Promotion or inhibition of tubulin assembly into microtubules is the standard in vitro assay for evaluating potential antimicrotubule agents. Many agents to be tested are poorly soluble in aqueous solution and require a cosolvent such as DMSO4. However, DMSO itself can promote tubulin assembly, and its inclusion in assays for compounds that induce tubulin assembly complicates interpretation of the results. Substituting GDP for GTP in the exchangeable nucleotide binding site of tubulin produces a less active form of the protein, tubulin-GDP. Here it is shown that tubulin-GDP can be assembled into normal microtubules in DMSO concentrations up to 15% (v/v), and polymerization assays performed under these conditions can be compared with assays run under more standard conditions. Assays for measuring the effective concentration of a ligand for promotion of tubulin assembly (EC50), measuring the concentration for inhibition of tubulin assembly (IC50) by a colchicine site ligand, and for measuring tubulin critical concentrations in the presence of poorly soluble taxol derivatives are illustrated.
Taxol; Microtubules; Assembly promotion; Tubulin-GDP; DMSO; Solubility; Critical concentration
Tubulin, the basic component of microtubules, is present in most eukaryotic cells as multiple gene products, called isotypes. The major tubulin isotypes are highly conserved in terms of structure and drug binding capabilities. The tubulin isotype βVI, however, is significantly divergent from the other isotypes in sequence, assembly properties and function. It is the major β-tubulin isotype of hematopoietic tissue and forms the microtubules of platelet marginal bands. The interaction of the major tubulin isotypes βI, βII, βIII and βIV with antimicrotubule drugs has been widely studied, but little is known about the drug binding properties of tubulin isotype βVI. In this investigation, we characterized the activity of various colchicine-site ligands with tubulin isolated from Gallus gallus erythrocytes (CeTb), which is ~95% βVI. Colchicine binding is thought to be a universal property of higher eukaryotic tubulin; however, we were unable to detect colchicine binding to CeTb under any experimental conditions. Podophyllotoxin and nocodazole, other colchicine-site ligands with divergent structures, were able to inhibit paclitaxel-induced CeTb assembly. Surprisingly, the colchicine isomer allocolchicine also inhibited CeTb assembly and displayed measurable, moderate affinity for CeTb (Ka = 0.18 × 105 M−1 vs. 5.0 × 105 M−1 for bovine brain tubulin). Since allocolchicine and colchicine differ in their C ring structures, the two C-ring colchicine analogues were also tested for CeTb binding. Kinetic experiments indicate that thiocolchicine and chlorocolchicine bind to CeTb, but very slowly and with low affinity. Molecular modeling of CeTb identified five divergent amino acid residues within 6 Å of the colchicine binding site compared to βI, βII, and βIV; three of these amino acids are also altered in βIII-tubulin. Interestingly, the altered amino acids are in the vicinity of the A ring region of the colchicine binding site rather than the C ring region. We propose that the amino acid differences in the binding site constrict the A ring binding domain in CeTb, which interferes with the positioning of the trimethoxyphenyl A ring and prevents C ring binding site interactions from efficiently occurring. Allocolchicine is able to accommodate the altered binding mode because of its smaller ring size and more flexible C ring substituents. The sequence of the colchicine binding domain of CeTb βVI-isotype is almost identical to that of it human hematopoietic counterpart. Thus, through analysis of the interactions of ligands with CeTb, it may be possible to discover colchicine site ligands that specifically target tubulin in human hematopoietic cells.
3,5-dibromo-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester is a promising antitubulin lead agent that targets the colchicine site of tubulin. C-2 analogs were synthesized and tested for microtubule depolymerizing and antiproliferative activity. Molecular modeling studies using both GOLD docking and HINT (Hydropathic INTeraction) scoring revealed two distinct binding modes that explain the structural-activity relationships and are in accord with the structural basis of colchicine binding to tubulin. The binding mode of higher activity compounds is buried deeper in the site and overlaps well with rings A and C of colchicine, while the lower activity binding mode shows fewer critical contacts with tubulin. The model distinguishes highly active compounds from those with weaker activities and provides novel insights into the colchicine site and compound design.
antitubulin; hydropathic interactions; docking; multi-functional pyrroles; structure-activity relationship
A combined morphometric and biochemical approach has been used to identify and quantitate microtubules and tubulin in isolated hepatocytes. The total soluble pool of microtubule protein was estimated by specific high affinity binding to radiolabeled colchicine. Scatchard analysis of the data identified two populations of binding sites: high affinity-low capacity sites resembling tubulin and low affinity-high capacity sites believed to represent nonspecific colchicine-binding sites. Data from these studies indicate that tubulin represents 1% of the soluble protein of the cell, that 9.0 X 10(-14) dimers of tubulin are present per microgram soluble hepatocyte protein, and that the average hepatocyte contains 3.1 X 10(7) tubulin dimers. Our calculations suggest that this amount of tubulin would form a microtubule 1.9 cm in length if totally assembled. However, stereological measurements indicate that the actual length of microtubules in the cytosolic compartment of the average hepatocyte is only 0.28 cm. Thus, these experiments suggest that only 15% of the available tubulin in hepatocytes of postabsorptive rats is assembled in the form of microtubules.
Differential susceptibility to microtubule agents has been demonstrated between mammalian cells and kinetoplastid organisms such as Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma spp. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize the architecture of the putative colchicine binding site of Leishmania spp. and investigate the molecular basis of colchicine resistance. We cloned and sequenced the β-tubulin gene of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and established the theoretical 3D model of the protein, using the crystallographic structure of the bovine protein as template. We identified mutations on the Leishmania β-tubulin gene sequences on regions related to the putative colchicine-binding pocket, which generate amino acid substitutions and changes in the topology of this region, blocking the access of colchicine. The same mutations were found in the β-tubulin sequence of kinetoplastid organisms such as Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, and T. evansi. Using molecular modelling approaches, we demonstrated that conformational changes include an elongation and torsion of an α-helix structure and displacement to the inside of the pocket of one β-sheet that hinders access of colchicine. We propose that kinetoplastid organisms show resistance to colchicine due to amino acids substitutions that generate structural changes in the putative colchicine-binding domain, which prevent colchicine access.
The colchicine-binding activity of tubulin has been utilized to
distinguish the tubulins from two distinct microtubule systems of the same
species, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We have analyzed the
colchicine-binding affinities of highly purified tubulins from the
unfertilized eggs and from the flagellar outer doublet microtubules by
van't Hoff analysis, and have found significant differences in the free
energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes characterizing the binding of
colchicine to the two tubulins. The data indicate that significant chemical
differences in the tubulins from the two functionally distinct microtubule
systems exist, and that the differences are expressed in the native forms
of the tubulins. Our findings are discussed in terms of the possibility
that the colchicine- binding site may be an important regulatory site on
the tubulin molecule.
BPR0L075, 6-methoxy-3-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-benzoyl)-1H-indole, is a tubulin-binding agent that inhibits tubulin polymerization by binding to the colchicine-binding site. BPR0L075 has shown antimitotic and antiangiogenic activity in vitro. The current study evaluated the vascular-disrupting activity of BPR0L075 in human breast cancer mammary fat pad xenografts using dynamic bioluminescence imaging. A single dose of BPR0L075 (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) induced rapid, temporary tumor vascular shutdown (at 2, 4, and 6 hours); evidenced by rapid and reproducible decrease of light emission from luciferase-expressing orthotopic MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumors after administration of luciferin substrate. A time-dependent reduction of tumor perfusion after BPR0L075 treatment was confirmed by immunohistological staining of the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342 and tumor vasculature marker CD31. The vasculature showed distinct recovery within 24 hours post therapy. A single i.p. injection of 50 mg/kg of BPR0L075 initially produced plasma concentrations in the micromolar range within 6 hours, but subsequent drug distribution and elimination caused BPR0L075 plasma levels to drop rapidly into the nanomolar range within 24 h. Tests with human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells and tumor cells in culture showed that BPR0L075 was cytotoxic to both tumor cells and proliferating endothelial cells, and disrupted pre-established vessels in vitro and ex vivo. In conclusion, BPR0L075 caused rapid, albeit, temporary tumor vascular shutdown and led to reduction of tumor perfusion in orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts, suggesting that this antimitotic agent may be useful as a vascular-disrupting cancer therapy.
The crucial role of the microtubule in the cell division has identified tubulin as a target for the development of therapeutics for cancer; in particular tubulin is a target for antineoplastic agents that act by interfering with the dynamic stability of microtubules. A molecular modeling study was carried out to accurately represent the complex structure and the binding mode of a new class of stilbene-based tubulin inhibitors that bind at the αβ-tubulin colchicine site. Computational docking along with HINT score analysis fitted these inhibitors into the colchicine site and revealed detailed structure-activity information useful for inhibitor design. Quantitative analysis of the results was in good agreement with the in vitro antiproliferative activity of these derivatives (ranging from 3 nM to 100 μM) such that calculated and measured free energies of binding correlate with an r2 of 0.89 (standard error ± 0.85 kcal mol−1). This correlation suggests that the activity of unknown compounds may be predicted.
stilbene; colchicine; microtubule inhibitors; hydropathy; HINT
The antimitotic compound methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) formed a complex in vitro with a protein present in mycelial extracts of fungi. The binding protein of Aspergillus nidulans showed a set of properties which is unique for tubulin. Binding occurred rapidly at 4 degrees C and was competitively inhibited by oncodazole and colchicine. Other inhibitors of microtubule function such as podophyllotoxin, vinblastine sulfate, melatonin, and griseofulvin did not interfere with binding of MBC. Electrophoretic analysis of partially purified preparations of the binding protein revealed the presence of proteins with similar mobilities as mammalian tubulin monomers. Hence it is concluded that the binding protein is identical with fungal tubulin. The effect of MBC on mycelial growth of mutant strains of A. nidulans was positively correlated with the affinity of the binding sites for this compound. The apparent binding constant for MBC and tubulin from a wild type was estimated at 4.5 X 10(5), from a resistant strain at 3.7 X 10(4), and from a strain with increased sensitivity to MBC at 1.6 X 10(6) liters/mol. Mutants showing resistance and increased sensitivity to MBC are candidates to have alterations in tubulin structure. Affinity of tubulin for MBC is probably a common mechanism of resistance to this compound in fungi. Low affinity of tubulin for MBC is probably a common mechanism of resistance binding constant of 2.5 X 10(3) liters/mol.
The novel agent amphethinile is shown to inhibit tubulin assembly in vitro. This agent is capable of displacing colchicine but not vinblastine from tubulin and causes a stimulation in GTPase activity in vitro. The affinity constant for the association of this drug with tubulin has been determined (Ka = 1.3 x 10(6) M-1). It is concluded that amphethinile belongs to the class of agents which share a common binding site with colchicine on the tubulin molecule.
Formation of microtubules is a dynamic process that involves polymerization and depolymerization of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. Drugs that enhance or inhibit tubulin polymerization can destroy this dynamic process, arresting cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Although drugs that target tubulin generally demonstrate cytotoxic potency in the sub-nanomolar range, resistance due to drug efflux is a common phenomenon among the antitubulin agents. We recently reported a class of 4-Substituted Methoxybenzoyl-Aryl-Thiazoles (SMART) that exhibited great in vitro potency and broad spectrum cellular cytotoxicity. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities of three SMART compounds, SMART-H (H), SMART-F (F) and SMART-OH (OH) with varying substituents at the 4-position of aryl ring, demonstrated that they bind potently to the colchicine binding site in tubulin, inhibit tubulin polymerization, arrest cancer cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and induce their apoptosis.
The SMART compounds also equi-potently inhibit the growth of parental and MDR-over-expressing cells in vitro, indicating that they can overcome multidrug resistance. In vivo anti-tumor efficacy studies in human prostate (PC-3) and melanoma (A375) cancer xenograft models demonstrated that SMART-H and SMART-F treatments resulted in %T/C values ranging from 4–30%. In addition, in vivo SMART-H treatment for 21 days at the higher dose (15 mg/kg) failed to produce any apparent neurotoxicity. These studies provide the first in vivo evidence and proof-of-concept that SMART compounds are similarly efficacious to currently FDA approved antitubulin drugs for cancer treatment, but they can circumvent P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance.
tubulin; P-glycoprotein; pharmacokinetics; xenograft
Zampanolide and its less active analog dactylolide compete with paclitaxel for binding to microtubules and represent a new class of microtubule-stabilizing agent (MSA). Mass spectrometry demonstrated that the mechanism of action of both compounds involved covalent binding to β-tubulin at residues N228 and H229 in the taxane site of the microtubule. Alkylation of N228 and H229 was also detected in α,β-tubulin dimers. However, unlike cyclostreptin, the other known MSA that alkylates β-tubulin, zampanolide was a strong MSA. Modeling the structure of the adducts, using the NMR-derived dactylolide conformation, indicated that the stabilizing activity of zampanolide is likely due to interactions with the M-loop. Our results strongly support the existence of the luminal taxane site of microtubules in tubulin dimers and that microtubule nucleation induction by MSAs may proceed through an allosteric mechanism.
A series of sulfanilamide Schiff base derivatives (1 to 15) have been designed as potential antitubulin agents depending on the chemical structures of combretastatine A-4 and isoquinoline sulfamate (antimitotic agents under investigation). The designed compounds were synthesized by microwave chemical synthesis, their purity was confirmed by melting point and HPLC and chemical structures were determined by FT-IR, UV, and 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized compounds have been docked in the colchicine binding site of β-tubulin using molecular modeling programs and the antitumor activities were screened on human breast and lung cancer cells by cell counting assay. Some tested compounds showed potent and selective activity against breast cancer (MCF-7) with IC50 range of 90 to 166 μM. With regarding broad-spectrum activity, compounds 4, 8, and 13 have shown potent antitumor activity against human breast and human lung cells with IC50 range of 96 to 140 μM. The obtained results suggest that the sulfanilamide Schiff base derivatives might potentially constitute an interesting novel class of anticancer agents, which deserve further studies.
Schiff base; Sulfanilamide; Imines; Antitumor activities; Cell counting assay; Microtubules; Beta tubulin; Microtubules targeting drugs; Colchicine binding site
GDP inhibits paclitaxel-induced tubulin assembly without GTP when the tubulin bears GDP in the exchangeable site (E-site). Initially, we thought inhibition was mediated through the E-site, since small amounts of GTP or Mg2+, which favors GTP binding to the E-site, reduced inhibition by GDP. We thought trace GTP released from the nonexchangeable site (N-site) by tubulin denaturation was required for polymer nucleation, but microtubule length was unaffected by GDP. Further, enhancing polymer nucleation reduced inhibition by GDP. Other mechanisms involving the E-site were eliminated experimentally. Upon finding that ATP weakly inhibited paclitaxel-induced assembly, we concluded that another ligand binding site was responsible for these inhibitory effects, and we found that GDP was not binding at the taxoid, colchicine, or vinca sites. There may therefore be a lower affinity site on tubulin to which GDP can bind distinct from the E- and N-sites, possibly on α-tubulin, based on molecular modeling studies.
Tubulin; GDP; Paclitaxel; Nucleotide binding sites; ATP; Microtubule-associated proteins
The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel arrests cell division by binding to the hetero-dimeric protein tubulin. Subtle differences in tubulin sequences, across eukaryotes and among β-tubulin isotypes, can have profound impact on paclitaxel-tubulin binding. To capture the experimentally observed paclitaxel-resistance of human βIII tubulin isotype and yeast β-tubulin, within a common theoretical framework, we have performed structural principal component analyses of β-tubulin sequences across eukaryotes.
The paclitaxel-resistance of human βIII tubulin isotype and yeast β-tubulin uniquely mapped on to the lowest two principal components, defining the paclitaxel-binding site residues of β-tubulin. The molecular mechanisms behind paclitaxel-resistance, mediated through key residues, were identified from structural consequences of characteristic mutations that confer paclitaxel-resistance. Specifically, Ala277 in βIII isotype was shown to be crucial for paclitaxel-resistance.
The present analysis captures the origin of two apparently unrelated events, paclitaxel-insensitivity of yeast tubulin and human βIII tubulin isotype, through two common collective sequence vectors.
Compounds that bind at the colchicine site of tubulin have drawn considerable attention with studies indicating that these agents suppress microtubule dynamics and inhibit tubulin polymerization. Data for eighteen polysubstituted pyrrole compounds are reported, including antiproliferative activity against human MDA-MB-435 cells and calculated free energies of binding following docking the compounds into models of αβ-tubulin. These docking calculations coupled with HINT interaction analyses are able to represent the complex structures and the binding modes of inhibitors such that calculated and measured free energies of binding correlate with an r2 of 0.76. Structural analysis of the binding pocket identifies important intermolecular contacts that mediate binding. As seen experimentally, the complex with JG-03-14 (3,5-dibromo-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2- carboxylic acid ethyl ester) is the most stable. These results illuminate the binding process and should be valuable in the design of new pyrrole-based colchicine site inhibitors as these compounds have very accessible syntheses.
Anti-tubulin; cytotoxicity; HINT; molecular docking; pyrroles
We describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of tubulin polymerization inhibitors that contain the 1,2,4-triazole ring to retain the bioactive configuration afforded by the cis double bond in combretastatin A-4 (CA-4). Several of the subject compounds exhibited potent tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity as well as cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells including multi-drug-resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. Attachment of the N-methyl-5-indolyl moiety to the 1,2,4-triazole core, as exemplified by compound 7, conferred optimal properties among this series. Computer docking and molecular simulations of 7 inside the colchicine binding site of tubulin enabled identification of residues most likely to interact strongly with these inhibitors and explain their potent anti-tubulin activity and cytotoxicity. It is hoped that results presented here will stimulate further examination of these substituted 1,2,4-triazoles as potential anti-cancer therapeutic agents.
Colchicine-binding activity of mouse liver high-speed supernate has been investigated. It has been found to be time and temperature dependent. Two binding activities with different affinities for colchicine seem to be present in this high-speed supernate, of which only the high-affinity binding site (half maximal binding at 5 x 10(-6) M colchicine) can be attributed to microtubular protein by comparison with purified tubulin. Vinblastine interacted with this binding activity by precipitating it when used at high concentrations (2 x 10(- 3) M), and by stabilizing it at low concentrations (10(-5) M). Lumicolchicine was found not to compete with colchicine. The colchicine-binding activity was purified from liver and compared with that of microtubular protein from brain. The specific binding activity of the resulting preparation, its electrophoretic behavior, and the electron microscope appearance of the paracrystals obtained upon its precipitation with vinblastine permitted its identification as microtubular protein (tubulin). Electrophoretic analysis of the proteins from liver supernate that were precipitated by vinblastine indicated that this drug was not specific for liver tubulin. Preincubation of liver supernate with 5 mM EGTA resulted in a time- dependent decrease of colchicine-binding activity, which was partly reversed by the addition of Ca++. However, an in vitro formation of microtubules upon lowering the Ca++ concentration could not be detected. Finally, a method was developed enabling that portion of microtubular protein which was present as free tubulin to be measured and to be compared with the total amount of this protein in the tissue. This procedure permitted demonstration of the fact that, under normal conditions, only about 40% of the tubulin of the liver was assemled as microtubules. It is suggested that, in the liver, rapid polymerization and depolymerization of microtubules occur and may be an important facet of the functional role of the microtubular system.
Assembly of brain microtubule proteins isolated from the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, was found to be much less sensitive to colchicine than assembly of bovine brain microtubules, which was completely inhibited by low colchicine concentrations (10 microM). The degree of disassembly by colchicine was also less for cod microtubules. The lack of colchicine effect was not caused by a lower affinity of colchicine to cod tubulin, as colchicine bound to cod tubulin with a dissociation constant, Kd, and a binding ratio close to that of bovine tubulin. Cod brain tubulin was highly acetylated and mainly detyrosinated, as opposed to bovine tubulin. When cod tubulin, purified by means of phosphocellulose chromatography, was assembled by addition of DMSO in the absence of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), the microtubules became sensitive to low concentrations of colchicine. They were, however, slightly more stable to disassembly, indicating that posttranslational modifications induce a somewhat increased stability to colchicine. The stability was mainly MAPs dependent, as it increased markedly in the presence of MAPs. The stability was not caused by an extremely large amount of cod MAPs, since there were slightly less MAPs in cod than in bovine microtubules. When "hybrid" microtubules were assembled from cod tubulin and bovine MAPs, these microtubules became less sensitive to colchicine. This was not a general effect of MAPs, since bovine MAPs did not induce a colchicine stability of microtubules assembled from bovine tubulin. We can therefore conclude that MAPs can induce colchicine stability of colchicine labile acetylated tubulin.
The biological importance of microtubules in mitosis and cell division makes them an interesting target for the development of anticancer agents. Small molecules such as benzo[b]furans are attractive as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. Thus, a new class of inhibitors of tubulin polymerization based on the 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-benzo[b]furan molecular skeleton, with electron-donating (Me, OMe or OH) or electron-withdrawing (F, Cl and Br) substituents on the benzene ring, was synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity, inhibition of tubulin polymerization and cell cycle effects. Adding a methyl group at the C-3 position resulted in increased activity. The most promising compound in this series was 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-methyl-6-ethoxy-benzo[b]furan, which inhibits cancer cell growth at nanomolar concentrations and interacts strongly with tubulin by binding to the colchicine site.
Benzo[b]furan derivatives; Antitubulin agents; Combretastatin-A4; Colchicine; Antiproliferative agents
Recently, we identified 1-aminoanthracene as a fluorescent general anesthetic. To investigate the mechanism of action, a photoactive analogue, 1-azidoanthracene, was synthesized. Administration of 1-azidoanthracene to albino stage 40–47 tadpoles was found to immobilize animals upon near-UV irradiation of the forebrain region. The immobilization was often reversible, but it was characterized by a longer duration consistent with covalent attachment of the ligand to functionally important targets. IEF/SDS-PAGE examination of irradiated tadpole brain homogenate revealed labeled protein, identified by mass spectrometry as β-tubulin. In vitro assays with aminoanthracene-cross-linked tubulin indicated inhibition of microtubule polymerization, similar to colchicine. Tandem mass spectrometry confirmed anthracene binding near the colchicine site. Stage 40–47 tadpoles were also incubated 1 h with microtubule stabilizing agents, epothilone D or discodermolide, followed by dosing with 1-aminoanthracene. The effective concentration of 1-aminoanthracene required to immobilize the tadpoles was significantly increased in the presence of either microtubule stabilizing agent. Epothilone D similarly mitigated the effects of a clinical neurosteroid general anesthetic, allopregnanolone, believed to occupy the colchicine site in tubulin. We conclude that neuronal microtubules are “on-pathway” targets for anthracene general anesthetics and may also represent functional targets for some neurosteroid general anesthetics.
We have undertaken quantitative binding site studies in order to identify the binding site of the known microtubule destabilizing agents, the tubulyzines, in the tubulin dimer. Two different approaches were employed that utilized the tubulyzines and their derivatives. The first approach was based on a chemical affinity labeling method using tubulyzine affinity derivatives, and the second approach employed the mass spectrometric measurement of the differential reactivity of cysteines using the tubulyzines and monobromobimane. Based on overlapping data from these two approaches, we propose that the tubulyzines bind at the guanosine-5′-triphosphate binding site of β-tubulin. Interestingly, we also show that the tubulyzines’ binding to tubulin induces a conformational change in tubulin that prevents further interaction of the 239Cysβ with other reagents.
Tublin; Tubulyzine; Binding site; MS-DRC; MS-DRC, mass spectrometric measurement of the differential reactivity of cysteines; mBrB, monobromobimane; GTP, guanosine-5′-triphosphate; rt, room temperature; LC—MS, liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry; THF, tetrahydrofuran; DIPEA, diisopropylethylamine; EtOAc, ethyl acetate; TEA, triethylamine; T-LC, thin-layer chromatography; PIPES, piperazine-N,N-bis(ethane-sulfonic acid); TCEP, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride; Tn, tubulyzine affinity derivatives; ESI, electrospray ionization; HP-LC, high-performance liquid chromatography; CID, collision induced dissociation; MS, mass spectrometry; SIC, single ion current; TIC, total ion current; FWHM, full width at half maximum; GDP, guanosine di phosphate; TA, tubulyzine A; TB, tubulyzine B
Agents that interfere with mitotic progression by disturbing microtubule dynamics are commonly used for cancer treatment. Previously, a series of aroylquinolone regioisomers as novel microtubule inhibitors were discovered. One of these new compounds, MPT0B214 inhibited tubulin polymerization through strongly binding to the tubulin’s colchicine-binding site and had cytotoxic activity in a variety of human tumor cell lines. After treatment with MPT0B214, KB cells were arrested in the G2-M phase before cell death occurred, which were associated with upregulation of cyclin B1, dephosphorylation of Cdc2, phosphorylation of Cdc25C and elevated expression of the mitotic marker MPM-2. Furthermore, the compound induced apoptotic cell death through mitochondria/caspase 9-dependent pathway. Notably, several KB-derived multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines were also sensitive to MPT0B214 treatment. These findings showed that MPT0B214 is a potential compound in the treatment of various malignancies.
The centrosome is the primary microtubule organizing centre of the cell. γ-tubulin is a core component of the centrosome and is required for microtubule nucleation and centrosome function. The recruitment of γ-tubulin to centrosomes is mediated by its interaction with NEDD1, a WD40-repeat containing protein. Here we demonstrate that NEDD1 is likely to be oligomeric in vivo and binds directly to γ-tubulin through a small region of just 62 residues at the carboxyl-terminus of the protein. This carboxyl-terminal domain that binds γ-tubulin has a helical structure and is a stable tetramer in solution. Mutation of residues in NEDD1 that disrupt binding to γ-tubulin result in a mis-localization of γ-tubulin away from the centrosome. Hence, this study defines the binding site on NEDD1 that is required for its interaction with γ-tubulin, and shows that this interaction is required for the correct localization of γ-tubulin.
The results presented here show that disruption of the microtubule network acts synergistically with cAMP-elevating agents to stimulate the entry into DNA synthesis of 3T3 cells. Antimicrotubule agents and increased cAMP levels require an additional growth-promoting factor for inducing initiation of DNA synthesis; such requirement can be furnished by insulin, vasopressin, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or fibroblast-derived growth factor. The involvement of the microtubules is indicated by the fact that enhancement of the DNA synthetic response was demonstrated with the chemically diverse agents colchicine, nocodazole, vinblastine, or demecolcine, all of which elicited the response in a dose-dependent manner. We verified that colchicine and nocodazole, at the doses used in this study, induced microtubule disassembly in the absence as well as in the presence of cAMP-elevating agents as judged by measurement of [3H]colchicine binding of total and pelletable tubulin. The involvement of cAMP was revealed by increasing its endogenous production by cholera toxin or by treatment with 8BrcAMP. The enhancing effects of antimicrotubule drugs and cAMP-elevating agents could be demonstrated by incorporation of [3H]thymidine into acid-insoluble material, autoradiography of labeled nuclei, or flow cytofluorometric analysis. The addition of antimicrotubule drugs does not increase the intracellular level of cAMP nor does addition of cAMP-elevating agents promote disassembly of microtubules (as judged by measuring [3H]colchicine binding of total and pelletable tubulin) in 3T3 cells. In view of these findings and the striking synergistic effects between these agents in stimulating DNA synthesis in the presence of a peptide growth factor, we conclude that increased cAMP levels and a disrupted microtubule network regulate independent pathways involved in proliferative response.