It has previously been demonstrated that damaged arterial tissue can be acutely modified with protein-reactive polyethylene glycol (PEG) to block undesirable platelet deposition. This concept might be expanded by employing PEG-biotin and its strong interaction with avidin for site-specific targeted delivery. Toward this end, cultured endothelial cells (ECs) were surface modified with PEG-biotin and the available biotin was quantified with flow cytometry. NeutrAvidin-coated microspheres and PEG-biotin modified ECs with NeutrAvidin as a bridging molecule were delivered under arterial shear stress to PEG-biotin modified ECs on a coverslip as well as scrape-damaged bovine carotid arteries. After incubation with a 10 mM solution for 1 min, 8 × 107 PEG-biotin molecules/EC were found and persisted for up to 120 h. Perfused microspheres adhered to NHS-PEG-biotin treated bovine carotid arteries with 60 ± 16 microspheres/mm2 versus 11 ± 4 microspheres/mm2 for control arteries (p < 0.015). Similarly, 22 ± 5 targeted ECs/mm2 adhered to NHS-PEG-biotin treated bovine carotid arteries versus 6 ± 2 ECs/mm2 for control arteries (p < 0.01). The targeting strategy demonstrated here might ultimately find application for drug delivery, gene therapy, or cell therapy where localization to specific labeled vascular regions is desired following catheter-based or surgical procedures.
polyethylene glycol; targeted delivery; surface modification; biotin; avidin
The accurate quantification of antigens at low concentrations over a wide dynamic range is needed for identifying biomarkers associated with disease and detecting protein interactions in high-throughput microarrays used in proteomics. Here we report the development of an ultrasensitive quantitative assay format called immunoliposome polymerase chain reaction (ILPCR) that fulfills these requirements. This method uses a liposome, with reporter DNA encapsulated inside and biotin-labeled polyethylene glycol (PEG) phospholipid conjugates incorporated into the outer surface of the liposome, as a detection reagent. The antigenic target is immobilized in the well of a microplate by a capture antibody and the liposome detection reagent is then coupled to a biotin-labeled second antibody through a NeutrAvidin bridge. The liposome is ruptured to release the reporter DNA, which serves as a surrogate to quantify the protein target using real-time PCR.
A liposome detection reagent was prepared, which consisted of a population of liposomes ~120 nm in diameter with each liposome possessing ~800 accessible biotin receptors and ~220 encapsulated reporters. This liposome detection reagent was used in an assay to quantify the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. This ILPCR assay exhibited a linear dose–response curve from 10-10 M to 10-16 M CEA. Within this range the assay coefficient of variance was <6 % for repeatability and <2 % for reproducibility. The assay detection limit was 13 fg/mL, which is 1,500-times more sensitive than current clinical assays for CEA. An ILPCR assay to quantify HIV-1 p24 core protein in buffer was also developed.
The ILPCR assay has several advantages over other immuno-PCR methods. The reporter DNA and biotin-labeled PEG phospholipids spontaneously incorporate into the liposomes as they form, simplifying preparation of the detection reagent. Encapsulation of the reporter inside the liposomes allows nonspecific DNA in the assay medium to be degraded with DNase I prior to quantification of the encapsulated reporter by PCR, which reduces false-positive results and improves quantitative accuracy. The ability to encapsulate multiple reporters per liposome also helps overcome the effect of polymerase inhibitors present in biological specimens. Finally, the biotin-labeled liposome detection reagent can be coupled through a NeutrAvidin bridge to a multitude of biotin-labeled probes, making ILPCR a highly generic assay system.
A cantilever-based protein biosensor has been developed providing a customizable multilayer platform for the detection of antibodies. It consists of a biotin-terminated PEG layer pre-functionalized on the gold-coated cantilever surface, onto which NeutrAvidin is adsorbed through biotin/NeutrAvidin specific binding. NeutrAvidin is used as a bridge layer between the biotin-coated surface and the biotinylated biomolecules, such as biotinylated bovine serum albumin (biotinylated BSA), forming a multilayer sensor for direct antibody capture. The cantilever biosensor has been successfully applied to the detection of mouse anti-BSA (m-IgG) and sheep anti-BSA(s-IgG) antibodies. As expected, the average differential surface stress signals of about 5.7 ± 0.8 × 10−3 N/m are very similar for BSA/m-IgG and BSA/s-IgG binding, i.e., they are independent of the origin of the antibody. A statistic evaluation of 112 response curves confirms that the multilayer protein cantilever biosensor shows high reproducibility. As a control test, a biotinylated maltose binding protein was used for detecting specificity of IgG, the result shows a signal of bBSA layer in response to antibody is 5.8 × 10−3 N/m compared to bMBP. The pre-functionalized biotin/PEG cantilever surface is found to show a long shelf-life of at least 40 days and retains its responsivity of above 70% of the signal when stored in PBS buffer at 4 °C. The protein cantilever biosensor represents a rapid, label-free, sensitive and reliable detection technique for a real-time protein assay.
cantilever; biosensor; protein; multilayer; NeutrAvidin; biotin
Although the vital roles of sialic acid-containing structures in biomolecular recognition are well documented, limited information is available on how sialic acid structural modifications, sialyl linkages, and the underlying glycan structures affect the binding or the activity of sialic acid-recognizing proteins and related downstream biological processes. A novel combinatorial chemoenzymatic method has been developed for the highly efficient synthesis of biotinylated sialosides containing different sialic acid structures and different underlying glycans in 96-well plates from biotinylated sialyltransferase acceptors and sialic acid precursors. By transferring the reaction mixtures to NeutrAvidin-coated plates and assaying for the yields of enzymatic reactions using lectins recognizing sialyltransferase acceptors but not the sialylated products, the biotinylated sialoside products can be directly used, without purification, for high-throughput screening to quickly identify the ligand specificity of sialic acid-binding proteins. For a proof-of-principle experiment, 72 biotinylated α2,6-linked sialosides were synthesized in 96-well plates from 4 biotinylated sialyltransferase acceptors and 18 sialic acid precursors using a one-pot three-enzyme system. High-throughput screening assays performed in NeutrAvidin-coated microtiter plates show that while Sambucus nigra Lectin binds to α2,6-linked sialosides with high promiscuity, human Siglec-2 (CD22) is highly selective for a number of sialic acid structures and the underlying glycans in its sialoside ligands.
This report details the incorporation of a water-soluble deep cavitand into a membrane bilayer assembled onto a nanoglassified surface for study of molecular recognition in a membrane-mimicking setting. The cavitand retains its host properties, and real-time analysis of the host:guest properties of the membrane:cavitand complex via surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence microscopy is described. The host shows selectivity for choline-derived substrates, and no competitive incorporation of substrate is observed in the membrane bilayer. A variety of trimethylammonium-derived substrates are suitable guests, displaying binding affinities in a millimolar range. The membrane:cavitand:guest complexes can be subsequently used to capture NeutrAvidin protein at the membrane surface if a biotin-derived guest molecule is used. The surface coverage of NeutrAvidin is affected by the spacer used to derivatize the biotin. Increased distance from the bilayer allows a higher concentration of protein to be immobilized, suggesting a diminishing detrimental steric effect when the binding event is shifted away from the surface.
We have developed surfaces for the selective presentation of biotinylated peptides and proteins in a background that resists nonspecific protein adsorption; controlled amounts of biotinylated polyethylene glycol (MW 3400; PEG3400) anchored to titanium-dioxide-coated surfaces via an adhesive tri-peptide sequence of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA3-PEG3400-biotin; DPB) were incorporated within a DOPA3-PEG2000 background. Using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, we found that the amounts of sequentially adsorbed NeutrAvidin and singly-biotinylated molecules increased proportionally with the amount of DPB in the surface. Biotinylated peptides (MW ca. 2000) were able to fill all three of the remaining avidin-binding sites, while only one molecule of biotinylated PEG5000 or stem cell factor bound to each avidin. The resulting biotin-avidin-biotin linkages were stable for prolonged periods under continuous perfusion, even in the presence of excess free biotin. Hematopoietic M07e cells bound to immobilized peptide ligands for α5β1 (cyclic RGD) and α4β1 (cylic LDV) integrins in a DPB-dose-dependent manner, with near-maximal binding to cylic LDV for surfaces containing 1% DPB. Multiple ligands were adsorbed in a controlled manner by incubating NeutrAvidin with the respective ligands in the desired molar ratio and then adding the resulting complexes to DPB-containing surfaces. Cell adhesion to surfaces containing both cylic LDV and cyclic RGD increased in an additive manner compared to that for the individual ligands. The bioactivity of adsorbed biotinylated stem cell factor was retained, as demonstrated by DPB-dose-dependent M07e cell adhesion and ERK1/2 activation.
Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression “Logitboost” as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests.
West Nile (WN) virus was introduced into the United States in 1999, when the first human cases of WN fever and encephalitis appeared in New York City. From there, the virus has spread throughout North America, in some areas cocirculating with the related flavivirus St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. Public health laboratories currently use an immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) as a primary test for human serodiagnosis, followed by a confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The MAC-ELISAs take 2 days to perform; therefore there is a need for a more rapid test. This report describes a duplex microsphere-based immunoassay (MIA) that shortens the test processing time to about 4.5 h. The assay employs two sets of microspheres coupled to a single flavivirus group-reactive antibody, which are used to capture the WN and SLE viral antigens independently. Immunoglobulin G-depleted serum is concurrently assayed for IgM antibodies to each of the viral antigens. The results are standardized and classified by using quadratic discriminant analysis so that a single result, anti-WN IgM-positive, anti-SLE IgM-positive, negative, or nonspecific, can be determined. The duplex MIA results compared favorably to those of the plaque-reduction neutralization test and MAC-ELISA. The assay proved to be reproducible, produced accurate classifications as to the infecting virus, and was specific.
We have created a fluorescent marker using a mutant EcoRI restriction endonuclease (K249C) that enables prolonged, direct visualization of specific sequences on genomic lengths of double-stranded (ds) DNA. The marker consists of a biotinylated enzyme, attached through the biotin-avidin interaction to a fluorescent nanosphere. Control over biotin position with respect to the enzyme’s binding pocket is achieved by biotinylating the mutant EcoRI at the mutation site. Biotinylated enzyme is incubated with dsDNA and NeutrAvidin-coated, fluorescent nanospheres under conditions that allow enzyme binding but prevent cleavage. Marker-laden DNA is then fluorescently stained and stretched on polylysine-coated glass slides so that the positions of the bound markers along individual DNA molecules can be measured. We demonstrate the marker’s ability to bind specifically to its target sequence using both bulk gel-shift assays and single-molecule methods.
The development and validation of a microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to detect equine antibodies to the major structural proteins of equine arteritis virus (EAV) are described. The assay development process was based on the cloning and expression of genes for full-length individual major structural proteins (GP5 amino acids 1 to 255 [GP51-255], M1-162, and N1-110), as well as partial sequences of these structural proteins (GP51-116, GP575-112, GP555-98, M88-162, and N1-69) that constituted putative antigenic regions. Purified recombinant viral proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were covalently bound to fluorescent polystyrene microspheres and analyzed with the Luminex xMap 100 instrument. Of the eight recombinant proteins, the highest concordance with the virus neutralization test (VNT) results was obtained with the partial GP555-98 protein. The MIA was validated by testing a total of 2,500 equine serum samples previously characterized by the VNT. With the use of an optimal median fluorescence intensity cutoff value of 992, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 92.6% and 92.9%, respectively. The GP555-98 MIA and VNT outcomes correlated significantly (r = 0.84; P < 0.0001). Although the GP555-98 MIA is less sensitive than the standard VNT, it has the potential to provide a rapid, convenient, and more economical test for screening equine sera for the presence of antibodies to EAV, with the VNT then being used as a confirmatory assay.
A sensitive assay for the simultaneous detection of anti-cytomegalovirus and anti-herpes simplex virus antibodies was developed. Two different sizes of polystyrene microspheres were coated with purified viral antigens. Human antiviral antibodies were detected with a biotin-streptavidin amplification procedure with phycoerythrin as the fluorescent label. Microsphere-associated fluorescence was quantitated with a flow cytometer. Sixteen percent of samples initially scored as seronegative for cytomegalovirus and 35% of samples initially scored as seronegative for herpes simplex virus by conventional assays were clearly found positive by the microsphere technique. This flow cytometric assay can simultaneously detect several specific antibodies at levels which are below the sensitivity of standard assays. The dynamic range of this assay is at least sixfold greater than that of enzyme immunoassays. This technique is amenable to numerous serologic assays and could greatly expand the clinical laboratory applications of flow cytometry.
Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins found in plants, animals and microorganisms. They serve as important models for understanding protein-carbohydrate interactions at the molecular level. We report here the fabrication of a novel sensing interface of biotinylated sialosides to probe lectin-carbohydrate interactions using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The attachment of carbohydrates to the surface using biotin-NeutrAvidin interactions and the implementation of an inert hydrophilic hexaethylene glycol spacer between the biotin and the carbohydrate result in a well defined interface, enabling desired orientational flexibility and enhanced access of binding partners. The specificity and sensitivity of lectin binding were characterized using Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) and other lectins including Maackia amurensis lectin (MAL), Concanavalin A (Con A), and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The results indicate that α2,6-linked sialosides exhibit high binding affinity to SNA, while alteration in sialyl linkage and terminal sialic acid structure compromises the affinity by a varied degree. Quantitative analysis yields an association constant (Ka) of 1.29 × 106 M−1 for SNA binding to Neu5Aca2,6-LHEB and a dissociation constant (KD) of 777 ± 93 nM. A linear relationship was obtained in the 10–100 μg/mL range with LOD of ~50 nM. Weak interactions with MAL, Con A and WGA were also quantified. The control experiment with bovine serum albumin indicates that nonspecific interaction on this surface is insignificant over the concentration range studied. Multiple experiments can be performed on the same substrate using a glycine stripping buffer, which selectively regenerates the surface without damaging the sialoside or the biotin-NeutrAvidin interface. This surface design retains a high degree of native affinity for the carbohydrate motifs, allowing distinction of sialyl linkages and investigation pertaining to the effect of functional group on binding efficiency. It could be easily modified to identify and quantify binding patterns of any low-affinity biologically relevant systems, opening new avenues for probing carbohydrate-protein interactions in real-time.
We have investigated the possibility of using element-tagged antibodies for protein detection and quantification in microplate format using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and compared the results to conventional immunoassays, such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The technique was further employed to detect low levels and measure DNA-binding activity of transcription factor p53 in leukemia cell lysates through its interaction with immobilized oligonucleotides and recognition by element-tagged antibodies. The advantages of ICP-MS detection for routine performance of immunoassays include increased sensitivity, wide dynamic range, minimal interference from complex matrices, and high throughput. Our approach advances the ICP-MS technology and demonstrates its applicability to proteomic studies through the use of antibodies directly labeled with polymer tags bearing multiple atoms of lanthanides. Development of this novel methodology will enable fast and quantitative identification of multiple analytes in a single well.
ELISA; ICP-MS; element-tagged antibody; lanthanides; growth factors; transcription factor p53
A microsphere-based immunoassay (MIA) was previously developed that is capable of determining the presence of anti-West Nile (WN) virus or anti-St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in human serum or cerebrospinal fluid. The original data set on which the classification rules were based comprised 491 serum specimens obtained from the serum bank at the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DVBID). The classification rules were used to provide a result and to determine whether confirmatory testing was necessary for a given sample. A validation study was coordinated between the DVBID and five state health laboratories to determine (i) the reproducibility of the test between different laboratories, (ii) the correlation between the IgM-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) and the MIA, and (iii) whether the initial nonspecific parameters could be refined to reduce the volume of confirmatory testing. Laboratorians were trained in the method, and reagents and data analysis software developed at the DVBID were shipped to each validating laboratory. Validating laboratories performed tests on approximately 200 samples obtained from their individual states, the collections of which comprised approximately equal numbers of WN virus-positive and -negative samples, as determined by MAC-ELISA. In addition, 377 samples submitted to the DVBID for arbovirus testing were analyzed using the MIA and MAC-ELISA at the DVBID only. For the specimens tested at both the state and the DVBID laboratories, a correlation of results indicated that the technology is readily transferable between laboratories. The detection of IgM antibodies to WN virus was more consistent than detection of IgM antibodies to SLE virus. Some changes were made to the analysis software that resulted in an improved accuracy of diagnosis.
A new acoustically-active delivery vehicle was developed by conjugating liposomes and microbubbles, using the high affinity interaction between avidin and biotin. Binding between microbubbles and liposomes each containing 5% DSPE-PEG2kBiotin was highly dependent on avidin concentration and observed above an avidin concentration of 10 nM. With an optimized avidin and liposome concentration, we measured and calculated as high as 1000 to 10,000 liposomes with average diameters of 200 and 100 nm, respectively, attached to each microbubble. Replacing avidin with neutravidin resulted in 3-fold higher binding, approaching the calculated saturation level. High-speed photography of this new drug delivery vehicle demonstrated that the liposome-bearing microbubbles oscillate in response to an acoustic pulse similar to microbubble contrast agents. Additionally, microbubbles carrying liposomes could be spatially concentrated on a monolayer of PC-3 cells at the focal point of ultrasound beam. As a result of cell-vehicle contact, the liposomes fused with the cells and internalization of NBD-cholesterol occurred shortly after incubation at 37°C, with internalization of NBD-cholesterol substantially enhanced in the acoustic focus.
Microbubble; Liposome; Ultrasound Radiation Forces; Delivery Vehicle
A rapid and quantitative DNA-binding assay was developed based on the translational fusion of a DNA-binding protein (DBP) with a Neocallimastix patriciarum β-1,4-d-glucanase, CelD. CelD releases a fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferyl product from 4-methylumbelliferyl cellobioside. This hydrolysis activity was used to quantify the amount of DBP–CelD bound to an immobilised biotin-labelled target sequence. The DNA-binding assay can be performed in a 96-well plate format for high- throughput analysis of putative DBPs. This method was applied to analysis of the binding properties and sequence selectivity of a cold-inducible transcription factor HvCBF1 from barley containing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. A base-scanning approach using degenerate oligonucleotide probes was employed for rapid identification of the conserved core motif of the HvCBF1 binding site. Quantitative analysis of the binding site of HvCBF1 using systematic base substitution revealed that a (G/a) (C/t)CGAC sequence was sufficient to constitute a functional motif, where the lower-case letters represent less efficient bases. The method enables us to provide accurate and quantitative data on a comprehensive DNA-binding profile for a cold-inducible AP2 transcription factor as well as information on environmental parameters potentially influencing the DNA-binding activity. The accurate binding sequence data facilitate identification of candidate genes regulated by HvCBF1 from genome sequence databases.
HMGA1 proteins are architectural transcription factors that are overexpressed by pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Roles of HMGA1 in mediating the malignant phenotype of this cancer are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of HMGA1 promotes resistance to anoikis (apoptosis induced by anchorage deprivation) in pancreatic cancer cells. HMGA1 cDNA was stably transfected into MiaPaCa2 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (which have low baseline expression levels of HMGA1). Cells were grown in suspension on PolyHEMA-coated plates and their susceptibility to anoikis was assayed using flow cytometry. Overexpression of HMGA1 was associated with marked reductions in susceptibility to anoikis in concert with increases in Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) and in Akt kinase activity and with reductions in caspase 3 activation. Inhibition of phosphoinositidyl-3 (PI3-K)/Akt pathway with either the small molecule inhibitor LY294002 or dominant-negative Akt resulted in reversal of anoikis resistance induced by HMGA1 overexpression. Further, RNA interference-mediated HMGA1 silencing in MiaPaCa2 and BxPC3 (a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line with high baseline levels of HMGA1 expression) cells resulted in significant increases in susceptibility to anoikis. Our findings suggest HMGA1 promotes anoikis resistance through a PI3-K/Akt-dependent mechanism. Given the putative associations between anoikis resistance and metastatic potential, HMGA1 represents a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
HMGA1; Akt; anoikis; pancreatic adenocarcinoma
A new immunoassay amplification method has been applied to the measurement of toxins A, B, and E from Clostridium botulinum. The technique is a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the detection of sandwich complexes on microtiter plates by a solid-phase coagulation assay known as ELCA, or enzyme-linked coagulation assay. In the method, a coagulation activating enzyme (RVV-XA) isolated from the venom of Russell's viper is conjugated to affinity-purified horse antibodies specific for toxin type A, B, or E. Plates are coated with affinity-purified antibodies, and standard captag (capture-tag) protocols using labeled antibody are employed to bind the toxin from solution. Complexes are detected by adding a modified plasma substrate which contains all the coagulation factors mixed with alkaline phosphatase-labeled fibrinogen and solid-phase fibrinogen; deposition of solid-phase, enzyme-labeled fibrin on the solid phase is then a reflection of formation of toxin-RVV-XA-antibody complexes on the solid phase. Because of the ability to detect RVV-XA by this coagulation assay at concentrations < 0.1 pg/ml, it was possible to measure C. botulinum toxins A, B, and E at mouse bioassay levels (< 10 pg/ml, or < 0.07 pM) for both purified neurotoxin and crude culture filtrates obtained from strains known to produce appropriate single toxins. ELISA-ELCA should be applicable to measurement of toxins in most of the materials (contaminated food, blood, and excreta) for which the comparably sensitive mouse bioassay is currently employed. This method has the potential of broad application to the measurement of low concentrations of any antigen for which appropriate immunochemical reagents are available, in a color test format.
Cytokines are essential signaling molecules that mediate the innate immune response, and therefore their presence can be of diagnostic, prognostic, and pathogenic significance. Microsphere-based immunoassays allow rapid and accurate evaluation of cytokine levels in several species, including humans, dogs, and mice; however, technology to evaluate domestic cat (Felis catus) cytokines has been limited to single-analyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Microsphere-based immunoassays provide an attractive alternative technology for detecting and quantifying multiple analytes in a single assay using as little as 50 μl of sample. We describe the development and validation of a microsphere-based assay for three commonly analyzed domestic cat cytokines (gamma interferon, interleukin-10, and interleukin-12/interleukin-23 p40) using reagents from commercially available ELISAs. The assay was optimized for capture and detection antibody concentrations, streptavidin-phycoerythrin concentration, and number of microspheres. The validated lower and upper quantitation limits were 31 and 1,000 pg/ml for gamma interferon, 63 and 2,000 pg/ml for interleukin-10, and 39 and 625 pg/ml for interleukin-12/interleukin-23 p40. Cytokine concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants were measured, and results obtained by the microsphere assay were correlated with values obtained with commercially available ELISA kits. This technology is a convenient and reproducible assay to evaluate domestic cat cytokine responses elicited by a variety of diseases.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae, is the tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The life cycle of A. phagocytophilum is biphasic, transitioning between the noninfectious reticulate cell (RC) and infectious dense-cored (DC) forms. We analyzed the bacterium's DC surface proteome by selective biotinylation of surface proteins, NeutrAvidin affinity purification, and mass spectrometry. Transcriptional profiling of selected outer membrane protein candidates over the course of infection revealed that aph_0248 (designated asp14 [14-kDa A. phagocytophilum surface protein]) expression was upregulated the most during A. phagocytophilum cellular invasion. asp14 transcription was induced during transmission feeding of A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks on mice and was upregulated when the bacterium engaged its receptor, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. Asp14 localized to the A. phagocytophilum surface and was expressed during in vivo infection. Treating DC organisms with Asp14 antiserum or preincubating mammalian host cells with glutathione S-transferase (GST)–Asp14 significantly inhibited infection of host cells. Moreover, preincubating host cells with GST-tagged forms of both Asp14 and outer membrane protein A, another A. phagocytophilum invasin, pronouncedly reduced infection relative to treatment with either protein alone. The Asp14 domain that is sufficient for cellular adherence and invasion lies within the C-terminal 12 to 24 amino acids and is conserved among other Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species. These results identify Asp14 as an A. phagocytophilum surface protein that is critical for infection, delineate its invasion domain, and demonstrate the potential of targeting Asp14 in concert with OmpA for protecting against infection by A. phagocytophilum and other Anaplasmataceae pathogens.
Nanopore sequencing has the potential to become a fast and low-cost DNA sequencing platform. An ionic current passing through a small pore would directly map the sequence of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) driven through the constriction. The pore protein, MspA, derived from Mycobacterium smegmatis, has a short and narrow channel constriction ideally suited for nanopore sequencing. To study MspA's ability to resolve nucleotides, we held ssDNA within the pore using a biotin-NeutrAvidin complex. We show that homopolymers of adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine in MspA exhibit much larger current differences than in α-hemolysin. Additionally, methylated cytosine is distinguishable from unmethylated cytosine. We establish that single nucleotide substitutions within homopolymer ssDNA can be detected when held in MspA's constriction. Using genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms, we demonstrate that single nucleotides within random DNA can be identified. Our results indicate that MspA has high signal-to-noise ratio and the single nucleotide sensitivity desired for nanopore sequencing devices.
Cell adhesion between cells and with the extracellular matrix (ECM) results in dramatic changes in cell organization and, in particular, the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane domains involved in adhesion. However, current methods to analyze these changes are limited because of the small areas of membrane involved in adhesion, compared to the areas of membrane not adhering (a signal to noise problem), and the difficulty in accessing native protein complexes directly for imaging or reconstitution with purified proteins. The methods described here overcome these problems. Using a mammalian expression system, a chimeric protein comprising the extracellular domain of E-cadherin fused at its C-terminus to the Fc domain of human IgG1 (E-cadherin:Fc) is expressed and purified. A chemical bridge of biotin-NeutrAvidin-biotinylated Protein G bound to a silanized glass cover slip is fabricated to which the E-cadherin:Fc chimera binds in the correct orientation for adhesion by cells. After cell attachment, the basal membrane (a contact formed between cellular E-cadherin and the E-cadherin:Fc substratum) is isolated by sonication; a similar method is described to isolate basal membranes of cells attached to ECM. These membrane patches provide direct access to protein complexes formed on the membrane following cell-cell or cell-ECM adhesion.
Epithelial cells; polarity; plasma membrane; membrane domains; cell–cell adhesion; cell–extracellular matrix adhesion; cadherin; integrin; collagen; substrate; plasma membrane; cytoskeleton; actin; microtubules; membrane patches
To enhance preclinical evaluation of serological immune responses to the individual diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) components of DTP combination vaccines, a fast hexavalent bead-based method was developed. This multiplex immunoassay (MIA) can simultaneously determine levels of specific mouse serum IgG antibodies to P antigens P.69 pertactin (P.69 Prn), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertussis toxin (Ptx), and combined fimbria type 2 and 3 antigens (Fim2/3) and to diphtheria toxin (Dtx) and tetanus toxin (TT) in a single well. The mouse DTP MIA was shown to be specific and sensitive and to correlate with the six single in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for all antigens. Moreover, the MIA was expanded to include avidity measurements of DTP antigens in a multivalent manner. The sensitivities of the mouse DTP avidity MIA per antigen were comparable to those of the six individual in-house avidity ELISAs, and good correlations between IgG concentrations obtained by both methods for all antigens tested were shown. The regular and avidity mouse DTP MIAs were reproducible, with good intra- and interassay coefficients of variability (CV) for all antigens. Finally, the usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in a longitudinal study of the development and avidity maturation of specific IgG antibodies in mice having received different DTP vaccines. We conclude that the hexaplex mouse DTP MIA is a specific, sensitive, and high-throughput alternative for ELISA to investigate the quantity and quality of serological responses to DTP antigens in preclinical vaccine studies.
The transcription factor nuclear factor κB
(NFκB) is a key factor in the immune
response triggered by a wide variety of molecules such as inflammatory cytokines,
or some bacterial and viral products. This transcription factor
represents a new target for the development of anti-inflammatory
molecules, but this type of research is currently hampered by the lack
of a convenient and rapid screening assay for NFκB
activation. Indeed, NFκB DNA-binding
capacity is traditionally estimated by radioactive gel shift assay.
Here we propose a new DNA-binding assay based on the use of multi-well
plates coated with a cold oligonucleotide containing the consensus binding
site for NFκB. The presence of the DNA-bound transcription
factor is then detected by anti-NFκB antibodies
and revealed by colorimetry. This assay is easy to use, non-radioactive,
highly reproducible, specific for NFκB,
more sensitive than regular radioactive gel shift and very convenient
for high throughput screening.
Direct modulation of gene expression by targeting oncogenic transcription factors is a new area of research for cancer treatment. ERG, an ETS-family transcription factor, is commonly over-expressed or translocated in leukaemia and prostate carcinoma. In this work, we selected the di-(thiophene-phenyl-amidine) compound DB1255 as an ERG/DNA binding inhibitor using a screening test of synthetic inhibitors of the ERG/DNA interaction followed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) validation. Spectrometry, footprint and biosensor-surface plasmon resonance analyses of the DB1255/DNA interaction evidenced sequence selectivity and groove binding as dimer. Additional EMSA evidenced the precise DNA-binding sequence required for optimal DB1255/DNA binding and thus for an efficient ERG/DNA complex inhibition. We further highlighted the structure activity relationships from comparison with derivatives. In cellulo luciferase assay confirmed this modulation both with the constructed optimal sequences and the Osteopontin promoter known to be regulated by ERG and which ERG-binding site was protected from DNaseI digestion on binding of DB1255. These data showed for the first time the ERG/DNA complex modulation, both in vitro and in cells, by a heterocyclic diamidine that specifically targets a portion of the ERG DNA recognition site.