  Membrane Fc-IgG and C3b receptors on myeloid leukaemia cells: a comparison with cytoplasmic acid naphthyl acetate esterase cytochemistry. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1983;36(5):555-558.
Membrane receptors for IgG and C3b were examined on blast cells from 57 cases of acute myeloid leukaemia. These acute leukaemias were classified as myeloblastic, myelomonocytic or monocytic following morphological, cytochemical, and immunological investigations. The membrane receptors of leukaemic blast cells appear to be directly related to the degree of monocytic differentiation with the lowest receptor activities found in acute myeloblastic leukaemia. A comparison was also made between receptor and cytoplasmic acid naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) activities in 29 morphologically and immunologically-defined myelomonocytic and monocytic leukaemias. This study revealed that the receptor-positive "monocytic component" in a significant proportion of cases showed unexpectedly weak or negative ANAE reactions suggesting a more cautious approach to the interpretation of ANAE cytochemistry in acute leukaemias. The normal development of cytoplasmic ANAE and membrane receptors is also discussed and compared with their abnormal patterns of expression associated with leukaemic transformation.
PMCID: PMC498285  PMID: 6221035
2.  The phosphatidylserine receptors, T cell immunoglobulin mucin proteins 3 and 4, are markers of histiocytic sarcoma and other histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms 
Human pathology  2010;41(10):1486-1494.
The T cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) proteins are a family of cell surface phosphatidyserine receptors that are important for the recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Because TIM-4 is expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells in human tissue, we examined its expression in a range of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms and found moderate to strong immunohistochemical staining in cases of juvenile xanthogranuloma and histiocytic sarcoma, and lower level staining in interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, acute monocytic leukemia (leukemia cutis), and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (hematodermic tumor). TIM-3 was first described on activated TH1 cells but was recently shown to also be a phosphatidylserine receptor and mediate phagocytosis. We found TIM-3 was expressed by peritoneal macrophages, monocytes and splenic dendritic cells. We found that it, like TIM-4, is expressed in a range of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, typically with strong immunohistochemical staining. Cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, metastatic malignant melanoma, and metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma generally exhibited negative to minimal heterogenous staining for TIM-4 and TIM-3. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms consistently express TIM-3 and TIM-4 and that these molecules are new markers of neoplasms derived from histiocytic and dendritic cells.
PMCID: PMC3115740  PMID: 20656318
Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma; Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma; Juvenile xanthogranuloma; Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm; Leukemia cutis; Langerhans cell histiocytosis; T cell immunoglobulin mucin protein
3.  TDT (-), KIT (+), CD34 (+), CD99 (+) precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma 
Although the definition of precursor T lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is based only on histopathology, most cases cannot be diagnosed only by HE sections. Since 95% of T-LBL expresses TdT and TdT is expressed only in lymphoblasts, immunohistochemical demonstration of TdT is mandatory for the diagnosis of TLBL. However, little is known about the expression of other precursor cell molecules. A 58-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome (RAEB) became overt acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). She was treated twice with allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from her son. Nine months later, imaging modalities detected a soft tissue tumor around the left ileal bone. A biopsy was performed. Histologically, the tumor cells were malignant polymorphic lymphoid cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells are positive for CD45, CD45RO, CD34, KIT (CD117), CD99 (MIC-2), p53, CD10, PDGFRA, and Ki67 (labeling=60%). They were negative for pancytokeratin AE1/3, pancytokeratin CAM5.2, TdT, CD3, CD20, CD79α, CD43, CD56, CD57, CD30, bcl-2, κ-chain, λ-chain, cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, synaptophysin, chromogranin, smooth muscle actin, p63, MPO, CD68, lysozyme, and ASD esterase. Although TdT was negative, other precursor cell markers (KIT, CD34, and CD99) were positive and the lymphoid cells showed T-cell lineage, the diagnosis was T-LBL. The patient died of lymphoma/ leukemia 11 months after the diagnosis. The author stress that TdT, KIT, CD34 and CD99 should be included in panels of precursor T-cell neoplasms. In addition, the author think that KIT, CD34 and CD99 are helpful for the diagnosis of T-LBL in cases negative for TdT. Further, it is unique that this case was not myeloid sarcoma but precursor T-cell neoplasm, and that T-LBL develops during AML.
PMCID: PMC3294232  PMID: 22400079
Precursor T-cell neoplasm; TdT; histopathology; immunohistochemistry
4.  Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Presenting as Fever with Diffuse Cutaneous Nodules 
Indian Journal of Dermatology  2012;57(1):45-47.
A young man, presented with high-grade fever and disseminated asymptomatic skin lesions of 6-weeks duration. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple infiltrated monomorphic skin-colored papules and nodules upto 2×2 cm all over scalp, face, trunk and extremities. Light microscopy of nodules showed diffuse infiltration of dermis and subcutis by a tumor composed of medium to large cells with round to ovoid nuclei with fine chromatin, few with visible nucleoli and scanty to moderate amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumor cells were positive for CD4, CD8, CD56 and negative for CD30, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and Alk-1. Excised axillary lymph node showed similar morphologic and immunohistochemical findings. There was bone marrow involvement with infiltrate of large atypical/immature lymphoid cells. Diagnosis of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm was made. This is a rare neoplasm. presenting commonly in the skin, with or without concurrent extracutaneous disease.
PMCID: PMC3312657  PMID: 22470209
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm; cutaneous nodules; fever
5.  Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinical pathological study and literature review 
Plasmacytoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder or plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) is a rare and only recently described histological variant of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). We herein report the clinical and histopathological features for a new case of PUC. By combining with those reported cases, we intend to define the characteristics of PUC and to provide a therapeutic and prognostic guidance for this disease.
Materials and Methods
The index case at our institution was a patient with complaint of lower abdominal pain but without any urological symptoms. The patient underwent radical cystectomy, and the representative sections of tumor were submitted for immunohistochemical analysis. The data for this patient were collected from clinical charts, histological review and follow-up studies. We also performed an extensive literature review of PUC including clinical presentation, pathological features, therapy and prognosis.
Clinically, patients with PUC are associated with nonspecific abdominal pain but absent of hematuria. Cystoscopy analysis revealed that PUC is manifested by the coarse and indurated mucosal fold. Macroscopic studies demonstrated an ulcerated firm mass which was present in the left lateral wall of the bladder. Histologically, PUC appeared to be dyscohesive, plasmacytoid cells with eccentric nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with characteristics of plasmacytoid morphology. The tumor cells are negative for E-cadherin, but positive for CD138 expression. This particular patient died 3 months after the radical cystectomy and one course of adjuvant chemotherapy. Literature review revealed that most PUC cases showed similar clinical and pathological features along with poor prognosis.
PUC is a rare tumor associated with poor prognosis due to its advanced clinical stage upon its diagnosis. The delayed diagnosis is mainly due to the late occurrence of hematuria and absence of papulary mucosal surface at cystoscopy. Diagnosis can be achieved based on its typical histological features, clinical history and immunohistochemical results. Other than radical cystectomy, postoperative adjuvant treatment could be a good approach to prolong the survival time of PUC patients.
PMCID: PMC3430099  PMID: 22949945
Urinary bladder; plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma; cystectomy
6.  Characterization of Uterine Granular Cell Tumors in B6C3F1 Mice: A Histomorphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study 
Veterinary pathology  2008;45(5):654-662.
The granular cell tumor is most often a benign neoplasm of uncertain origin. Four uterine granular cell tumors in control and treated female B6C3F1 mice were identified in chronic studies at the National Toxicology Program. Two tumors occurred in untreated control animals and 2 in treated animals receiving different compounds. Tissue sections were evaluated histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid–Schiff with diastase resistance, Masson’s trichrome, toluidine blue, phosphotungstic acid–hematoxylin, and stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies to muscle (desmin, alpha smooth muscle actin), neural (S-100, neuron specific enolase), epithelial (wide-spectrum cytokeratin), and macrophage (F4/80) markers. The main histomorphologic feature of tumor cells was the presence of abundant cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules that stained positive for periodic acid–Schiff with diastase resistance. Tumors varied in appearance and were comprised of sheets and nests of round to polygonal cells with distinct borders. Nuclei were hyperchromatic, pleomorphic, and centrally to eccentrically located and often contained single nucleoli. Occasional multinucleated giant cells were observed. Tumors were pale pink and homogeneous with trichrome stain and negative with toluidine blue. Three tumors had positive to weakly positive immunoreactivity for desmin, and 1 was positive for alpha smooth muscle actin. Expression of S-100, wide-spectrum cytokeratin, and neuron-specific enolase was negative for all tumors. Ultrastructurally, prominent electron-dense cytoplasmic granules were abundant and contained secondary lysosomes with heterogeneous lysosomal contents. The characteristics of these uterine granular cell tumors were suggestive of a myogenic origin.
PMCID: PMC2691646  PMID: 18725470
B6C3F1 mouse; cytoplasmic granules; granular cell tumor; immunohistochemistry; secondary lysosomes; ultrastructure; uterus
7.  Expression of the 6C3 antigen on murine hematopoietic neoplasms. Association with expression of abl, ras, fes, src, erbB, and Cas NS-1 oncogenes but not with myc 
The monoclonal antibody 6C3 was used to test a wide variety of murine hematopoietic neoplasms for cell surface expression of a 160 kD glycoprotein (gp160(6C3)) previously shown to be expressed by neoplastic pre-B and some B lymphocytes transformed by Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). This antigen was expressed on many pre-B and B cell lymphomas, but not on A-MuLV-transformed fibroblasts, T cell lymphomas, or myelomonocytic leukemias, gp160(6C3) was expressed by most early B-lineage spontaneous tumors, and early B tumors induced by replication-defective MuLV-containing oncogenes the products of which are associated with the cytoplasmic aspect of the plasma membrane, i.e., fes, abl, H-ras, bas, src, erbB, and Cas NS-1. By comparison, none of the early B lineage lymphomas induced by the "nuclear" oncogene avian v-myc MuLV, or arising in mice transgenic for a murine c-myc gene, or later B cell lineage stages bearing translocations of the c- myc locus expressed this antigen.
PMCID: PMC2188273  PMID: 3493323
8.  Cytochemical comparison of immunologically characterized human leukaemia/lymphoma cell lines representing different levels of maturation. 
British Journal of Cancer  1983;47(6):771-779.
Forty-seven human leukaemia/lymphoma cell lines belonging to myelocytic, monocytic, non-T/non-B, T-, and B-lineage and representing different levels of maturation as well as fresh cells from normal and leukaemic subjects were examined for immunological markers and cytochemically for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (pH 5.8 and 8.0), alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase (pH 5.8 and 8.0), non-specific esterase, chloroacetate esterase, chymotrypsin-like protease, deoxyribonuclease II, beta-glucuronidase, sudan black, and periodic acid Schiff's staining. Strong sudan black, nonspecific esterase, and chloroacetate esterase reaction was obtained only for myelocytic and monocytic cell lines with the reaction intensity increasing progressively in more mature cells. Focal acid phosphatase reaction like T-ALL was found in all T-ALL cell lines, whereas myeloid/monocytoid lines had semicircular distribution and B-cell lines cytoplasmic distribution of activity. Acid phosphatase activity appeared to decline with maturation along both myeloid and T-cell lineage. High activity of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase and alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase both at pH 5.8 and 8.0 and of beta-glucuronidase was found in myeloid/monocytoid lines although both B- and T-cell lines in contrast to peripheral blood B-cells also had significant esterase activity. alpha-Naphthyl butyrate esterase activity declined with increasing cell maturation along myeloid lineage. Except for weak activity in two B-cell lines alkaline phosphatase was not detected in any cell lines. Monocyte esterase activity was inhibited by sodium fluoride whereas acid phosphatase, only from hairy cell leukaemia line, was resistant to L-tartarate. Although periodic acid Schiff's staining could not distinguish myeloid, T-, B-, or non-T/non-B cell lines it gave characteristic reaction (large number of coarse granules against a clear background forming a ring around the nucleus) with erythroblastic leukaemia cell line and along myeloid series its intensity increased in more mature cells. Deoxyribonuclease II and chymotrypsin-like protease staining were not discriminatory. The results of this study show that cytochemical staining characteristics of various leukaemia/lymphoma cell lines are comparable to those of corresponding cells from patients and that the intensity and pattern of expression of these activities are related to cell type and degree of cell maturation. These studies give further credence to the use of these cell lines in cell differentiation, differential drug cytotoxicity, and many other studies.
PMCID: PMC2011361  PMID: 6190491
9.  Sustained complete remission of a limited-stage blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm followed by a simultaneous combination of low-dose DeVIC therapy and radiation therapy: a case report and review of the literature 
The patient was a 74-year-old man who was found to have a cutaneous mass on his left shoulder in February 2012. Because the mass bled easily and was tending to grow, total resection of the cutaneous tumor, which measured approximately 5 cm x 3 cm, was performed in July. Histopathological examination revealed a tumor that extended from the dermis to the cutaneous adipose tissue, but no invasion of the epidermis was seen. The tumor cells were plasmacytoid cells ranging in size from small to intermediate, and there was no nuclear irregularity. They had a high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, and nucleoli were observed. The tumor cells were CD4-positive, CD56-positive, and CD123-positive, and they were AE1/AE3-negative, CD3-negative, CD20-negative, and myeloperoxidase-negative. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), a bone marrow examination, etc., were performed, but no lesions were detected at other sites. Based on the above findings a diagnosis of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN), Stage IEA, was made. Because the patient had limited-stage BPDCN and was elderly, we treated him with a simultaneous combination of low-dose DeVIC (dexamethasone, VP16, ifosfamide, and carboplatin) therapy and local radiation therapy (LRT) and sustained a complete remission for approximately 1 year. Simultaneous combination of non-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy and LRT appeared to be useful in the treatment of limited-stage BPDCN even in the elderly.
PMCID: PMC3816834  PMID: 24228127
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm; DeVIC; local radiation therapy; CD4; CD56; CD123
10.  CD4+CD56+ Lineage Negative Hematopoietic Neoplasm : So Called Blastic NK Cell Lymphoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(2):319-324.
Blastic natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by blastoid tumor cells expressing CD4 and CD56, with predominant skin involvement. Although this tumor has been regarded as a neoplasm related to NK cell, recent studies suggested that it is derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but not from NK cell. Herein we report 4 cases of CD4+CD56+ lineage marker- blastic NK cell lymphomas with a review of literatures. The patients were 3 men and one woman. Three of them were young (17, 18, and 22 yr old). Three patients had skin lesions, at initial presentation in two patients and during the course of disease in other patient. Histologically, tumors consisted of monotonous medium to large blastoid cells showing no necrosis, angiocentric growth or epidermotrophism. All four tumors were CD4+ and CD56+. Three expressed CD68 antigen. Lineage specific markers for B- and T cell were negative. All tumors did not express myeloperoxidase. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement, EBV, CD13 and CD33 were negative. In one patient, tumor cells arranged in Homer-Wright type pseudorosette and expressed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). Despite the standard lymphoma chemotherapy, the tumors, except one lost during follow-up, progressed and relapsed. The patients died 8-60 months after diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC2808614  PMID: 15832009
Killer Cells, Natural; Lymphoma; Lymphoma, Blastic NK Cell; DNTTIP1 protein, human; Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell
11.  Increased c-Jun Expression and Reduced GATA2 Expression Promote Aberrant Monocytic Differentiation Induced by Activating PTPN11 Mutants▿ § 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2009;29(16):4376-4393.
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is characterized by myelomonocytic cell overproduction and commonly bears activating mutations in PTPN11. Murine hematopoietic progenitors expressing activating Shp2 undergo myelomonocytic differentiation, despite being subjected to conditions that normally support only mast cells. Evaluation of hematopoietic-specific transcription factor expression indicates reduced GATA2 and elevated c-Jun in mutant Shp2-expressing progenitors. We hypothesized that mutant Shp2-induced Ras hyperactivation promotes c-Jun phosphorylation and constitutive c-Jun expression, permitting, as a coactivator of PU.1, excessive monocytic differentiation and reduced GATA2. Hematopoietic progenitors expressing activating Shp2 demonstrate enhanced macrophage CFU (CFU-M) compared to that of wild-type Shp2-expressing cells. Treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or cotransduction with GATA2 normalizes activating Shp2-generated CFU-M. However, cotransduction of ΔGATA2 (lacking the C-terminal zinc finger, needed to bind PU.1) fails to normalize CFU-M. NIH 3T3 cells expressing Shp2E76K produce higher levels of luciferase expression directed by the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (MCSFR) promoter, which utilizes c-Jun as a coactivator of PU.1. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrates increased c-Jun-PU.1 complexes in mutant Shp2-expressing hematopoietic progenitors, while chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates increased c-Jun binding to the c-Jun promoter and an increased c-Jun-PU.1 complex at the Mcsfr promoter. Furthermore, JMML progenitors express higher levels of c-JUN than healthy controls, substantiating the disease relevance of these mechanistic findings.
PMCID: PMC2725726  PMID: 19528235
12.  A novel tumor suppressor function for the Notch pathway in myeloid leukemia 
Nature  2011;473(7346):230-233.
Notch signaling is a central regulator of differentiation in a variety of organisms and tissue types1. Its activity is controlled by the multi-subunit γ–secretase complex (γSE) complex2. Although Notch signaling can play both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in solid tumors, in the hematopoietic system, it is exclusively oncogenic, notably in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a disease characterized by Notch1 activating mutations3. Here we identify novel somatic inactivating Notch pathway mutations in a fraction of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients. Inactivation of Notch signaling in mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) resulted in an aberrant accumulation of granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMP), extramedullary hematopoieisis and the induction of CMML-like disease. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Notch signaling regulates an extensive myelomonocytic-specific gene signature, through the direct suppression of gene transcription by the Notch target Hes1. Our studies identify a novel role for Notch signaling during early hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and suggest that the Notch pathway can play both tumor-promoting and suppressive roles within the same tissue.
PMCID: PMC3093658  PMID: 21562564
13.  Cleaved variant of plasmacytoma with myelomonocytic differentiation--immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1997;12(5):443-446.
Although plasma cells are terminally differentiated B cells, neoplastic plasma cells frequently express not only pre-B cell antigen, but also megakaryocytic, myelomonocytic, or erythroid markers. Since morphologic diagnosis of plasmacytoma is based on the recognition of neoplastic cells closely resembling normal plasma cells, unusual morphologic variants of neoplastic cells associated with these aberrant immunohistochemical features frequently cause diagnostic difficulty. The authors report a case of plasmacytoma with cleaved nuclei and myelomonocytic features occurring in the clavicle. The tumor was composed of immature plasma cells showing irregular, cleaved, and multilobated nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with prominent eosinophilic granules. A few tumor cells showing recognizable plasmacytic differentiation were admixed within the tumor. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed CD45RB, CD68, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and kappa light chain with focal positivity for lambda chain. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells contained numerous membrane bound electron dense lysosomal granules, some of them resembling Auer rods, as well as rough endoplasmic reticula arranged in lamellated stacks. Small biopsied nasal mucosal tissue in same patient revealed well differentiated plasmacytoma composed of tumor cells showing round, eccentric nuclei devoid of marked nuclear cleavage and cytoplasmic granularity. Immunohistochemically, these cells were kappa(+), lambda(-), myeloperoxidase(-), lysozyme(-) and CD68(-).
PMCID: PMC3054300  PMID: 9364303
14.  Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm: A Rapidly Progressive and Fatal Disease without Aggressive Intervention 
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive myeloid neoplasm derived from plasmacytoid monocytes. The most common presentation involves cutaneous manifestations, which are often accompanied by bone marrow involvement. The tumor cells reveal an immature blastic appearance and diagnosis is based on the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)4 and CD56. The literature reports a high relapse rate and poor prognosis when treated with leukemia-type induction chemotherapy alone; however, long-term remission is attainable with allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the first complete remission. Here, we report the dismal course of a patient with BPDCN with cutaneous and bone marrow involvement unable to undergo an aggressive intervention.
PMCID: PMC3873170  PMID: 24385715
blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm; natural killer-cell lymphoma; BPDCN; neoplasm
15.  Palatal plasmacytoid myoepithelioma 
Myoepitheliomas are benign neoplasms of salivary glands derived from myoepithelial cells. These tumors can occur at any age but are most common in young adults. This tumor is usually located in the parotid gland and the minor salivary glands of the soft palate and represents less than 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The myoepithelioma is classified in the follow cells types: spindle, plasmacytoid, reticular, epitheliod, and clear, additionally, mixed histological forms are described. The plasmacytoid myoepithelioma from palate salivary glands is considered as a rare entity. A 45-year-old lady presented with an asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, solid mass located on the hard palate, which was gradually increasing in size. A clinical impression of Pleomorphic Adenoma was made which on histopathological examination revealed cords, clusters, and sheets of homogenous, large cells with plasmacytoid characteristics and a prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm. Ductal and acinar differentiation were absent thus ruling out the pleomorphic adenoma, whereas, features consistent with plasmacytoid myoepithelioma were evident.
PMCID: PMC3544089  PMID: 23326808
Myoepithelioma; minor salivary gland tumor; plasmacytoid
16.  Hematopoietic expression of oncogenic BRAF promotes aberrant growth of monocyte-lineage cells resistant to PLX4720 
Molecular cancer research : MCR  2013;11(12):10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-13-0294.
Mutational activation of BRAF leading to expression of the BRAFV600E oncoprotein was recently identified in a high percentage of specific hematopoietic neoplasms in monocyte/histiocyte and mature B-cell lineages. Although BRAFV600E is a driver oncoprotein and pharmacological target in solid tumors such as melanoma, lung and thyroid cancer, it remains unknown whether BRAFV600E is an appropriate therapeutic target in hematopoietic neoplasms. To address this critical question, we generated a mouse model expressing inducible BRAFV600E in the hematopoietic system, and evaluated the efficacy of pathway-targeted therapeutics against primary hematopoietic cells. In this model, BRAFV600E expression conferred cytokine-independent growth to monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors leading to aberrant in vivo and in vitro monocyte/macrophage expansion. Furthermore, transplantation of BRAFV600E-expressing bone marrow cells promoted an in vivo pathology most notable for monocytosis in hematopoietic tissues and visceral organs. In vitro analysis revealed that MEK inhibition, but not RAF inhibition, effectively suppressed cytokine-independent clonal growth of monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors. However, combined RAF and PI3K inhibition effectively inhibited cytokine-independent colony formation, suggesting autocrine PI3K pathway activation. Taken together, these results provide evidence that constitutively activated BRAFV600E drives aberrant proliferation of monocyte-lineage cells. This study supports the development of pathway-targeted therapeutics in the treatment of BRAFV600E-expressing hematopoietic neoplasms in the monocyte/histiocyte lineage.
PMCID: PMC3869667  PMID: 24152792
BRAFV600E; Monocytosis; Pathway-targeted therapeutics; Mouse model
17.  Adenovirus Types 11p and 35p Show High Binding Efficiencies for Committed Hematopoietic Cell Lines and Are Infective to These Cell Lines 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(3):1457-1467.
Hematopoietic cells are attractive targets for gene therapy. However, no satisfactory vectors are currently available. A major problem with the most commonly used adenovirus vectors, based on adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) or Ad5, is their low binding efficiency for hematopoietic cells. In this study we identify two adenovirus serotypes with high affinity for hematopoietic cells. The binding efficiency of prototype serotypes Ad4p, Ad11p, and Ad35p for different committed hematopoietic cell lines representing T cells (Jurkat), B cells (DG75), monocytes (U937-2), myeloblasts (K562), and granulocytes (HL-60) was evaluated and compared to that of Ad5v, the commonly used adenovirus vector, using flow cytometry. In contrast to Ad5v, which bound to less than 10% of the cells in all experiments, Ad11p and Ad35p showed high binding efficiency for all of the different hematopoietic cell lines. Ad4p bound to the lymphocytic cell lines to some extent but less well to the myelomonocytic cell lines. The abilities of the different serotypes to infect, replicate, and form complete infectious particles in the hematopoietic cell lines were also investigated by immunostaining, 35S labeling of viral proteins, and titrations of cell lysates. Ad11p and Ad35p infected the highest proportion of cells, and Ad11p infected all of the cell lines investigated. The Ad11p hexon was expressed equally well in K562 and A549 cells. Jurkat cells also showed high levels of expression of Ad11p hexons, but the production of infectious particles was low. The binding properties of virions were correlated to their ability to infect and be expressed.
PMCID: PMC111481  PMID: 10627557
18.  Sustained MEK inhibition abrogates myeloproliferative disease in Nf1 mutant mice  
Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are predisposed to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. Conditional inactivation of the Nf1 tumor suppressor in hematopoietic cells of mice causes a progressive MPN that accurately models JMML and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We characterized the effects of Nf1 loss on immature hematopoietic populations and investigated treatment with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 (hereafter called 901). Somatic Nf1 inactivation resulted in a marked expansion of immature and lineage-committed myelo-erythroid progenitors and ineffective erythropoiesis. Treatment with 901 induced a durable drop in leukocyte counts, enhanced erythropoietic function, and markedly reduced spleen sizes in mice with MPN. MEK inhibition also restored a normal pattern of erythroid differentiation and greatly reduced extramedullary hematopoiesis. Remarkably, genetic analysis revealed the persistence of Nf1-deficient hematopoietic cells, indicating that MEK inhibition modulates the proliferation and differentiation of Nf1 mutant cells in vivo rather than eliminating them. These data provide a rationale for performing clinical trials of MEK inhibitors in patients with JMML and CMML.
PMCID: PMC3533281  PMID: 23221337
19.  Plasmacytoid adenocarcinoma of the lung 
Plasmacytoid adenocarcinoma of the lung has not been reported. Herein reported is the first case of plasmacytoid adenocarcinoma of the lung. A 68-year-old man presented with cough and sputum. X-P and CT demonstrated a large tumor (10 x 10 x 9 cm) in the right upper lobe. CT-guided needle biopsy was performed. The biopsy showed plasmacytoid malignant cells. The malignant cells were small, had eccentrically located nuclei, perinuclear halo, and basophilic cytoplasm. No mucins were observed by mucins stains. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratin AE1/3, pancytokeratin CAM5.2, TTF-1, Ki-67 (labeling 70%), CA19-9, and p53. They were negative for neuron specific enolase, CEA, CD45, CD68, chromogranin, synaptophysin, surfactant apoprotein A, CDX-2, κ-chain, λ-chain, KIT, and PDGFRA. Since epithelial markers and adenocarcinoma markers were positive, the pathological diagnosis was plasmacytoid adenocarcinoma of lung. The patient is now treated with chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3365823  PMID: 22670180
Lung; plasmacytoid adenocarcinoma; histopathology; immunohistochemistry
20.  An unusual case of Primary Effusion Lymphoma with aberrant T-cell phenotype in a HIV-negative, HBV-positive, cirrhotic patient, and review of the literature 
CytoJournal  2012;9:16.
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an unusual, human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)–associated type of lymphoma, presenting as lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, without a detectable tumor mass. It primarily affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but has also been described in other immunocompromised individuals. Although PEL is a B-cell lymphoma, the neoplastic cells are usually of the ‘null’ phenotype by immunocytochemistry. This report describes a case of PEL with T-cell phenotype in a HIV-negative patient and reviews all the relevant cases published until now. Our patient suffered from cirrhosis associated with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and presented with a large ascitic effusion, in the absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy or solid mass within either the abdomen or the thorax. Paracentesis disclosed large lymphoma cells with anaplastic features consisting of moderate cytoplasm and single or occasionally multiple irregular nuclei with single or multiple prominent nucleoli. Immunocytochemically, these cells were negative for both CD3 and CD20, but showed a positive reaction for T-cell markers CD43 and CD45RO (VCHL-1). Furthermore, the neoplastic cells revealed strong positivity for EMA and CD30, but they lacked expression of ALK-1, TIA-1, and Perforin. The immune status for both HHV-8 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was evaluated and showed positive immunostaining only for the former. The combination of the immunohistochemistry results with the existence of a clonal rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (identified by PCR), were compatible with the diagnosis of PEL. The presence of T-cell markers was consistent with the diagnosis of PEL with an aberrant T-cell phenotype.
PMCID: PMC3424686  PMID: 22919423
Cirrhosis; HHV-8; HIV; HBV; primary effusion lymphoma
21.  Myeloid Malignancies and the Marrow Microenvironment: Some Recent Studies in Patients with MDS 
Current cancer therapy reviews  2009;5(4):310-314.
There is growing evidence for a role of the hemopoietic microenvironment in the pathophysiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Effects of various cytokines on the marrow microenvironment of patients with MDS have been studied. Autoimmunity, i.e. a reaction of autologous T lymphocytes against components of the marrow is also operative in a proportion of patients with MDS. The negative feed-back loop that controls tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α levels in healthy individuals is apparently disrupted in MDS due to auto-amplification signals involving TNFα and interleukin (IL-32). IL-32 mRNA levels in primary adherent cells from patients with MDS are 14- to 17-fold higher than in controls. In contrast, cells from patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), a myeloproliferative disorder with low TNFα levels, express IL-32 at only 1/10 the level observed in controls. Damage in the microenvironment may occur secondary to oxidative stress, which may also lead to accelerated shortening of telomeres. This is, indeed, true for hematopoietic cells in MDS marrow, but telomere length in marrow stroma does not differ from that in age-matched healthy individuals. Nevertheless, the stroma shows functional aberrancies. Stroma-derived signals facilitate apoptosis in clonal hematopoietic cells but not in normal CD34+ cells. Thus while stroma dysfunction is likely due to signals derived from the hematopoietic clone rather than being intrinsic, it does affect clonal death or survival, respectively. Therefore, signals exchanged between both compartments could serve as targets for therapeutic interventions.
PMCID: PMC2840261  PMID: 20305828
Marrow stroma; MDS; Telomere; IL-32
22.  Transcription intermediary factor 1γ is a tumor suppressor in mouse and human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2011;121(6):2361-2370.
Transcription intermediary factor 1γ (TIF1γ) was suggested to play a role in erythropoiesis. However, how TIF1γ regulates the development of different blood cell lineages and whether TIF1γ is involved in human hematological malignancies remain to be determined. Here we have shown that TIF1γ was a tumor suppressor in mouse and human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Loss of Tif1g in mouse HSCs favored the expansion of the granulo-monocytic progenitor compartment. Furthermore, Tif1g deletion induced the age-dependent appearance of a cell-autonomous myeloproliferative disorder in mice that recapitulated essential characteristics of human CMML. TIF1γ was almost undetectable in leukemic cells of 35% of CMML patients. This downregulation was related to the hypermethylation of CpG sequences and specific histone modifications in the gene promoter. A demethylating agent restored the normal epigenetic status of the TIF1G promoter in human cells, which correlated with a reestablishment of TIF1γ expression. Together, these results demonstrate that TIF1G is an epigenetically regulated tumor suppressor gene in hematopoietic cells and suggest that changes in TIF1γ expression may be a biomarker of response to demethylating agents in CMML.
PMCID: PMC3104753  PMID: 21537084
23.  Human lung cancer cells express functionally active Toll-like receptor 9 
Respiratory Research  2005;6(1):1.
CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), which induce signaling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), are currently under investigation as adjuvants in therapy against infections and cancer. CpG-ODN function as Th-1 adjuvants and are able to activate dendritic cells. In humans TLR9 has been described to be strongly expressed in B-lymphocytes, monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and at low levels in human respiratory cells. We determined whether a direct interaction of bacterial DNA with the tumor cells themselves is possible and investigated the expression and function of TLR9 in human malignant solid tumors and cell lines. TLR9 expression by malignant tumor cells, would affect treatment approaches using CpG-ODN on the one hand, and, on the other hand, provide additional novel information about the role of tumor cells in tumor-immunology.
The expression of TLR9 in HOPE-fixed non-small lung cancer, non-malignant tissue and tumor cell lines was assessed using immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and DNA-sequencing. Apoptosis and chemokine expression was detected by FACS analysis and the Bio-Plex system.
We found high TLR9 signal intensities in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in the majority of lung cancer specimens as well as in all tested tumor cell lines. In contrast to this non-malignant lung tissues showed only sporadically weak expression. Stimulation of HeLa and A549 cells with CpG-ODN induced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduction of spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis.
Here we show that TLR9 is expressed in a selection of human lung cancer tissues and various tumor cell lines. The expression of functionally active TLR9 in human malignant tumors might affect treatment approaches using CpG-ODN and shows that malignant cells can be regarded as active players in tumor-immunology.
PMCID: PMC544843  PMID: 15631627
24.  Rearrangement and expression of the immunoglobulin μ-chain gene in human myeloid cells 
Immunoglobulin (Ig), a characteristic marker of B cells, has been reported to be expressed in epithelial cells, with a suggested role in their growth and survival. We have previously reported that IgG heavy chain is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but not in the monocytes or neutrophils from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms or healthy controls. In the present study, we assessed IgM heavy chain expression and repertoire in human myeloid cells. We detected VHμDJHμ rearrangement and expression in 7/7 AML cell lines, 7/14 primary myeloblasts from AML patients, and interestingly, 8/20 monocytes and 3/20 neutrophils from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms and healthy individuals. We also found evidence of somatic hypermutation of the variable (V) gene segments in AML-derived IgM gene rearrangements but not in IgM from monocytes or neutrophils from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms and healthy individuals. Furthermore, IgM VHμDJHμ gene rearrangements in AML cell lines, primary myeloblasts, and monocytes and neutrophils from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms showed a restricted V usage and repertoire, whereas the VHμDJHμ gene rearrangements in monocytes and neutrophils from healthy individuals displayed more diversity. Anti-human IgM inhibited cell proliferation, but did not induce apoptosis in AML cell lines. Our findings suggest that AML-derived IgM might be a novel AML-related molecule that is involved in leukemogenesis and AML progression and might serve as a useful molecular marker for designing targeted therapy and monitoring minimal residual disease.
PMCID: PMC4002143  PMID: 24141767
acute myeloid leukemia; IgM; VHμDJHμ gene rearrangements
25.  A case of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with ecchymotic lesions on the whole body 
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors is a very rare, and characterized by cutaneous and bone marrow involvement and leukemic spread. The neoplasm presents with an aggressive behavior, and the clinical findings include cytopenia, particularly thrombocytopenia. The tumor cells are negative for antigens of T- and B- cell lines. However, these cells express CD4, CD56 and CD123, which are markers of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). From this point of view, a 71-year-old man who was initially found to have a cutaneous mass on his face and thorax was reported here, and initially was diagnosed as “eczema”. The skin rashes then became aggravated on a trial of low dose topical corticosteroid for 2 months. According to skin biopsy, the tumor cells reveal an immature blastic appearance and positive for CD4 and CD56, negative for CD3, CD20, indicating a diagnosis of BPDCN. Here, we report the dismal course of a patient with BPDCN without accepting further therapy, and only survived 3 months.
PMCID: PMC4129059  PMID: 25120824
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm; BPDCN; neoplasm

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