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1.  Diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection by dry vaginal swabs in military women 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2001;77(4):260-264.
Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) assays are likely to be used with increasing frequency in clinical management of women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and in cervical cancer screening. Our objective was to simplify the method of collection of female genital tract specimens. The utility of vaginal dry swabs for HPV diagnosis was evaluated.
Methods: Specimens for cytology and for HPV identification were collected by a clinician from 189 female soldiers attending a military clinic. Three methods of specimen collection for HPV identification were compared: a vaginal dry swab (v-DRY), and vaginal and cervical swabs placed into specimen transport medium (v-STM and c-STM). Swabs were shipped to a STD laboratory for processing. Specific HPV types were identified by a consensus primer based PCR based method. Results from 165 women were evaluable.
Results: HPV prevalence by the three methods was similar and ranged from 44.8% to 50.9%. 53 (32.1%) women were HPV positive and 60 (36.4%) women were HPV negative by all three collection methods. With respect to the risk categories of specific HPV types, there was greater agreement between the results from the two vaginal (v-DRY and v-STM) samples (kappa values of 0.69–0.81) than between the cervical (c-STM) and either of the vaginal samples (kappa values of 0.37–0.55). The HPV yield from c-STM was somewhat greater than that from the vaginal specimens but the correlation between cytological abnormalities and HPV was high for all three methods.
Conclusion: A dry vaginal swab may be an acceptable method of specimen collection for HPV diagnosis.
Key Words: human papillomaviruses; diagnostic assays; dry swabs
doi:10.1136/sti.77.4.260
PMCID: PMC1744351  PMID: 11463925
2.  Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:353.
Background
To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing.
Methods
Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (к) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods.
Results
A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable.
Conclusion
Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01316120
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-353
PMCID: PMC3750271  PMID: 23875668
Cervical cancer screening; HPV; Human papillomavirus; Self-collected; Self-HPV; Self-sampling
3.  Baseline prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in healthy Chinese women aged 18–25 years enrolled in a clinical trial 
Baseline human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type distribution were evaluated in young Chinese women enrolled in a clinical trial of an HPV vaccine (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00779766). Cervical specimens and blood samples were collected at baseline from women aged 18–25 years (n = 6,051) from four sites across Jiangsu province. Cervical specimens were tested for HPV DNA by SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 version 1, and HPV-16/18 type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibody titres were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At baseline, 15.3% of women were DNA positive for any of 14 HPV high-risk (hr) types (HPV-16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68). The most commonly detected hrHPV types in cervical specimens were HPV-52 (4.0%) and HPV-16 (3.7%). High-risk HPV DNA-positivity increased with severity of cytological abnormalities: 39.3% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 85.0% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and 97.8% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The hrHPV types most frequently detected in HSIL were HPV-16 (63.0%), HPV-18 (17.4%), HPV-52 (17.4%), HPV-58 (15.2%) and HPV-33 (15.2%). The hrHPV types most frequently detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ were HPV-16 (66.1%), HPV-33 (16.1%), HPV-52 (16.1%), HPV-58 (14.5%) and HPV-51 (11.3%). Multiple hrHPV infections were reported for 24.4% of hrHPV DNA positive women. Regardless of baseline HPV DNA status, 30.5% and 16.0% of subjects were initially seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18, respectively. In conclusion, the high baseline seropositivity rate and intermediate prevalence of cervical hrHPV types in Chinese women aged 18–25 years underlines the importance of early HPV vaccination in this population.
What's new?
In China, cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women aged 15–44 years. The authors collected baseline data on prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) from more than 6,000 healthy Chinese women aged 18–25 years participating in a large vaccine efficacy trial. Regardless of cytology, 15.3% of women were positive for high-risk HPV types, with HPV-52 (4.0%), HPV-16 (3.7%), HPV-51 (1.7%) and HPV-58 (1.5%) being the most frequently detected. This high baseline prevalence of high-risk HPV types underscores the importance of early vaccination among Chinese women.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28896
PMCID: PMC4277334  PMID: 24740547
human papillomavirus; China; women; prevalence; type distribution
4.  Comparison between the Hybrid Capture II Test and an SPF1/GP6+ PCR-Based Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Cervical Swab Samples 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(5):1733-1739.
We compared the efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection between a PCR-based genechip (Easychip HPV Blot [hereafter referred to as HPV Blot]; King Car, Taiwan) method and Hybrid Capture II (HCII; Digene, Gaithersburg, MD) in women with previous normal (n = 146) or abnormal (≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS] [n = 208]) cytology. A total of 354 cervical swab samples were collected for HPV DNA assay by both HCII and SPF1/GP6+ PCR followed by HPV Blot tests. Colposcopy-directed biopsy was performed if clinically indicated. Of the 354 samples, HPV-positive rates by these two methods (HCII and HPV Blot) were 12.6% and 18.2% in 143 normal samples, 36.2% and 45.7% in 105 ASCUS samples, 57.4% and 57.4% in 94 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion samples, and 83.3% and 75.0% in 12 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion samples, respectively. The concordance of HPV Blot and HCII was 80.8% (286/354), and the agreement between the methods (κ value, 0.68) was substantial. Discrepancies were further investigated by at least one of the following three methods: direct sequencing, type-specific PCR, and HPV Blot genotyping of cervical biopsy tissue. In the 15 HCII-positive samples, HPV Blot detected only non-HCII HPV genotypes; results of further verification methods were consistent with the latter test in the 15 samples. Of the 20 samples with HCII-negative and HPV Blot-positive results, 18 were found to contain the 13 HCII high-risk genotypes by verification methods. In only 16.7% (3/18) of the HCII-positive but HPV Blot-negative samples, further studies detected the 13 HCII genotypes. We conclude that HPV Blot seemed comparable to HCII for detection of HPV DNA in cervical swab samples.
doi:10.1128/JCM.44.5.1733-1739.2006
PMCID: PMC1479179  PMID: 16672400
5.  Clinical Impact of the Analytical Specificity of the Hybrid Capture 2 Test: Data from the New Technologies for Cervical Cancer (NTCC) Study 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(9):2901-2907.
The Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test targets 13 human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Here, cross-reactivity with non-HC2-targeted HPV types is described. We aimed to define the proportion of HC2-positive women who had negative results with HC2-targeted HPV types and estimate its determinants and impact on women's health management. The New Technologies for Cervical Cancer (NTCC) trial was followed in two predetermined phases. Women in the experimental arm were tested for the presence of HPV DNA by HC2 following a sample collection in PreservCyt (first phase) or Digene specimen transport medium (STM) (second phase). HPV genotyping was performed on DNA samples from HC2-positive women by PCR with GP5+/GP6+ primers and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. Untyped samples were submitted to direct sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariate logistic regression analysis estimated the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between the presence of HC2-targeted types and age, viral load, and type of transport medium. Out of 2,920 HC2-positive samples, 2,310 (79.1%) were positive on RLB for HC2-targeted types, 396 were positive (13.6%) for only non-HC2-targeted types (mostly represented by HPV-53, HPV-66, and HPV-70), and in 214 (7.33%) samples, no HPV types were detected. The probability of detecting HC2-targeted types increased with increasing viral load expressed as the relative light unit/positive-control specimen ratio (RLU/PC) (OR for unitary increase of log RLU/PC, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 1.42) and with STM versus PreservCyt (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.84). If only the samples containing HC2-targeted types tested positive, the positive predictive value (PPV) would have increased from 7.0% (95% CI, 6.1% to 8.0%) to 8.4% (95% CI, 7.3 to 9.6), although 4.9% (95% CI, 2.4% to 8.8%) of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) cases would have been missed. In conclusion, STM use and an increased cutoff would reduce the HC2 analytical false-positive rate and increase the positive predictive value for high-grade CIN. The gain in clinical sensitivity by detecting non-HC2-targeted HPV types is limited.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01047-13
PMCID: PMC3754632  PMID: 23804385
6.  Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(5):1907-1912.
Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00236-10
PMCID: PMC3122697  PMID: 21068278
7.  HPV genotypes and associated cervical cytological abnormalities in women from the Pearl River Delta region of Guangdong province, China: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:388.
Background
It is important to understand the specific HPV genotype distribution in screen-detected lesions. HPV Genotype is helpful for separating HPV-positive women at greater risk of cancer from those who can regress spontaneously and for preventing cervical cancer at early stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the high-risk HPV genotype distribution among cervical cytology abnormality in Pearl River Delta Region, Southern China
Methods
5585 HPV-infected women were screened from 77069 women in Pearl River Delta Region. Information was obtained from 3226 screened subjects through questionnaires and personal interviews. Exfoliated cervical cells were collected by doctors for HPV test with MassARRAY (Sequenom, Sandiego, CA) technique based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The ThinPrep cytology test was performed to screen for cervical cancer. Unconditional logistic was used to determine the most common HPV carcinogenic types.
Results
Of the 3226 HPV-positive samples tested, 1744 (54.1%) with normal cervical cytology, 1482 (45.9%) with abnormal cytology. The five most common HPV types in this study were HPV16 (20.2%), HPV52 (17.1%), HPV58 (13.2%), HPV18 (9.5%), HPV6 (7.6%). Overall, HPV16 (OR = 10.5, 95% CI: 3.7 ~ 29.6), HPV33 (OR = 9.1, 95% CI: 2.8 ~ 29.2), HPV58 (OR = 6.3, 95% CI: 2.1 ~ 18.6), HPV31 (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3 ~ 15.5), multiple genotype infection (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7 ~ 14.7), especially HPV16 and HPV33, increased the risk of cytology abnormalities.
Conclusions
HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV58, and multiple HPV genotype infection increased the risk of cytology abnormalities in Pearl River Delta Region and might be useful for the screening, preventing, treating, and monitoring of pre-cancer lesions in southern China.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-388
PMCID: PMC4226991  PMID: 25016305
Human papillomavirus; Cytology; Cross-sectional study; Infection
8.  Prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and in normal women in Andhra Pradesh, India 
Background
Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer reported from India, large scale population based studies on the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are very few from this region. In view of the clinical trials for HPV vaccine taking place in India, it is of utmost importance to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in various geographical regions of India. We investigated the genotype distribution of high-risk HPV types in squamous cell carcinomas and the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervicovaginal samples in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh (AP), India.
Methods
HPV genotyping was done in cervical cancer specimens (n = 41) obtained from women attending a regional cancer hospital in Hyderabad. HPV-DNA testing was also done in cervicovaginal samples (n = 185) collected from women enrolled in the cervical cancer screening pilot study conducted in the rural community, of Medchal Mandal, twenty kilometers away from Hyderabad.
Results
High-risk HPV types were found in 87.8% (n = 36/41) of the squamous cell carcinomas using a PCR-based line blot assay. Among the HPV positive cancers, the overall type distribution of the major high-risk HPV types was as follows: HPV 16 (66.7%), HPV 18 (19.4%), HPV 33 (5.6%), HPV 35 (5.6%), HPV 45 (5.6%), HPV 52 (2.8%), HPV 58(2.8%), HPV 59(2.8%) and HPV 73 (2.8%). Women participating in the community screening programme provided both a self-collected vaginal swab and a clinician-collected cervical swab for HPV DNA testing. Primary screening for high risk HPV was performed using the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) assay. All hc2 positive samples by any one method of collection were further analyzed using the Roche PCR-based line blot for genotype determination. The prevalence of high risk HPV infection in this community-based screening population was 10.3% (19/185) using the clinician-collected and 7.0% (13/185) using the self-collected samples. The overall agreement between self-collected and clinician-collected samples was 92%; however among HPV-positive specimens, the HPV agreement was only moderate (39.1%). The most frequently detected HPV types in the Medchal community are HPV 52 and 16.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the HPV type distribution in both cervical cancer tissues and in a general screening population from Andhra Pradesh is similar to that reported in India and other parts of the world. We also conclude that an effective vaccine targeting HPV 16 will reduce the cervical cancer burden in AP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-116
PMCID: PMC1345691  PMID: 16371167
9.  Long-term Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 or Worse Following Human Papillomavirus Infection: Role of Persistence 
Background
Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type–specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection could also be a useful screening marker. We estimated the long-term risk of high-grade CIN after one-time detection of high-risk HPV DNA and after persistent infection with individual high-risk HPV types.
Methods
A cohort of 8656 women from the general population of Denmark was examined twice, 2 years apart (first study examination: May 15, 1991, to January 31, 1993; second study examination: October 1, 1993, to January 31, 1995). The women underwent a gynecological examination and cervical cytology and had swabs taken for HPV DNA analysis by the Hybrid Capture 2 and line probe assays. The women were followed up through the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank for cervical neoplasia for up to 13.4 years. The absolute risk of developing cervical lesions before a given time was estimated as a function of time.
Results
For women with normal cytological findings who were concurrently HPV16 DNA positive at the second examination, the estimated probability of developing CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse within 12 years of follow-up was 26.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1% to 31.8%). The corresponding risks among those infected with HPV18 was 19.1% (95% CI = 10.4% to 27.3%), with HPV31 was 14.3% (95% CI = 9.1% to 19.4%), and with HPV33 was 14.9% (95% CI = 7.9% to 21.1%). The absolute risk of CIN3 or worse after infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33 was 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8% to 8.3%). The estimated absolute risk for CIN3 or cancer within 12 years of the second examination among women who were HPV16 DNA positive at both examinations was 47.4% (95% CI = 34.9% to 57.5%); by contrast, the risk of CIN3 or worse following a negative Hybrid Capture 2 test was 3.0% (95% CI = 2.5% to 3.5%).
Conclusion
HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, and HPV33 infection and especially HPV16 persistence were associated with high absolute risks for progression to high-grade cervical lesions. The results indicate the potential value of genotyping in cervical cancer screening. Given that HPV DNA–negative women retained their low risk of CIN3 or worse for many years, frequent screening of these women may be unnecessary.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djq356
PMCID: PMC2950170  PMID: 20841605
10.  Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study 
Virology Journal  2012;9:117.
Background
Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV).
Methods
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy.
Results
The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37). There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal.
Conclusions
Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have developed in the cervical canal.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-117
PMCID: PMC3489881  PMID: 22709394
Renal transplantation; HPV mRNA; HR-HPV; Immunosuppressive therapy; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
11.  A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(5):e1000270.
Analysis of a telephone survey by Gina Ogilvie and colleagues identifies the parental factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake in a school-based program in Canada.
Background
Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada.
Methods and Findings
All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008–June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1–67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1–89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1–87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program. By contrast, having a family with two parents, having three or more children, and having more education was associated with a decreased likelihood of having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine.
Conclusions
This study is, to our knowledge, one of the first population-based assessments of factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake in a publicly funded school-based program worldwide. Policy makers need to consider that even with the removal of financial and health care barriers, parents, who are key decision makers in the uptake of this vaccine, are still hesitant to have their daughters receive the HPV vaccine, and strategies to ensure optimal HPV vaccine uptake need to be employed.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
About 10% of cancers in women occur in the cervix, the structure that connects the womb to the vagina. Every year, globally, more than a quarter of a million women die because of cervical cancer, which only occurs after the cervix has been infected with a human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual intercourse. There are many types of HPV, a virus that infects the skin and the mucosa (the moist membranes that line various parts of the body, including the cervix). Although most people become infected with HPV at some time in their life, most never know they are infected. However, some HPV types cause harmless warts on the skin or around the genital area and several—in particular, HPV 16 and HPV 18, so-called high-risk HPVs—can cause cervical cancer. HPV infections are usually cleared by the immune system, but about 10% of women infected with a high-risk HPV develop a long-term infection that puts them at risk of developing cervical cancer.
Why Was This Study Done?
Screening programs have greatly reduced cervical cancer deaths in developed countries in recent decades by detecting the cancer early when it can be treated; but it would be better to prevent cervical cancer ever developing. Because HPV is necessary for the development of cervical cancer, vaccination of girls against HPV infection before the onset of sexual activity might be one way to do this. Scientists recently developed a vaccine that prevents infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 (and with two HPVs that cause genital warts) and that should, therefore, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Publicly funded HPV vaccination programs are now planned or underway in several countries; but before girls can receive the HPV vaccine, parental consent is usually needed, so it is important to know what influences parental decisions about HPV vaccination. In this study, the researchers undertake a telephone survey to determine the uptake of the HPV vaccine by 11-year-old girls (grade 6) in British Columbia, Canada, and to determine the parental factors associated with vaccine uptake; British Columbia started a voluntary school-based HPV vaccine program in September 2008.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In early 2009, the researchers contacted randomly selected parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the 2008–2009 academic year and asked them to complete a telephone survey that explored factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. 65.1% of the 2,025 parents who completed the survey had consented to their daughter receiving the first dose of HPV vaccine. By contrast, more than 85% of the parents had consented to hepatitis B and meningitis C vaccination of their daughters. Nearly half of the parents surveyed said their main reason for consenting to HPV vaccination was the effectiveness of the vaccine. Conversely, nearly a third of the parents said concern about the vaccine's safety was their main reason for not consenting to vaccination and one in eight said they had been given insufficient information to make an informed decision. In a statistical analysis of the survey data, the researchers found that a positive parental attitude towards vaccination, a parental belief that HPV vaccination had limited impact on sexual practices, and completed childhood vaccination increased the likelihood of a daughter receiving the HPV vaccine. Having a family with two parents or three or more children and having well-educated parents decreased the likelihood of a daughter receiving the vaccine.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings provide one of the first population-based assessments of the factors that affect HPV vaccine uptake in a setting where there are no financial or health care barriers to vaccination. By identifying the factors associated with parental reluctance to agree to HPV vaccination for their daughters, these findings should help public-health officials design strategies to ensure optimal HPV vaccine uptake, although further studies are needed to discover why, for example, parents with more education are less likely to agree to vaccination than parents with less education. Importantly, the findings of this study, which are likely to be generalizable to other high-income countries, indicate that there is a continued need to ensure that the public receives credible, clear information about both the benefits and long-term safety of HPV vaccination.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000270.
The US National Cancer Institute provides information about cervical cancer for patients and for health professionals, including information on HPV vaccines (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also has information about cervical cancer and about HPV
The UK National Health Service Choices website has pages on cervical cancer and on HPV vaccination
More information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination is available from the Macmillan cancer charity
ImmunizeBC provides general information about vaccination and information about HPV vaccination in British Columbia
MedlinePlus provides links to additional resources about cervical cancer (in English and Spanish)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000270
PMCID: PMC2864299  PMID: 20454567
12.  Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection in women from North Sardinia, Italy 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:785.
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin and oropharynx. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection in women between 15 and 54 years of age in North Sardinia, Italy, to identify the prevalence of High Risk - Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) genotypes and to establish a correlation between molecular and cytological results.
Methods
From 2007 to 2009 we consecutively enrolled women aged 15-54 years admitted to public and private outpatient settings. All the participants filled in a questionnaire about the socio-cultural state, sexual activity and awareness about HPV. 323 cervical specimens were tested for HPV-DNA and HPV genotypes with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping CE Amp kit. Samples showing positivity to some HPV genotypes were re-tested using "in house" quantitative Real-Time PCR assays.
Results
Overall HPV-DNA positivity was detected in 35.9% of the women. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection among HPV positive samples was 93.1% with a specific prevalence of HPV 16, 51, 31, 53 and 18 of 54.3%, 37.9%, 10.3%, 6.9% and 5.2%, respectively. Co-infection with any HPV, HR-HPV, LR-HPV and HR/LR-HPV type was 18.3%, 14.9%, 0.9% and 2.5%, respectively; HPV 16/51 co-infection was detected in 64.6% of the HR-HPV co-infection group. The most frequent HPV-genotypes detected were 16 (32.5%) and 51 (22.7%). Among the 57 patients harboring mono-infection the most prevalent HPV genotypes were 16 (38.6%) and 31(10.5%). A multivariate analysis identified a statistical significant association between HPV infection and age and between HPV infection and previous sexual transmitted diseases. A statistically significant association between cytological cervical lesions and generic HPV exposure was identified.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first survey evaluating the prevalence of HPV infection in Northern Sardinia and drawing attention to the unusual high proportion of genotype HPV 51. Given the recent implementation of a widespread immunization program with vaccines not containing HPV 51, it has been relevant to prove the high prevalence of this HPV genotype from the start of the vaccination campaign, in order to avoid in the future attributing to the vaccination program a possible selection effect (HPV replacement).
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-785
PMCID: PMC3208589  PMID: 21989375
13.  Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain 
Background
Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results.
Methods
To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks) and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling.
Results
Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828). Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more likely to test HPV-positive than children of corresponding HPV-negative mothers (p = 0.02).
Conclusion
This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. HPV persistence in infants is a rare event. These data also indicate that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in infants and provides partial evidence for horizontal mother-to-child HPV transmission.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-74
PMCID: PMC2696457  PMID: 19473489
14.  Lack of HPV 16 and 18 Detection in Serum of Colposcopy Clinic Patients 
Background
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical carcinoma. The presence of HPV DNA in the blood of cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, whether HPV DNA is detectable in the blood of patients with pre-invasive cervical disease is unclear.
Objectives
The objectives of this study were to determine if HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA could be detected in the serum of colposcopy clinic patients, and if serum HPV detection was associated with grade of cervical disease and HPV cofactors.
Study Design
Samples were selected from a biorepository collected from non-pregnant, HIV-negative women ages 18–69 attending colposcopy clinics at two urban public hospitals. Cervical disease status was based on review of colposcopy, biopsy and cytology findings. Serum HPV DNA detection was conducted using a novel PCR and mass spectroscopy-based assay.
Results
Of the 116 adequate serum samples, all (100%) were negative for HPV 16 and HPV 18. Over half (51.7%) of participants had cervical HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 infection. Nearly one-third (31.1%) had high grade, 10.3% had low grade, and 50.9% had no cervical disease. Nearly one-third (28.5%) had ever regularly smoked cigarettes, 70.7% had early onset of sexual intercourse, and 75% had ever used oral contraceptives.
Conclusions
In this colposcopy clinic population with a range of clinical characteristics and established HPV cofactors, HPV DNA was undetectable in their serum. Our findings suggest that serum HPV DNA detection is not a cervical cancer screening tool.
doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2011.01.002
PMCID: PMC3059393  PMID: 21306941
Human papillomavirus; Cervical neoplasias; Screening; Serum; Quantitative polymerase chain reaction; Mass spectroscopy
15.  High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in American Indian women of the Northern Plains 
Gynecologic oncology  2007;107(2):236-241.
Objectives
Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains.
Methods
Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data.
Results
Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (p<0.05) with the age of the patients, but there was no correlation (p=0.33) with seasonal variation.
Conclusions
In this study, we observed a high prevalence of HPV infection in American Indian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18.
doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2007.06.007
PMCID: PMC2396448  PMID: 17659767
Human Papillomavirus; American Indian; Northern Plains; Cervical cancer; Cervical cancer diagnosis
16.  Type distribution of human papillomavirus among adult women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (stage 1b or higher) in New Zealand 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:374.
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Published data on the epidemiology of HPV in women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in New Zealand (NZ) are limited. This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of high-risk and low-risk HPV types in cervical specimens collected from women throughout NZ who had been diagnosed with ICC between 2004 and 2010.
Methods
Women aged ≥18 years, with ICC International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ib or greater were identified from the five tertiary public hospitals in NZ regularly treating women with ICC. Women were enrolled in the study only after obtaining informed consent. Stored, formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical specimens were retrieved and histopathologically reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of ICC. Cervical specimens were tested for HPV using polymerase chain reaction-short fragment10; HPV DNA was detected using DNA enzyme immunoassay and typed by reverse hybridization line probe assay.
Results
242 women were enrolled and ICC was histologically confirmed in 227 samples. HPV infection was detected in 88.5% (n = 201; 95% CI: 83.7–92.4) of women with ICC; high-risk HPV types were detected in 87.2% of women. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-16 (51.1%) and HPV-18 (20.7%), followed by HPV-31 (4.0%), HPV-45 and HPV-52 (3.1% each). Overall, HPV distribution was highest (94.3%) in women aged 30–39 years at diagnosis and a higher distribution of HPV-16 (68.8%) was observed in women younger than 30 years. The overall distribution of HPV types between Maori and non-Maori women were similar. HPV-positive women with ICC stage II or greater were less likely to be infected with HPV-16/18 (P = 0.002) or HPV-18 (P = 0.029) compared with the other high-risk types. Single type infection and multiple infections were detected in 93.5% and 5.5% of women, respectively.
Conclusions
HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, HPV-45 and HPV-52 were the most commonly detected high-risk HPV types. Findings from the study fill an important data gap on HPV type distribution from NZ which will help facilitate better understanding of the epidemiology of HPV in NZ women.
Clinical trial registration
NCT01328028.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-374
PMCID: PMC4099079  PMID: 25000939
Epidemiology; Human papillomavirus; Invasive cervical cancer; New Zealand
17.  The interrelation of HIV, cervical human papillomavirus, and neoplasia among antenatal clinic attenders in Tanzania 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2001;77(4):248-254.
* Died April 2000
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and interrelation of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), HIV, and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among urban antenatal clinic attenders in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Methods: Genital swabs were collected from 660 pregnant women and tested for a range of RTIs and for cervical cytology. Cervical HPV-DNA was detected by PCR and genotyped. HIV and syphilis serologies were performed.
Results: HPV prevalence was 34% (209/612 women). Of the 144 typeable samples, 83% were high risk (HR-HPV) oncogenic strains (56% HPV 16 related types). SIL was detected in 43 women (7%), with high grade SIL in 3%. There was a high prevalence of HIV (15%), and of any RTI (83%). Genital warts were detected in 20 women (3%). HPV infection was associated with some behavioural factors (short duration of relationship, single status, not using condoms) and gonorrhoea. There was no overall association between HPV and HIV (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.6–1.6), but a non-significant trend towards a stronger association with HR-HPV in women aged 15–19 (OR=2.79, 95% CI 0.8–9.5) and women aged ≥30 (OR=3.20, 95% CI 0.7–15). SIL was associated with HPV (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.9–7.0), but not significantly with HIV (OR=1.54, 95% CI 0.7–3.4). Prevalence of SIL was higher among women dually positive for HPV/HIV compared to HPV infection only (21% v 12%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.17).
Conclusions: HPV infection was highly prevalent in this young antenatal population. The association of HIV with HR-HPV types in older women may suggest that the principal HIV/HPV interaction in this population is for HIV to upregulate HPV persistence, leading to subsequent development of SIL.
Key Words: human papillomavirus; squamous intraepithelial lesion; HIV/AIDS; Africa
doi:10.1136/sti.77.4.248
PMCID: PMC1744347  PMID: 11463923
18.  Investigating a cluster of vulvar cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study of genital human papillomavirus prevalence 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:243.
Background
Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare malignancy, which occurs most often in postmenopausal women. We have previously identified a geographic cluster of vulvar cancer in young Indigenous women living in remote communities in the Arnhem Land region of Australia. In this population, we investigated the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in anogenital samples (vulvar/vaginal/perianal area and cervix) and compared the overall, type-specific and multiple infection prevalence between sites.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey of 551 Indigenous women aged 18–60 years was undertaken in 9 Arnhem Land communities. Women were consented for HPV detection and genotyping collected by a combined vulvar/vaginal/perianal (VVP) sweep swab and a separate PreservCyt endocervical sample collected during Pap cytology screening. HPV DNA testing was undertaken using PCR with broad spectrum L1 consensus PGMY09/11 primers with genotyping of positive samples by Roche Linear Array. The primary outcomes were the prevalence of cervical and VVP high-risk (HR) HPV.
Results
The prevalence of VVP HR-HPV was 39%, which was significantly higher than the cervical HR-HPV prevalence (26%, p<0.0001). HPV-16 was the most common genotype detected in both sites (VVP 11%, cervical 6%). HPV-16 infection peaked in women aged <20 years; however, there was a marked decline in cervical HPV-16 prevalence with age (p=0.007), whereas following an initial decline, the prevalence of VVP HPV-16 remained constant in subsequent age-groups (p=0.835).
Conclusions
In this population experiencing a cluster of vulvar cancer, the prevalence of cervical oncogenic HPV infection was similar to that reported by studies of other Australian women; however there was a significantly higher prevalence of vulvar/vaginal/perianal infection to cervical. The large discrepancy in HPV prevalence between anogenital sites in this population may represent more persistent infection at the vulva. This needs further investigation, including the presence of possible environmental and/or genetic factors that may impair host immunity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-243
PMCID: PMC3507832  PMID: 23040203
Human papillomavirus; Population prevalence; Vulvar neoplasms; Young women; Indigenous women
19.  Type specific persistence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) as indicator of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in young women: population based prospective follow up study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2002;325(7364):572.
Objectives
To investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical neoplasia in women with no previous cervical cytological abnormalities; whether the presence of virus DNA predicts development of squamous intraepithelial lesion; and whether the risk of incident squamous intraepithelial lesions differs with repeated detection of the same HPV type versus repeated detection of different types.
Design
Population based prospective cohort study.
Setting
General population in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Participants
10 758 women aged 20-29 years followed up for development of cervical cytological abnormalities; 370 incident cases were detected (40 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 165 with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 165 with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions).
Main outcome measures
Results of cervical smear tests and cervical swabs at enrolment and at the second examination about two years later.
Results
Compared with women who were negative for human papillomavirus at enrolment, those with positive results had a significantly increased risk at follow up of having atypical cells (odds ratio 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.9), low grade lesions (7.5, 4.8 to 11.7), or high grade lesions (25.8, 15.3 to 43.6). Similarly, women who were positive for HPV at the second examination had a strongly increased risk of low (34.3, 17.6 to 67.0) and high grade lesions (60.7, 25.5 to 144.0). For high grade lesions the risk was strongly increased if the same virus type was present at both examinations (813.0, 168.2 to 3229.2).
Conclusions
Infection with human papillomavirus precedes the development of low and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. For high grade lesions the risk is greatest in women positive for the same type of HPV on repeated testing.
What is already known on this topicPersistence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is thought to have a role in the development of cervical neoplasiaPrevious studies have included only a few cases of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and few have randomly sampled women from the general populationWhat this study addsIn women aged 20-29, HPV infection preceded the development of high grade lesionsPersistent HPV infection with a specific HPV type was an indicator of incident high grade lesions among young women in the general populationThe association between persistence and high grade cervical lesions was more pronounced among women aged over 25
PMCID: PMC124551  PMID: 12228133
20.  Short-time repeat high-risk HPV testing by self-sampling for screening of cervical cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2011;105(5):694-697.
Background:
Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in primary screening for cervical cancer is considered more sensitive, but less specific, in comparison with Pap-smear cytology. Women with persistent HPV infections have a higher risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+) lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the gain in specificity for detection of histologically confirmed CIN2+ lesions achieved by short-time repeat testing for high-risk HPV in women aged 30–65 years, with the primary sample for HPV analysis taken by self-sampling.
Methods:
A total of 8000 women in Uppsala County, aged 30–65 years, who had not attended organised screening for 6 years or longer, were offered self-sampling of vaginal fluid at home and the samples sent for HPV typing. Of these, 8% (669) were not possible to contact or had performed hysterectomy. Women positive for high-risk HPV in the self-sampling test were invited for a follow-up HPV test and a cervical biopsy on average 3 months after the initial HPV test.
Results:
In all, 39% (2850/7331) of invited women chose to perform self-sampling of vaginal fluid at home. High-risk HPV infection was found in 6.6% (188) of the women. In all, 89% of the women testing HPV positive performed a follow-up examination, on average 2.7 months, after the first test and 59% of these women were HPV positive in the follow-up test. The prevalence of CIN2+ lesions in women with an initial HPV-positive test was 23% (95% CI 18–30%) and in women with two consecutive HPV-positive tests was 41% (95% CI 31–51%). In women with two positive HPV tests, the prevalence of CIN2+ lesions varied from 49% in women at age 30–39 years to 24% in women at age 50–65 years. Short-time repeat HPV testing increased the specificity for detection of CIN2+ lesions from about 94.2% to 97.8%. The most prevalent HPV types were HPV16 (32%), followed by HPV18/45 (19%) and HPV 33/52/58 (19%).
Conclusion:
The short-time persistence of high-risk HPV infection in this age group was about 60%. Repeat testing for high-risk HPV using self-sampling of vaginal fluid can be used to increase the specificity in the screening for cervical cancer in women aged 30–65 years.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.277
PMCID: PMC3188941  PMID: 21811250
cervix; screening; carcinoma; HPV test; persistence; self-sampling
21.  Comparison of PCR- and Hybrid Capture-Based Human Papillomavirus Detection Systems Using Multiple Cervical Specimen Collection Strategies 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(11):3248-3254.
This study compared the performances of three human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests with specimens collected by three alternative procedures. The HPV tests included the Hybrid Capture Tube test (HCT), the microplate-based Hybrid Capture II test (HC II), and the MY09-MY11 L1 consensus primer PCR-based assay. Initial cervical specimens were collected from study subjects with a broom device, and after Papanicolaou smears were made, residual specimens were placed into PreservCyt (PC), a liquid cytology medium. A second specimen was collected from each subject and placed into Digene Specimen Transport Medium (STM). The device for collection of the second specimen alternated with consecutive subjects between a conical cytology brush and a Dacron swab. At the 1.0-pg/ml cutoff, the results of the HC II agreed well with those of the PCR. Specifically, when PCR data were restricted to the types found by the HC II (HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68), there was greater than 90% agreement between the HC II and PCR results with both STM and PC. At a lower cutoff (0.2 pg/ml), HC II-positive results increased further, especially when the test was applied to the PC specimens. However, false-positive HC II results were more often observed at the 0.2-pg/ml cutoff. HC II yielded the highest HPV positivity with specimens placed into PC, followed by specimens collected with a conical brush and placed into STM and, last, by those collected with a Dacron swab and placed into STM. Our results demonstrate the utility of both the STM and PC specimen collection methods and show good agreement between the HC II and PCR.
PMCID: PMC105310  PMID: 9774574
22.  An epidemiological study assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women in the Kingdom of Bahrain 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):905.
Background
Persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer, the fourth most frequent cancer in the Kingdom of Bahrain, with an annual incidence of four per 100,000 women. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and type distribution of HPV in Bahraini and non-Bahraini women attending routine screening. HPV prevalence was assessed by risk factors and age distribution. Health-related behaviors and HPV awareness were also studied.
Methods
This observational study was conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in the Kingdom of Bahrain (NCT01205412). Women aged either ≥20 years attending out-patient health services for routine cervical screening or ≥16 years attending post-natal check-ups were enrolled. Cervical samples were collected and tested for HPV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and typed using the SPF10 DEIA/LiPA25 system. All women completed two questionnaires on health-related behavior (education level, age at first marriage, number of marital partners, parity and smoking status) and HPV infection awareness.
Results
HPV DNA was detected in 56 of the 571 women included in the final analysis (9.8%); 28 (4.9%), 15 (2.6%) and 13 (2.3%) women were infected with single, multiple and unidentifiable HPV types, respectively. The most prevalent HPV types among the HPV positive women were HR-HPV-52 in eight (1.4%), HR-HPV-16, -31 and -51 in six women each (1.1%); low-risk (LR)-HPV-6 in four (0.7%); and LR-HPV-70, -74 in three women each (0.5%). Co-infection with other HR-HPV types was observed in 50% HPV-16-positive women (with HPV-31, -45 and -56) and in both HPV-18-positive women (with HPV-52). None of the health-related risk factors studied were associated with any HR-HPV infection. More than half of women (68.7%) had never heard about HPV, but most women (91.3%) in our study were interested in HPV-vaccination.
Conclusion
HPV prevalence in Bahraini women was 9.8%. The most frequently observed HPV types were HR-HPV-52, -16, -31 and -51 and LR-HPV-6, -70 and -74. These are useful baseline data for health authorities to determine the potential impact of preventive measures including the use of prophylactic vaccines to reduce the burden of cervical cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-905
PMCID: PMC4265506  PMID: 25466757
Epidemiology; Human papillomavirus; Kingdom of Bahrain; Prevalence; Type distribution
23.  Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Italian Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities 
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection and high-risk HPV types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. The present study investigated the HPV-type specific prevalence in 650 women, aged 15-76 years, with cytological abnormalities and the association between HPV infection and cervical disease in a subset of 160 women for whom cytological results for Pap-Test were available, during the period 2008-2011 in Cagliari (Southern Italy).
Design and Methods
HPV-DNA extraction was performed by lysis and digestion with proteinase K and it was typed by using the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping Assay.
Results
Overall the HPV prevalence was 52.6%; high-risk genotypes were found in 68.9% of women and multiple-type infection in 36.1% of HPV-positive women. The commonest types were HPV-52 (23.4%), HPV-53 (15.7%), HPV-16 (15.4%) and HPV-6 (12.4%). Among the women with cytological diagnosis, any-type of HPV DNA was found in 49.4% of the samples and out of these 93.7% were high-risk genotypes. Genotype HPV 53 was the commonest type among women affected by ASCUS lesions (21.4%), genotype 52 in positive L-SIL cases (22.5%), genotype 16 H-SIL (27.3%).
Conclusions
This study confirmed the high prevalence of HPV infection and high-risk genotypes among women with cervical abnormalities while, unlike previously published data, genotype HPV-52 was the most common type in our series. These data may contribute to increase the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and designing adequate vaccination strategies.
Significance for public healthHuman papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually-transmitted agent, which can cause cervical lesions and cancer in females. Efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer with cytology screening in the last years have had limited success. HPV infection and disease imposes a substantial burden of direct costs on the Italian National Health Service that have never been fully quantified. Monitoring HPV prevalence could represent a tool to follow the evolution of the infection in the vaccination and post-vaccination era, to understand the impact of HPV types in cervical diseases in Italy. Our survey shows an high frequency of infections sustained by HPV 52. Given the recent implementation of a widespread immunization program with vaccines not containing HPV 52, it has been relevant to prove the high prevalence of this HPV genotype from the beginning of the vaccination campaign, to avoid ascribing to the vaccination program a possible selection effect and the importance of non-vaccine HPV types in the burden of cervical disease, in order to assess the opportunity to realize new vaccine including other types.
doi:10.4081/jphr.2014.157
PMCID: PMC4140382  PMID: 25170506
HPV epidemiology; cervical abnormalities; HPV prevalence
24.  Human Papillomavirus Detection from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Colombian Women's Paired Urine and Cervical Samples 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56509.
Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056509
PMCID: PMC3572052  PMID: 23418581
25.  Anal Dysplasia Screening 
Executive Summary
Objective
This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC. The screening process is now thought to be improved with the addition of testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in high-risk populations. High-resolution anoscopy (a method to view the rectal area, using an anoscope, a lighted instrument inserted into the rectum) rather than routine anoscopy-guided biopsy, is also now considered to be the diagnostic standard.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection. Human papillomavirus is extremely prevalent, particularly in young, sexually active populations. Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
Anal cancer is rare. It occurs at a rate of about 1 to 2 per 100,000 in the general population. It is the least common of the lower gastrointestinal cancers, representing about 4% of them, in contrast to colorectal cancers, which remain the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy. Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men. The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s. The introduction of effective viral therapy has been said to have transformed the AIDS epidemic in developed countries into a chronic disease state of long-term immunosuppression. In Ontario, there are about 25,000 people living with HIV infection; more than 6,000 of these are women. About 28% of the newly diagnosed HIV infections are in women, a doubling since 1999. It has also been estimated that 1 of 3 people living with HIV do no know it.
Health Technology Description
Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination. Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology. It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions. Abnormal cytological findings are subjected to further evaluations by high-resolution anoscopy, a technique similar to cervical colposcopy, and biopsy. Several HPV deoxyribonucleic acid detection technologies such as the Hybrid 11 Capture and the polymerase chain reaction are available to detect and differentiate HPV viral strains.
Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia. Moreover, there are no formal screening programs provincially, nationally, or internationally. The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups. In Ontario, reimbursement exists only for Pap tests for cervical cancer screening. That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed.
Methods
The scientific evidence base was evaluated through a systematic literature review. Assessments of current practices were obtained through consultations with various agencies and individuals including the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care AIDS Bureau; Public Health Infectious Diseases Branch, Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Cancer Care Ontario; HIV/AIDS researchers; pathology experts; and HIV/AIDS clinical program directors. An Ontario-based budget impact was also done.
Findings
No direct evidence was found for the existence of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of anal Pap test screening programs for impact on anal cancer morbidity or mortality. In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia. The reported prevalence of HPV infection in high-risk groups, particularly HIV-positive males, however, was sufficiently high to preclude any utility of HPV testing as an adjunct to anal Pap testing.
Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia. All involved hospital-based specialty HIV/AIDS care clinics with mainly HIV-positive males. All studies involved experienced pathologists, so the results generally represent best-case scenarios. Estimates of anal Pap test sensitivity and specificity were highly variable, and depended on the varying prevalence of cytology abnormality and differential thresholds for abnormality for both cytology and histopathology.
In the largest study of HIV-positive males, sensitivity varied from 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%–56%) to 69% (95% CI, 60%–78%). Specificity ranged from 59% (95% CI, 53%–65%) to 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%). In the only study of HIV-negative males, sensitivity ranged from 26% (95% CI, 5%-47%) to 47% (95% CI, 26%–68%). Specificity ranged from 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%) to 92% (95% CI, 89%–95%).
In comparison, cervical Pap testing has also been evaluated mainly in settings where there is a high prevalence of the disease, and estimates of sensitivitykij and specificity were also low and highly variable. In a systematic review involving cervical Pap testing, sensitivity ranged from 30% to 87% (mean, 47%) and specificity from 86% to 100% (mean, 95%).
Conclusions
No direct evidence exists to support the effectiveness of an anal Pap test screening program to reduce anal cancer mortality or morbidity. There are, however, strong parallels with cervical pap testing for cervical cancer. Sexually transmitted HPV viral infection is currently the acknowledged common causative agent for both anal and cervical cancer. Anal cancer rates in high-risk populations are approaching those of cervical cancer before the implementation of Pap testing.
The anal Pap test, although it has been mainly evaluated only in HIV-positive males, has similar operating characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as the cervical Pap test. In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications. A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.
PMCID: PMC3377578  PMID: 23074504

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