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1.  Outcomes assessment of lunate replacement arthroplasty with intrinsic carpal ligament reconstruction in Kienböck’s disease 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2014;9(3):364-369.
With advanced Kienböck’s disease, hyaline cartilage delamination or bone fragmentation render the lunate unsalvageable. Common surgical options are proximal row carpectomy, scaphotrapeziotrapezoid fusion, scaphocapitate fusion, or total wrist fusion. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of one alternative: lunate prosthetic replacement arthroplasty combined with reconstruction of the scapholunate and lunotriquetral interosseous ligaments using the flexor carpi radialis tendon.
Eligible patients with advanced Kienböck’s disease and an unsalvageable lunate were included in this prospective study on a self-selected basis, forming a study group of 13 consecutive patients, 6 males and 7 females with a mean age of 40. Clinical and radiographic measurements were compared at a mean follow-up of 30.3 months from surgery with a paired, single-tailed, Student’s t test using a p value of 0.05 as statistically significant.
Mean preoperative/postoperative clinical measurements were as follows: wrist flexion 29.2°/43.3°, wrist extension 24.2°/53.3°, absolute value grip strength 12.3/31.5 kg, grip strength vs. contralateral 36.5/85.2 %, and DASH scores 39.1/7.7. Mean initial/immediate postoperative/final radiographic measurements were the following: scapholunate angle 64.2°/46.7°/46.4°, radioscaphoid angle 64.6°/42.1°/45°, and modified carpal height ratio 1.20/1.62/1.59. Preoperative to postoperative differences were all statistically significant.
Although these subjective and objective results reflect substantial improvement, there remain recognizable deficiencies in both prosthetic design and surgical strategy that require further modification.
PMCID: PMC4152445  PMID: 25191169
Lunate; Arthroplasty; Kienböck’s; Ligament; Reconstruction
2.  Pyrocarbon Interposition Wrist Arthroplasty in the Treatment of Failed Wrist Procedures 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2012;1(1):31-38.
Treatment of failures after prior wrist surgeries with major articular destruction is challenging. In most cases, total wrist fusion is the only possible salvage procedure. We propose a new interposition arthroplasty with a pyrocarbon implant called Amandys.
A total of 16 patients, 14 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 56 years were operated on for a failure of wrist surgery performed previously, with an average time lapse of 12 years. The prior surgeries were partial wrist arthrodesis in seven cases, silicone implant interpositions in five cases, advanced Kienböck disease (Lichtman IV) treatment in two cases, proximal row carpectomy in one case, and an isolated scaphoidectomy in one case. A prospective study with clinical and radiological evaluation was performed with a mean follow-up of 24 months (6 to 41 months).
Pain and function showed significant improvement. The mean pain score decreased from 7 of 10 to 4 of 10, postoperatively. The mean grip strength was 19 kg (53% of the contralateral side), and the mean range of motion in flexion extension was 68 degrees. Mean strength and range of motion did not change significantly with the operation. The mean QuickDASH (Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand) score decreased from 59 of 100 to 39 of 100. The mean Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation decreased from 57 of 100 to 33. Two patients (12.5%) required revision for implant repositioning. No dislocation or subsidence of the implant was noted.
Pyrocarbon interposition arthroplasty is a new option for treatment of advanced wrist destruction. Preliminary short-term results suggest that it may be a reliable alternative to total wrist fusion. The level of evidence of this study is IV (therapeutic case series).
PMCID: PMC3658666  PMID: 23904977
wrist arthroplasty; pyrocarbon implant; wrist osteoarthritis; interposition; failure
3.  Long-Term Outcomes of Proximal Row Carpectomy: A Systematic Review of the Literature 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2012;1(2):141-148.
Purpose Proximal row carpectomy is a well-established technique for the management of wrist arthritis; however, patient selection and long-term durability of proximal row carpectomy is still a matter of controversy. Hence, we conducted a systematic review of the English literature to determine the best evidence on long-term outcomes following proximal row carpectomy.
Methods A MEDLINE search using the term “proximal row carpectomy” was performed. A total of 192 studies were identified. All studies with 10 or more years of follow-up were included in the review. Data extracted included patient demographics, indications for surgery, previous surgery, outcome assessment, and information on complications and failures.
Results A total of 147 patients from six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The majority of patients were male and involved in manual labor. There was no significant difference between the preoperative and long-term postoperative motion. The weighted mean for postoperative grip strength was 68.4% compared with the contralateral side. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand; patient-rated wrist examination; and Mayo wrist scores were comparable to those reported for four-corner arthrodesis. There were 21 failures (14.3%) requiring re-operation. Failures were not associated with a specific preoperative diagnosis but distributed among patients with Kienböck disease, scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse, and scapholunate advanced collapse arthritis.
Conclusions This systematic review confirms the long-term durability of proximal row carpectomy when used for the treatment of wrist arthritis. Although radiocapitate arthritis develops over time in most patients, the clinical significance of this finding is undetermined and does not necessarily correlate with failure of proximal row carpectomy. Poorer long-term outcomes are likely to result in patients engaged in heavy manual labor, whereas better outcomes may be obtained in patients undergoing proximal row carpectomy for trauma or earlier-stage Kienböck disease.
PMCID: PMC3658690  PMID: 24179718
proximal row carpectomy; outcomes; wrist; arthritis
4.  Distal capitate shortening with capitometacarpal fusion for management of the early stages of Kienböck’s disease with neutral ulnar variance: case series 
The aim of surgical management of Kienböck’s disease has been proposed to slow the progressive osteonecrosis and secondary carpal damage. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the results of a new technique, combining distal capitate shortening with capitometacarpal fusion for the treatment of Kienböck’s disease (Lichtman stage II or stage IIIA) in neutral ulnar variance patients.
From 2009 to 2012, 12 patients (mean age: 25 ± 7.6 years) were enrolled in this series. Radiological and clinical evaluations using the modified Mayo wrist scoring system were performed both pre-operatively and 12 months post-operatively. In addition, values of the scapho-capitate angle were evaluated both pre-operatively and 12 months post-operatively. The mean follow-up was 20.7 ± 11.2 months. Statistical analysis was performed for comparisons between pre-operative and post-operative findings with the use of paired sample T test, Pearson’s correlation, independent sample T test, and Spearman’s rho correlation. Statistical significance was determined to be present at p <0.05.
All patients achieved bony union at the fusion site within a mean period of 11.5 ± 2.4 weeks. Regarding wrist pain, grip strength, total wrist arc of motion, practicing daily activities in a normal pattern, and the total modified Mayo wrist score, there were statistically significant differences between the pre-operative and post-operative results. For the differential arc of motion, the only non-significant results were at the ulnar/radial deviation range (p = 0.262). The mean pre-operative scapho-capitate angle was 29.75 ± 3.44 while the mean post-operative value was 33.67 ± 4.77 (p < 0.001). Both pre-operative and post-operative scapho-capitate angle values were positively correlated to post-operative pain, ulnar/radial deviation, and final score (p = 0.001, 0.027, 0.021 and p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.002, respectively). Other parameters had no correlation to this angle.
Post-operative MRI (at 12 months follow-up) demonstrated better lunate revascularization in four patients; one of them was diagnosed as having Lichtman stage IIIA Kienböck’s disease. There were no patient-reported complications at the end of follow-up.
Distal capitate shortening combined with capitometacarpal fusion represents a new reliable method in the treatment of early stages of Kienböck’s disease with neutral ulnar variance.
PMCID: PMC4195980  PMID: 25304759
Kienböck’s disease; Capitate shortening; Capitometacarpal fusion; Neutral ulnar variance; Scapho-capitate angle; Miniplate
5.  The Use of MRI Modeling to Enhance Osteochondral Transfer in Segmental Kienböck’s Disease 
Cartilage  2012;3(2):188-193.
Kienböck’s disease, defined as avascular necrosis of the lunate, is a relatively rare condition with a poorly understood etiology. Conservative and invasive treatments for Kienböck’s disease exist, including wrist immobilization, surgical joint-leveling procedures, vascularized bone grafting, proximal row carpectomy, and total wrist arthrodesis. Staging Kienböck’s disease using radiography assumes near complete avascularity of the lunate. The staging distinguishes only the “state of collapse” in an ordinal classification scheme and does not allow localization or indicate partial involvement of the lunate, which the image contrast from MRI may provide. In this short communication, we report the treatment of a patient’s Kienböck’s disease by combining MRI with mathematical modeling to optimize the congruency between the curvature of donor and recipient sites of an autologous osteoarticular plug transfer. Follow-up MRI and radiographs at 1 year postoperatively demonstrated gradual graft incorporation and bone healing. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility of a novel surgical technique. The results indicate that donor site selection for autologous osteoarticular transfer using a quantitative evaluation of articular surface curvature may be beneficial for optimizing the likelihood for restoring the radius of curvature and thus joint articulation following cartilage repair.
PMCID: PMC4297129  PMID: 26069632
magnetic resonance imaging < diagnostics; biomechanics < general; articular cartilage < tissue; other < diagnosis
6.  Avascular necrosis of the lunate bone (Kienböck’s disease) secondary to scapholunate ligament tear as a consequence of trauma – a case study 
Avascular necrosis of the lunate bone (Kienböck’s disease), is a condition in which lunate bone, loses its blood supply, leading to necrosis of the bone.
There is probably no single cause of Kienbock’s disease. Its origin may involve multiple factors, such as the blood supply (arteries), blood drainage (veins), and skeletal variations. Trauma, either isolated or repeated, may possibly be a factor in some cases. This case presented with multifactorial etiology.
Case Report
In the presented case, a patient with negative ulnar variant had injured her right wrist and presented at an orthopedic clinic due to nonspecific pain 6 months later. An arthro-MRI examination revealed necrosis of the lunate bone, scapholunate ligament tear and coexisting TFCC (triangular fibrocartilage complex) tear.
Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent progression of necrotic lesions and bone collapse. MRI examination seems to be the key diagnostic method in the early stage of the Kienböck’s disease with negative x-ray and CT images. Arthro-MRI examination also allows us to identify the underlying ligamentous injury. In cases of traumatic etiology, an additional CT test enables stating the final diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3921098  PMID: 24523832
Kienböck’s disease; scapholunate ligament; MR/CT arthrography
7.  A new treatment strategy for Kienböck’s disease: combination of bone marrow transfusion, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy, and external fixation 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2012;18(2):230-237.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the midterm clinical and radiographic outcomes of this new treatment for Kienböck’s disease.
We applied a new method involving drilling, bone marrow transfusion, external fixation, and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for patients with Kienböck’s disease. Between 2000 and 2006, the treatment was performed in 18 patients (10 men and 8 women; 9 right wrists and 9 left wrists). The preoperative Lichtman stages were stage II in 4 cases, stage IIIa in 11 cases, and stage IIIb in 3 cases. The mean age at surgery was 44.9 years (range 16–68 years), and the mean follow-up period was 63 months (range 28–125 months). The overall results were evaluated using the Mayo wrist score and Nakamura scoring system for Kienböck’s disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for all patients.
Wrist pain improved to no pain in 13 patients, mild pain in 4 patients, and moderate pain in 1 patient. The average wrist flexion–extension arc was 100° and averaged 120 % of the preoperative value. The average grip strength increased from 50 to 85 % relative to the unaffected side. On roentgenograms, the carpal height ratio (change from 0.53 to 0.51) and the Stahl index (change from 0.38 to 0.32) decreased slightly. On MRI, fatty marrow was recovered in 11 patients (61 %) on proton density-weighted images.
This method can be used as a less-invasive surgical treatment alternative for Kienböck’s disease. At an average follow-up period of 6 years, this new treatment has been shown to be a reliable and durable procedure for patients with Lichtman stage II or stage III Kienböck’s disease. Caution should be exercised for patients with a fragmented lunate because of the risk of collapse and nonunion of the lunate.
PMCID: PMC3607713  PMID: 23114859
8.  Scaphocapitolunate Arthrodesis and Radial Styloidectomy for Posttraumatic Degenerative Wrist Disease 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2012;1(1):47-54.
Long-standing scaphoid nonunion, scaphoid malunion, and chronic scapholunate dissociation result in malalignment of the carpal bones, progressive carpal collapse, instability, and osteoarthritis of the wrist. The most commonly used procedures to treat scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) wrists are the four-corner fusion (4CF) and the proximal row carpectomy (PRC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a different treatment modality: radial styloidectomy and scaphocapitolunate (SCL) arthrodesis. This treatment option is chosen in an effort to maintain the joint contact surface and load transmission across the radiocarpal joint. We conducted a retrospective review of 20 patients (average age 62 years, range: 27 to 75 years) treated from 1994 to 2010. Seven patients were treated for SNAC, 12 patients for SLAC wrists, and 1 for degenerative joint disease following a transscapho-transcapitate perilunar dislocation. Sixteen patients had Herbert screw fixation, and four had Spider plate fixation. All patients had autologous bone graft used for the arthrodesis. The mean follow-up was 4.6 years (range: 2 to 9.6 years). Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. Nineteen of 20 arthrodeses healed on an average of 9.6 weeks. One patient was reoperated 8 months after the initial operation with salvage of the SCL arthrodesis with a spider plate with an adequate result. The mean active flexion–extension arc was 70 degrees and the radioulnar deviation arc was 23 degrees. Pain decreased in all patients, 13 of whom were pain free postoperatively. The average postoperative disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand score was 24. Radiographically, neither radiolunate nor radioscaphoid arthritis was noted on follow-up. SCL arthrodesis with radial styloidectomy resulted in an adequate residual range of motion and pain relief. This method preserves the normal ulnar sided joints of the carpus and maintains a more physiologic joint surface for radiocarpal load sharing.
PMCID: PMC3658667  PMID: 23904979
scaphocapitolunate; wrist arthrodesis; SNAC; SLAC
9.  Open perilunate injury with lunate revascularization after complete ligamentous avulsion 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2014;2014(5):rju041.
Perilunate dislocations are a devastating injury to the carpus that carry a guarded long-term prognosis. Mayfield type 4 perilunate dislocations are rare, high-energy injuries that carry a risk for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the lunate. When AVN ensues and the carpus collapses, primary treatment with a proximal row carpectomy or arthrodesis has been advocated. This case reports a successful clinical result and revascularization of an extruded lunate with open reduction and internal fixation. This type 4, Gustilo grade 1 open perilunate dislocation exhibited complete avulsion of all lunate ligamentous attachments. Management included open reduction and internal fixation as well as carpal tunnel release through a combined dorsal and volar approach. Despite concerns for lunate AVN due to complete disruption of lunate vascularity, a 10-month postoperative clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated no pain with activities of daily living as well as a revascularized lunate.
PMCID: PMC4017232  PMID: 24876511
10.  Vaughan-Jackson-like syndrome as an unusual presentation of Kienböck's disease: a case report 
Kienböck's disease is a condition of osteonecrosis of the lunate bone in the hand, and most patients present with a painful and sometimes swollen wrist with a limited range of motion in the affected wrist. Vaughan-Jackson syndrome is characterized by the disruption of the digital extensor tendons, beginning on the ulnar side with the extensor digiti minimi and extensor digitorum communis tendon of the small finger. It is most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis. We describe a case of a patient with an unusual presentation of Kienböck's disease with symptoms similar to those of Vaughan-Jackson syndrome.
Case presentation
A 40-year-old man of Indian ethnic origin with no known history of trauma presented to our clinic with a ten-day history of an inability to extend his right little and ring fingers with associated pain in his right wrist. He was being treated with long-term steroids but had no other significant medical history. His examination revealed an inability to extend the metacarpal and phalangeal joints of the right ring and little fingers with localized tenderness over the lunate bone. Spontaneous disruption of the extensor tendons was diagnosed clinically and, after radiological investigation, was confirmed to be secondary to dorsal extrusion of the fragmented lunate bone. The patient underwent surgical repair of the tendons and had a full recovery afterward.
Kienböck's disease, though rare, is an important cause of spontaneous extensor tendon rupture. The original description of Vaughan-Jackson syndrome was of rupture of the extensor tendons of the little and ring fingers caused by attrition at an arthritic inferior radioulnar joint. We describe a case of a patient with Kienböck's disease that first appeared to be a Vaughan-Jackson-like syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3158122  PMID: 21787412
11.  The Floating Lunate: Arthroscopic Treatment of Simultaneous Complete Tears of the Scapholunate and Lunotriquetral Ligaments 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2008;4(3):250-255.
Carpal instabilities continue to be a controversial topic in hand surgery. Accurate diagnosis of the ligament injuries is usually difficult without an arthroscopic evaluation. Few studies have focused on the diagnosis and proper management of simultaneous scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligament tears. This is an uncommon injury that leads to marked disability and chronic wrist pain. This is essentially a “floating lunate” and indicates a severe ligamentous lesion. Thirteen patients (six female and seven male) with complete SL and LT tears and with gross arthroscopic dynamic carpal instability were included in the present study. None of the patients showed radiographic evidence of lunate dislocation. One patient presented acutely and was operated on 3 days after the injury. The average time from the initial injury to the arthroscopy for the other 12 patients was 13.5 months (range 1.5–84 months). All patients underwent arthroscopic debridement of the SL and LT ligaments coupled with percutaneous pinning (two 0.045-in. Kirschner wires) in both joints. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion was 50° of flexion, 54° of extension, 77° of pronation, 80° of supination, 25° of ulnar deviation, and 15° of radial deviation. The average final grip strength was 67% from the non-affected side. All patients had negative shifting tests at final follow-up. Furthermore, there was no evidence of any static or dynamic instability in all the patients except for one patient who developed a volar intercalated segment instability 8 months after the surgery. At the final follow-up, ten patients had no pain, one had mild pain, and two experienced moderate pain.
PMCID: PMC2724611  PMID: 19104901
Carpal instabilities; Arthroscopy; Ligamentous tears; Lunate instability
12.  Comparison between proximal row carpectomy and four‐corner fusion for treating osteoarthrosis following carpal trauma: a prospective randomized study 
Clinics  2011;66(1):51-55.
To compare the functional results of carpectomy and four‐corner fusion surgical procedures for treating osteoarthrosis following carpal trauma.
In this prospective randomized study, 20 patients underwent proximal row carpectomy or four‐corner fusion to treat wrist arthritis and their functional results were compared. The midcarpal joint was free of lesions in all patients.
Both proximal row carpectomy and four‐corner fusion reduced the pain. All patients had a decreased range of motion after surgery. The differences between groups were not statistically significant.
Functional results of the two procedures were similar as both reduced pain in patients with scapholunate advanced collapse/scaphoid non‐union advanced collapse (SLAC/SNAC) wrist without degenerative changes in the midcarpal joint.
PMCID: PMC3044580  PMID: 21437436
Arthritis; Degenerative; Wrist injuries; Carpal bones; Arthrodesis; Wrist joint
13.  Arthroscopic Dorsal Capsulo-Ligamentous Repair in the Treatment of Chronic Scapho-Lunate Ligament Tears 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2013;2(2):141-148.
Introduction Scapholunate ligament injuries usually result due to a fall on the outstretched hand leading to scapholunate instability. The natural history of untreated scapholunate instability remains controversial and usually results in late arthritic changes- the so-called “SLAC” wrist. The advent of wrist arthroscopy helps in early diagnosis and treatment of these serious injuries. In selected cases with reducible scapholunate instability (Garcia-Elias stages 2, 3 and 4) we propose a new “all arthroscopic dorsal capsulo- ligamentous repair” with the added advantage of early rehabilitation and prevention of post-operative stiffness.
Material and Methods We report the results of our series of 57 consecutive patients suffering from chronic wrist pain refractory to conservative measures. All patients underwent a thorough clinical examination in addition to a standard set of radiographs and MRI exam; and they were treated by an all-arthroscopic dorsal capsulo-ligamentous repair under loco-regional anesthesia on an ambulatory basis. All patients were available for follow-up at regular intervals during the post-operative period. At follow-up, the wrist ROM in all directions, the grip strength, DASH questionnaire and pain relief based on the VAS were recorded for both- the operated and contra-lateral sides.
Results There were 34 males & 23 females with a mean age of 38.72 ± 11.33 years (range 17–63 years). The dominant side was involved in 52 cases. The mean time since injury was 9.42 ± 6.33 months (range 3–24 months) and the mean follow-up was 30.74 ± 7.05 months (range 18–43 months). The mean range of motion improved in all directions. The mean difference between the post- and pre-operative extension was 14.03° (SEM = 1.27°; p < 0.001); while the mean difference between the post-and pre-operative flexion was 11.14° (SEM = 1.3°; p < 0.0001) with flexion and radial deviation reaching 84.3% and 95.72% respectively of the unaffected wrist. The mean difference for the VAS score was -5.46 (SEM = 0.19; p < 0.0001). The mean post-operative grip strength of the affected side was 38.42 ± 10.27 kg (range 20–60 kg) as compared with mean pre-operative grip strength of 24.07 ± 10.51 kg (range 8–40 kg) (p < 0.0001). The mean post-operative grip strength of the operated side was 93.4% of the unaffected side. The DISI was corrected in all cases on post-operative radiographs. The mean difference between the post-and pre-operative SL angles was −8.95° (SEM = 1.28°; p < 0.0001). The mean post-operative DASH score was 8.3 ± 7.82 as compared with mean pre-operative DASH score of 46.04 ± 16.57 (p < 0.0001). There was a negative co-relation between the overall DASH score and the post-operative correction of the DISI deformity with a lower DASH score associated with increasing SL angles.
Discussion The dorsal portion of the scapholunate ligament is critical for the stability scapholunate articulation, largely due to its attachment to the dorsal capsule. We have recently conducted a multi-centric anatomical study with international collaboration demonstrating the critical importance of this dorsal scapholunate complex. The all arthroscopic capsulo-ligamentous repair technique provides reliable results in addition to avoiding postoperative stiffness. The overall results at a mean follow-up period of more than 2 years in our series of young, active patients appear to be encouraging.
PMCID: PMC3699260  PMID: 24436807
scapholunate ligament; chronic scapholunate injury; dorsal capsuloplasty; wrist arthroscopy
14.  Treatment of post-traumatic degenerative changes of the radio-carpal and distal radio-ulnar joints by combining radius, scaphoid, and lunate (RSL) fusion with ulnar head replacement 
Distal radial fractures are a common type of fracture. In the case of intra-articular fractures, they often result in post-traumatic arthrosis. The objective of this study is to describe a novel alternative to the established salvage techniques for the treatment of post-traumatic arthrosis of the radio-carpal and distal radio-ulnar joints (DRUJ). Six patients with radio-carpal and DRUJ arthrosis were treated with a combined radius, scaphoid, and lunate (RSL) arthrodesis and as a Herbert ulnar head prosthesis. Follow-up consisted of both radiographic and functional assessments. Functional measurements were noted both pre- and postoperatively. No non-union or pseudoarthrosis was seen; neither did any of the ulnar head prostheses show loosening. Clinical examination showed an improvement in strength, pain, and range of movement, as well as a decrease in disability. Combining RSL arthrodesis with a Herbert ulnar head prosthesis, which deals with pain while retaining partial wrist movement, can be an alternative to established salvage procedures.
PMCID: PMC3218278  PMID: 22162910
Wrist; Partial arthrodesis; Endoprosthetics; Post-traumatic arthrosis
15.  Tendon Interposition and Ligament Reconstruction with ECRL Tendon in the Late Stages of Kienböck's Disease: A Cadaver Study 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:416246.
Background. The optimal surgical treatment for Kienböck's disease with stages IIIB and IV remains controversial. A cadaver study was carried out to evaluate the use of coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon for tendon interposition and a strip obtained from the same tendon for ligament reconstruction in the late stages of Kienböck's disease. Methods. Coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon was used to fill the cavity of the excised lunate, and a strip obtained from this tendon was sutured onto itself after passing through the scaphoid and the triquetrum acting as a ligament to preserve proximal row integrity. Biomechanical tests were carried out in order to evaluate this new ligamentous reconstruction. Results. It was biomechanically confirmed that the procedure was effective against axial compression and distributed the upcoming mechanical stress to the distal row. Conclusion. Extensor carpi radialis longus tendon has not been used for tendon interposition and ligament reconstruction in the treatment of this disease before. In view of the biomechanical data, the procedure seems to be effective for the stabilization of scaphoid and carpal bones.
PMCID: PMC3628666  PMID: 23606814
16.  Changes in Patterns of Scaphoid and Lunate Motion During Functional Arcs of Wrist Motion Induced by Ligament Division 
The Journal of hand surgery  2005;30(6):1156-1160.
To determine the in vitro motion of the scaphoid and lunate during wrist circumduction and wrist dart-throw motions and to see how these motions change after the ligamentous stabilizers of the scaphoid and lunate are sectioned in a manner simulating scapholunate instability.
Twenty-one fresh-frozen cadaver forearms were moved through a dart-throw motion and a circumduction motion using a wrist joint simulator. Scaphoid and lunate motion were measured with the wrist ligaments intact and after sectioning of the scapholunate interosseous ligament, the scaphotrapezium ligament, and the radioscaphocapitate ligament.
In the intact wrist the scaphoid and lunate moved more during circumduction than during the dart-throw motion. With ligamentous sectioning the scaphoid flexed more and the lunate extended more during both the circumduction and dart-throw motions. During the circumduction motion both before and after sectioning the global motion of the scaphoid was greater than that of the lunate. After sectioning the scaphoid motion increased and the lunate motion decreased.
The scaphoid and lunate motions were observed to change remarkably after ligamentous sectioning. The observed changes in carpal motion correlate with the clinical observation that after ligamentous injury arthritic changes occur in the radioscaphoid joint and not in the radiolunate joint. Analysis of the injured wrist in positions that combine flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation may allow noninvasive diagnosis of specific wrist ligament injuries.
PMCID: PMC1986800  PMID: 16344171
Carpal motion; wrist circumduction motion; wrist dart-throw motion; kinematics; scapholunate interosseous ligament; scaphoid; lunate
17.  Scaphocapitolunate Arthrodesis and Radial Styloidectomy: A Treatment Option for Posttraumatic Degenerative Wrist Disease 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2012;1(2):115-122.
Longstanding scaphoid nonunion, scaphoid malunion, and chronic scapholunate dissociation result in malalignment of the carpal bones, progressive carpal collapse, instability, and osteoarthritis of the wrist. The most commonly used procedures to treat scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) wrists are the four-corner fusion (4CF) and the proximal row carpectomy (PRC). Here we describe a different treatment option: radial styloidectomy and scaphocapitolunate (SCL) arthrodesis. This treatment option is chosen in an effort to maintain the joint contact surface and load transmission across the radiocarpal joint. Twenty patients were treated by the senior author (DLF) with this method with a mean follow-up of 4.6 years. Pain decreased in all patients, and 13 patients were pain-free postoperatively. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores decreased from 44 preoperatively to 23 postoperatively. One patient's course was complicated by nonunion, which was successfully treated with revision of the SCL arthrodesis. On follow-up radiographs, no patient had progressive osteoarthritis. This method preserves the normal ulnar-sided joints of the carpus, which are sacrificed during 4CF, and maintains a more physiologic joint surface for radiocarpal load sharing.
PMCID: PMC3658680  PMID: 24179714
SNAC; SLAC; scaphocapitolunate; wrist arthrodesis
18.  Midcarpal Hemiarthroplasty for Wrist Arthritis: Rationale and Early Results 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2012;1(1):61-68.
Midcarpal hemiarthroplasty is a novel motion-preserving treatment for radiocarpal arthritis and is an alternative to current procedures that provide pain relief at the expense of wrist biomechanics and natural motion. It is indicated primarily in active patients with a well-preserved distal row and debilitating arthritic symptoms. By resurfacing the proximal carpal row, midcarpal arthroplasty relieves pain while preserving the midcarpal articulation and the anatomic center of wrist rotation. This technique has theoretical advantages when compared with current treatment options (i.e., arthrodesis and total wrist arthroplasty) since it provides coupled wrist motion, preserves radial length, is technically simple, and avoids the inherent risks of nonunion and distal component failure. The KinematX midcarpal hemiarthroplasty has an anatomic design and does not disrupt the integrity of the wrist ligaments. We have implanted this prosthesis in nine patients with promising early results. The indications for surgery were as follows: scapholunate advanced collapse wrist (three), posttraumatic osteoarthritis (three), inflammatory arthritis (two), and Keinböck disease (one). Prospective data has been collected and the results are preliminary given the infancy of the procedure. The mean follow-up was 30.9 weeks (range: 16 to 56 weeks). The mean Mayo wrist score increased from 31.9 preoperatively to 58.8 (p < 0.05) and the mean DASH score improved significantly from 47.8 preoperatively to 28.7 (p < 0.05). There was a trend toward increased motion but statistical significance was not reached. Two patients required manipulation for wrist stiffness. There was no evidence of prosthetic loosening or capitolunate narrowing. The procedure is simple (average surgical time was 49 minutes) and maintains coupled wrist motion through preservation of the midcarpal articulation. The preliminary data show that it appears safe but considerably longer follow-up is required before conclusions can be drawn as to its durability, reliability, and overall success. The level of evidence for this study is therapeutic level IV (case series).
PMCID: PMC3658668  PMID: 23904981
arthritis; arthroplasty; hemiarthroplasty; KinematX; outcomes; treatment; wrist arthritis; wrist arthroplasty; wrist hemiarthroplasty
19.  In Vivo Kinematics of the Scaphoid, Lunate, Capitate, and Third Metacarpal in Extreme Wrist Flexion and Extension 
The Journal of hand surgery  2012;38(2):278-288.
Insights into the complexity of active in vivo carpal motion have recently been gained using 3D imaging; however kinematics during extremes of motion have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine motion of the carpus during extremes of wrist flexion and extension.
Computed tomography scans of 12 healthy wrists were obtained in neutral-grip, extreme loaded flexion, and extreme loaded extension. Three-dimensional bone surfaces and 6-degree-of-freedom kinematics were obtained for the radius and carpal bones. The flexion and extension rotation from neutral-grip to extreme flexion and extreme extension of the scaphoid and lunate was expressed as a percentage of capitate flexion and extension and then compared to previous studies of active wrist flexion and extension. We also tested the hypothesis that the capitate and third metacarpal function as a single rigid body. Finally, joint space metrics at the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints were used to describe arthrokinematics.
In extreme flexion, the scaphoid and lunate flexed 70% and 46% of the amount the capitate flexed, respectively. In extreme extension, the scaphoid extended 74% and the lunate extended 42% of the amount the capitates extended, respectively. The third metacarpal extended 4° farther than the capitate in extreme extension. The joint contact area decreased at the radiocarpal joint during extreme flexion. The radioscaphoid joint contact center moved onto the radial styloid and volar ridge of the radius in extreme flexion from a more proximal and ulnar location in neutral.
The contributions of the scaphoid and lunate to capitate rotation were approximately 25% less in extreme extension compared to wrist motion through an active range of motion. More than half the motion of the carpus when the wrist was loaded in extension occured at the midcarpal joint.
Clinical Relevance
These findings highlight the difference in kinematics of the carpus during at the extremes of wrist motion, which occur during activities and injuries, and give insight into the possible etiologies of the scaphoid fractures, interosseous ligament injuries, and carpometacarpal bossing.
PMCID: PMC3557539  PMID: 23266007
Carpal; Kinematics; Lunate; Passive; Scaphoid
20.  Wrist Joint Reconstruction With a Vascularized Fibula Free Flap Following Giant Cell Tumor Excision in the Distal Radius 
Eplasty  2010;10:e38.
Objective: Multiple therapeutic modalities exist for giant cell tumors (GCT) in the distal radius. The majority of GCTs are amenable to curettage, with the expanded lesions requiring a more radical approach. This case report examines the technique of managing a GCT that has extended beyond the boundaries of the cortex and into local tissues. The decision to use arthroplasty versus arthrodesis and the proximal fibular head as a vascularized free flap is discussed in reference to a patient requiring a proximal row carpectomy (PRC) secondary to tumor invasion. Methods: A 47-year-old woman with GCT in the right distal radius presented with decreased range of motion secondary to pain. Confirmation of the GCT was made with radiographic imaging and biopsy. The extensive invasion of the lesion required en bloc tumor resection with PRC and subsequent arthroplasty. Results: Treatment involved resection of tumor and PRC with arthroplasty using the proximal head of the fibula and reattachment of the radioscaphocapitate and ulnar carpal ligaments. Success was measured on functionality of the joint, viability of the flap, and the absence of tumor recurrence and pain. Conclusion: This case presents an example of successful excision of a GCT in the distal radius with a PRC and arthroplasty using a vascularized fibula free flap autograft. The patient remained pain-free, had no evidence of tumor recurrence, demonstrated 50% range of motion in the wrist, and 80% preoperative strength as expected following PRC.
PMCID: PMC2875920  PMID: 20505792
21.  Distal radius fracture after proximal row carpectomy 
•We encountered a patient with distal radius fracture (DRF) after proximal row carpectomy (PRC). The mechanism of the DRF after PRC is discussed in this report.•The DRF is needed wrist range of motion. Since the wrist range of motion decreased and the lunate fitted into the joint surface after PRC, making the forearm join with the hand like a single structure, pressure may have been loaded on the weak distal end of the radius from the dorsal side, causing volar displacement and fracture.•The pressure distribution and range of motion of the radiocarpal joint after PRC are different from those of a normal joint, and the mechanism of fracture also changes with it.
We encountered a patient with distal radius fracture (DRF) after proximal row carpectomy (PRC). The mechanism of the DRF after PRC is discussed in this report.
Presentation of case
The patient was a 73-year-old female who had undergone PRC due to Kienböck disease before. The wrist range of motion was: 45° on dorsiflexion and 20° on flexion. DRF has occurred at 3 years after PRC. The fracture type was extra-articular fracture. Osteosynthesis was performed using a volar locking plate. No postoperative complication developed, the Mayo score was excellent at 6 months after surgery, and the daily living activity level recovered to that before injury.
Since the wrist range of motion decreased and the lunate fitted into the joint surface after PRC, making the forearm join with the hand like a single structure, pressure may have been loaded on the weak distal end of the radius from the dorsal side, causing volar displacement and fracture.
The pressure distribution and range of motion of the radiocarpal joint after PRC are different from those of a normal joint, and the mechanism of fracture also changes due to PRC.
PMCID: PMC4336416  PMID: 25623755
Distal radius fracture; Proximal row carpectomy; Kienböck disease
22.  Vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of carpal bone pathology 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2013;8(1):27-40.
Primary bone healing fails to occur in 5–15 % of scaphoid bones that undergo fracture fixation. Untreated, occult fractures result in nonunion up to 12 % of the time. Conventional bone grafting is the accepted management in the treatment algorithm of scaphoid nonunion if the proximal pole is vascularized. Osteonecrosis of the proximal scaphoid pole intuitively suggests a need for transfer of the vascularized bone to the nonunion site. Scaphoid nonunion treatment aims to prevent biological and mechanical subsidence of the involved bone, destabilization of the carpus, and early degenerative changes associated with scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse. Pedicled distal radius and free vascularized bone grafts (VBGs) offer hand surgeons an alternative treatment option in the management of carpal bone nonunion. VBGs are also indicated in the treatment of avascular necrosis of the scaphoid (Preiser’s disease), lunate (Kienböck’s disease), and capitate. Relative contraindications to pedicled dorsal radius vascularized bone grafting include humpback deformity, carpal instability, or collapse. The free medial femoral condyle bone graft has offered a novel treatment option for the humpback deformity to restore geometry of the carpus, otherwise not provided by pedicled grafts. In general, VBGs are contraindicated in the setting of a carpal bone without an intact cartilaginous shell, in advanced carpal collapse with degenerative changes, and in attempts to salvage small or collapsed bone fragments. Wrist salvage procedures are generally accepted as the more definitive treatment option under such circumstances. This manuscript offers a current review of the techniques and outcomes of VBGs to the carpal bones.
PMCID: PMC3574491  PMID: 24426890
Vascular bone grafts; VBG’s; Kienböck’s; Scaphoid nonunions; Preiser’s
23.  Arthroscopic Resection Arthroplasty of the Radial Column for SLAC Wrist 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2014;3(2):114-122.
Background Symptomatic advanced scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) wrists are typically treated with extensive open procedures, including but not limited to scaphoidectomy plus four-corner fusion (4CF) and proximal row carpectomy (PRC). Although a minimally invasive arthroscopic option would be desirable, no convincing reports exist in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new surgical technique and outcomes on 14 patients who underwent arthroscopic resection arthroplasty of the radial column (ARARC) for arthroscopic stage II through stage IIIB SLAC wrists and to describe an arthroscopic staging classification of the radiocarpal joint for patients with SLAC wrist.
Patients and Methods Data were collected prospectively on 17 patients presenting with radiographic stage I through III SLAC wrist who underwent ARARC in lieu of scaphoidectomy and 4CF or PRC. Fourteen patients (12 men and 2 women) subject to 1-year follow-up were included. The average age was 57 years (range 41 to 78). The mean follow-up was 24 months (range 12 to 61). Arthroscopic resection arthroplasty of the radial column is described for varying stages of arthritic changes of the radioscaphoid joint. Midcarpal resection was not performed.
Results The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was 66 preoperatively and 28 at final follow-up. The mean satisfaction (0 = not satisfied, 5 = completely satisfied) at final follow-up was 4.5 (range 3 to 5). The pain level (on 0–10 scale) improved from 6.6 to 1.3. The total arc of motion changed from 124° preoperatively to 142° postoperatively following an ARARC. Grip was 16 kg preoperatively and 18 kg postoperatively. Radiographic stages typically underestimated arthroscopic staging. Although four of our patients appeared to be radiographic stage I, all were found to have arthritis involving some or all of the radioscaphoid articulation at the time of arthroscopy.
Clinical Relevance Pain relief is rapid and remains consistent over time following ARARC. ARARC may be a viable surgical option for patients with SLAC wrist who desire a minimally invasive procedure. Radiographic stages underestimate the degree of arthritic change. Accurate staging requires arthroscopy. The indications and long-term outcome are not well defined; continued surveillance is warranted.
Level of Evidence Level IV, Therapeutic study
PMCID: PMC4078129  PMID: 25032077
arthritis; arthroplasty; arthroscopic; arthroscopy; minimally invasive; resection; scapholunate advanced collapse; SLAC; wrist
24.  Joint Preservation of the Wrist Using Articulated Distraction Arthroplasty: A Case Report of a Novel Technique 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2015;2015:812807.
Distraction arthroplasty of the ankle, elbow, and hip has become widely accepted and used within the orthopaedic community with excellent initial results which appear sustained. To date it has not been applied to the wrist in the same manner. A novel technique, drawn upon past success of articulated ankle distraction and static wrist distraction, was devised and evaluated by application of articulated wrist distraction performed over a 12-week period in a patient with poor functional outcome following limited wrist fusion. Posttreatment results showed improvement in range of motion (100-degree arc), subjective pain, and functional outcome measures (DASH 21.7, Mayo Wrist Score 80) comparable or better than either limited wrist fusion or proximal row carpectomy. Articulated wrist distraction initially appears to be a promising therapeutic option for the management of the stiff and painful wrist to maintain maximal function for which formal wrist arthrodesis may be the only alternative.
PMCID: PMC4342074  PMID: 25767728
25.  The carpal stretch test 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1998;41(2):119-125.
To compare the sensitivity of traditional motion studies, bone scintigraphy and radiocarpal arthrography to a “carpal stretch test,” for evaluation of dynamic dissociative carpal instability.
Experimental study comparing the results of the tests to the findings of arthroscopy, the “gold standard.”
A university hospital-based upper extremity practice.
Six patients with chronic wrist pain, arthroscopically confirmed proximal row ligamentous disruption and radiographs not suggestive of proximal row instability.
The carpal stretch test: both affected and unaffected wrists were subjected to the same testing, wherein the wrist was suspended from finger traps for 10 minutes by a 4.5-kg weight. Standardized posteroanterior radiographs were taken of the suspended wrists.
Main outcome measures
Disruption of Gilula’s arcs I and II, and sensitivity of the carpal stretch test compared with other investigations.
Main results
Step deformities ranging from 2.5 to 6 mm (average 3.7 mm) were recorded in the affected wrists and 0 to 4 mm (average 1.5 mm) in the “unaffected” wrists. The test was more sensitive than traditional radiography, arthrography and scintigraphy in defining both presence and site of proximal carpal row ligamentous tears and was almost as sensitive as arthroscopy.
In patients with chronic wrist pain and dynamic dissociative wrist instability, the carpal stretch test may prove to be a valuable screening tool for detecting ligamentous tears of the proximal carpal row.
PMCID: PMC3949824  PMID: 9575994

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