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1.  Low BMD affects initial stability and delays stem osseointegration in cementless total hip arthroplasty in women 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):107-114.
Background and purpose
Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD.
Patients and methods
61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery.
Results
Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD.
Interpretation
Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.678798
PMCID: PMC3339522  PMID: 22489886
2.  Extensively coated revision stems in proximally deficient femur: Early results in 15 patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):287-293.
Background:
Hip replacement following failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw for intertrochanteric fractures) or previous hip arthroplasty presents a major surgical challenge. Proximal fitting revision stems do not achieve adequate fixation. Distal fixation with long-stemmed extensively coated cementless implants (like the Solution™ system) affords a suitable solution. We present our early results of 15 patients treated with extensively coated cementless revision stems.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen patients with severely compromised proximal femora following either failed hip arthroplasty or failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw fixation for intertrochanteric fractures) were operated by the senior author over a two-year period. Eight patients had aseptic loosening of their femoral stems following cemented hip replacements, with severe thinning of their proximal cortices and impending stress fractures. Seven had secondary hip arthritis following failure of long implants for comminuted intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric femoral fractures. All patients were treated by removal of implant (cemented stems/DHS implants) and insertion of long-stemmed extensively coated cementless revision (‘Solution™ DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US’) stems along with press-fit acetabular component (Duraloc Cup, DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US). All eight hip revisions needed extended trochanteric osteotomies.
Results:
All patients were primarily kept in bed on physiotherapy for six weeks and then gradually progressed to weight-bearing walking over the next six to eight weeks. The Harris Hip Scores and patient satisfaction were used for final evaluation. We achieved good results in the short term studied. In our first three patients (all following failed cemented total hip replacements), we resorted to cerclage wiring to hold osteotomised segments (done to facilitate stem removal). The subsequent 12 proceeded without the need for cerclage wiring. One patient had a intraoperative severe comminuted fracture extending into the supracondylar region while hammering in the stem. Post cerclage wiring, she was put on a long knee brace and her mobilization was delayed to 12 weeks.
Conclusions:
The extensively coated cementless (‘Solution™’) femoral stem provides a reasonable ‘solution’ to the deficient femur in hip revision. The proximal femoral deficiences can be relatively easily bypassed and distal fixation can be achieved with this stem. Extreme care needs to be taken to avoid fractures and penetration of the femoral shaft, which can, however, be managed by cerclage wiring. Principles of a successful outcome include preservation of the functional continuity of the abduction apparatus, care to recognize and prevent distal extension of fracture while inserting the stem (preemptive cerclage wiring) and supervised rehabilitation.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.39554
PMCID: PMC2739478  PMID: 19753154
Cementless fixation; extensively coated; proximally deficient femur
3.  Distal locking stem for revision femoral loosening and peri-prosthetic fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2010;35(2):275-282.
Revision total hip arthroplasty in the setting of a large proximal femoral deficiency or a peri-prosthetic fracture remains a challenging problem. We describe the development, surgical technique and the use of cementless revision stems with distal inter-locking screws to provide immediate stability of the femoral implant. Results were assessed in a large multicentre French study conducted with the french hip and knee surgery society (SFHG). We retrospectively reviewed 725 revisions using interlocking stems from 14 French orthopaedic departments. Seven different stems were used in this series. In-patient records were retrieved, and in addition to demographic data the indication for revision, the preoperative and postoperative PMA and Harris hip scores were documented. The bone deficiency was classified on the basis of the French National Orthopaedic Meeting (SOFCOT) classification. Intraoperative complications and problems if any were retrieved from operative notes. Clinical status and radiographs at the final follow-up were evaluated, paying special attention to the metaphyseal filling index. Average follow-up was 4.5 years. As for the clinical results, the mean Harris hip score at last follow-up was 81. Therefore, it increased by an average of 31 points. Bone reconstruction was assessed on the cortico-medullary index in the metaphyseal area and at mid-shaft increasing from 36 to 45 and 54 to 63, respectively. Radiologically, 637 implants were stable, and 40 demonstrated subsidence. Forty-eight implants have been revised. We found a significant relation between the metaphyseal filling index, the stability of the stem and the quality of bone reconstruction. Results were analysed with respect to three groups of stems: group 1 was a straight, partially HA-coated implant; group 2 was a curved, fully HA-coated implant; and group 3 was a curved, partially-coated implant. Group 1 showed a significantly higher rate of failure when compared with the others types of implants. Group 2 had better functional results than group 3, which in turn reported better results than group 1. With regard to implant fixation, group 2 had significantly better results. Both groups 2 and 3 induced less thigh pain than group 1. The distal interlocking stem has shown promising results for femoral revisions. The advantages are initial axial and rotational stability and consistent bony in-growth owing to hydroxyapatite coating. Distal locked stems are mainly indicated to treat complex femoral revision with severe bone loss and peri-prosthetic fractures.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1182-6
PMCID: PMC3032103  PMID: 21184221
4.  Early migration characteristics of a hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem: an RSA study 
International Orthopaedics  2009;35(4):483-488.
Measurement of early stem subsidence can be used to predict the likelihood of long-term femoral component loosening and clinical failure. Data that examines the early migration pattern of clinically proven stems will provide clinicians with useful baseline data with which to compare new stem designs. This study was performed to evaluate the early migration pattern of a hydroxyapatite-coated press-fit femoral component that has been in use for over ten years. We enrolled 30 patients who underwent THA for osteoarthritis. The median age was 70 years (range, 55–80 years). Patients were clinically assessed using the Harris hip score. Radiostereometric analysis was used to evaluate stem migration at three to four days, six months, one year and two years. We observed a mean subsidence of 0.73 mm at six months, 0.62 mm at one year and 0.58 mm at two years and a mean retroversion of 1.82° at six months, 1.90° at one year and 1.59° at two years. This data suggests that subsidence is confined to the first six months after which there was no further subsidence. The results from this study can be compared with those from novel cementless stem designs to help predict the long-term outcome one may expect from new cementless stem designs.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0913-z
PMCID: PMC3066322  PMID: 20012862
5.  Reverse hybrid and cemented hip replacement compared using radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):592-598.
Background and purpose
Total hip replacement (THR) with a reverse hybrid (RH), a combination of a cemented polyethylene cup and a cementless femoral stem, has been increasingly used in Scandinavia. In a randomized trial, we compared an RH THR with a proximal hydroxyapatite- (HA-) coated stem to a conventional cemented THR. Both groups received the same polyethylene cup.
Patients and methods
51 patients (52 hips) were included. Radiostereometry (RSA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed postoperatively and after 6, 12, and 24 months. 42 patients (43 hips) were followed for 2 years.
Results
Mean cup rotation around the x-axis was 0.13° for the cemented group and –0.24° for the RH group (p = 0.03). Cup migration in the other axes, and stem migration and wear were similar between the 2 study groups. Bone remodeling around the cup was also similar between the groups. Bone loss in Gruen zone 1 was 18% for the cementless stems, as compared to an increase of 1.4% for the cemented ones (p < 0.001). Bone loss was similar in the other Gruen zones. Harris hip score and Oxford hip score were similar pre- and postoperatively in the 2 groups.
Interpretation
In the present study, RH THR with a cementless hydroxyapatite-coated stem and conventional cemented THR did not show any major differences regarding stem migration and bone loss after 2 years of follow-up.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.742393
PMCID: PMC3555444  PMID: 23116437
6.  High 10-Year Survival Rate with an Anatomic Cementless Stem (SPS) 
Background
Proximal cementless fixation using anatomic stems reportedly increases femoral fit and avoids stress-shielding. However, thigh pain was reported with the early stem designs. Therefore, a new anatomic cementless stem design was based on an average three-dimensional metaphyseal femoral shape. However, it is unclear whether this stem reduces the incidence of thigh pain.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether this stem design was associated with a low incidence of thigh pain and provided durable fixation and high function.
Methods
One hundred seventy-one patients (176 THAs) who had the anatomic proximal hydroxyapatite-coated stem implanted were reviewed. Eleven (6%) patients were lost to followup and 34 (20%) died without revision surgery. We used the Harris hip score (HHS) to assess pain and function. We evaluated femoral stem fixation and stability with the score of Engh et al. and also calculated a 10-year survival analysis. We assessed 126 patients (131 hips) at a mean followup of 10 years (range, 8–11 years)
Results
At last followup, two patients described slight thigh pain that did not limit their physical activities. All stems appeared radiographically stable and one stem was graded nonintegrated but stable. Five patients had revision surgery: one on the femoral side (for posttraumatic fracture) and four on the acetabular side. Considering stem revision for aseptic loosening as the end point, survivorship was 100% (range, 95.4%–99.9%) at 10 years.
Conclusion
This anatomic cementless design using only metaphyseal fixation with a wide mediolateral flare, a sagittal curvature, and torsion, allowed durable proximal stem stability and fixation.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2300-0
PMCID: PMC3369068  PMID: 22402808
7.  Cementless total hip arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature 
Background
Compromised rheumatic bone is a potential risk factor for mechanical complications in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) in cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased rates of intra-operative fractures, component migration and (early) aseptic loosening are to be expected. Despite this, cementless THA is performed in cases of RA.
Methods
A literature search on cementless THA in RA was performed in EMBASE (1993–2011), Medline (1966–2011) and the Cochrane Library. A systematic review was conducted with a special emphasis on mechanical complications.
Results
Twenty-three case series and five studies of implant registries were included. Acetabular fractures and/or migration of the cup were reported in 9 out of 22 studies of the cup. Proximal femoral fractures and/or subsidence of the stem were reported in 14 out of 20 studies of the stem. Six studies compared failure rates of uncemented and cemented components due to aseptic loosening. The overall failure rate ratio (uncemented/cemented) for the cup was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.14–2.60) and for the stem 0.71 (95% CI: 0.06–8.55), both favoring uncemented fixation. The failure rates in case series without a control group were compared to the NICE criteria (failure rate/1). The overall failure rate for the cup was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50–1.88) and for the stem 0.79 (95% CI: 0.44–1.41). Failure rates of aseptic loosening of higher than 1 (favoring cemented fixation) were reported in 6 out of 26 studies of the cup and in 2 out of 25 studies of the stem. In all these studies, the inferior implant designs were blamed, and not the type of fixation or the quality of the bone.
Conclusions
Despite substantial rates of mechanical stem complications, no evidence was found to establish that cementless components perform less well than cemented components. The results justify the use of cementless THA in RA patients.
doi:10.1007/s00402-011-1432-0
PMCID: PMC3306565  PMID: 22113434
Rheumatoid arthritis; Total hip arthroplasty; Cementless; Uncemented; Review
8.  A prospective randomized study comparing electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite on titanium stems 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(1):13-19.
Background and purpose
Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) is a successful coating for fixation of uncemented femoral stems. There may be alternative coatings with advantages in bone remodeling and transport of bone-active substances. We investigated whether an electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite, Bonemaster (BM), might be a safe alternative in total hip arthroplasty. Our hypothesis was that the new coating would not be inferior to the conventional one.
Patients and methods
50 patients (55 hips) were included. The stem was tapered and porous-coated proximally. On top of the porous coating was either HA or BM. Patients were evaluated postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months to measure fixation by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and conventional radiography. Clinical evaluation was performed with Harris hip score and Oxford hip score, both preoperatively and after 2 years.
Results
After 2 years, the stems had subsided 0.25 (HA) and 0.28 (BM) mm and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any direction, regarding both migration and rotation. The BM group retained significantly more bone than the HA group in Gruen zone 1 during the first 2 years. The Harris and Oxford hip scores were similar in both groups.
Interpretation
Electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite on an uncemented stem does not appear to be inferior to plasma-sprayed HA regarding clinical and radiological results, bone remodeling, and micromotion after 2 years follow-up.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.548027
PMCID: PMC3229992  PMID: 21189109
9.  Cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(1):56-60.
Objectives:
The use of cement is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rate in elderly patients, hence cementless hemiarthroplasty is suggested. We evaluated the results of cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-eight patients (29 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 88 years (range: 78 to 102 years). having femoral neck fractures were treated with the use of cementless hemiarthroplasty. Porous-coated femoral stems were used in 30 patients (62%) and modular type femoral revision stems in 18 patients (38%). Bipolar femoral heads were used in all patients. Radiological follow-up after operation was done at the one, three, six months and annually.
Results:
The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years (range: 18 months to eight years). None of the patients died during hospitalization. Medical complications occurred in six patients (12%) within the follow-up period and four patients (8%) died within this period. Only two hips were converted to total hip arthroplasty due to acetabular erosion. Femoral revision was planned for one patient with a subsidence of > 3 mm. None of the patients had acetabular protrusion or heterotopic ossification. The mean Harris-hip score was 84 (range: 52 to 92). Dislocation occured in one patient (2%).
Conclusion:
Cementless hemiarthroplasty is a suitable method of treatment for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems especially of a cardiopulmonary nature. This method decreases the risk of hypotension and fat embolism associated with cemented hemiarthroplasty.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.38582
PMCID: PMC2759587  PMID: 19823656
Cementless femoral prosthesis; cementless hemiarthroplasty; femoral neck fracture; hemiarthroplasty in elderly
10.  A cementless, elastic press-fit socket with and without screws 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):481-487.
Background
The acetabular component has remained the weakest link in hip arthroplasty regarding achievement of long-term survival. Primary fixation is a prerequisite for long-term performance. For this reason, we investigated the stability of a unique cementless titanium-coated elastic monoblock socket and the influence of supplementary screw fixation.
Patient and methods
During 2006–2008, we performed a randomized controlled trial on 37 patients (mean age 63 years (SD 7), 22 females) in whom we implanted a cementless press-fit socket. The socket was implanted with additional screw fixation (group A, n = 19) and without additional screw fixation (group B, n = 18). Using radiostereometric analysis with a 2-year follow-up, we determined the stability of the socket. Clinically relevant migration was defined as > 1 mm translation and > 2º rotation. Clinical scores were determined.
Results
The sockets without screw fixation showed a statistically significantly higher proximal translation compared to the socket with additional screw fixation. However, this higher migration was below the clinically relevant threshold. The numbers of migratory sockets were not significantly different between groups. After the 2-year follow-up, there were no clinically relevant differences between groups A and B regarding the clinical scores. 1 patient dropped out of the study. In the others, no sockets were revised.
Interpretation
We found that additional screw fixation is not necessary to achieve stability of the cementless press-fit elastic RM socket. We saw no postoperative benefit or clinical effect of additional screw fixation.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.720116
PMCID: PMC3488174  PMID: 23083434
11.  Subsidence of a cementless femoral component influenced by body weight and body mass index 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(5):941-947.
Purpose
This trial was designed to evaluate the impact of physical characteristics such as body mass index, body weight and height on distal stem migration of a cementless femoral component, as the influence of obesity on the outcome of THA is still debated in literature and conflicting results have been found.
Methods
In this retrospective cohort study, migration patterns for 102 implants were analysed using the Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA-FCA, femoral component analysis). In all cases the Vision 2000 stem was implanted and combined with the Duraloc acetabular component (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana).
Results
The mean follow-up was 93 months. EBRA-FCA evaluations revealed a mean subsidence of 1.38 mm after two years, 2.06 mm after five and 2.24 mm after seven years. Five stems loosened aseptically. Correlation between increased migration over the whole period and aseptic loosening was highly significant (p < 0.001). Surgical technique had a significant influence on migration and stem stability (p = 0.002) but physical patient characteristics such as body weight over 75 kg and height over 165 cm also significantly influenced stem subsidence towards progressive migration (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). However, a high BMI did not trigger progressive stem migration (p = 0.87). Being of the male gender raised the odds for increased migration (p = 0.03).
Conclusion
Physical characteristics such as body weight and height showed significant influence on migration patterns of this cementless femoral component. The operating surgeon should be aware that body weight above 75 kg and height over 165 cm may trigger increased stem migration and the surgeon should aim to fit these prostheses as tightly as possible. However this study demonstrates that a high BMI does not trigger progressive stem migration. Further investigations are needed to confirm our findings.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1360-1
PMCID: PMC3337099  PMID: 22052477
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
12.  A Short Tapered Stem Reduces Intraoperative Complications in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Background
While short-stem design is not a new concept, interest has surged with increasing utilization of less invasive techniques. Short stems are easier to insert through small incisions. Reliable long-term results including functional improvement, pain relief, and implant survival have been reported with standard tapered stems, but will a short taper perform as well?
Questions/purposes
We compared short, flat-wedge, tapered, broach-only femoral stems to standard-length, double-tapered, ream and broach femoral stems in terms of intraoperative complications, short-term survivorship, and pain and function scores.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 606 patients who had 658 THAs using a less invasive direct lateral approach from January 2006 to March 2008. Three hundred sixty patients (389 hips) had standard-length stems and 246 (269 hips) had short stems. Age averaged 63 years, and body mass index averaged 30.7 kg/m2. We recorded complications and pain and function scores and computed short-term survival. Minimum followup was 0.8 months (mean, 29.2 months; range, 0.8–62.2 months).
Results
We observed a higher rate of intraoperative complications with the standard-length stems (3.1%; three trochanteric avulsions, nine femoral fractures) compared with the shorter stems (0.4%; one femoral fracture) and managed all complications with application of one or more cerclage cables. There were no differences in implant survival, Harris hip score, and Lower Extremity Activity Scale score between groups.
Conclusions
Fewer intraoperative complications occurred with the short stems, attesting to the easier insertion of these devices. While longer followup is required, our early results suggest shortened stems can be used with low complication rates and do not compromise the survival and functional outcome of cementless THA.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2068-7
PMCID: PMC3254753  PMID: 21971877
13.  Impaction grafting in the femur in cementless modular revision total hip arthroplasty: a descriptive outcome analysis of 243 cases with the MRP-TITAN revision implant 
Background
We present a descriptive and retrospective analysis of revision total hip arthroplasties (THA) using the MRP-TITAN stem (Peter Brehm, Weisendorf, GER) with distal diaphyseal fixation and metaphyseal defect augmentation. Our hypothesis was that the metaphyseal defect augmentation (Impaction Bone Grafting) improves the stem survival.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the aggregated and anonymized data of 243 femoral stem revisions. 68 patients with 70 implants (28.8%) received an allograft augmentation for metaphyseal defects; 165 patients with 173 implants (71.2%) did not, and served as controls. The mean follow-up was 4.4 ± 1.8 years (range, 2.1–9.6 years). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the study and control group regarding age, body mass index (BMI), femoral defects (types I-III as described by Paprosky), and preoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS). Postoperative clinical function was evaluated using the HHS. Postoperative radiologic examination evaluated implant stability, axial implant migration, signs of implant loosening, periprosthetic radiolucencies, as well as bone regeneration and resorption.
Results
There were comparable rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications in the study and control groups (p > 0.05). Clinical function, expressed as the increase in the postoperative HHS over the preoperative score, showed significantly greater improvement in the group with Impaction Bone Grafting (35.6 ± 14.3 vs. 30.8 ± 15.8; p ≤ 0.05). The study group showed better outcome especially for larger defects (types II C and III as described by Paprosky) and stem diameters ≥ 17 mm. The two groups did not show significant differences in the rate of aseptic loosening (1.4% vs. 2.9%) and the rate of revisions (8.6% vs. 11%). The Kaplan-Meier survival for the MRP-TITAN stem in both groups together was 93.8% after 8.8 years. [Study group 95.7% after 8.54 years ; control group 93.1% after 8.7 years]. Radiologic evaluation showed no significant change in axial implant migration (4.3% vs. 9.3%; p = 0.19) but a significant reduction in proximal stress shielding (5.7% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.05) in the study group. Periprosthetic radiolucencies were detected in 5.7% of the study group and in 9.8% of the control group (p = 0.30). Radiolucencies in the proximal zones 1 and 7 according to Gruen occurred significantly more often in the control group without allograft augmentation (p ≤ 0.05).
Conclusion
We present the largest analysis of the impaction grafting technique in combination with cementless distal diaphyseal stem fixation published so far. Our data provides initial evidence of improved bone regeneration after graft augmentation of metaphyseal bone defects. The data suggests that proximal metaphyseal graft augmentation is beneficial for large metaphyseal bone defects (Paprosky types IIC and III) and stem diameters of 17 mm and above. Due to the limitations of a retrospective and descriptive study the level of evidence remains low and prospective trials should be conducted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-19
PMCID: PMC3556053  PMID: 23311769
Arthroplasty; Hip; Revision; Modular; Impaction bone grafting
14.  Seven-year Results of a Tapered, Titanium, Hydroxyapatite-Coated Cementless Femoral Stem in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2010;2(4):214-220.
Background
Aseptic loosening of cemented hip prostheses is recognized as a long-term problem, and especially in males and younger patients. Much energy has been focused on developing new prostheses that are designed for cementless fixation. We evaluated the performance of and periprosthetic bone response to a tapered, titanium, hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated femoral hip prosthesis at a minimum of 7 years of follow-up after treatment with primary total hip arthroplasty.
Methods
Seventy-eight patients and 86 hips were included in the study. There were 35 men and 43 women; the mean age at the time of the operation was 59 years (range, 41 to 81 years). We used a tapered, titanium (Ti6Al4V), HA-coated femoral implant. We evaluated the patients at a minimum of 7 years of follow-up after treatment with primary total hip arthroplasty. Clinical evaluation was performed using the scoring system and the hip scores were assigned according to the level of pain, the functional status and the range of motion. The patients who refused to return, but who did forward X-rays for review after being contacted were questioned by phone about the functional status of their hip. Radiographic follow-up was performed at six weeks, at three, six and twelve months and yearly thereafter. All the available radiographs were collected and assessed for implant stability, subsidence, osseointegration, osteolysis, stress shielding and evidence of periprosthetic lucency.
Results
Eighty-six hips (78 patients) were available for review at follow-up of greater than 7 years. In 11 of the 86 cases, acetabular failure required revision of the acetabular component, but the femoral stem survived and it was available for long-term evaluation. The radiographs were obtained at 7-year follow-up for another 20 hips, but the patients would not come in for the 7-year clinical evaluation. Therefore, a phone interview was conducted to assess any change in the functional status at a minimum of 7 years.
Conclusions
The mechanical fixation of a tapered, titanium, HA-coated femoral implant was excellent in this study. This femoral design provided reliable osseointegration that was durable at a mean of 7 years follow-up.
doi:10.4055/cios.2010.2.4.214
PMCID: PMC2981777  PMID: 21119937
Primary total hip arthroplasty; Hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem
15.  Excellent Survivorship With the Use of Proximally Coated Tapered Cementless Stems for Total Hip Arthroplasty in Octogenarians 
The use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) continues to grow partially because of the increasing life expectancy of the American population. Whether to use cemented or cementless femoral fixation options in older patients is often debated. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes after cementless THA in patients ≥80 years to younger patients. Clinical and radiographic data were gathered on 33 patients (35 hips) all 80 years or older who had undergone proximally coated cementless total hip arthroplasties. Outcomes were compared with a matching group for age, body mass index, and diagnosis, who had undergone the same procedure by the same surgeon at a similar time. Harris hip scores were evaluated pre- and postoperatively, and radiographs were reviewed for evaluation of fixation and stability. At a mean follow-up of 4 years, 97% of the hips (34 of 35) remained unrevised and the mean Harris hip score had improved by 39 points to 83 points (range, 26-100 points). On radiographic evaluation, 91% were found to have full bony ingrowth, with 1 hip having osteolysis of the proximal femur. Mortality was 23% at 86 months. Except for mortality, the outcomes and complication rates were similar to the younger group except that the matching group had higher final postoperative Harris hip scores. Proximally coated tapered cementless THA is a safe and efficacious method for providing good clinical outcomes with low revision rates in patients 80 years of age or older.
doi:10.1177/2151458511406267
PMCID: PMC3597313  PMID: 23569678
complications; octogenarians; survivorship; total hip arthroplasty (THA)
16.  High Incidence of Migration with Poor Initial Fixation of the Accolade® Stem 
Background
Numerous cementless femoral stem design variations are in clinical use. Because initial implant instability and micromotion are associated with aseptic loosening of the femoral component, migration analysis provides an early assessment of implant survivorship.
Questions/purposes
We determined the (1) migration pattern of the Accolade® cementless femoral stem; (2) clinical factors predisposing to stem migration; (3) self-reported patient outcomes; and (4) our current rate of aseptic stem loosening.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 81 femoral stems for aseptic migration using Ein-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis. Postoperatively, patients completed the WOMAC and SF-12 questionnaires. We assessed radiographic factors potentially associated with subsidence: indices of bone shape and quality, canal fill of the implant, and radiographic signs of loosening. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 29 months; range, 24–48 months).
Results
The average subsidence at 24 months was 1.3 mm (range, 0–1.5 mm). In the first 2 years, 36% of stems subsided more than 1.5 mm. Large stem size was associated with subsidence. Radiolucent lines (> 1.5 mm in three zones) were present in 10% of stems and associated with lower questionnaire scores. The 5-year survivorship for aseptic loosening of the 367 stems was 97% with revision as end point and 95% for radiographic failure.
Conclusions
The high incidence of migration and stems with radiographic failure raises concerns about patient clinical function and long-term survivorship of this stem design. This migration pattern may be due to poor initial stability with a subsequent lack of osseointegration. Our results differ from radiographic findings and clinical durability of other similar cementless stem designs.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2160-z
PMCID: PMC3254738  PMID: 22045070
17.  Cementless Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures in Elderly Patients 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2010;2(4):221-226.
Background
Bipolar hemiarthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients is a viable option that can prevent the complications of an open reduction, such as nonunion and metal failure. This study evaluated the clinicoradiological results of cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients.
Methods
Forty hips were followed for more than 2 years after cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty using a Porocoat® AML Hip System. The mean age was 78.8 years and the mean follow-up period was 40.5 months. The Harris hip score and postoperative hip pain were analyzed clinically. The radiological results were assessed using a range of indices.
Results
At the last follow-up, the mean Harris hip score was 80.6 points. There were one case of hip pain and one case of thigh pain. Twenty-four cases (60%) showed no decrease in ambulation capacity postoperatively. Radiologically, there were 23 cases (57.5%) of fixation by bone ingrowth and 17 cases (42.5%) of stable fibrous fixation. There were no cases of osteolysis. Eleven cases (27.5%) of new bone formation were found around the stem. All stems were stable without significant changes in alignment or progressive subsidence.
Conclusions
The short-term results of cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures were satisfactory.
doi:10.4055/cios.2010.2.4.221
PMCID: PMC2981778  PMID: 21119938
Old age; Intertrochanteric fracture; Cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty
18.  Influence of cementless femoral stems inserted in varus on functional outcome in primary total hip arthroplasty 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2006;49(6):407-411.
Introduction
Historically, cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) femoral stems inserted in varus have yielded poor clinical results. Few studies to date have addressed the question of the effects of varus alignment on cementless stems. We conducted a retrospective review of 125 uncemented THA femoral stems implanted by a single surgeon from 1994 to 1999.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective radiographic review of 125 cementless primary THA femoral stems implanted by a single surgeon who used the Watson-Jones approach; we identified 16 stems implanted in varus, defined as ≥ 5° and thus analyzed the effect of varus alignment on functional outcome. We matched varus stems to a cohort of 16 nonvarus cementless stems and measured radiographic signs of loosening and subsidence, defined as > 2 mm.
Results
At 4 years postsurgery, there was no significant difference in range of motion or in Harris Hip Score (p > 0.5), and no cases showed evidence of radiographic loosening or subsidence (p = 0.226).
Conclusions
Study results suggest there is no consequence of varus femoral alignment in the cementless stems. Although it is not recommended to implant stems in varus, there were no apparent radiographic or clinical consequences observed at up to 4 years postoperative in this small case series.
PMCID: PMC3207554  PMID: 17234069
19.  Excessive distal migration of fiber-mesh coated femoral stems 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):308-314.
Background
The surface texture, localization, and magnitude of the surface material applied to the femoral stem can facilitate bone ingrowth and influence the survival of total hip arthroplasties. Clinical and radiographic studies have shown superior bone ingrowth in proximally porous-coated stems with a diaphyseal grit-blasted surface in comparison to a smooth diaphyseal surface. Surface textures—especially porous surface material—have been suggested to have a sealing effect against migration of polyethylene debris along the implant-bone interface and to reduce the inflammatory response, leading to a prolonged implant survival.
Patients and methods
Between 2004 and 2006, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) involving 50 patients with non-inflammatory arthritis. They received either a distally tapered, extended coated stem or a straight, proximally coated stem. During surgery, tantalum markers were inserted into the greater and lesser trochanter. Implant migration was evaluated at 3, 12, and 24 months postoperatively by radiostereometric analysis. The primary endpoint was stem migration 2 years after surgery.
Results
All femoral components in both groups showed pronounced distal translation, with the highest rate of translation occurring between 0 and 3 months. After 2 years, the mean distal translation was 2.67 (95% CI: –3.93 to –1.42) mm for the tapered, extended coated stem and 1.80 (–2.45 to –1.15) mm for the straight, proximally coated stem. Half of the tapered, extended coated stems and two-thirds of the straight, proximally coated stems had migrated more than 1 mm. No difference between the 2 stems could be seen with regard to translation or rotation at any time point. After 2 years, 2 hips have been reoperated due to mechanical loosening of the stem.
Interpretation
An excessive amount of migration of both stem types was seen 2 years postoperatively. It is of vital importance to follow this patient cohort since radiostereometric analysis is known to be predictive of late implant failure, especially in this study where pronounced early migration was observed. We recommend longer follow-up of both stem types.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.574562
PMCID: PMC3235308  PMID: 21504304
20.  Intraoperative Femur Fracture is Associated with Stem and Instrument Design in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Background
Intraoperative proximal femoral fracture is a risk in total hip arthroplasty (THA) with cementless stems with reported rates of 1.5–27.8%. Certain designs or designs associated with certain types of instrumentation may have higher rates.
Questions/purposes
We compared the incidence of proximal femoral fracture with two stem and instrument design systems.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 425 patients (457 hips) undergoing primary THAs using a supine, muscle-sparing approach between February 2007 and April 2009. In 439 cases, a monoblock, broach-only, tapered wedge design stem was used with a single low-profile cutting blade (cutting) calcar mill. Eighteen proximally modular, broach-only, tapered wedge design stems were used with a calcar mill with multiple deep cutting teeth (toothed).
Results
There were no proximal femoral fractures among the 439 hips using the cutting mill and two intraoperative proximal femur fractures in 18 hips using the toothed mill. Both fractures occurred during calcar milling when the cutting teeth engaged the bone, resulting in a torque of the broach.
Conclusions
Given the high intraoperative proximal femur fracture rate using the toothed design, and the absence of fractures using the cutting design, we caution against the use of the toothed style. The overall rate using a flat, wedge, tapered design (two of 457 hips or 0.4%) is lower than that associated with previously published designs. Fracture appears directly related to instrumentation.
Level of Evidence
Level III, retrospective comparison study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of Levels of Evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1314-8
PMCID: PMC2919873  PMID: 20387021
21.  Results of 3,668 primary total hip replacements for primary osteoarthritis in patients under the age of 55 years 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(5):521-529.
Background and purpose
In a previous study based on the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, the survival of cementless stems was better than that of cemented stems in younger patients. However, the survival of cementless cups was poor due to osteolysis. In the present study, we analyzed population-based survival rates of the cemented and cementless total hip replacements in patients under the age of 55 years with primary osteoarthritis in Finland.
Patients and methods
3,668 implants fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The previous data included years 1980–2001, whereas the current study includes years 1987–2006. The implants were classified in 3 groups: (1) implants with a cementless, straight, proximally circumferentially porous-coated stem and a porous-coated press-fit cup (cementless group 1); (2) implants with a cementless, anatomic, proximally circumferentially porous-coated stem, with or without hydroxyapatite, and a porous-coated press-fit cup with or without hydroxyapatite (cementless group 2); and (3) a cemented stem combined with a cemented all-polyethylene cup (the cemented group). Analyses were performed separately for 2 time periods: those operated 1987–1996 and those operated 1997–2006.
Results
The 15-year survival for any reason of cementless total hip replacement (THR) group 1 operated on 1987–1996 (62%; 95% CI: 57–67) and cementless group 2 (58%; CI: 52–66) operated on during the same time period was worse than that of cemented THRs (71%; CI: 62–80), although the difference was not statistically significant. The revision risk for aseptic loosening of cementless stem group 1 operated on 1987–1996 (0.49; CI: 0.32–0.74) was lower than that for aseptic loosening of cemented stems (p = 0.001).
Interpretation
Excessive wear of the polyethylene liner resulted in numerous revisions of modular cementless cups. The outcomes of total hip arthroplasty appear to have been relatively unsatisfactory for younger patients in Finland.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.618908
PMCID: PMC3242947  PMID: 21992084
22.  Superior fixation of pegged trabecular metal over screw-fixed pegged porous titanium fiber mesh 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(2):177-186.
Background and purpose
Lasting stability of cementless implants depends on osseointegration into the implant surface, and long-term implant fixation can be predicted using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) with short-term follow-up. We hypothesized that there would be improved fixation of high-porosity trabecular metal (TM) tibial components compared to low-porosity titanium pegged porous fiber-metal (Ti) polyethylene metal backings.
Methods
In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized unblinded clinical trial, we compared cementless tibial components in patients aged 70 years and younger with osteoarthritis. The pre-study sample size calculation was 22 patients per group. 25 TM tibial components were fixed press-fit by 2 hexagonal pegs (TM group) and 25 Ti tibial components were fixed press-fit and by 4 supplemental screws (Ti group). Stereo radiographs for evaluation of absolute component migration (primary effect size) and single-direction absolute component migration (secondary effect size) were obtained within the first postoperative week and at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. American Knee Society score was used for clinical assessment preoperatively, and at 1 and 2 years.
Results
There were no intraoperative complications, and no postoperative infections or revisions. All patients had improved function and regained full extension. All tibial components migrated initially. Most migration of the TM components (n = 24) occurred within the first 3 months after surgery whereas migration of the Ti components (n = 22) appeared to stabilize first after 1 year. The TM components migrated less than the Ti components at 1 year (p = 0.01) and 2 years (p = 0.004).
Interpretation
We conclude that the mechanical fixation of TM tibial components is superior to that of screw-fixed Ti tibial components. We expect long-term implant survival to be better with the TM tibial component.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.566139
PMCID: PMC3235288  PMID: 21434781
23.  Cementless total hip replacement: past, present, and future 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2009;14(2):228-241.
Cementless total hip replacement (THR) is rapidly being accepted as the surgery for arthritic diseases of the hip joint. The bone-ingrowth rate in porous-type cementless implants was about 90% over 10 years after surgery, showing that biological fixation of cementless THR was well maintained on both the stem and cup sides. As for the stress shielding of the femur operated using a distal fixation-type stem, severe bone resorption was observed. The severe bone resorption group showed continuous progression for more than 10 years after surgery. Stem loosening directly caused by stress shielding has been considered less likely; however, close attention should be paid to bone resorption-associated disorders including femoral fracture. Cementless cups have several specific problems. It is difficult to decide whether a cup should be placed in the physiological position for the case of acetabular dysplasia by bone grafting or at a relatively higher position without bone grafting. The bone-ingrowth rate was lower in the group with en bloc bone grafting, and the reactive line was frequently noted in the bone-grafted region. Although no data indicated that en bloc bone grafting directly led to poor outcomes, such as loosening, cup placement at a higher site without bone grafting is now selected by most operators. The polyethylene liner in a cementless cup is thinned due to the metal cup thickness; however, it has been suggested that the apparent relation between the cup size and the wear rate was absent as long as a cementless cup is used. Comparative study indicated cementless THR was inferior with regard to the yearly polyethylene wear rate and incidence of osteolysis on both the stem and cup sides. Meta-analysis study on the survival rate between cement and cementless THR reported that cemented THR was slightly superior. It should be considered that specific problems for cementless THR, especially with regard to polyethylene wear, do occur.
doi:10.1007/s00776-008-1317-4
PMCID: PMC2779384  PMID: 19337818
24.  Behaviour of the ultra-short anatomic cementless femoral stem in young and elderly patients 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(12):2323-2330.
Purpose
The question arises as to whether it is possible to obtain rigid fixation of the ultra-short metaphyseal-fitting anatomic cementless stem without diaphyseal fixation in the elderly as well as younger patients. We investigated whether ultra-short, metaphyseal-fitting anatomic cementless femoral stem would provide similar functional improvements in the younger and elderly patients, radiographically secure implant fixation would be achieved in both groups, the bone content would be preserved in both groups, and complication rates would be similar in both groups.
Methods
A total of 100 patients (114 hips) in the younger patient group and 100 patients (112 hips) in the elderly patient group were included in the study. Their mean age was 43.9 ± 6.11 years (range, 31–65 years) in the younger patient group and 78.9 ± 12.1 years (range, 66–91 years) in the elderly patient group. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.5 years (range, six to nine years) in the younger patient group and 7.6 years (range, six to nine years) in the elderly patient group.
Results
The mean postoperative Harris hip scores (95 points versus 91 points), WOMAC scores (11 points versus 15 points), thigh pain (none in either group), UCLA activity scores (6.5 points versus 4.5 points), and radiographic results were not significantly different between the two groups. No hip in either group had an aseptic loosening. No hip in either group had clicking or squeaking sounds or ceramic fractures.
Conclusion
The cementless ultra-short, metaphyseal-fitting anatomic cementless femoral component provides stable fixation without any need of diaphyseal fixation in both younger and elderly patients. Despite the concern, the poor bone quality in elderly patients did not compromise the stability, and osseointegration of this ultra-short, anatomic cementless femoral stem was achieved in all elderly patients.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2044-9
PMCID: PMC3843203  PMID: 23925881
Ultra-short stem; Ultra-short stemmed hip replacement; Metaphyseal fitting anatomic cementless femoral component; Osteoarthritis; Osteonecrosis; Hip replacement
25.  The beneficial effect of hydroxyapatite lasts 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):135-141.
Background and purpose
In contrast to early migration, the long-term migration of hydroxyapatite- (HA-) coated tibial components in TKA has been scantily reported. This randomized controlled trial investigated the long-term migration measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of HA-coated, uncoated, and cemented tibial components in TKA.
Patients and methods
68 knees were randomized to HA-coated (n = 24), uncoated (n = 20), and cemented (n = 24) components. All knees were prospectively followed for 11–16 years, or until death or revision. RSA was used to evaluate migration at yearly intervals. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was according to the Knee Society system. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM, adjusted for age, sex, diagnosis, revisions, and BMI) was used to take into account the repeated-measurement design.
Results
The present study involved 742 RSA analyses. The mean migration at 10 years was 1.66 mm for HA, 2.25 mm for uncoated and 0.79 mm for the cemented group (p < 0.001). The reduction of migration by HA as compared to uncoated components was most pronounced for subsidence and external rotation. 3 tibial components were revised for aseptic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), 3 for septic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), and 1 for instability (HA-coated). 2 of these cases were revised for secondary loosening after a period of stability: 1 case of osteolysis and 1 case of late infection. There were no statistically significant differences between the fixation groups regarding clinical or radiographic scores.
Interpretation
HA reduces migration of uncemented tibial components. This beneficial effect lasts for more than 10 years. Cemented components showed the lowest migration. Longitudinal follow-up of TKA with RSA allows early detection of secondary loosening.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.665330
PMCID: PMC3339526  PMID: 22329667

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