To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing.
Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (к) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods.
A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable.
Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed.
Cervical cancer screening; HPV; Human papillomavirus; Self-collected; Self-HPV; Self-sampling
Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) assays are likely to be used with increasing frequency in clinical management of women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and in cervical cancer screening. Our objective was to simplify the method of collection of female genital tract specimens. The utility of vaginal dry swabs for HPV diagnosis was evaluated.
Methods: Specimens for cytology and for HPV identification were collected by a clinician from 189 female soldiers attending a military clinic. Three methods of specimen collection for HPV identification were compared: a vaginal dry swab (v-DRY), and vaginal and cervical swabs placed into specimen transport medium (v-STM and c-STM). Swabs were shipped to a STD laboratory for processing. Specific HPV types were identified by a consensus primer based PCR based method. Results from 165 women were evaluable.
Results: HPV prevalence by the three methods was similar and ranged from 44.8% to 50.9%. 53 (32.1%) women were HPV positive and 60 (36.4%) women were HPV negative by all three collection methods. With respect to the risk categories of specific HPV types, there was greater agreement between the results from the two vaginal (v-DRY and v-STM) samples (kappa values of 0.69–0.81) than between the cervical (c-STM) and either of the vaginal samples (kappa values of 0.37–0.55). The HPV yield from c-STM was somewhat greater than that from the vaginal specimens but the correlation between cytological abnormalities and HPV was high for all three methods.
Conclusion: A dry vaginal swab may be an acceptable method of specimen collection for HPV diagnosis.
Key Words: human papillomaviruses; diagnostic assays; dry swabs
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women may represent one of the fastest-growing populations at risk for acquiring cervical cancer and thus require frequent screening. The purpose of the present studies was to validate a PCR-based urine assay by comparing detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine samples and matching cervical swab specimens of HIV-positive women. Despite a difference in amplifiability, the prevalence of any HPV genotype (58% for the cervical swab specimens and 48% for the urine specimens) was not significantly different in this population. The levels of concordance were 70, 71, and 78% for detection of any HPV type, any high-risk HPV type, or any low-risk HPV type in the two specimen types, respectively. While instances of discordant detection were greater for the cervical swab specimens than for the urine specimens, this was not statistically significant. The distributions of HPV genotypes were similar in the cervix and the urine for the majority of types examined. Importantly, detection of HPV DNA in urine was associated with an abnormal Papanicolaou smear to the same extent that detection of HPV DNA in a cervical swab specimen was. These data provide preliminary support for the proposal to use urine testing as a primary or secondary screening tool for cervical cancer in HIV-positive women or as an epidemiological tool. Additional studies with larger sample sizes must be conducted in order to further verify these findings.
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical carcinoma. The presence of HPV DNA in the blood of cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, whether HPV DNA is detectable in the blood of patients with pre-invasive cervical disease is unclear.
The objectives of this study were to determine if HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA could be detected in the serum of colposcopy clinic patients, and if serum HPV detection was associated with grade of cervical disease and HPV cofactors.
Samples were selected from a biorepository collected from non-pregnant, HIV-negative women ages 18–69 attending colposcopy clinics at two urban public hospitals. Cervical disease status was based on review of colposcopy, biopsy and cytology findings. Serum HPV DNA detection was conducted using a novel PCR and mass spectroscopy-based assay.
Of the 116 adequate serum samples, all (100%) were negative for HPV 16 and HPV 18. Over half (51.7%) of participants had cervical HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 infection. Nearly one-third (31.1%) had high grade, 10.3% had low grade, and 50.9% had no cervical disease. Nearly one-third (28.5%) had ever regularly smoked cigarettes, 70.7% had early onset of sexual intercourse, and 75% had ever used oral contraceptives.
In this colposcopy clinic population with a range of clinical characteristics and established HPV cofactors, HPV DNA was undetectable in their serum. Our findings suggest that serum HPV DNA detection is not a cervical cancer screening tool.
Human papillomavirus; Cervical neoplasias; Screening; Serum; Quantitative polymerase chain reaction; Mass spectroscopy
* Died April 2000
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and interrelation of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), HIV, and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among urban antenatal clinic attenders in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Methods: Genital swabs were collected from 660 pregnant women and tested for a range of RTIs and for cervical cytology. Cervical HPV-DNA was detected by PCR and genotyped. HIV and syphilis serologies were performed.
Results: HPV prevalence was 34% (209/612 women). Of the 144 typeable samples, 83% were high risk (HR-HPV) oncogenic strains (56% HPV 16 related types). SIL was detected in 43 women (7%), with high grade SIL in 3%. There was a high prevalence of HIV (15%), and of any RTI (83%). Genital warts were detected in 20 women (3%). HPV infection was associated with some behavioural factors (short duration of relationship, single status, not using condoms) and gonorrhoea. There was no overall association between HPV and HIV (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.6–1.6), but a non-significant trend towards a stronger association with HR-HPV in women aged 15–19 (OR=2.79, 95% CI 0.8–9.5) and women aged ≥30 (OR=3.20, 95% CI 0.7–15). SIL was associated with HPV (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.9–7.0), but not significantly with HIV (OR=1.54, 95% CI 0.7–3.4). Prevalence of SIL was higher among women dually positive for HPV/HIV compared to HPV infection only (21% v 12%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.17).
Conclusions: HPV infection was highly prevalent in this young antenatal population. The association of HIV with HR-HPV types in older women may suggest that the principal HIV/HPV interaction in this population is for HIV to upregulate HPV persistence, leading to subsequent development of SIL.
Key Words: human papillomavirus; squamous intraepithelial lesion; HIV/AIDS; Africa
To validate the efficacy of Seeplex HPV4A ACE for the detection of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 genotypes as compared to the PCR method and the Cervista HPV assays in cervical swab samples.
Besides liquid-based cytology, additional 97 cervical swab samples were collected for HPV genotyping by HPV4A ACE, Cervista HPV assays, and PCR method. To check the statistical differences, we also conducted the paired proportion test, Cohen's κ statistic, and a receiver operating characteristic curve.
Seeplex HPV4A ACE and the Cervista HPV HR showed substantial agreement with PCR for detection of HR HPVs (88.3%, κ=0.767 and 81.7%, κ=0.636, respectively). Seeplex HPV4A ACE also showed substantial agreement with the Cervista HPV 16/18 test (89.5%, κ=0.628). Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity of Seeplex HPV4A ACE and Cervista HPV HR were 91.4% vs. 84.5% and 73.4%, vs. 72.7%, respectively, when those higher than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormalities. HPV genotyping for HPV 16/18 detected cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) better than HR HPV tests (66.7% vs. 24.6% by HPV4A ACE, 52.6% vs. 25.9% by Cervista HPV assays in CIN II or more, relatively).
Seeplex HPV4A ACE is an effective method as the PCR and the Cervista HPV assays for the detection of HR HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and 18.
Cervista HPV HR; Cervista HPV 16/18; High-risk HPV; HPV 16; HPV 18; Seeplex HPV4A ACE
The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18.
HPV Typing Methods; ACE; HC2; HPV Typing Set Test
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) were studied in 379 high-risk women. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 238 of 360 (66.1%) of the beta-globin-positive cervical samples, and 467 HPV isolates belonging to 35 types were identified. Multiple (2–7 types) HPV infections were observed in 52.9% of HPV-infected women. The most prevalent HPV types were HPV-52 (14.7%), HPV-35 (9.4%), HPV-58 (9.4%), HPV-51 (8.6%), HPV-16 (7.8%), HPV-31 (7.5%), HPV-53 (6.7%), and HPV-18 (6.4%). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroprevalence was 36.0%. Human papillomavirus prevalence was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected women (87 vs 54%, prevalence ratio (PR)=1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4–1.8). High-risk HPV types (71 vs 40%, PR=1.79, 95% CI: 1.5–2.2), in particular HPV-16+18 (22 vs 9%, PR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.4–4.0), and multiple HPV infections (56 vs 23%, PR=2.45, 95% CI: 1.8–3.3) were more prevalent in HIV-1-infected women. High-grade SIL (HSIL) was identified in 3.8% of the women. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection was strongly associated with presence of HSIL (adjusted odds ratio=17.0; 95% CI 2.2–134.1, P=0.007) after controlling for high-risk HPV infection and other risk factors for HSIL. Nine of 14 (63%) HSIL cases were associated with HPV-16 or HPV-18 infection, and might have been prevented by an effective HPV-16/18 vaccine.
HPV; genotypes; SIL; HIV-1; Burkina Faso; Africa
Human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific distribution was evaluated in genital samples collected from 654 women from the South of Italy undergoing voluntary screening and correlated with cyto-histological abnormalities. HPV DNA was detected in 45.9% of the samples, 41.7% of which had multiple infection and 89.0% had high-risk HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV infection and the rate of multiple infections decreased with age, suggesting natural selection of HPV types with better fitness. In line with other Italian studies, the most common HPV types were HPV-6 and HPV-16, followed by HPV-51, HPV-31, HPV-53, and HPV-66, in women with both normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or 3 were associated with high-risk HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-51 infection. These data indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the burden of HPV-related cervical lesions in this population, but also suggest the potential utility of new vaccines with larger type coverage.
Recommendations for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing as an adjunct to cytology for cervical cancer screening differ by age group, because HR-HPV tests lack adequate specificity in women aged <30. Here, we assess age-group differences in HPV types and other risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) versus CIN0–2 in women from four colposcopy clinics.
Women ages 18–69 (n=1658) were enrolled and completed structured interviews to elicit data on behavioral risk factors prior to their examinations. HPV genotyping was performed on exfoliated cervical cell samples. We estimated relative risks (RR) for HPV types and cofactors for CIN3+, overall and stratified by age group.
After 2 years of follow-up, we identified 178 CIN3+, 1305 CIN0–2, and 175 indeterminate outcomes. Non-vaccine HR-HPV types were only associated with CIN3+ among women ≥30 (RR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4; <30: RR=0.9). Among all HR-HPV positive women, adjusting for age, significant cofactors for CIN3+ included current smoking (RR=1.5), former smoking (RR=1.8), regular Pap screening (RR=0.7), current regular condom use (RR=0.5), and parity ≥5 (RR=1.6, p-trend for increasing parity=.07). However, the parity association differed by age group (≥30: RR=1.8, p-trend=.008; <30: RR=0.9, p-trend=.55).
Subgroup variation by age in the risk of CIN3+ points to the importance of the timing of exposures in relation to CIN3+ detection.
Future screening strategies need to consider natural history and secular trends in cofactor prevalence in the pursuit of appropriately sensitive and specific screening tools applied to appropriate age groups.
Human Papillomavirus; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia; Risk Factors; Early Detection of Cancer; Colposcopy
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in female sex workers (FSW) in Lima, Peru.
Cross-sectional study of 87 FSW. Information regarding demographics, sex work practices, and genital and blood specimens was collected.
Forty-four (50.6%) of 87 FSW had HPV detected in cervical swabs. The prevalence of coinfection by two or more HPV types was 39.1%. Thirty-one (35.6%) were infected by at least one high-risk HPV type, representing 70.5% of women with HPV infection. HPV infection was associated with younger age but not with any demographic or sexual characteristics.
Our study confirms the high prevalence of HPV infection in FSW reported by other groups and suggests that brothel-based FSW may be at lower risk for acquiring high-risk HPV infection.
To investigate whether cervical mucus antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) capsids are associated with the detection of HPV DNA or HPV-related cytological diagnoses, 611 samples of cervical secretions from 359 women referred to a colposcopy clinic were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against HPV capsids of HPV type 16, 18, or 33 and for the presence of cervical HPV DNA by PCR. Among subjects with at least one cervical sample positive for HPV type 16 (HPV-16) DNA, 28.1% also had at least one HPV-16 IgA-positive cervical sample (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; P = 0.0003). IgA to HPV-18 was also more common among HPV-18 DNA-positive subjects (OR = 3.1; P = 0.0325) and IgA to HPV-33 was more common among HPV-33 DNA-positive subjects (OR = 4.2; P = 0.0023). Cervical IgA antibodies to HPV-16 were also more common among patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, particularly among patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (P < 0.0005). The data indicate that an HPV type-restricted IgA antibody response against HPV capsids is detectable in cervical mucus and is associated with a concomitant cervical HPV infection.
We compared the efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection between a PCR-based genechip (Easychip HPV Blot [hereafter referred to as HPV Blot]; King Car, Taiwan) method and Hybrid Capture II (HCII; Digene, Gaithersburg, MD) in women with previous normal (n = 146) or abnormal (≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS] [n = 208]) cytology. A total of 354 cervical swab samples were collected for HPV DNA assay by both HCII and SPF1/GP6+ PCR followed by HPV Blot tests. Colposcopy-directed biopsy was performed if clinically indicated. Of the 354 samples, HPV-positive rates by these two methods (HCII and HPV Blot) were 12.6% and 18.2% in 143 normal samples, 36.2% and 45.7% in 105 ASCUS samples, 57.4% and 57.4% in 94 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion samples, and 83.3% and 75.0% in 12 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion samples, respectively. The concordance of HPV Blot and HCII was 80.8% (286/354), and the agreement between the methods (κ value, 0.68) was substantial. Discrepancies were further investigated by at least one of the following three methods: direct sequencing, type-specific PCR, and HPV Blot genotyping of cervical biopsy tissue. In the 15 HCII-positive samples, HPV Blot detected only non-HCII HPV genotypes; results of further verification methods were consistent with the latter test in the 15 samples. Of the 20 samples with HCII-negative and HPV Blot-positive results, 18 were found to contain the 13 HCII high-risk genotypes by verification methods. In only 16.7% (3/18) of the HCII-positive but HPV Blot-negative samples, further studies detected the 13 HCII genotypes. We conclude that HPV Blot seemed comparable to HCII for detection of HPV DNA in cervical swab samples.
The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Israeli Jewish women referred for colposcopic examination. Scrape specimens were prospectively collected from 84 women referred for colposcopic examination. All the women underwent Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and colposcopies, and some also underwent cervical or loop electrosurgical excision procedure biopsy. HR HPV was detected in scrape specimens (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Molecular Systems), and the individual genotypes in these specimens were identified (HPV GenoArray test kit; Hybribio Ltd., Hong Kong). Forty-one (49%) specimens were positive by the Amplicor HPV test. Sixty-four samples (41 positive and 23 negative by the Amplicor HPV test) were also assayed by use of the HPV GenoArray kit. The overall level of agreement between the two assays was 93.8% (Cohen's kappa = 0.98). HR genotypes were found in 37/41 (90%) HPV-positive samples. The prevalences of the HR HPV genotypes in the 37 HPV-positive samples were 41% of patients for HPV type 16 (HPV-16), 22% for HPV-39, 19% for HPV-52, and 14% for HPV-18. Forty-one percent of these patients were infected with a single HR genotype, whereas 59% were infected with mixtures of HR genotypes. The presence of a relatively high percentage of HPV types 39 and 52 and the relatively high incidence of infections with mixtures of genotypes may be one of the reasons for the low rate of conversion from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive carcinoma in Israeli women. Larger and more comprehensive studies are warranted to investigate this issue in greater detail.
Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system.
Out of 70 women with cervical cancer, four (5.71%) were found to be positive for HR-HPV in their oral cavity. No association of HR-HPV was found with sociodemographic profile, marital status, reproductive history, tobacco and alcohol usage, contraceptive pills usage, and presence of oral lesions (p>0.05). Among children, HR-HPV in the oral cavity was detected in only 1 of the 46 subjects examined (2.17%). Clinically healthy oral mucosa, without any oral lesions, was observed in all the HR-HPV positive subjects.
The result of this study showed that there is low, if any, risk of HR-HPV infection in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer. Further, our study suggests that there is very low risk for children of women with cervical cancer, to acquire and sustain HR-HPV in their oral cavity until childhood or adolescence.
Few data are available on the epidemiology of HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese women younger than 25 years old. This study aimed to estimate the HPV infection rate and the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women aged 18-25, as well as their knowledge of and attitudes towards HPV vaccination.
A population-based cervical cancer screening study was conducted on women aged 18-25 in Jiangsu province in 2008. Participants provided socio-demographic, reproductive and behavioral information and completed a survey about their knowledge of and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Women then underwent a gynecologic exam to provide two cervical exfoliated cell samples for high risk HPV DNA testing and liquid-based cytology (LBC) as well as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Women testing positive for any test were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. The gold standard for diagnosis of cervical lesions was directed or random biopsies.
Within the sample of 316 women, 3.4% of them were diagnosed with CIN grade 2 or worse lesions and 17.1% were found to be positive for HPV DNA. Among these young women, extra-marital sexual behavior of them (OR=2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.8) or their husbands (OR=2.6, 95%: 1.4-4.7) were associated with an increased risk of HPV positivity. Although overall HPV awareness was low, after a brief educational intervention, 98.4% reported they would electively receive HPV vaccination and would also recommend that their daughters be vaccinated. However, most urban and rural women reported their ideal maximum out-of-pocket contribution for HPV vaccination to be less than 500 RMB and 50-100 RMB, respectively.
Our study indicates cervical disease burden is relatively high among sampled Chinese women aged 18-25. Appropriate educational interventions for female adolescents and strategies to subsidize vaccine costs are definitely needed to ensure the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns in China.
Cervical cancer; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; Human papillomavirus; Knowledge; Attitude
Infection with high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a central factor in the development of cervical neoplasia. Cell-mediated immunity against HPV16 plays an important role in the resolution of HPV infection and in controlling cervical disease progression. Research suggests that stress is associated with cervical disease progression, but few studies have examined the biological mechanisms that may be driving this association.
This study examines whether stress is associated with immune response to HPV16 among women with cervical dysplasia.
Seventy-four women presenting for colposcopy completed measures of health behaviors, stressful life events and perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). A blood sample was obtained to evaluate proliferative T-cell response to HPV16, and a cervical sample was obtained during gynecologic exam for HPV-typing.
Over 55% tested positive for one or more HPV subtypes. Women who did not show proliferative responses to HPV (i.e. non-responders) were more likely to be HPV+ compared to women who had a response (i.e. responders). Consistent with study hypotheses, logistic regression revealed that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with a non-response to HPV16, controlling for relevant covariates. Stressful life events were not associated with T-cell response to HPV.
Higher levels of perceived stress are associated with impaired HPV-specific immune response in women with cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential mechanism by which stress may influence cervical disease progression.
stress; human papillomavirus; cervical dysplasia; T-cell proliferative response
The aim of this study was to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical preneoplasic lesions in a Southern Spanish population and their relationship between HPV type and grade of histopathological abnormality. Finally, 232 cervical samples from 135 women with previous cytological abnormalities were included in this study. Colposcopy studies and biopsies were performed. Haematoxylin-eosin stained slides were observed and detection of HPV DNA in cervical swabs was carried out with use of a polymerase chain reaction and microarrays technology. The relationship between the presence of HPV infection and diagnostic variables was evaluated. HPV 16 was the most common type followed by HPV 58, 51, 33 and 31. However, the two HPV types targeted in the prophylactic vaccines such as HPV type 16 and 18 were detected in only 37 (21.2%) and 2 (1.1%) cases respectively. Thirty-three (18.9%) of samples were infected with multiple types, the majority of them with two types. In addition, during the follow-up of patients many changes in type distribution were observed. Several studies will be necessary in order to evaluate the HPV type distribution for therapeutically and prophylactic purposes such as vaccine treatment. Also, because of the differences obtained depending of use of various DNA technologies, the performance of some comparative studies of the different methods from detection of HPV would be advisable in a high population of patients and with the most homogeneous conditions possible.
The aim of this study was to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV genotype distributions in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. The related risk factors for high-risk HPV infection was also analyzed. A stratified cluster sampling method was used for the population-based cervical cancer screening of women aged 18–69 years in the Urumqi Saybagh district. Exfoliated cervical cell samples were collected for liquid-based cytology detection and HPV genotyping DNA microarrays. Education level, number of sexual partners, condom use and occupation were used in the multivariate analysis model. The HPV infection rate of women working in service industries was significantly higher compared with those of white-collar workers, community residents and migrant workers. The 35–44-year-old migrant worker group had the highest HPV infection rates among all of the groups in the three different age ranges. The number of marriages, education level, smoking history, number of abortions, use of condoms, number of sexual partners, number of sexual partners in the past five years and occupation were all associated with female HPV infection rate (P<0.05). The 35–44-year-old women were the age group with the highest HPV infection rate. The HPV infection rate of females in service industries was the highest. Education level and condom use were protective factors of HPV infection, while the number of sexual partners and occupation were risk factors for HPV infection.
human papillomavirus; genotype distribution; cervical cancer
We developed a liquid bead microarray (LBMA) assay for genotyping genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs) based on the MY09-MY11-HMB01 PCR system and the reverse line blot (RLB) assay probe sequences. Using individual HPV plasmids, we were able to detect as few as 50 copies per reaction. In two separate retrospective studies, the LBMA assay was compared to the RLB assay and to the Hybrid Capture II (hc2) assay. Testing was performed without knowledge of other assay results. In the first study, 614 cervical swab samples (enriched for HPV infection) from 160 young women were tested for HPV DNA, and 360 (74.8%) type-specific HPV infections were detected by both assays, 71 (14.8%) by the LBMA assay only, and 50 (10.4%) by the RLB assay only. Type-specific agreement for the two assays was excellent (99.1%; kappa = 0.85; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.82 to 0.88). Samples with discrepant LBMA and RLB test results tended to have low viral loads by a quantitative type-specific PCR assay. In the second study, cervical swab samples from 452 women (including 54 women with histologically confirmed cervical-intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse [≥CIN2]) were tested initially by the hc2 and subsequently by the LBMA assay. The estimated sensitivities for ≥CIN2 were similar for the LBMA and hc2 assays (98.4% [95% CI, 95.0 to 100%] and 95.6% [95% CI, 89.2 to 100%], respectively). The percentages of negative results among 398 women without ≥CIN2 were similar for the LBMA and hc2 assays (45% and 50%, respectively). The repeat test reproducibility for 100 samples was 99.1% (kappa = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.95). We conclude that the new LBMA assay will be useful for clinical and epidemiological research.
Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples are strongly associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive cervical carcinoma. We determined and compared the test characteristics of testing for HPV with samples obtained by patients and with samples obtained by their physicians.
In a consecutive series of women referred to a colposcopy clinic at a teaching hospital because of abnormalities on cervical cytologic screening, 200 agreed to collect vulvar, vaginal and urine samples for HPV testing. The physician then collected cervical samples for HPV testing, and colposcopy, with biopsy as indicated, was performed. Presence of HPV was evaluated using the hybrid capture II assay (Digene Corp., Silver Spring, Md.) with a probe cocktail for 13 carcinogenic types. Cervical specimens were also tested for HPV by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with type-specific probes. Cervical smears for cytologic examination were obtained from all women.
High-grade lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL], equivalent to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 2 or 3, and adenocarcinoma) were found in 58 (29.0%) of the 200 women. Carcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the self-collected vaginal samples of 50 (86.2%) of these 58 women, in the self-collected vulvar samples of 36 (62.1%) and in the self-collected urine samples of 26 (44.8%). Carcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the cervical samples collected by physicians for 57 (98.3%) of these 58 women. The remaining 142 women (71.0%) had normal findings or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, CIN grade 1). Test results were negative or noncarcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the self-collected vaginal samples of 76 (53.5%) of these 142 women, in the self-collected vulvar samples of 89 (62.7%) and in the self-collected urine samples of 99 (69.7%). The sensitivity for self-collected samples ranged from 44.8% to 86.2%, and the specificity from 53.5% to 69.7%. For the samples collected by physicians, the sensitivity was 98.3% and the specificity 52.1%. The self-sampling methods were generally acceptable to the women: 98.4% of respondents (126/128) deemed urine sampling acceptable, 92.9% (118/127) found vulvar sampling acceptable, and 88.2% (112/127) found vaginal sampling acceptable.
Self-collection of samples for HPV testing was acceptable to women attending a colposcopy clinic for investigation of suspected cervical lesions and shows sufficient sensitivity to warrant further evaluation as a screening test for cervical cancer prevention program
Background: The prevalence of cervical cancer is extremely high in low income countries, primarily because of a lack of cytological screening. The link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer has long been recognised, and it has been suggested that isolated HPV testing in women who do not participate in existing screening programmes may be used to identify women at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. This community based study compares two self administered techniques for detecting HPV (tampons and self administered swabs) with a clinician directed technique, the cervical cytobrush.
Methods: 377 rural women were interviewed and of these 210 women had full gynaecological examination, and accepted all three sampling methods for HPV. HPV typing of DNA extracts was performed using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques.
Results: Using the cervical cytobrush as the gold standard, self administered swabs (SAS) showed a sensitivity of 63.9%, and tampons showed a sensitivity of 72.4%. The acceptability of these two tests was 97.1% and 84.6% respectively. When combining acceptability with sensitivity, the SAS detected 61.9% and the tampons detected 60.9% of the true positives.
Conclusion: In a setting where women are at a considerable risk of developing cervical cancer, with no access to a formal screening programme, self directed HPV testing could be a useful screening tool in identifying those women at increased risk who may require further investigation.
Aims—To determine whether the detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is more predictive for high grade CIN than the current cervical smear test, and whether the production and measurement of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and cellular survivin and telomerase transcripts can be used to discriminate between cervical HPV infections that self cure and those that induce high grade lesions.
Methods—Three hundred and fifty four cervical smear samples from women attending the colposcopy clinic were tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of HPV. Transcripts for HPV-16 E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7, and L1 as well as cellular survivin, telomerase RNA component, and telomerase reverse transcriptase were measured using fluorogenic probe (Taqman) assays.
Results—Referral smear grades of severe or moderate showed greater positive predictive values for CIN 2/3 than did the detection of high or moderate risk HPV types. HPV-16 transcripts from E6, E6*I, E6*II, and E7 showed high predictive values for CIN 2/3, but low sensitivity. The telomerase RNA component was detected in 53 of 57 samples and telomerase reverse transcriptase was only detected in one sample, whereas survivin transcripts were detected in 40% of samples.
Conclusions—The detection of HPV-16 or cellular survivin or telomerase transcripts did not accurately predict the grade of CIN in the samples. The detection of HPV risk types correlated well with the grade of CIN; however, the referral grade smear was the most accurate predictor of the severity of the lesion. Of the 35 different HPV types detected, 18 are not included in the HPV hybrid capture II commercial test kit. The use of such kits would have missed HPV infection in 4.3% of clinic patients with CIN 2/3 lesions and 15.4% with CIN 0/1.
Key Words: human papillomavirus type 16 • survivin • telomerase • CIN • transcripts • Taqman
Long-term infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical cancer, while infection with low-risk HPV is the major reason for condylomata acuminata. An accurate, rapid, and convenient assay that is able to simultaneously detect, genotype, and quantify HPV would be of great clinical value yet remains to be achieved. We developed a three-color real-time PCR assay that is able to analyze 30 predominant HPV types in three reactions. The amplification curves indicated the presence of HPV, melting curve analysis identified the HPV genotype, and the quantification cycle value determined the quantity. We applied this assay to 647 cervical swab samples, and the results were compared with those obtained with a commercial genotyping system. The proposed assay had a limit of detection of 5 to 50 copies per reaction and a dynamic range of 5 × 101 to 5 × 106 copies per reaction. A comparison study showed that the overall sample concordance with the comparison method was 91.6% and the type agreement was greater than 98.7%. The quantification study demonstrated that the loads of HPV type 16 in 30 samples with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) lesions were significantly higher than those in samples with CIN I lesions or CIN II lesions, and the results were concordant with those of the comparison method. The increased information content, high throughput, and low cost would facilitate the use of this real-time PCR-based assay in a variety of clinical settings.
HPV infection is a common finding, especially in young women while the majority of infections are cleared within a short time interval. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of HPV DNA and mRNA testing in a population attending colposcopy units of two University hospitals.
1173 liquid based cervical samples from two colposcopy clinics were tested for HPV DNA positivity using a commercial typing kit and HPV E6/E7 mRNA positivity with a flow cytometry based commercial kit. Statistic measures were calculated for both molecular tests and morphological cytology and colposcopy diagnosis according to histology results.
HPV DNA, high-risk HPV DNA, HPV16 or 18 DNA and HPV mRNA was detected in 55.5%, 50.6%, 20.1% and 29.7% of the cervical smears respectively. Concordance between the DNA and the mRNA test was 71.6% with their differences being statistically significant. Both tests’ positivity increased significantly as lesion grade progressed and both displayed higher positivity rates in samples from women under 30 years old. mRNA testing displayed similar NPV, slightly lower sensitivity but significantly higher specificity and PPV than DNA testing, except only when DNA positivity for either HPV16 or 18 was used.
Overall mRNA testing displayed higher clinical efficacy than DNA testing, either when used as a reflex test or as an ancillary test combined with morphology. Due to enhanced specificity of mRNA testing and its comparable sensitivity in ages under 25 or 30 years old, induction of mRNA testing in young women could be feasible if a randomized trial verifies these results.