Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors’ clinic and treated by PCN. The patients’ gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 ± 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3–4, 30 cases at C4–5, 40 cases at C5–6, and 35 cases at C6–7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) ≥11° or horizontal displacement (HD) ≥3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery.
Nucleoplasty; Disc herniation coblation; Cervical; Discectomy
Nucleoplasty (percutaneous lumbar disc decompression) is a minimally invasive procedure that utilizes radiofrequency energy as a treatment for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation, against open microdiscectomy, which would be the mainstay treatment modality. The literature reports a favorable outcome in up to 77% of patients at 6 months.
To evaluate the effectiveness of nucleoplasty in the management of discogenic radicular pain.
Materials and Methods:
The medical notes of 33 patients, admitted for nucleoplasty between June 2006 and September 2007, were reviewed retrospectively. All had radicular pain, and contained herniated disc as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbosacral spine. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months post-procedure. The outcome measures employed in this study were satisfaction with symptoms and self-reported improvement.
Thirty-three cases were examined (18 males and 15 females). Twenty-seven procedures were performed with no complications and six were abandoned due to anatomical reasons. There were 18 and 15 cases of disc herniation at L5/S1 and L4/5 levels, respectively. Four weeks following the procedure, 13 patients reported improvement in symptoms, and 14 remained symptomatically the same and subsequently had open microdiscectomy.
Nucleoplasty has been shown to be a safe and minimal-access procedure. Less than half of our selected cohort of patients reported symptomatic improvement at 1-month follow-up. We no longer offer this procedure to our patients. Possible reasons are discussed.
Lumbar disc herniation; nucleoplasty; radicular pain
We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty.
We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group) was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group) the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared.
The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml). In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21) volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml) or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21) volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml) or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml) or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001).
Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate longer-term efficacy over a two-year follow-up of coblation nucleoplasty treatment for protruded lumbar intervertebral disc.
Forty-two cases of protruded lumbar intervertebral disc treated by coblation nucleoplasty followed-up for two years were analysed. Relief of low back pain, leg pain and numbness after the operation were assessed by visual analogue pain scale (VAS). Function of lower limb and daily living of patients were evaluated by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).
Operations were performed successfully in all cases. Three patients had recurrence within a week of the procedure. Evaluation of the 42 patients demonstrated significant improvement rate of VAS: defined as 66.2% in back pain, 68.1% in leg pain, and 85.7% in numbness at one-week after the operation; 53.2%, 58.4%, 81.0% at one-year; and 45.5%, 50.7%, 75.0% at two-year follow-up. One week after the operation, obvious amelioration occurred in all the patients, but the tendency decreased. Before operation, the mean value of ODI was 68.2 ± 10.9%. The value at one week was 28.6 ± 8.2%; one-year at 35.8 ± 6.5%; and two-years at 39.4 ± 5.8%.
Coblation nucleoplasty may have satisfactory clinical outcomes for treatment of protruded lumbar intervertebral disc for as long as two-year follow-up, but longer-term benefit still needs verification.
Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is an uncommon condition and early surgical approaches were associated with significant morbidity and even mortality. We are the first to describe the technique of percutaneous thoracic nucleoplasty in three patients with severe radicular pain due to thoracic disc herniation. Two of the patients experienced more than 75% pain relief and one patient experienced more than 50% pain relief. Post-procedural pain relief was maintained up to an average of 10 months after nucleoplasty. One patient with preoperative neurological signs improved postoperatively. There were no reported complications in all three patients. In view of the reduced morbidity and shorter operating time, thoracic intervertebral disc nucleoplasty can be considered in patients with pain due to thoracic disc herniation, with no calcification of the herniated disc, and in patients who may be otherwise be unfit for conventional surgery.
Thoracic intervertebral disc herniation; Thoracic nucleoplasty; Percutaneous thoracic disc cannulation; Minimally invasive procedures
Infective spondylodiscitis is a rare complication that can occur after interventional spinal procedures, of which symptoms are usually back pain and fever. Early diagnosis of infective spondylodiscitis is critical to start antibiotics and to improve prognosis. Laboratory examinations including complet blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are conventional tools for the early detection of infectious spondylitis. However, we experienced infective spondylodiscitis after cervical nucleoplasty which did not display any laboratory abnormalities, but was diagnosed through an MRI. A patient with cervical disc herniation received nucleoplasty at C5/6 and C6/7. One month later, the patient complained of aggravated pain. There were neither signs of chill nor fever, and the laboratory results appeared normal. However, the MRI findings were compatible with infectious spondylodiscitis at the nucleoplasty site. In conclusion, infectious spondylodiscitis can develop after cervical nucleoplasty without any laboratory abnormalities. Therefore, an MRI should be taken when there is a clinical suspicion for infection in order to not miss complications after interventional procedures, even if the laboratory findings are normal.
complication; infection; magnetic resonance imaging; nucleoplasty; spondylodiscitis
To evaluate changes in nucleus pulposus volume as a potential parameter for the effects of disc decompression.
Fifty-two discs (T8 to L1) were extracted from 26 pigs and separated into thoracic (T8 to T11) and thoracolumbar discs (T12 to L1). The discs were imaged using 7.1 Tesla ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with acquisition of axial T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences for determination of baseline and postinterventional nucleus pulposus volumes. Volumes were calculated using OsiriX® (http://www.osirix-viewer.com). After randomization, one group was treated with nucleoplasty, while the placebo group was treated with an identical procedure but without coblation current. The readers analyzing the MR images were blinded to the kind of procedure performed. Baseline and postinterventional volumes were compared between the nucleoplasty and placebo group.
Average preinterventional nucleus volume was 0.799 (SD: 0.212) ml. Postinterventional volume reduction in the nucleoplasty group was significant at 0.052 (SD: 0.035) ml or 6.30% (p<0.0001) (thoracic discs) and 0.082 (SD: 0.042) ml or 7.25% (p = 0.0078) (thoracolumbar discs). Nucleoplasty achieved volume reductions of 0.114 (SD: 0.054) ml or 14.72% (thoracic) and 0.093 (SD: 0.081) ml or 11.61% (thoracolumbar) compared with the placebo group.
Nucleoplasty significantly reduces thoracic and thoracolumbar nucleus pulposus volumes in porcine discs.
Prospective case series studies have shown that plasma disc decompression (PDD) using the COBLATION SpineWand device (ArthroCare Corporation, Austin, TX) is effective for decompressing the disc nucleus in symptomatic contained cervical disc herniations. This prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes of percutaneous PDD as compared to conservative care (CC) through 1 year. Patients (n = 115) had neck/arm pain >50 on the visual analog scale (VAS) pain scale and had failed at least 30 days of failed CC. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either PDD (n = 62) or CC (n = 58). Clinical outcome was determined by VAS pain score, neck disability index (NDI) score, and SF-36 health survey, collected at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The PDD group had significantly lower VAS pain scores at all follow-up time points (PDD vs. CC: 6 weeks, −46.87 ± 2.71 vs. −15.26 ± 1.97; 3 months, −53.16 ± 2.74 vs. −30.45 ± 2.59; 6 months, −56.22 ± 2.63 vs. −40.26 ± 2.56; 1 year, −65.73 ± 2.24 vs. −36.45 ± 2.86; GEE, P < 0.0001). PDD patients also had significant NDI score improvement over baseline when compared to CC patients at the 6 weeks (PDD vs. CC: −9.15 ± 1.06 vs. −4.61 ± 0.53, P < 0.0001) and 1 year (PDD vs. CC: −16.70 ± 0.29 vs. −12.40 ± 1.26, P = 0.005) follow-ups. PDD patients showed statistically significant improvement over baseline in SF-36 physical component summary scores when compared to CC patients at 6 weeks and 1 year (PDD vs. CC: 8.86 + 8.04 vs. 4.24 ± 3.79, P = 0.0004; 17.64 ± 10.37 vs. 10.50 ± 10.6, P = 0.0003, respectively). In patients who had neck/arm pain due to a contained cervical disc herniation, PDD was associated with significantly better clinical outcomes than a CC regimen. At 1 year, CC patients appeared to suffer a “relapse, showing signs of decline in most measurements, whereas PDD patients showed continued stable improvement.
Contained disc herniation; Cervical spine; Disc decompression; PDD; Conservative care
The object of this study is to review the early clinical results and radiographic outcomes following insertion of the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN), together with its effect on maintaining sagittal alignment of the functional spinal unit (FSU) and overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine for the treatment of single-level or two-level symptomatic disc disease. Forty-seven patients with symptomatic single or two-level cervical disc disease who received the Bryan Cervical Artificial Disc were reviewed prospectively. A total of 55 Bryan disc were placed in 47 patients. A single-level procedure was performed in 39 patients and a two-level procedure in the other eight. Radiographic and clinical assessments were made preoperatively and at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 and up to 33 months postoperatively. Mean follow-up duration was 24 months, ranging from 13 to 33 months. Periods were categorized as early follow up (1.5–3 months) and late follow up (6–33 months). The visual analogue scale (VAS), neck disability index(NDI), Odom’s criteria were used to assess pain and clinical outcomes. Static and dynamic radiographs were measured by hand and computer to determine the range of motion (ROM), the angle of the functional segmental unit (FSU), and the overall cervical alignment (C2–7 Cobb angle). With all of these data, we evaluated the change of the preoperative lordosis (or kyphosis) of the FSU and Overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine during the follow-up period. There was a statistically significant improvement in the VAS score from 7.0 ± 2.6 to 2.0 ± 1.5 (paired-t test, P = 0.000), and in the NDI from 21.5 ± 5.5 to 4.5 ± 3.9 (paired-t test P = 0.000). All of the patients were satisfied with the surgical results by Odom’s criteria. The postoperative ROM of the implanted level was preserved without significant difference from preoperative ROM of the operated level. Only 36% of patients with a preoperative lordotic sagittal orientation of the FSU were able to maintain lordosis following surgery. However, the overall sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was preserved in 86% of cases at the final follow up. Interestingly, preoperatively kyphotic FSU resulted in lordotic FSU in 13% of patients during the late follow-up, and preoperatively kyphotic overall cervical alignment resulted in lordosis in 33% of the patients postoperatively. Clinical results are encouraging, with significant improvement seen in the Bryan Cervical Artificial disc. The Bryan disc preserves motion of the FSU. Although the preoperative lordosis (or kyphosis) of the FSU could not always be maintained during the follow-up period, the overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine was usually preserved.
Cervical arthroplasty; Artificial disc; Sagittal alignment; Kyphosis; Cervical spine
Over the last several decades there has been a general trend toward reduction and minimalization in surgical treatment of chronic back pain, since open surgery brings complications in small and contained disc herniations instead of achieving expected success. Attention has been focussed on percutaneous nucleoplasty due to the limited success of other minimally invasive methods, as well due to their associated complications. However, there have been few studies in the English literature with a follow-up period of more than 1 year.
Patients with chronic disc herniations having more significant radicular leg pain, who did not respond to non-invasive treatment methods and for whom open surgery was not an option were selected for percutaneous nucleoplasty application. Upon intervention, patients were prospectively questioned by an independent physician regarding pain, physical improvement, and operation satisfaction at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Pain was evaluated with VAS, and physical improvement was evaluated based on the Oswestry Disability Index.
Mean VAS that was 8.7±1.1 before the procedure was determined to be 3.4±1.9 at 24 months follow-up. At the latest follow-up, 87.5% of the patients reported a 30% or higher decrease in their pain. While Oswestry scores were 76.1±10.2 in the beginning, they went down to 33.9±14.9 at the end of 2 years. The percent of those stating “good” and “excellent” satisfaction was 66% (23 persons) on the last follow-up.
While it is once more shown that nucleoplasty is a safe method, it is also shown that its effectiveness continues at the end of 2 years.
percutaneous nucleoplasty; chronic back pain; radiculopathy; disc decompression
We reviewed patients with cervical disc prosthesis replacement for single-level cervical disc disease to evaluate its clinical effect and maintenance of cervical spine motion. Fifteen patients underwent Bryan artificial cervical disc replacement and were followed-up for at least 24 months. No neurological or vascular complications were observed during or after operation. JOA, VAS, and NDI scores showed statistical significant improvement in our follow-up. The procedure achieved an 87% (13/15) satisfactory rate at 24-month evaluations according to Odom’s criteria. The range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine, treated segment, adjacent segment, and functional spinal unit (FSU) decreased at early follow-up, but they recovered to the preoperative level at 12- and 24-month follow-up. Also, preoperative lordosis of the cervical spine and FSU were not only maintained but also even improved during the 24-month follow-up. No obvious degeneration of adjacent discs were found at MRI. There were no cases of prosthesis subsidence or extrusion. The cervical disc prosthesis showed a good clinical outcome; it also restored ROM of the cervical spine and reestablished cervical curvature in our 24-month follow-up. But to be sure of its long term effect, a longer follow-up is needed.
Cervical disc herniation is a common disorder characterized by neck pain radiating to the arm and fingers as determined by the affected dermatome. This condition has a favorable prognosis, but pain can have a serious detrimental impact on daily activities. Epidural neuroplasty has been applied as a treatment option for cervical disc herniation; however, no study has addressed the clinical outcomes. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical outcomes of epidural neuroplasty on 128 patients for the treatment of cervical disc herniation. To measure pain-related disabilities over time, the changes of pain scores in neck and arm were evaluated using a numerical rating scale (NRS) and the neck disability index (NDI). Compared with preprocedural values, the pain NRS of neck and arm demonstrated significant improvement at day 1, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure (P < 0.001). Likewise, the NDI was significantly reduced at 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure (P < 0.001). There were no serious complications. Cervical epidural neuroplasty shows good clinical outcomes in the treatment of cervical disc herniation and can be considered a treatment modality for cervical disc herniation refractory to conservative treatment.
Cervical Disc Herniation; Epidural; Neuroplasty
This study was done to present our surgical experience of modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy (MTACM) assisted by the O-arm-based navigation system for the treatment of cervical disc herniation. We present eight patients with foraminal disc herniations at the C5–C6, C6–C7, and C7–T1 levels. All patients had unilateral radicular arm pain and motor weakness. The inclusion criteria for the patients were the presence of single-level unilateral foraminal cervical disc herniation manifesting persistent radiculopathy despite conservative treatment. Hard disc herniation, down-migrated disc herniation, concomitant moderate to severe bony spur and foraminal stenosis were excluded. We performed MTACM to expose the foraminal area of the cervical disc and removed the herniated disc fragments successfully using O-arm-based navigation. Postoperatively, the patients’ symptoms improved and there was no instability during the follow-up period. MTACM assisted by O-arm-based navigation is an effective, safe, and precise minimally invasive procedure that tends to preserve non-degenerated structures as much as possible while providing a complete removal of ruptured disc fragments in the cervical spine.
Cervical disc herniation; Modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy; Minimally invasive; Navigation; O-arm
In the present study, we evaluated the effect, safety and radiological outcomes of cervical hybrid surgery (cervical disc prosthesis replacement at one level, and interbody fusion at the other level) on the multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD).
Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.7 years) with symptomatic multilevel cervical spondylosis were treated using hybrid surgery (HS). Clinical [neck disability index (NDI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score] and radiologic outcomes [range of motion (ROM) for cervical spine, adjacent segment and arthroplasty level] were evaluated at routine postoperative intervals of 1, 6, 12, 24 months. Review of other similar studies that examined the HS in multilevel cervical DDD was performed.
Out of 51 patients, 41 patients received 2 level hybrid surgery and 10 patients received 3 level hybrid surgery. The NDI and VAS score were significantly decreased during the follow up periods (p<0.05). The cervical ROM was recovered at 6 and 12 month postoperatively and the mean ROM of inferior adjacent segment was significantly larger than that of superior adjacent segments after surgery. The ROM of the arthoplasty level was preserved well during the follow up periods. No surgical and device related complications were observed.
Hybrid surgery is a safe and effective alternative to fusion for the management of multilevel cervical spondylosis.
Multilevel cervical spondylosis; Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion; Total disc replacement; Hybrid
Study design: Prospective cohort study.
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare clinical results and to determine differences in outcomes between anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and disc arthroplasty in patients treated for symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease.
Methods: Forty patients with cervical degenerative disc disease were treated with ProDisc-C disc arthroplasty and 40 patients with fusion using an intervetebral spacer with integrated fixation (Cervios chronoOS) implants without additional anterior fixation. Fifty disc prostheses were placed in the first group and 52 intervertebral spacers were implanted in the second group. Clinical outcomes were assessed before and 12 months following the procedure using the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain, with 15% improvement in NDI and 20% in VAS defined as a clinically significant.
Results: Eighty patients with cervical degenerative disc disease with a mean age of 49.7 years were included in the study with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The groups were similar at baseline both clinically and statistically (P > .05) except for age and VAS for arm pain. Both groups had a statistically significant improvement in NDI and VAS for neck and arm pain (P < .05) and the arthroplasty group had a better improvement according to NDI (74.3% of patients in the arthroplasty group achieved ≥15% improvement in NDI versus 65.7% of patients in ACDF group).
Conclusions: Both ProDisc C and Cervios chronoOS prostheses resulted in significant pain reduction and functional outcome for the patients with slightly better results in the group treated with disc arthroplasty 12 months after the surgery.
The definiton of the different classes of evidence is available on page 83.
The object of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) versus cervical disc replacement using the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) in terms of range of motion (ROM), Functional spinal unit (FSU), overall sagittal alignment (C2–C7), anterior intervertebral height (AIH), posterior intervertebral height (PIH) and radiographic changes at the implanted and adjacent levels. The study consisted of 105 patients. A total of 63 Bryan disc were placed in 51 patients. A single level procedure was performed in 39 patients and a two-level procedure in the other 12. Fifty-four patients underwent ACDF, 26 single level cases and 28 double level cases. The Bryan group had a mean follow-up 19 months (12–38). Mean follow-up for the ACDF group was 20 months (12–40 months). All patients were evaluated using static and dynamic cervical spine radiographs as well as MR imaging. All patients underwent anterior cervical discectomy followed by autogenous bone graft with plate (or implantation of a cage) or the Bryan artificial disc prosthesis. Clinical evaluation included the visual analogue scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Radiographic evaluation included static and dynamic flexion-extension radiographs using the computer software (Infinitt PiviewSTAR 5051) program. ROM, disc space angle, intervertebral height were measured at the operative site and adjacent levels. FSU and overall sagittal alignment (C2–C7) were also measured pre-operatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. Radiological change was analyzed using χ2 test (95% confidence interval). Other data were analyzed using the mixed model (SAS enterprises guide 4.1 versions). There was clinical improvement within each group in terms of VAS and NDI scores from pre-op to final follow-up but not significantly between the two groups for both single (VAS p = 0.8371, NDI p = 0.2872) and double (VAS p = 0.2938, NDI p = 0.6753) level surgeries. Overall, ROM and intervertebral height was relatively well maintained during the follow-up in the Bryan group compared to ACDF. Regardless of the number of levels operated on, significant differences were noted for overall ROM of the cervical spine (p < 0.0001) and all other levels except at the upper adjacent level for single level surgeries (p = 0.2872). Statistically significant (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0172) differences in the trend of intervertebral height measurements between the two groups were noted at all levels except for the AIH of single level surgeries at the upper (p = 0.1264) and lower (p = 0.7598) adjacent levels as well as PIH for double level surgeries at the upper (p = 0.8363) adjacent level. Radiological change was 3.5 times more observed for the ACDF group. Clinical status of both groups, regardless of the number of levels, showed improvement. Although clinical outcomes between the two groups were not significantly different at final follow-up, radiographic parameters, namely ROM and intervertebral heights at the operated site, some adjacent levels as well as FSU and overall sagittal alignment of the cervical spine were relatively well maintained in Bryan group compared to ACDF group. We surmise that to a certain degree, the maintenance of these parameters could contribute to reduce development of adjacent level change. Noteworthy is that radiographic change was 3.5 times more observed for ACDF surgeries. A longer period of evaluation is needed, to see if all these radiographic changes will translate to symptomatic adjacent level disease.
Bryan; Arthroplasty; Arthrodesis; Radiologic degenerative change; Adjacent level
Cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair® is a novel full-endoscopic, anterior cervical, trans-discal, motion preserving, laser assisted, nonfusion, outpatient surgical procedure to safely treat symptomatic cervical disc diseases including herniation, spondylosis, stenosis, and annular tears. Here we describe a new endoscopic approach to cervical disc disease that allows direct visualization of the posterior longitudinal ligament, posterior vertebral endplates, annulus, neuroforamina, and herniated disc fragments. All patients treated with Deuk Laser Disc Repair were also candidates for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).
A total of 142 consecutive adult patients with symptomatic cervical disc disease underwent Deuk Laser Disc Repair during a 4-year period. This novel procedure incorporates a full-endoscopic selective partial decompressive discectomy, foraminoplasty, and posterior annular debridement. Postoperative complications and average volume of herniated disc fragments removed are reported.
All patients were successfully treated with cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair. There were no postoperative complications. Average volume of herniated disc material removed was 0.09 ml.
Potential benefits of Deuk Laser Disc Repair for symptomatic cervical disc disease include lower cost, smaller incision, nonfusion, preservation of segmental motion, outpatient, faster recovery, less postoperative analgesic use, fewer complications, no hardware failure, no pseudoarthrosis, no postoperative dysphagia, and no increased risk of adjacent segment disease as seen with fusion.
Cervical radiculopathy; Deuk Laser Disc Repair®; endoscopic spine surgery; intervertebral disc degeneration; intervertebral disc displacement; minimally invasive spine surgery
To evaluate the effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion for degenerative cervical disc disease.
Overview of Literature
Anterior spinal surgery originated in the mid-1950s and graft for fusion was also employed. Currently anterior cervical microdiscectomy and fusion with an intervertebral cage is a widely accepted procedure for treatment of cervical disc hernia. Artificial grafts and cages for fusion are preferred because of their lower morbidity, reduced operating time and acceptable fusion rate.
The study involved retrospective analysis and investigation of long-term results for 41 consecutive patients who had undergone anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with an intervertebral cage for cervical disc hernia. The angle of lordosis, segmental height and range of motion were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 month and 2 years. The clinical outcome was assessed by the visual analog scale and Odom's criteria.
The angle of lordosis increased by 2.62° and the range of motion angle increased by 5.14° after the operation. The segmental height did not change. The visual analog scale and Odom's criteria scores decreased significantly after the operation.
Using a cage in anterior cervical discectomy prevents segmental collapse, so the segmental height and the angle of lordosis are preserved and newly-developed pain does not occur.
Cervical vertebral fusion; Cervical lordosis; Outcome assesment; Range of motion; Polyetheretherketone cage
There is a gap between in vitro and clinical studies concerning performance of spinal disc prosthesis. Retrieval studies may help to bridge this gap by providing more detailed information about motion characteristics, wear properties and osseous integration. Here, we report on the radiographic, mechanical, histological properties of a cervical spine segment treated with a cervical spine disc prosthesis (Prodisc C, Synthes Spine, Paoli, USA) for 3 months. A 48-year-old male received the device due to symptomatic degenerative disc disease within C5–C6. The patient recovered completely from his symptoms. Twelve weeks later, he died from a subarachnoid hemorrhage. During routine autopsy, C3–T1 was removed with all attached muscles and ligaments and subjected to plain X-rays and computed tomography, three dimensional flexibility tests, shear test as well as histological and electronic microscopic investigations. We detected radiolucencies mainly at the cranial interface between bone and implant. The flexibility of the segment under pure bending moments of ±2.5 Nm applied in flexion/extension, axial rotation and lateral bending was preserved, with, however, reduced lateral bending and enlarged neutral zone compared to the adjacent segments C4–C5, and C6–C7. Stepwise increase of loading in flexion/extension up to ±9.5 Nm did not result in segmental destruction. A postero-anterior force of 146 N was necessary to detach the lower half of the prosthesis from the vertebra. At the polyethylene (PE) core, signs of wear were observed compared to an unused core using electronic microscopy. Metal and PE debris without signs of severe inflammatory reaction was found within the surrounding soft tissue shell of the segment. A thin layer of soft connective tissue covered the major part of the implant endplate. Despite the limits of such a case report, the results show: that such implants are able to preserve at least a certain degree of segmental flexibility, that direct bone implant contact is probably rare, and that debris may be found after 12 weeks.
Spine; Implants; Disc replacement; Biomechanics; Case report
In the treatment algorithm for cervical spine fracture–dislocations, the recommended approach for treatment if there is a disc fragment in the canal is the anterior approach. The posterior approach is not common because of the disadvantage of potential neurological deterioration during reduction in traumatic cervical herniation patients. However, reports about the frequency of this deterioration and the behavior of disc fragments after reduction are scarce. Forty patients with traumatic disc herniation were observed. They represented 29.2% of 137 consecutive patients with subaxial cervical spine fracture–dislocations. Surgical planning was performed according to our two-stage algorithm. In the first stage, they were treated with posterior open reduction and posterior spine arthrodesis. In the second stage, anterior surgery was added for cases where neurological deterioration attributed to non-reduced disc fragments on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurological deterioration after posterior open reduction was not observed. Furthermore, 25% of total cases and 75% of incomplete paralysis cases improved postoperatively by ≥1 grade in the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale. Reduction or reversal of disc herniation was observed in all cases undergoing postoperative MRI. For local sagittal alignment, preoperative 9.4° kyphosis was corrected to 6.9° lordosis postoperatively. The disc height ratio was 72.4% preoperatively and 106.3% postoperatively. The second stage of our plan was not required after the posterior approach in this series. The incidence of neurological deterioration after posterior open reduction was zero, even in cases with traumatic cervical disc herniation. Favorable clinical and radiological outcomes could be obtained by the first stage alone. Although preparations for prompt anterior surgery should always be made to cover any contingency, the need for them is minimal.
Traumatic cervical disc herniation; Cervical spine fracture–dislocations; Posterior reduction; Neurological deterioration; Pedicle screw system
Patients with cervical radicular syndrome due to disc herniation refractory to conservative treatment are offered surgical treatment. Anterior cervical discectomy is the standard procedure, often in combination with interbody fusion. Accelerated adjacent disc degeneration is a known entity on the long term. Recently, cervical disc prostheses are developed to maintain motion and possibly reduce the incidence of adjacent disc degeneration. A comparative cost-effectiveness study focused on adjacent segment degeneration and functional outcome has not been performed yet. We present the design of the NECK trial, a randomised study on cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in patients with cervical disc herniation.
Patients (age 18-65 years) presenting with radicular signs due to single level cervical disc herniation lasting more than 8 weeks are included. Patients will be randomised into 3 groups: anterior discectomy only, anterior discectomy with interbody fusion, and anterior discectomy with disc prosthesis. The primary outcome measure is symptomatic adjacent disc degeneration at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Other outcome parameters will be the Neck Disability Index, perceived recovery, arm and neck pain, complications, re-operations, quality of life, job satisfaction, anxiety and depression assessment, medical consumption, absenteeism, and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial, in which 3 surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses will be kept blinded of the allocated treatment for 2 years. The follow-up period is 5 years.
Currently, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of cervical disc herniation. Whether additional interbody fusion or disc prothesis is necessary and cost-effective will be determined by this trial.
Netherlands Trial Register NTR1289
Vertebral osteomyelitis due to mucormycosis is a rare but fulminant and fatal disease. Only one case has been reported in literature, with postmortem diagnosis. The present paper reports a female case of mucormycosis spondylodiscitis and vertebral osteomyelitis after lumbar disc puncture and radio frequency nucleoplasty. She subsequently underwent two surgical debridements, continuous local irrigation and drainage, together with local and systemic Amphotericin B treatments. The infection was controlled 4 months after the second debridement; however, there was no improvement in the neurological function at the most recent follow-up, 16 months after the surgery. The experience of this patient, though a single case, supports early recognition, surgical debridement, systemic and local antifungal treatment, closed irrigation and drainage as the keys to successful treatment.
Mucormycosis; Osteomyelitis; Spine; Spondylodiscitis; Treatment
Objectives: Surgical treatment of complex cervical dystonia and of cervical dyskinesias associated with cervical myelopathy is challenging. In this prospective study, the long term effect of chronic pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia and on combining the technique with spinal surgery in patients with severe cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy is described.
Methods: Eight patients with a history of chronic dystonia who did not achieve adequate benefit from medical treatment or botulinum toxin injection participated in the study. Five patients had complex cervical dystonia with tonic postures and phasic movements. Three patients had rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy secondary to severe cervical dyskinesias and dystonia in the context of a generalised movement disorder. Quadripolar electrodes were implanted in the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus with stereotactic CT and microelectrode guidance. In the three patients with secondary cervical myelopathy, spinal surgery was performed within a few weeks and included multilevel laminectomies and a four level cervical corporectomy with spinal stabilisation.
Results: Improvement of the movement disorder was noted early after pallidal surgery, but the full benefit could be appreciated only with a delay of several months during chronic stimulation. Three months after surgery, patients with cervical dystonia had improved by 38% in the severity score, by 54% in the disability score, and by 38% in the pain score of a modified version of the Toronto western spasmodic torticollis rating scale. At a mean follow up of 20 months, the severity score had improved by 63%, the disability score by 69%, and the pain score by 50% compared with preoperatively. There was also sustained amelioration of cervical dyskinesias in the three patients who underwent spinal surgery. Lead fractures occurred in two patients. The mean amplitude needed for chronic deep brain stimulation was 3.8 V at a mean pulse width of 210 µs, which is higher than that used for pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease.
Conclusions: Chronic pallidal stimualtion is effective for complex cervical dystonia and it is a useful adjunct in patients with cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy who undergo spinal surgery.
Anterior cervical discectomy with interbody fusion cages is considered the standard surgical procedure in patients with cervical disc herniation. However, PEEK or metal cages have some undesirable imaging characteristics, leading to a search for alternative materials not creating artifacts on images; silicon nitride ceramic. Whether patients treated with silicon nitride ceramic cages have similar functional outcome as patients treated with PEEK cages is not known. We present the design of the CASCADE trial on effectiveness of ceramic cages versus PEEK cages in patients with cervical disc herniation and/or osteophytes.
Patients (age 18–75 years) with monoradicular symptoms in one or both arms lasting more than 8 weeks, due to disc herniation and/or osteophytes, are eligible for the trial. The study is designed as a randomized controlled equivalence trial in which patients are blinded to the type of cage for 1 year. The total follow-up period is 2 years. The primary outcome measure is improvement in the Neck and Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes measures include improvement in arm pain and neck pain (VAS), SF-36 and patients' perceived recovery. The final elements of comparison are perioperative statistics including operating time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, and adverse events. Lateral plane films at each follow-up visit and CT scan (at 6 months) will be used to judge fusion and the incidence of subsidence. Based on a power of 90% and assuming 8% loss to follow-up, 100 patients will be randomized into the 2 groups. The first analysis will be conducted when all patients have 1 year of follow-up, and the groups will be followed for 1 additional year to judge stability of outcomes.
While the new ceramic cage has received the CE Mark based on standard compliance and animal studies, a randomized comparative study with the golden standard product will provide more conclusive information for clinicians. Implementation of any new device should only be done after completion of randomized controlled effectiveness trials.
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion; Silicon nitride; Polyetheretherketone; PEEK; Interbody spacers; Randomized controlled trial; Herniated disc
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) may be considered to be the gold standard for treatment of symptomatic degenerative disc disease within the cervical spine. However, fusion of the segment may result in progressive degeneration of the adjacent segments. Therefore, dynamic stabilization procedures have been introduced. Among these, artificial disc replacement by disc prosthesis seems to be promising. However, to be so, segmental motion must be preserved. This, again, is very difficult to judge and has not yet been proven. The aim of the current study was to first analyse the segmental motion following artificial disc replacement using a disc prosthesis. A second aim was to compare both segmental motion as well as clinical result to the current gold standard (ACDF). This is a prospective controlled study. Twenty-five patients with cervical disc herniation were enrolled and assigned to either study group (receiving a disc prosthesis) or control group (receiving ACDF, using a cage with bone graft and an anterior plate.) Radiostereometric analysis was used to quantify intervertebral motion immediately as well as 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. Further, clinical results were judged using visual analogue scale and neuro-examination. Cervical spine segmental motion decreased over time in the presence of disc prosthesis or ACDF. However, the loss of segmental motion is significantly higher in the ACDF group, when looked at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. We observed significant pain reduction in neck and arm postoperatively, without significant difference between both groups (P > 0.05). Cervical spine disc prosthesis preserves cervical spine segmental motion within the first 6 months after surgery. The clinical results are the same when compared to the early results following ACDF.
Spine; Bone; Fusion; Implants; Disc replacement; Clinical study