MSMEG_0220 from Mycobacterium smegmatis, the ortholog of the Rv0183 gene from M. tuberculosis, recently identified and characterized as encoding a monoacylglycerol lipase, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein (rMSMEG_0220), which exhibits 68% amino acid sequence identity with Rv0183, showed the same substrate specificity and similar patterns of pH-dependent activity and stability as the M. tuberculosis enzyme. rMSMEG_0220 was found to hydrolyze long-chain monoacylglycerol with a specific activity of 143 ± 6 U mg−1. Like Rv0183 in M. tuberculosis, MSMEG_0220 was found to be located in the cell wall. To assess the in vivo role of the homologous proteins, an MSMEG_0220 disrupted mutant of M. smegmatis (MsΔ0220) was produced. An intriguing change in the colony morphology and in the cell interaction, which were partly restored in the complemented mutant containing either an active (ComMsΔ0220) or an inactive (ComMsΔ0220S111A) enzyme, was observed. Growth studies performed in media supplemented with monoolein showed that the ability of both MsΔ0220 and ComMsΔ0220S111A to grow in the presence of this lipid was impaired. Moreover, studies of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the MsΔ0220 strain showed that this mutant is more sensitive to rifampin and more resistant to isoniazid than the wild-type strain, pointing to a critical structural role of this enzyme in mycobacterial physiology, in addition to its function in the hydrolysis of exogenous lipids.
We report the development of a specific spectrophotometric assay for the quantitative determination of lipase activity in Staphylococcus aureus. The assay is based on the rate of clearance of a tributyrin emulsion, and it can detect as little as 1.0 micrograms of purified Pseudomonas lipase per ml. By comparison with the reaction rates obtained with Pseudomonas lipase, we calculated that S. aureus PS54C and S6C produce approximately 15 and 60 micrograms of extracellular lipase per ml, respectively. Neither PS54, which is lysogenized with the converting bacteriophage L54a and is consequently lipase negative (Lip-), nor KS1905, a Lip- transpositional mutant of strain S6C, was positive in our spectrophotometric assay. The specificity of the spectrophotometric tributyrin assay was confirmed with a triolein plate assay; supernatants from S6C and PS54C hydrolyzed triolein, while supernatants from PS54 and KSI905 did not. In contrast to the results of the spectrophotometric tributyrin assay, all enzyme preparations tested (including commercially purified esterase) were positive when examined by a tributyrin plate assay. The lack of specificity in the tributyrin plate assay emphasizes the need to interpret the results of tributyrin lipolysis kinetically for assessing lipase activity in S. aureus.
Gastric lipase, pancreatic colipase-dependent lipase, and bile salt-stimulated lipase all have potential roles in digestion of human milk triacylglycerol. To reveal the function of each lipase, an in vitro study was carried out with purified lipases and cofactors, and with human milk as substrate. Conditions were chosen to resemble those of the physiologic environment in the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants. Gastric lipase was unique in its ability to initiate hydrolysis of milk triacylglycerol. Activated bile salt-stimulated lipase could not on its own hydrolyze native milk fat globule triacylglycerol, whereas a limited hydrolysis by gastric lipase triggered hydrolysis by bile salt-stimulated lipase. Gastric lipase and colipase-dependent lipase, in combination, hydrolyzed about two thirds of total ester bonds, with monoacylglycerol and fatty acids being the end products. Addition of bile salt-stimulated lipase resulted in hydrolysis also of monoacylglycerol. When acting together with colipase-dependent lipase, bile salt-stimulated lipase contributed also to digestion of tri- and diacylglycerol. We conclude that digestion of human milk triacylglycerol depends on three lipases with unique, only partly overlapping, functions. Their concerted action results in complete digestion with free glycerol and fatty acids as final products.
An assay procedure was developed in which phosphatidyl[2-3H]inositol was employed as substrate for the measurement of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity. Employing this assay, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity in human fetal membranes and uterine decidua was identified and characterized. The specific activity of this enzyme in amnion (4.4 μmol × mg−1 protein × h−1) was three times that in uterine decidua and more than five times that in chorion laeve. No difference was found between the specific activity of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in placental amnion and that in reflected amnion. The products of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in short-term incubations were stoichiometric amounts of diacylglycerol and inositol-1,2-cyclic-phosphate plus inositol-1-phosphate. After longer periods of incubation, monoacylglycerol also was detected. Diacylglycerol lipase activity also was demonstrated in these tissues. More than 90% of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity of amnion tissue was recovered in the 105,000-g supernatant fraction, and optimal enzymatic activity in vitro was observed at pH 6.5-7.5 in the presence of Ca2+ (8 mM) and mercaptoethanol (4 mM). Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity was stimulated by fatty acids in low concentrations, but was inhibited by lysophosphatidylcholine and a variety of detergents. No effect of labor on the specific activity of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in either fetal membranes or uterine decidua could be detected. The finding of an active phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity in human fetal membranes and uterine decidua is complementary to our previous finding of a selective loss of arachidonic acid from phosphatidylinositol of human fetal membranes during labor. The action of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, coupled to diacylglycerol lipase action, could provide a mechanism for the release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin biosynthesis during parturition.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG), and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI), or other markers of adiposity and metabolism.
Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs.
MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose) or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin). In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels.
In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.
Endocannabinoid system; Fatty acid amide hydrolase; Monoacylglycerol lipase; Human; Adipocytes; BMI; Insulin; Glucose
Organophosphorus (OP) and thiocarbamate (TC) agrochemicals are used worldwide as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, but their safety assessment in terms of potential off-targets remains incomplete. In this study, we used a chemoproteomic platform, termed activity-based protein profiling, to broadly define serine hydrolase targets in mouse brain of a panel of 29 OP and TC pesticides. Among the secondary targets identified, enzymes involved in degradation of endocannabinoid signaling lipids, monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase, were inhibited by several OP and TC pesticides. Blockade of these two enzymes led to elevations in brain endocannabinoid levels and dysregulated brain arachidonate metabolism. Other secondary targets include enzymes thought to also play important roles in the nervous system and unannotated proteins. This study reveals a multitude of secondary targets for OP and TC pesticides and underscores the utility of chemoproteomic platforms in gaining insights into biochemical pathways that are perturbed by these toxicants.
Activity-based protein profiling; cannabinoid; fatty acid amide hydrolase; monoacylglycerol lipase; organophosphorus; pesticides; serine hydrolase; thiocarbamate
Endocannabinoids, particularly 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), impact the directional turning and motility of a developing axon by activating CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) in its growth cone. Recent findings posit that sn-1-diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLα/β) synthesize 2-AG in the motile axon segment of developing pyramidal cells. Coincident axonal targeting of CB1Rs and DAGLs prompts the hypothesis that autocrine 2-AG signaling facilitates axonal outgrowth. However, DAGLs alone are insufficient to account for the spatial specificity and dynamics of 2-AG signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that local 2-AG degradation by monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) must play a role. We determined how subcellular recruitment of MGL is temporally and spatially restricted to establish 2-AG’s signaling competence during axonal growth. MGL is expressed in central and peripheral axons of the fetal nervous system by embryonic day 12.5. MGL coexists with DAGLα and CB1Rs in corticofugal axons of pyramidal cells. Here, MGL and DAGLα undergo differential axonal targeting with MGL being excluded from the motile neurite tip. Thus, spatially-confined MGL activity generates a 2-AG-sensing microdomain and configures 2-AG signaling to promote axonal growth. Once synaptogenesis commences, MGL disperses in stationary growth cones. MGL’s axonal polarity is maintained by differential proteasomal degradation since inhibiting the ubiquitin proteasome system also induces axonal MGL redistribution. Since MGL inactivation drives a CB1R-dependent axonal growth response we conclude that 2-AG may act as a focal protrusive signal for developing neurons and whose regulated metabolism is critical for attaining correct axonal complexity.
axon; cortex; endocannabinoid; forebrain; signaling domain; thalamus
Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands constitute an endogenous signaling system that is found throughout the body, including the eye. This system can be activated by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a major drug of abuse. Cannabinoids offer considerable therapeutic potential in modulating ocular immune and inflammatory responses and in regulating intraocular pressure. The location of cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) in the retina is known, but recently a constellation of proteins has been identified that produce and break down endocannabinoids (eCBs) and modulate CB1 function. Localization of these proteins is critical to defining specific cannabinoid signaling circuitry in the retina.
Here we show the localization of diacylglycerol lipase α and β (DGLα/β), implicated in the production of the eCB 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG); monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) and α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6), both implicated in the breakdown of 2-AG; cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a), a protein that may modulate CB1 function; Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) which have been shown to break down the eCB anandamide and related acyl amides. In our most prominent finding, DGLα is present in post-synaptic Type 1 OFF cone bipolar cells juxtaposed to CB1-containing cone photoreceptor terminals. Interestingly, CRIP1a is reliably presynaptic to DGLα, consistent with a possible role in cannabinoid signaling, NAAA is restricted to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), while DGLβ is limited to retinal blood vessels. These results taken together with previous anatomic and functional studies define specific cannabinoid circuitry likely to modulate eCB signaling at the first synapse of the retina as well as in the inner plexiform layer (IPL).
CB1; cannabinoid; retina; ABHD6; CRIP1a; MGL; DGL; FAAH; NAAA
Oxons are the bioactivated metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides formed via cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-catalyzed desulfuration of the parent compound. Oxons react covalently with the active site serine residue of serine hydrolases, thereby inactivating the enzyme. A number of serine hydrolases other than acetylcholinesterase, the canonical target of oxons, have been reported to react with and be inhibited by oxons. These off-target serine hydrolases include carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), CES2, and monoacylglycerol lipase. Carboxylesterases (CES, EC 126.96.36.199) metabolize a number of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds and are important in the metabolism of many pharmaceuticals. Monoglyceride lipase (MGL, EC 188.8.131.52) hydrolyzes monoglycerides including the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The physiological consequences and toxicity related to the inhibition of off-target serine hydrolases by oxons due to chronic, low level environmental exposures are poorly understood. Here, we determined the potency of inhibition (IC50 values; 15 min preincubation, enzyme and inhibitor) of recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon. The order of potency for these three oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon, although the difference in potency for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 did not reach statistical significance. We also determined the bimolecular rate constants (kinact/KI) for the covalent reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon with CES1 and CES2. Consistent with the results for the IC50 values, the order of reactivity for each of the three oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon with MGL was also determined and was less than the values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 respectively. Together, the results define the kinetics of inhibition of three important hydrolytic enzymes by activated metabolites of widely used agrochemicals.
Carboxylesterase; Monoglyceride lipase; Monoacylglycerol lipase; Organophosphate; Oxon; Bimolecular rate constant
Small quantities of Gastrografin remaining in the intestinal tract some hours after introduction have been shown to cause falsely low trypsin values as determined by a spectrophotometric assay system. This interference is due first to the high absorbance of Gastrografin at 254 nm resulting in a falsely high background optical density. Secondly, Gastrografin inhibits esterase activity towards the synthetic substrate used in this assay. Gastrografin did not interfere with gelatin proteolysis by trypsin and did not affect amylase or lipase determination. Thus the instillation of Gastrografin into the duodenum before pancreatic function tests should be avoided when the trypsin content is to be determined spectrophotometrically.
Monoacylglycerols (MAGs) are short-lived intermediates of glycerolipid metabolism. Specific molecular species, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which is a potent activator of cannabinoid receptors, may also function as lipid signaling molecules. In mammals, enzymes hydrolyzing MAG to glycerol and fatty acids, resembling the final step in lipolysis, or esterifying MAG to diacylglycerol, are well known; however, despite the high level of conservation of lipolysis, the corresponding activities in yeast have not been characterized yet. Here we provide evidence that the protein Yju3p functions as a potent MAG hydrolase in yeast. Cellular MAG hydrolase activity was decreased by more than 90% in extracts of Yju3p-deficient cells, indicating that Yju3p accounts for the vast majority of this activity in yeast. Loss of this activity was restored by heterologous expression of murine monoglyceride lipase (MGL). Since yju3Δ mutants accumulated MAG in vivo only at very low concentrations, we considered the possibility that MAGs are re-esterified into DAG by acyltransferases. Indeed, cellular MAG levels were further increased in mutant cells lacking Yju3p and Dga1p or Lro1p acyltransferase activities. In conclusion, our studies suggest that catabolic and anabolic reactions affect cellular MAG levels. Yju3p is the functional orthologue of mammalian MGL and is required for efficient degradation of MAG in yeast.
MAG, monoacylglycerol; MGL, monoacylglycerol lipase; MGH, monoacylglycerol hydrolase; MGAT, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase; DGAT, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase; EC, endocannabinoid; 2-AG, 2-arachachidonoyl glycerol; LD, lipid droplet; TAG, triacylglycerol; FFA, free fatty acid; DAG, diacylglycerol; GFP, green fluorescent protein; NAPE, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine; NAE, N-acylethanolamide; AEA, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide; Monoacylglycerols; Monoglyceride lipase; MGAT activity; Yeast
The structure-activity relationships of organophosphorus (OP) and organosulfur compounds were examined in vitro and in vivo as inhibitors of mouse brain monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) hydrolysis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and agonist binding at the CB1 receptor. Several compounds showed exceptional potency towards MAGL activity with IC50 values of 0.1-10 nM in vitro and high inihibition at 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally in mice. We find for the first time that MAGL activity is a major in vivo determinant of 2-AG and arachidonic acid levels not only in brain but also in spleen, lung and liver. Apparent direct OP inhibition of CB1 agonist binding may be due instead to metabolic stabilization of 2-AG in brain membranes as the actual inhibitor.
Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors; 2-Arachidonoylglycerol; Arachidonic acid
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are two enzymes from the serine hydrolase superfamily that degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, respectively. We have recently discovered that MAGL and FAAH are both inhibited by carbamates bearing an N-piperidine/piperazine group. Piperidine/piperazine carbamates show excellent in vivo activity, raising brain endocannabinoid levels and producing CB1-dependent behavioral effects in mice, suggesting that they represent a promising class of inhibitors for studying the endogenous functions of MAGL and FAAH. Herein, we disclose a full account of the syntheses, structure-activity relationships, and inhibitory activities of piperidine/piperazine carbamates against members of the serine hydrolase family. These scaffolds can be tuned for MAGL-selective or dual MAGL-FAAH inhibition by the attachment of an appropriately substituted bisarylcarbinol or aryloxybenzyl moiety, respectively, on the piperidine/piperazine ring. Modifications to the piperidine/piperazine ring ablated inhibitory activity, suggesting a strict requirement for a six-member ring to maintain potency.
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is primarily responsible for the hydrolysis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endocannabinoid with full agonist activity at both cannabinoid receptors. Increased tissue 2-AG levels consequent to MGL inhibition are considered therapeutic against pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the lack of MGL structural information has hindered the development of MGL-selective inhibitors. Here, we detail a fully refined homology model of MGL which preferentially identifies MGL inhibitors over druglike noninhibitors. We include for the first time insight into the active-site geometry and potential hydrogen-bonding interactions along with molecular dynamics simulations describing the opening and closing of the MGL helical-domain lid. Docked poses of both the natural substrate and known inhibitors are detailed. A comparison of the MGL active site to that of the other principal endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), demonstrates key differences which provide crucial insight toward the design of selective MGL inhibitors as potential drugs.
MGL; comparative model; molecular dynamics; principal component analysis; docking
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a lipid mediator involved in various physiological processes. In response to neural activity, 2-AG is synthesized post-synaptically, then activates pre-synaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) in a retrograde manner, resulting in transient and long-lasting reduction of neurotransmitter release. The signalling competence of 2-AG is tightly regulated by the balanced action between ‘on demand’ biosynthesis and degradation. We review recent research on monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), ABHD6 and ABHD12, three serine hydrolases that together account for approx. 99% of brain 2-AG hydrolase activity. MAGL is responsible for approx. 85% of 2-AG hydrolysis and colocalizes with CB1R in axon terminals. It is therefore ideally positioned to terminate 2-AG-CB1R signalling regardless of the source of this endocannabinoid. Its acute pharmacological inhibition leads to 2-AG accumulation and CB1R-mediated behavioural responses. Chronic MAGL inactivation results in 2-AG overload, desensitization of CB1R signalling and behavioural tolerance. ABHD6 accounts for approx. 4% of brain 2-AG hydrolase activity but in neurones it rivals MAGL in efficacy. Neuronal ABHD6 resides post-synaptically, often juxtaposed with CB1Rs, and its acute inhibition leads to activity-dependent accumulation of 2-AG. In cortical slices, selective ABHD6 blockade facilitates CB1R-dependent long-term synaptic depression. ABHD6 is therefore positioned to guard intracellular pools of 2-AG at the site of generation. ABHD12 is highly expressed in microglia and accounts for approx. 9% of total brain 2-AG hydrolysis. Mutations in ABHD12 gene are causally linked to a neurodegenerative disease called PHARC. Whether ABHD12 qualifies as a bona fide member to the endocannabinoid system remains to be established.
2-AG hydrolase; ABHD12; ABHD6; endocannabinoid; monoacylglycerol lipase; α/β-hydrolase domain
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) regulates neurotransmission and neuroinflammation by activating CB1 cannabinoid receptors on neurons and CB2 cannabinoid receptors on microglia. Enzymes that hydrolyze 2-AG, such as monoacylglycerol lipase, regulate the accumulation and efficacy of 2-AG at cannabinoid receptors. We found that the recently described serine hydrolase α-β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) also controls the accumulation and efficacy of 2-AG at cannabinoid receptors. In cells from the BV-2 microglia cell line, ABHD6 knockdown reduced hydrolysis of 2-AG and increased the efficacy with which 2-AG can stimulate CB2-mediated cell migration. ABHD6 was expressed by neurons in primary culture and its inhibition led to activity-dependent accumulation of 2-AG. In adult mouse cortex, ABHD6 was located postsynaptically and its selective inhibition allowed the induction of CB1-dependent long-term depression by otherwise subthreshold stimulation. Our results indicate that ABHD6 is a rate-limiting step of 2-AG signaling and is therefore a bona fide member of the endocannabinoid signaling system.
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a serine hydrolase involved in the biological deactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG). Previous efforts to design MGL inhibitors have focused on chemical scaffolds that irreversibly block the activity of this enzyme. Here, we describe two naturally occurring terpenoids, pristimerin and euphol, which inhibit MGL activity with high potency (median effective concentration, IC50 = 93 nM and 315 nM, respectively) through a reversible mechanism. Mutational and modeling studies suggest that the two agents occupy a common hydrophobic pocket located within the putative lid domain of MGL, and each reversibly interact with one of two adjacent cysteine residues (Cys201 and Cys208) flanking such pocket. This previously unrecognized regulatory region may offer a novel molecular target for potent and reversible inhibitors of MGL.
The final step of the intracellular life cycle of Legionella pneumophila and other intracellular pathogens is their egress from the host cell after termination of intracellular replication. We have previously isolated five spontaneous mutants of L. pneumophila that replicate intracellularly similar to the wild-type strain but are defective in pore formation-mediated cytolysis and egress from mammalian and protozoan cells, and the mutants have been designated rib (release of intracellular bacteria). Here, we show that the rib mutants are not defective in the activity of enzymes secreted through the type II secretion system, including phospholipase A, lysophospholipase A, and monoacylglycerol lipase, although they are potential candidates for factors that lyse host cell membranes. In addition, the pilD and lspG mutants, which are defective in the type II secretion system, are not defective in the pore-forming toxin. We show that all five rib mutants have an identical point mutation (deletion) following a stretch of poly(T) in the icmT gene. Spontaneous revertants of the rib mutants, due to an insertion of a nucleotide following the poly(T) stretch in icmT, have been isolated and shown to have regained the wild-type phenotype. We constructed an icmT insertion mutant (AA100kmT) in the chromosome of the wild-type strain by allelic exchange. The AA100kmT mutant was as defective as the rib mutant in pore formation-mediated cytolysis and egress from mammalian and protozoan cells. Both the rib mutant and the AA100kmT mutant were complemented by the icmT gene for their phenotypic defect. rtxA, a gene that is thought to have a minor role in pore formation, was not involved in pore formation-mediated cytolysis and egress from mammalian and protozoan cells. We conclude that the icmT gene is essential for pore formation-mediated lysis of mammalian and protozoan cells and the subsequent bacterial egress.
Purified rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with the polycationic histamine-releasing agent compound 48/80 demonstrated a two- to four- fold increase in cellular levels of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) within 1 min as detected by radioactive labeling and direct quantitation experiments. When 2-[1-14C]arachidonoyl-DAG was incubated in the presence of mast-cell homogenates, a rapid conversion to free arachidonate, and to a lesser extent, to monoacylglycerol, triglyceride, and phospholipid was observed. The release of arachidonate was proportional to the amount of broken-cell preparation added and the time of incubation, was prevented by preheating mast-cell preparations, and did not occur when 1-[1-14C]arachidonoyl- phosphatidylcholine was used as substrate, suggesting that the degradation was mediated by an enzyme with Dag-lipase activity. Although much work remains to be done to clarify the precise role of DAG in mast cells, DAG metabolism may be involved in secretion by generating substances which may faciliate membrane fusion and also in arachidonic acid-derived mediator formation by liberating esterified arachidonic acid from mast-cell lipids. Taken together, these studies indicate that the formation of DAG may play a central role in mast-cell function.
Romanomermis culicivorax juveniles were dissected out of Aedes aegypti larvae 7 days after infection and incubated under controlled conditions in isotonic saline containing a ¹⁴C-labeled fatty acid (palmitic acid), monoacylglycerol (glycerol monoolein), or triacylglycerol (glycerol tripalmate) nutrient source. The mermithid absorbed each of these lipids from the incubation medium, the rate of uptake being greatest for glycerol monoolein. No lipase activity was detected in whole nematode homogenates or in the media in which the nematodes were incubated. It is suggested that the nematode transports complex lipid molecules across its outer cuticle intact.
Aedes aegypti; fatly acid; lipase; mermithid; monoacylglycerol; nutrition; triacylglycerol
The N-aryl carbamate URB602 (biphenyl-3-ylcarbamic acid cyclohexyl ester) is an inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), a serine hydrolase involved in the biological deactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG). Here, we investigated the mechanism by which URB602 inhibits purified recombinant rat MGL using a combination of biochemical and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches. We found that URB602 weakly inhibits recombinant MGL (IC50 = 223±63 μM) through a rapid and noncompetitive mechanism. Dialysis experiments and SAR analyses suggest that URB602 acts through a partially reversible mechanism rather than by irreversible carbamoylation of MGL. Finally, URB602 (100 μM) elevates 2-AG levels in hippocampal slice cultures without affecting levels of other endocannabinoid-related substances. Thus, URB602 may provide a useful tool to investigate the physiological roles of 2-AG and explore the potential interest of MGL as a therapeutic target.
Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is highly expressed in invasive cancer cells and is the major protein in mouse brain diethylphosphorylated by and hydrolyzing low levels of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (the activated metabolite of a major insecticide). It is also the primary CPO-hydrolyzing enzyme in spinal cord, kidney, heart, lung, testis and muscle but not liver, a pattern of tissue expression confirmed by fluorophosphonate-rhodamine labeling. KIAA1363-gene deletion using homologous recombination reduces CPO binding, hydrolysis and metabolism 3- to 29-fold on incubation with brain membranes and homogenates determined with 1 nM [3H-ethyl]CPO and the inhibitory potency for residual CPO with butyrylcholinesterase as a biomarker. Studies with knockout mice further show that KIAA1363 partially protects brain AChE and monoacylglycerol lipase from CPO-induced in vivo inhibition. Surprisingly, mouse brain KIAA1363 and AChE are similar in in vitro sensitivity to seven methyl, ethyl and propyl but not higher alkyl OP insecticides and analogs, prompting structural comparisons of the active sites of KIAA1363 and AChE relative to OP potency and selectivity. Homology modeling based largely on the Archaeoglobus fulgidus esterase crystal structure indicates that KIAA1363 has a catalytic triad of S191, D348 and H378, a GDSAG motif and an oxyanion hole of H113, G114, G115 and G116. Excellent selectivity for KIAA1363 is achieved on OP structure optimization with long alkyl chain substituents suggesting that KIAA1363 has larger acyl and leaving group pockets than those of AChE. KIAA1363 reactivates faster than AChE presumably due to differences in the uncoupling of the catalytic triad His upon phosphorylation. The structural modeling of KIAA1363 helps understand OP structure-activity relationships and the toxicological relevance of this detoxifying enzyme.
acetylcholinesterase; chlorpyrifos oxon; detoxification; KIAA1363
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, exhibits useful medicinal properties, but also undesirable side-effects. The brain receptor for THC, CB1, is also activated by the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). Augmentation of endocannabinoid signaling by blockade of their metabolism may offer a more selective pharmacological approach compared to CB1 agonists. Consistent with this premise, inhibitors of the anandamide-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) produce analgesic and anxiolytic effects without cognitive defects. In contrast, we show that dual blockade of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and FAAH by selected organophosphorus agents leads to greater than 10-fold elevations in brain levels of both 2-AG and anandamide and robust CB1-dependent behavioral effects that mirror those observed with CB1 agonists. Arachidonic acid levels are decreased by the organophosphorus agents in amounts equivalent to elevations in 2-AG, indicating that endocannabinoid and eicosanoid signaling pathways may be coordinately regulated in the brain.
anandamide; 2-arachidonylglycerol; chlorpyrifos oxon; endocannabinoid; monoacylglycerol lipase; fatty acid amide hydrolase; organophosphorus
Endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors (“endocannabinoids”) include the lipid transmitters anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse set of physiological processes and are tightly regulated by enzymatic biosynthesis and degradation. Termination of anandamide signaling by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is well-characterized, but less is known about the inactivation of 2-AG, which can be hydrolyzed by multiple enzymes in vitro, including FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). Here, we have taken a functional proteomic approach to comprehensively map 2-AG hydrolases in the mouse brain. Our data reveal that ~85% of brain 2-AG hydrolase activity can be ascribed to MAGL, with the remaining 15% being mostly catalyzed by two uncharacterized enzymes ABHD6 and ABHD12. Interestingly, MAGL, ABHD6, and ABHD12 display distinct subcellular distributions, suggesting that they may control distinct pools of 2-AG in the nervous system.
Inhibition of the metabolism of the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG), by their primary metabolic enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively, has the potential to increase understanding of the physiological functions of the endocannabinoid system. To date, selective inhibitors of FAAH, but not MAGL, have been developed. The purpose of this study was to determine the selectivity and efficacy of N-arachidonyl maleimide (NAM), a putative MAGL inhibitor, for modulation of the effects of 2-AG. Our results showed that NAM unmasked 2-AG activity in a tetrad of in vivo tests sensitive to the effects of cannabinoids in mice. The efficacy of 2-AG (and AEA) to produce hypothermia was reduced compared with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; however, 2-AG differed from AEA by its lower efficacy for catalepsy. All tetrad effects were partially CB1 receptor-mediated because they were attenuated (but not eliminated) by SR141716A [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide HCl] and in CB1−/− mice. In vitro, NAM increased endogenous levels of 2-AG in the brain. Furthermore, NAM raised the potency of 2-AG, but not AEA, in agonist-stimulated guanosine 5′-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding assay, a measure of G-protein activation. These results suggest that NAM is an MAGL inhibitor with in vivo and in vitro efficacy. NAM and other MAGL inhibitors are valuable tools to elucidate the biological functions of 2-AG and to examine the consequences of dysregulation of this endocannabinoid. In addition, NAM's unmasking of 2-AG effects that are only partially reversed by SR141716A offers support for the existence of non-CB1, non-CB2 cannabinoid receptors.