Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic autoimmune
disease leading to immunological aberrations and excessive multiple autoantibody
production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of
multiple autoantibodies in SLE patients utilizing the multiplex system method.
We analyzed the presence of elevated titers of anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP,
anti-Sm, anti-Jo1, anti-centromere, anti-Scl-70, anti-histone, and anti-dsDNA
antibodies in 199 serum samples (113 SLE patients, 86 healthy donors). We
compared the type, level and number of autoantibodies and the correlation
the autoantibody profile and disease severity utilizing the SLEDAI score.
Elevated titers of at least one autoantibody were detected in 48% of 42 SLE
patients. Elevated titers of anti-Ro antibodies were most commonly detected. The
distribution of specific autoantibodies was: anti-Ro- 23.8%, anti-dsDNA- 19%,
anti-histone- 19%, anti-RNP- 14.2%, anti-La antibodies- 11.9%, anti-Sm- 7.1%,
anti-Scl 70-4.7%, and anti-centromere- 2.4%. Utilizing ROC analysis, the sensitivity
and specificity of anti-DNA antibodies at a cutoff value of 34 IU/ml were 87.1% and
79.4% respectively. Elevated titers of anti-Jo1 antibody were not detected. There
was a correlation with the titer of anti-Ro antibodies and disease activity by the
SLEDAI score. Seven patients harbored one autoantibody only, 15 patients
harbored 2-3 autoantibodies, 3 patients harbored 4-5 autoantibodies, and one
patient harbored 6 autoantibodies. A correlation between the number of
autoantibodies per patient and disease severity was found. One patient with
a multitude of
autoantibodies had severe lupus and a myriad of clinical manifestations.
In conclusion, the multiplex system is specific and sensitive, provides
an autoantibody profile in a single test, and may be useful as a diagnostic
test for SLE. Elevated anti-Ro antibodies are associated with
severe disease. An autoantibody load may be indicative of more severe disease.
The chronic graft-versus-host (cGVH) reaction results in a syndrome that closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is induced in nonautoimmune mice by the transfer of alloreactive T cells. The availability of anti-DNA transgenes allows us to study the genetic origins of autoantibodies in this model. We induced cGVH in two anti-DNA H chain site-directed transgenic mouse strains. This resulted in clonal expansion and selection of specific mutations in the anti–double-stranded (ds) DNA B cell population. These data, together with a high frequency of anti-dsDNA B cell clones recovered as hybridomas, suggested that anti-dsDNAs are the product of an antigen-driven immune response. Genetic analysis associated this response with the generation of anti-dsDNA B cells through secondary rearrangements that replaced the site-directed transgene (sd-tg) with endogenous VH genes.
SLE; autoimmunity; anti-dsDNA; B lymphocytes; graft vs. host
Purpose. This study evaluates high-throughput autoantibody screening and determines associated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) clinical features in a large lupus cohort. Methods. Clinical and demographic information, along with serum samples, were obtained from each SLE study participant after appropriate informed consent. Serum samples were screened for 10 distinct SLE autoantibody specificities and examined for association with SLE ACR criteria and subcriteria using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results. In European-American SLE patients, autoantibodies against 52 kD Ro and RNP 68 are independently enriched in patients with lymphopenia, anti-La, and anti-ribosomal P are increased in patients with malar rash, and anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm are enriched in patients with proteinuria. In African-American SLE patients, cellular casts associate with autoantibodies against dsDNA, Sm, and Sm/nRNP. Conclusion. Using a high-throughput, bead-based method of autoantibody detection, anti-dsDNA is significantly enriched in patienets with SLE ACR renal criteria as has been previously described. However, lymphopenia is associated with several distinct autoantibody specificities. These findings offer meaningful information to allow clinicians and clinical investigators to understand which autoantibodies correlate with select SLE clinical manifestations across common racial groups using this novel methodology which is expanding in clinical use.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal non–organ-specific autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women. Features of the disease include inflammatory skin lesions and widespread organ damage caused by deposition of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. The mechanism and site of production of these autoantibodies is unknown, but there is evidence that interferon (IFN) γ plays a key role. We have used the involucrin promoter to overexpress IFN-γ in the suprabasal layers of transgenic mouse epidermis. There was no evidence of organ-specific autoimmunity, but transgenic animals produced autoantibodies against dsDNA and histones. Autoantibody levels in female mice were significantly higher than in male transgenic mice. Furthermore, there was IgG deposition in the glomeruli of all female mice and histological evidence of severe proliferative glomerulonephritis in a proportion of these animals. Our findings are consistent with a central role for the skin immune system, acting under the influence of IFN-γ, in the pathogenesis of SLE.
The objective of this study was to compare the clinical usefulness of the new anti-double-stranded DNA nucleosome-complexed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Anti-dsDNA-NcX ELISA), which is based on dsDNA-loaded nucleosomes as antigens, with established test systems based on dsDNA or nucleosomes alone for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnostics and determination of disease activity.
Sera from a cohort of 964 individuals comprising 207 SLE patients, 357 disease controls and 400 healthy donors were investigated using the Anti-dsDNA-NcX ELISA, Farr assay, Anti-dsDNA ELISA, Anti-nucleosome ELISA and Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence (CLIF) assay, all of which are tests available from EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG (Lübeck, Germany). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of each assay. The test results yielded by these assays in a group of 165 fully characterized SLE patients were compared with the corresponding medical records.
The Anti-dsDNA-NcX ELISA was found to have a sensitivity of 60.9% and a specificity of 98.9% in all 964 individuals at the manufacturer's cutoff of 100 U/ml. At a comparable specificity of 99%, the sensitivity amounted to 59.9% for the Anti-dsDNA-NcX ELISA, 54.1% for the Farr assay, 53.6% for the antinucleosome ELISA and 35.8% for the anti-dsDNA ELISA. The CLIF assay had a sensitivity of 28.0% and a specificity of 98.2%. The Anti-dsDNA-NcX ELISA correlated mostly with global disease activity in a cross-sectional analysis. In a longitudinal analysis of 20 patients with 69 patient visits, changes in Anti-dsDNA-NcX ELISA and antinucleosome ELISA results correlated highly with changes in disease activity over time.
The use of dsDNA-complexed nucleosomes as antigens in ELISA leads to optimized determination of diagnosis and disease activity in SLE patients and is available for clinical practice.
This study was devised to assess the performance of anti-ribosomal P (anti-Rib-P) antibodies in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the association of these antibodies with the clinical features of SLE.
We used a fluorescence enzyme immunoassay to determine anti-Rib-P levels in an SLE group, a rheumatic disease control (RDC) group (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis), and a healthy control (HC) group. We also determined anti-Smith antigen (anti-Sm) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and the best cut-off points for positivity were determined. Using regression analysis, the relationship between clinical variables and autoantibody levels was analyzed.
In total, 127 patients with SLE, 256 controls with other rheumatic diseases, and 100 HCs were studied. Anti-Rib-P autoantibodies were positive in 18 (14.2%) of the patients with SLE (mean concentration of 30.6 ± 46.9 U/ml) and in 2 patients with RA (0.8% of the RDC group). In addition, 12 patients with SLE (9.4%) were positive for anti-Sm (31.1 ± 40.8 U/ml) and 63 (49.6%) were positive for anti-dsDNA autoantibodies (88.4 ± 88.5 U/ml). When we assessed the 18 patients with SLE who had tested positive for anti-Rib-P, we found that 4 of these were positive for anti-Rib-P only, whereas 12 were positive for anti-Rib-P plus anti-dsDNA, and 2 were positive for all three antibodies. There were no samples positive for anti-Rib-P plus anti-Sm. The specificity, sensitivity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of anti-Rib-P for SLE diagnosis were 99.4%, 14.2%, 23.7%, and 0.86%, respectively.
Caucasian ethnicity was associated with lower anti-Rib-P antibody levels. No relation was found between anti-Rib-P levels and neuropsychiatric or other clinical features.
Anti-Rib-P autoantibodies have high specificity for SLE, and measurement of these might improve the accuracy of SLE diagnosis. In this study, we found that Caucasian ethnicity was associated with lower anti-Rib-P antibody levels.
Anti-Rib-P; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Antibodies
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies that can mediate tissue damage in multiple organs. The underlying aetiology of SLE autoantibodies remains unknown, and treatments aimed at eliminating B cells, or limiting their function, have demonstrated limited therapeutic benefit. Thus, the current therapies for SLE are based on the concept of nonspecific immunosuppression and consist of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), corticosteroids, anti-malarials and cytotoxic drugs, all of which have serious adverse side effects including organ damage. The major auto-specificity in SLE is double-stranded (ds) DNA. Many anti-dsDNA antibodies cross-react with non-DNA antigens that may be the direct targets for their pathogenic activity. Studying anti-dsDNA antibodies present in SLE patients and in animal models of lupus, we have identified a subset of anti-dsDNA antibodies which is pathogenic in the brain as well as in the kidney. We have recently demonstrated that specific peptides, or small molecules, can protect target organs from antibody-mediated damage. Thus, it might be possible to treat the aspects of autoimmune disease without inducing major immunosuppression and ensuing infectious complications.
autoantibodies; systemic lupus erythematosus; therapeutic strategy
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of an array of pathogenic autoantibodies, including high-affinity anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies. These autoantibodies are mutated and class-switched, mainly to IgG, indicating that immunoglobulin (Ig) gene somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch DNA recombination (CSR) are important in their generation. Lupus-prone MRL/faslpr/lpr mice develop a systemic autoimmune syndrome that shares many features with human SLE. We found that Ig genes were heavily mutated in MRL/faslpr/lpr mice and contained long stretches of DNA deletions and insertions. The spectrum of mutations in MRL/faslpr/lpr B cells was significantly altered, e.g., increased dG/dC transitions, and increased targeting of the RGYW/WRCY mutational hotspot and the WGCW AID-targeting hotspot. We also showed that MRL/faslpr/lpr greatly upregulated CSR, particularly to IgG2a and IgA in B cells of the spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches. In MRL/faslpr/lpr mice, the significant upregulation of SHM and CSR was associated with significantly increased expression of AID, which mediates DNA lesion, the first step in SHM and CSR, and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerase (pol) θ, pol η and pol ζ, which are involved in DNA synthesis/repair process associated with SHM and, possibly, CSR. Thus, in lupus-prone mice, SHM and CSR are dysregulated, as a result of enhanced AID expression and, therefore, DNA lesions, and dysregulated DNA repair factors, including TLS polymerases, which are involved in the repair process of AID-mediated DNA lesions.
activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID); antibody; autoantibody; B cell; class switch DNA recombination (CSR); DNA deletion; DNA insertion; lupus; somatic hypermutation (SHM)
Several reports have linked the presence of certain serum autoantibodies with particular clinical manifestations of autoimmune disease. For example, the Jo-1 antibody is now established as a marker for fibrosing alveolitis in polymyositis. To investigate the possible association of further autoantibodies or idiotypes with fibrosing alveolitis in autoimmune rheumatic disease a panel of autoantibodies was measured in serum samples from 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (10 with and 18 without lung involvement), 21 patients with scleroderma (12 with fibrosing alveolitis and nine without), and 41 patients with 'lone' fibrosing alveolitis. Antibodies measured were IgM and IgG anti-dsDNA and anti-ssDNA antibody; IgG and IgM anticardiolipin antibody; anti-poly (ADP-ribose) antibody; antibodies to two common idiotypes of anti-DNA antibodies, designated 134 and 16/6; and IgM, IgG, and IgA isotypes of rheumatoid factor. None of these antibodies was specifically associated with lung involvement in SLE or scleroderma, but a trend was found towards an increase in all autoantibodies in association with lung disease in SLE, while the reverse trend was seen in scleroderma.
Autoantibodies to RNA helicase A (RHA) were reported as a new serological marker of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with early stage of the disease. Anti-RHA and other autoantibodies in Mexican SLE patients and their correlation with clinical and immunological features were examined.
Autoantibodies in sera from 62 Mexican SLE patients were tested by immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled K562 cell extract and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (anti-U1RNP/Sm, ribosomal P, β2GPI, and dsDNA). Anti-RHA was screened based on the immunoprecipitation of the 140-kDa protein, the identity of which was verified by Western blot using rabbit anti-RHA serum. Clinical and immunological characteristics of anti-RHA-positive patients were analyzed.
Anti-RHA was detected in 23% (14/62) of patients, a prevalence higher than that of anti-Sm (13%, 8/62). Prevalence and levels of various autoantibodies were not clearly different between anti-RHA (+) vs. (-) cases, although there was a trend of higher levels of anti-RHA antibodies in patients without anti-U1RNP/Sm (P = 0.07). Both anti-RHA and -Sm were common in cases within one year of diagnosis; however, the prevalence and levels of anti-RHA in patients years after diagnosis did not reduce dramatically, unlike a previous report in American patients. This suggests that the high prevalence of anti-RHA in Mexican patients may be due to relatively stable production of anti-RHA.
Anti-RHA was detected at high prevalence in Mexican SLE patients. Detection of anti-RHA in races in which anti-Sm is not common should be clinically useful. Racial difference in the clinical significance of anti-RHA should be clarified in future studies.
Both spontaneous and chemically induced rodent models of autoimmune nephritis and autoantibody production have been explored to understand mechanisms involved in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While it has been known for decades that women are more susceptible than men to SLE, mechanisms underlying this female preponderance remain unclear. One chemically induced model involves injection of hydrocarbon oils such as pristane into otherwise normal mouse strains, which results in the development of autoantibodies and inflammation in organs such as kidney and liver. It is unknown whether lupus-like disease induced by chemicals would exhibit a sex bias in disease susceptibility. Here, we show that SJL/J female mice injected with pristane display greater mortality, kidney disease, serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies than their male siblings. This is the first evidence that a female sex bias exists in a chemically induced lupus model.
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Pristane; Autoantibodies; Nephritis, sex bias; Anti-nuclear antibody; Anti-dsDNA antibody
To investigate the autoantibody repertoire associated with SLE, we have created phage display IgG Fab libraries from two clinically active SLE patients and from the healthy identical twin of one of these patients. The libraries from the lupus discordant twins were found to both include unusually large representations of the V(H)5 gene family. By panning with DNA, the SLE libraries each yielded IgG anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA autoantibodies, which are characteristic of lupus disease. These included a V(H)5 autoantibody from the affected twin, that has a targeted cluster of mutations that potentially improves binding affinity. The recovered IgG anti-dsDNA autoantibodies expressed the same idiotypes associated with the in vivo IgG anti-dsDNA response of the respective SLE donor. Heavy-light chain shuffling experiments demonstrated a case in which the in vitro creation of anti-dsDNA binding activity required restrictive pairing of a heavy chain with Vlambda light chains similar to those in circulating anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. By contrast, IgG anti-ds autoantibodies could not be recovered from the library from the healthy twin, or from shuffled libraries with heavy chains from the healthy twin. These repertoire analyses illustrate how inheritance and somatic processes interplay to produce lupus-associated IgG autoantibodies.
Several genetic and environmental factors have been linked to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). One environmental trigger that has a strong association with SLE is the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Our laboratory previously demonstrated that BALB/c mice expressing the complete EBNA-1 protein can develop antibodies to double stranded DNA (dsDNA). The present study was undertaken to understand why anti-dsDNA antibodies arise during the immune response to EBNA-1.
In this study, we demonstrated that mouse antibodies elicited in response to EBNA-1 cross-react with dsDNA. First, we showed that adsorption of sera reactive with EBNA-1 and dsDNA, on dsDNA cellulose columns, diminished reactivity with EBNA-1. Next, we generated mononclonal antibodies (MAbs) to EBNA-1 and showed, by several methods, that they also reacted with dsDNA. Examination of two cross-reactive MAbs—3D4, generated in this laboratory, and 0211, a commercial MAb—revealed that 3D4 recognizes the carboxyl region of EBNA-1, while 0211 recognizes both the amino and carboxyl regions. In addition, 0211 binds moderately well to the ribonucleoprotein, Sm, which has been reported by others to elicit a cross-reactive response with EBNA-1, while 3D4 binds only weakly to Sm. This suggests that the epitope in the carboxyl region may be more important for cross-reactivity with dsDNA while the epitope in the amino region may be more important for cross-reactivity with Sm.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that antibodies to the EBNA-1 protein cross-react with dsDNA. This study is significant because it demonstrates a direct link between the viral antigen and the development of anti-dsDNA antibodies, which are the hallmark of SLE. Furthermore, it illustrates the crucial need to identify the epitopes in EBNA-1 responsible for this cross-reactivity so that therapeutic strategies can be designed to mask these regions from the immune system following EBV exposure.
Anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies are the serologic abnormality characteristically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Although the anti-dsDNA antibodies present in SLE are indicative of an antigen-driven response, the antigen has not been conclusively identified.
By screening a phage peptide display library, we demonstrated previously that the decapeptide DWEYSVWLSN is specifically bound by the pathogenic murine IgG2b anti-dsDNA antibody R4A. To investigate the possibility that a protein antigen might trigger lupus-like autoimmunity, we immunized BALB/c mice with DWEYSVWLSN in adjuvant. Mice developed
significant titers of IgG anti-dsDNA antibodies 2–3 wk after the initial immunization. Immunized mice also developed antibodies against some other lupus autoantigens, and immunoglobulin deposition was present in renal glomeruli at 49 d. Although an immune response to peptide and dsDNA was evident in BALB/c mice, there was little response in other inbred strains.
This study demonstrates that lupus-like anti-dsDNA reactivity can be generated in nonautoimmune mice by immunization with a peptide antigen. Peptide-induced autoimmunity may
prove useful in understanding the spreading of antigenic specificities targeted in SLE. However, most importantly, the demonstration that a peptide antigen can initiate a SLE-like immune response opens a new chapter on the potential antigenic stimuli that might trigger SLE.
systemic lupus erythematosus; anti-DNA; peptide library; autoantibodies; inbred strains
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease characterized by B cells producing autoantibodies against nuclear proteins and DNA, especially anti-double-strand DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. RP105 (CD180), the toll-like receptor- (TLR-) associated molecule, is expressed on normal B cells. However, RP105-negative B cells increase in peripheral blood from patients with active SLE. RP105 may regulate B-cell activation, and RP105-negative B cells produce autoantibodies and take part in pathophysiology of SLE. It is possible that targeting RP105-negative B cells is one of the treatments of SLE. In this paper, we discuss the RP105 biology and clinical significance in SLE.
To determine whether exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with double stranded DNA (dsDNA) seropositivity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Medical record review was used to confirm the diagnosis of SLE and evaluate dsDNA antibody status. Smoking status at the time of autoantibody testing was assessed by patients' questionnaire responses. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine whether exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with dsDNA seropositivity, while controlling for sex and age at SLE diagnosis.
A significantly higher risk of dsDNA seropositivity in current smokers than never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 10.4) was shown by multivariate analysis. Current smokers were found to be at higher risk for dsDNA seropositivity than former smokers (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 7.1). The association between current smoking and dsDNA seropositivity remained significant after adjustment for sex, age at SLE diagnosis, amount smoked, age when smoking began, and the duration of smoking cessation (for former smokers).
The association of smoking with dsDNA seropositivity provides insight into the potential mechanisms underlying autoantibody formation. This information may also serve as a possible point of intervention to prevent disease or target treatment.
dsDNA; autoantibody production; smoking; systemic lupus erythematosus
To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate clinical effectiveness of belimumab for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antinuclear and/or anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) autoantibodies.
We searched eight electronic databases and reference lists for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of belimumab against placebo or best supportive care. Quality assessment and random effects meta-analysis were undertaken.
A meta-analysis of RCTs.
2133 SLE patients.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
SLE Responder Index (SRI) at week 52.
Three double-blind placebo-controlled RCTs (L02, BLISS-52 BLISS-76) investigated 2133 SLE patients. BLISS-52 and BLISS-76 trials recruited patients with antinuclear and/or anti-dsDNA autoantibodies and demonstrated belimumab effectiveness for the SRI at week 52. Ethnicity and geographical location of participants varied considerably between BLISS trials. Although tests for statistical heterogeneity were negative, BLISS-52 results were systematically more favourable for all measured outcomes. Meta-analysis of pooled 52-week SRI BLISS results showed benefit for belimumab (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.09). By week 76, the primary SRI outcome in BLISS-76 was not statistically significant (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.919 to 1.855).
Clinical Pharmacology; Epidemiology; Preventive Medicine; Public Health
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, formation of immune complexes (IC), and activation of complement that ultimately fuel acute and/or chronic inflammation. Accumulation in blood and tissues of post-apoptotic remnants is considered of etiological and pathological importance for patients with SLE. Besides receptors directly recognizing apoptotic cells, soluble opsonins of the innate immune system bind apoptotic material dependent on the stage of apoptosis. We describe the binding to the surface of secondary necrotic cells (SNEC) of the serum opsonin CRP and further opsonins. We show that anti-dsDNA and anti-CRP autoantibodies bind and sensitize SNEC. Autoantibody-sensitized SNEC were cleared by macrophages in vitro and induced a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. In conclusion, anti-CRP, CRP, and SNEC form a ternary pyrogen endowed with strong pro-inflammatory capabilities which is able to maintain and perpetuate chronic inflammation.
immune complexes; opsonins; CRP; anti-dsDNA; inflammation; SLE
The Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF) genes, which encode cell-surface receptors that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, lay within a genomic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 that confers a predisposition for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we demonstrate that the SLAMF member Ly9 arises as a novel receptor contributing to the reinforcement of tolerance. Specifically, Ly9-deficient mice spontaneously developed features of systemic autoimmunity such as the production of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), -dsDNA, and -nucleosome autoantibodies, independently of genetic background [(B6.129) or (BALB/c.129)]. In aged (10- to 12-month-old) Ly9−/− mice key cell subsets implicated in autoimmunity were expanded, e.g., T follicular helper (Tfh) as well as germinal center (GC) B cells. More importantly, in vitro functional experiments showed that Ly9 acts as an inhibitory receptor of IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that the Ly9 receptor triggers cell intrinsic safeguarding mechanisms to prevent a breach of tolerance, emerging as a new non-redundant inhibitory cell-surface receptor capable of disabling autoantibody responses.
SLAMF; Ly9 (CD229; SLAMF3); anti-DNA autoantibodies; disease susceptibility; systemic lupus erythematosus; murine Lupus
OBJECTIVE—This study investigated the predictive value of rises in IgM class antibodies against double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) for ensuing relapses in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in comparison with rises in IgG class antibodies. In addition, it was analysed whether rises in IgM class anti-dsDNA were associated with specific clinical manifestations of SLE.
METHODS—Thirty four of a cohort of 72 SLE patients who were positive for IgM class anti-dsDNA at the start of the study or at the time of a relapse were analysed monthly for class specific anti-dsDNA levels during a median observation period of 19.6 months. Disease activity was scored according to the SLE Disease Activity Index. Anti-dsDNA were measured by IgM and IgG class enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by Farr assay.
RESULTS—During the study 18 of 34 patients experienced 26 relapses. Twenty two (85%) of the relapses were accompanied by a positive test for IgM class anti-dsDNA by ELISA, 23 (89%) were positive for IgG class anti-dsDNA by ELISA, and 25 (96%) were positive by Farr assay. Patients with rises in IgG class anti-dsDNA by ELISA or in anti-dsDNA by Farr assay had a significantly higher cumulative risk for relapses than patients without those increases (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively). This was not the case for rises in IgM class anti-dsDNA (p=0.16). Moreover, a rise in IgM class anti-dsDNA before a relapse was not associated, expressed in terms of odds ratios, with specific clinical manifestations of SLE.
CONCLUSION—Relapses of SLE are frequently accompanied by IgM class anti-dsDNA. Rises of IgM class anti-dsDNA, in contrast with rises in IgG class anti-dsDNA, are not a sensitive tool for predicting a relapse and are not associated with specific clinical manifestations of SLE.
Aims: To compare circulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) concentrations with antibodies to single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) to determine their relation in inflammatory arthritic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods: Fibroblast MMP-2 and neutrophil MMP-9 were resolved by gelatin zymography and measured by densitometry. Anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA were determined by enzyme immunoassay and samples grouped on antibody content as follows: low anti-ssDNA/low anti-dsDNA antibodies (group 1); high anti-ssDNA/low anti-dsDNA antibodies (group 2); and high anti-ssDNA/high anti-dsDNA antibodies (group 3).
Results: Group 3 samples contained significantly lower amounts of MMP-9 when compared with group 1 samples. Higher molecular weight MMP-9 forms (130 and 225 kDa) were virtually absent. Group 2 samples contained intermediate MMP-9 concentrations. Fibroblast MMP-2 was unchanged in all groups. Mean complement C3 and C4 concentrations showed a consistent, but variably significant, decrease with increasing anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA antibodies. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised in all patient groups.
Conclusions: Neutrophil MMP-9, an inflammatory marker, inversely correlates with anti-dsDNA antibodies, which are a specific marker for SLE, and may be important in monitoring disease activity during antibody deposition in tissues.
anti-double stranded DNA antibodies; matrix metalloproteinases; systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by frequent neuropsychiatric involvement, which includes cognitive impairment (CI). We aimed at assessing CI in a cohort of Italian SLE patients by using a wide range of neurocognitive tests specifically designed to evaluate the fronto-subcortical dysfunction. Furthermore, we aimed at testing whether CI in SLE is associated with serum autoantibodies, disease activity and chronic damage.
Fifty-eight consecutive patients were enrolled. Study protocol included data collection, evaluation of serum levels of ANA, anti-dsDNA, anti-cardiolipin, anti-β2-glycoprotein I, anti-P ribosomal, anti-endothelial cell, and anti-Nedd5 antibodies. SLEDAI-2000 and SLICC were used to assess disease activity and chronic damage. Patients were administered a test battery specifically designed to detect fronto-subcortical dysfunction across five domains: memory, attention, abstract reasoning, executive function and visuospatial function. For each patient, the raw scores from each test were compared with published norms, then transformed into Z scores (deviation from normal mean), and finally summed in the Global Cognitive Dysfunction score (GCDs).
Nineteen percent of patients had mild GCDs impairment (GCDs 2–3), 7% moderate (GCDs 4–5) and 5% severe (GCDs≥6). The visuospatial domain was the most compromised (MDZs = −0.89±1.23). Anti-cardiolipin IgM levels were associated with visuospatial domain impairment (r = 0.331, P = 0.005). SLEDAI correlated with GCDs, and attentional and executive domains; SLICC correlated with GCDs, and with visuospatial and attentional domains impairment.
Anti-phospholipids, disease activity, and chronic damage are associated with cognitive dysfunction in SLE. The use of a wide spectrum of tests allowed for a better selection of the relevant factors involved in SLE cognitive dysfunction, and standardized neuropsychological testing methods should be used for routine assessment of SLE patients.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is not just a proinflammatory cytokine. It has also been proposed to be an immunoregulatory molecule that can alter the balance of T regulatory cells. Anti-TNF-α therapies have been provided clinical benefit to many patients and introduced for treating moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other chronic inflammatory disorders. However, their use also is accompanied by new or aggravated forms of autoimmunity, such as formation of autoantibodies, including antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), antidouble-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies, and anticardiolipin antibodies (ACL). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease with autoimmune disturbance and inflammatory damage. The role of TNF-α in human SLE is controversial. Here we review the role of TNF-α in the pathophysiological processes of SLE and the likely effects of blocking TNF-α in treatment of SLE.
Although systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) is usually evaluated with regard to autoimmune reactivity toward the kidney, there are multiple psychiatric abnormalities associated with this autoimmune disease. Lupus-prone male NZM88 mice, derived from NZB/NZW F1 mice, develop early neuropsychiatric manifestations without any signs of nephritis. In addition to the usual repertoire of antibody specificities, including autoantibodies to dsDNA and renal antigens, mice of this inbred strain express autoantibodies to numerous brain antigens. Here, we show that autoantibodies to brain antigens, assessed by Western analysis, are as individually varied as are the diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations observed in SLE patients. Additionally, a monoclonal antibody derived from the spleen of an untreated NZM88 male when injected into healthy BALB/cByJ, but not C57BL/6J, mice induced behaviors similar to those of lupus-prone NZM88 mice. This monoclonal antibody, which is specific to dynamin-1, binds preferentially in BALB/cByJ cortex and induces substantial expression of cytokines mainly in the hypothalamus. Thus, an antibody to just one brain antigen can induce multiple behavioral changes, and multiple autoantibodies to different brain antigens exist in lupus-prone mice; however, susceptibility to the induction of neurobehavioral deficits is dependent on host genetics.
lupus; neuropsychiatric; dynamin-1; autoantibody
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether antibodies to double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) have a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS--IgG was purified from 17 patients with SLE (median anti-dsDNA titre 1212 IU/ml) and nine healthy controls (median titre 40 IU/ml). Anti-dsDNA depleted polyclonal IgG (median anti-dsDNA titre 17 IU/ml) was also prepared from sera of the 17 patients by affinity chromatography on a DNA cellulose column. Binding to antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECA) and expression of von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied by flow cytometry. RESULTS--The percentage of HUVECs binding to AECA or expressing VWF was greater for cells incubated with IgG from patients with SLE than for cells incubated with control IgG, though values did not reach statistical significance; nevertheless, HUVECs incubated with IgG from patients expressed a greater mean fluorescence intensity with AECA (p = 0.0001) and greater VWF expression (p = 0.019). Both the fluorescence intensity and percentage of HUVECs binding to AECA or expressing VWF were significantly greater in HUVEC incubated with IgG containing anti-dsDNA than in those incubated with anti-dsDNA depleted IgG. The concentration of VWF in the supernatant was significantly increased in HUVECs incubated with IgG containing anti-dsDNA compared with control IgG or anti-dsDNA depleted IgG. Pretreatment of HUVECs with native DNA before incubation with IgG from lupus patients did not increase binding to AECA, or expression or release of VWF. CONCLUSIONS--Our study provides in vitro evidence that antibodies to DNA have a pathogenic role in the induction of inflammatory injury of the vascular endothelium in SLE.