Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II [MPS II], OMIM309900) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase, resulting in accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, progressive multisystem organ failure, and early death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with weekly intravenous infusions of idursulfase, a treatment for MPS II and commercially available since 2007, has been shown to improve certain symptoms and signs of the disease. The efficacy and safety data of this enzyme preparation have been widely reported and, after a change to the idursulfase Summary of Product Characteristics in March 2010, home ERT by infusion is now an option for selected patients. Previously reported experiences of home therapy in MPS II have shown increased treatment compliance and an improvement in quality of life for both patients and families. We report the results of the home therapy experience of 3 paediatric patients with MPS II in southern Italy. This pilot experience with home infusion is the first reported from Italy.
Hunter syndrome; Enzyme replacement therapy; Idursulfase; Mucopolysaccharidoses; Home treatment (max 6)
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome) is a rare X-linked recessive disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase, leading to progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in nearly all cell types, tissues and organs. Clinical manifestations include severe airway obstruction, skeletal deformities, cardiomyopathy and, in most patients, neurological decline. Death usually occurs in the second decade of life, although some patients with less severe disease have survived into their fifth or sixth decade. Until recently, there has been no effective therapy for MPS II, and care has been palliative. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human iduronate-2-sulphatase (idursulfase), however, has now been introduced. Weekly intravenous infusions of idursulfase have been shown to improve many of the signs and symptoms and overall wellbeing in patients with MPS II. This paper provides an overview of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and symptomatic management of patients with MPS II and provides recommendations for the use of ERT. The issue of treating very young patients and those with CNS involvement is also discussed. ERT with idursulfase has the potential to benefit many patients with MPS II, especially if started early in the course of the disease.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II; Hunter syndrome; Enzyme replacement therapy; Idursulfase; Treatment recommendations
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, Maroteaux–Lamy syndrome is a lysosomal storage disorder with progressive, multisystem involvement caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase leading to accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to clinically benefit affected individuals. A combined treatment regime of ERT and hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has led to reduced morbidity and mortality in patients with MPS I. We have demonstrated that a treatment regime of ERT combined with HSCT in a 3-year-old girl with MPS VI provided similar benefit. This treatment regimen should be considered in the management of selected patients with MPS VI. Neither HSCT nor ERT can correct or completely prevent progression of the musculoskeletal complications. Long-term follow-up and regular assessments for these complications is necessary.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) is a heterogeneous, progressive X-linked recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease that is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase, resulting in abnormal tissue accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans, dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. The disorder results from mutations in IDS, which is located at Xq28. Over 300 pathogenic mutations have been identified to date. The management of MPS II requires multidisciplinary care because of the many affected organ systems. Replacement of functional enzyme to involved tissues has been a focus of various therapies for several decades. The transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells provides enzymatic reconstitution in many target tissues, but the clinical response has been disappointing. Recently, enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase (idursulfase, Elaprase®; Shire HGT Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge MA, USA), was approved by the in the US and Europe as a safe and effective treatment for individuals with MPS II. This review presents a comprehensive overview of MPS II and summarizes the recent literature on therapy for the disease.
mucopolysaccharidosis type II; Hunter syndrome; enzyme replacement therapy
Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase for Hunter syndrome has not been demonstrated to and is not predicted to cross the blood–brain barrier. Nearly all published experience with ERT with idursulfase has therefore been in patients without cognitive impairment (attenuated phenotype). Little formal guidance is available on the issues surrounding ERT in cognitively impaired patients with the severe phenotype. An expert panel was therefore convened to provide guidance on these issues. The clinical experience of the panel with 66 patients suggests that somatic improvements (e.g., reduction in liver volume, increased mobility, and reduction in frequency of respiratory infections) may occur in most severe patients. Cognitive benefits have not been seen. It was agreed that, in general, severe patients are candidates for at least a 6–12-month trial of ERT, excluding patients who are severely neurologically impaired, those in a vegetative state, or those who have a condition that may lead to near-term death. It is imperative that the treating physician discuss the goals of treatment, methods of assessment of response, and criteria for discontinuation of treatment with the family before ERT is initiated. Conclusion: The decision to initiate ERT in severe Hunter syndrome should be made by the physician and parents and must be based on realistic expectations of benefits and risks, with the understanding that ERT may be withdrawn in the absence of demonstrable benefits.
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter syndrome; Enzyme replacement therapy; Idursulfase; Cognitive impairment; Severe phenotype
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2 sulfatase (IdS), which is involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). In this study, the frequency of fasting hypoglycemia in patients with MPS II was investigated and changes in accumulation of glycogen and GAG in the hepatocytes of IdS-knockout (KO) mice were evaluated before and after recombinant IdS enzyme replacement therapy (ERT).
Materials and Methods
Plasma glucose levels were evaluated after an 8-hour fast in 50 patients with MPS II. The IdS-KO mice were divided into three groups (group 2; saline, group 3; 0.15 mg/kg of IdS, and group 4; 0.5 mg/kg of IdS); wild-type mice were included as controls (group 1). ERT was initiated intravenously at four weeks of age, and continued every week until 20 weeks of age.
The mean glucose level after an 8-hour fast was 94.1 ± 23.7 mg/dL in the patients with MPS II. Two (4%) out of 50 patients had fasting hypoglycemia. For the mice, GAG in the lysosomes nearly disappeared and glycogen particles in the cytoplasm were restored to the normal range in group 4.
Glucose metabolism in patients with MPS II appeared to function well despite hepatocytic GAG accumulation and hypothetical glycogen depletion. A higher dose of IdS infusion in MPS II mice led to disappearance of lysosomal GAG and restoration of glycogen to the cytoplasm of hepatocytes.
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; iduronate-2-sulfatase knockout mice; glycogen; glycosaminoglycan; idursulfase supplementation; liver histology
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement.
Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy.
As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years) and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years). Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle). Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement.
Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required.
bone; joint; mucopolysaccharidosis; orthopedic; spine.
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation of the gene for arylsulfatase B (ASB). Of the thirty-one patients registered in Germany, almost fifty percent have a Turkish migration background. MPS VI is treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which is time-consuming and expensive.
This interdisciplinary study explored the illness perceptions and clinical treatment experiences among ten MPS VI patients with a Turkish migration background in two centers for metabolic diseases (Berlin and Mainz, Germany). The clinical treatment situation was observed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and health care personnel, in addition to participatory observation in four patients' everyday environments in Berlin. The data from the interviews, patient records, and personal field notes were encoded, cross-related, and analyzed.
Patients' acknowledgement of the disease and coping strategies are influenced predominantly by the perception of their individual health status and the handling of the disease within their family. Patients' willingness to cooperate with treatment strategies is further modified by their knowledge of the disease and the relationships with their health care providers. In this analysis, cultural factors turned out to be marginally relevant.
As with other chronic and debilitating diseases, effective treatment strategies have to reach beyond delivering medication. Health care providers need to strengthen the support for patients with a migration background. In this regard, they should respect the patients' cultural and social background and their personal perception of the disease and the therapy. Yet structural and social aspects (clinical setting, family and educational background) may be more crucial here than “cultural barriers.”
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII), or Hunter syndrome, is a devastating disorder associated with a shortened life expectancy. Patients affected by MPSII have a variety of symptoms that affect all organs of the body and may include progressive cognitive impairment. MPSII is due to inactivity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in the accumulation of storage material in the lysosomes, such as dermatan and heparan sulfates, with consequent cell degeneration in all tissues including, in the severe phenotype, neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, the only treatment available is systemic infusion of IDS, which ameliorates exclusively certain visceral defects. Therefore, it is important to simultaneously treat the visceral and CNS defects of the MPSII patients. Here, we have developed enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) protocols in a mouse model that allow the IDS to reach the brain, with the substantial correction of the CNS phenotype and of the neurobehavioral features. Treatments were beneficial even in adult and old MPSII mice, using relatively low doses of infused IDS over long intervals. This study demonstrates that CNS defects of MPSII mice can be treated by systemic ERT, providing the potential for development of an effective treatment for MPSII patients.
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II), or Hunter syndrome, is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Affected patients suffer progressive damage to multiple organ systems and early mortality. Two thirds of patients also manifest cognitive impairment and developmental delays. MPS II can be extremely difficult to diagnose before irreversible organ and tissue damage has occurred because of an insidious onset and the overlap in signs and symptoms with common childhood complaints. This is particularly true of patients without cognitive impairment (attenuated phenotype). Although not curative, early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy before irreversible organ damage has occurred may result in the greatest clinical benefit. Here, the signs, symptoms, and surgical history that should trigger suspicion of MPS II are described, and the diagnostic process is reviewed with a focus on practical considerations and the avoidance of common diagnostic pitfalls. Once a diagnosis is made, multidisciplinary management with an extended team of pediatric specialists is essential and should involve the pediatrician or family practice physician as facilitator and medical home for the patient and family. Conclusion: Because routine newborn screening is not yet available for MPS II, the involvement and awareness of pediatricians, family practice physicians, and pediatric specialists is critical for early identification, diagnosis, and referral in order to help optimize patient outcomes.
Lysosomal storage disease; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter syndrome; Glycosaminoglycans; Iduronate-2-sulfatase; Diagnosis
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). In affected patients, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulates in the lysosomes of many organs and tissues contributing to the pathology associated with MPS II. The objective of this phase I/II clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase (idursulfase beta, Hunterase®) in the treatment of MPS II.
Thirty-one MPS II patients between 6 and 35 years of age were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, active comparator-controlled phase I/II trial for 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to active comparator infusions (N=11), 0.5 mg/kg idursulfase beta infusions (N=10), or 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase beta infusions (N=10). The primary efficacy variable was the level of urinary GAG excretion. The secondary variables were changes in the distance walked in 6 minutes (6-minute walk test, 6MWT), echocardiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and joint mobility.
Patients in all three groups exhibited reduction in urine GAG and this reduced GAG level was maintained for 24 weeks. Urine GAG was also significantly reduced in the 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase beta groups when compared to the active comparator group (P = 0.043, 0.002, respectively). Changes in 6MWT were significantly greater in the 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase groups than in the active comparator group (p= 0.003, 0.015, respectively). Both idursulfase beta infusions were generally safe and well tolerated, and elicited no serious adverse drug reactions. The most frequent adverse events were urticaria and skin rash, which were easily controlled with administration of antihistamines.
This study indicates that idursulfase beta generates clinically significant reduction of urinary GAG, improvements in endurance as measured by 6MWT, and it has an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of MPS II.
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter syndrome; ERT; Recombinant iduornate-2-sulfatase; Idursulfase beta
Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for the lysosomal storage disease mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) involves i.v. injection of α-l-iduronidase, which can be taken up by cells throughout the body. While a significant immune response to ERT has been shown in patients with MPS I, little is known about what effect anti-enzyme antibodies have on treatment efficacy. In this issue of the JCI, Dickson et al. demonstrate that anti-enzyme antibodies inhibit enzyme uptake and substantially limit the therapeutic efficacy of ERT in canines with MPS I (see the related article beginning on page 2868). Furthermore, the induction of immune tolerance — via oral delivery of cyclosporine A and azathioprine for two months at the time of initiation of ERT with recombinant human α-l-iduronidase — improved enzyme uptake in organs. Therefore, transient immunosuppression may enhance ERT for lysosomal storage diseases.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II – Hunter syndrome) is a rare X-linked recessive disease of lysosomal glycosaminoglycan metabolism leading to a systemic storage disorder. We report three adult brothers (aged 46–52 years) with attenuated Hunter syndrome after 12 months of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase. Before enzyme replacement therapy, each had serious complications of their disease: in addition to all requiring urgent cervical spinal canal decompressions in middle age, one required emergency aortic and mitral valve surgery, another had stage IV airways disease, and the third had acute glaucoma resulting in unilateral blindness. One brother discontinued therapy after 12 months. The other two brothers reported subjective improvements in energy and exercise tolerance.
Enzyme replacement therapy; Hunter syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis type II
Characteristic cardiac valve abnormalities and left ventricular hypertrophy are present in untreated patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI). Cardiac ultrasound was performed to investigate these findings in subjects during long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB, rhN-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase, galsulfase, Naglazyme®). Studies were conducted in 54 subjects before ERT was begun and at specific intervals for up to 96 weeks of weekly infusions of rhASB at 1 mg/kg during phase 1/2, phase 2, and phase 3 trials of rhASB. At baseline, mitral and aortic valve obstruction was present and was significantly greater in those ≥12 years of age. Mild mitral and trace aortic regurgitation were present, the former being significantly greater in those <12 years. Left ventricular hypertrophy, with averaged z-scores ranging from 1.6–1.9 SD greater than normal, was present for ages both <12 and ≥12 years. After 96 weeks of ERT, ventricular septal hypertrophy regressed in those <12 years. For those ≥12 years, septal hypertrophy was unchanged, and aortic regurgitation increased statistically but not physiologically. Obstructive gradients across mitral and aortic valves remained unchanged. The results suggest that long-term ERT is effective in reducing intraventricular septal hypertrophy and preventing progression of cardiac valve abnormalities when administered to those <12 years of age.
Pompe disease is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the glycogen-degrading lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. Late-onset Pompe disease is a multisystem condition, with a heterogeneous clinical presentation that mimics other neuromuscular disorders.
Objective is to propose consensus-based treatment and management recommendations for late-onset Pompe disease.
A systematic review of the literature by a panel of specialists with expertise in Pompe disease was undertaken.
A multidisciplinary team should be involved to properly treat the pulmonary, neuromuscular, orthopedic, and gastrointestinal elements of late-onset Pompe disease. Presymptomatic patients with subtle objective signs of Pompe disease (and patients symptomatic at diagnosis) should begin treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) immediately; presymptomatic patients without symptoms or signs should be observed without use of ERT. After 1 year of ERT, patients’ condition should be reevaluated to determine whether ERT should be continued.
acid alpha-glucosidase; acid maltase deficiency; lysosomal storage disorder; neuromuscular disease; Pompe disease
Hunter syndrome, or Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), is a rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). The phenotypic spectrum varies from severe to attenuated clinical forms. We report a large Brazilian family with 16 affected individuals exhibiting a very attenuated form of MPS II. Fourteen female carriers were also identified. Twelve affected male patients, whose ages ranged from 1 to 35 years, were examined. Molecular analysis showed a novel missense mutation (p.A77D) in the IDS gene, confirming the diagnosis. Nine of the family members presented some degree of heart damage, though only the proband became symptomatic and required heart transplantation. One 19-year-old adult and 1-year-old twin boys each had a normal echocardiogram. Short stature was found in two adults while macrocephaly was found in one; the remaining adults had anthropometric measures within normal range. All affected adults had normal cognitive development and were able to perform normal daily activities, except one who had mild learning disability. Two patients died due to natural causes beyond 70 years of age. The female carriers did not present any signs of disease. In this large family with a mild form of MPS II and variable degree of clinical manifestations, it is noteworthy that several affected individuals have remained asymptomatic even at advanced age and even without enzyme replacement therapy.
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is an autosomal recessive progressive multiorgan disorder due to mutation in the gene encoding the enzyme Arylsulfatase B (ARSB). Dysfunctional ARSB causes lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Currently, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is preferred to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) due to the treatment-related risks of the latter. However, ERT constitutes an expensive life-long treatment. Increased experience and safety of SCT-procedures in recent years suggest that SCT should be further explored as a treatment option.
This is the first report on haploidentical SCT in patients with MPS VI. The primary objective was to assess the treatment safety and clinical and biochemical outcome.
Patients and methods
Two siblings diagnosed with MPS VI at 10 months of age and at birth with genotype p.C192R, reported as mild to intermediate phenotype, underwent unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation pre-symptomatic. Due to graft failure, both patients were urgently re-transplantated with haploidentical SCT with the father as donor. Continuous clinical and biochemical status was monitored and concluded 3.8 and 4.6 years after the haploidentical SCT.
Haploidentical SCT resulted in prompt and sustained engraftment. Complete donor chimerism was achieved in both patients, apart from mixed B cells chimerism in patient 2. ARSB activity in leukocytes post transplant increased from 0.0 to 19.0 μkat/kg protein (patient 1) and from 3.6 to 17.9 μkat/kg protein (patient 2) (ref. 17–40). Total urinary GAG normalized in both patients, although patient 2’s values slightly exceed normal range since 6 months. However, dermatan sulfaturia was substantially normalized since 16 months and 12 months post-SCT, respectively. Height was -1.85 SD and -1.27 SD at follow-up. Patient 1 had impaired visual acuity and discrete hepatomegaly. Patient 2 had elevated intraocular pressure and X-ray revealed steep acetabular angles and slightly flattened lumbar vertebrae.
This study demonstrates that young children with MPS VI tolerate haploidentical SCT. Normalization of enzyme production and dermatan sulfaturia indicates correction of the inborn error of metabolism and coincide with no obvious symptoms of progressive MPS VI up to 4.6 years post-SCT.
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI; Haploidentical stem cell transplantation; Clinical outcome
This study was conducted to identify potential biomarkers that could be used to evaluate disease progression and monitor responses to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA.
Levels of 88 candidate biomarkers were compared in plasma samples from 50 healthy controls and 78 MPSIVA patients not receiving ERT to test for significant correlations to the presence of MPSIVA. MPSIVA samples were also tested for correlations between candidate biomarkers and age, endurance, or urinary keratin sulfate (KS) levels. Then, levels of the same 88 analytes were followed over 36 weeks in 20 MPSIVA patients receiving ERT to test for significant correlations related to ERT, age, or endurance.
Nineteen candidate biomarkers were significantly different between MPSIVA and unaffected individuals. Of these, five also changed significantly in response to ERT: alpha-1-antitrypsin, eotaxin, lipoprotein(a), matrix metalloprotein (MMP)-2, and serum amyloid P. Three of these were significantly lower in MPSIVA individuals versus unaffected controls and were increased during ERT: alpha-1-antitrypsin, lipoprotein(a), and serum amyloid P.
Candidate biomarkers alpha-1-antitrypsin, lipoprotein(a), and serum amyloid P may be suitable markers, in addition to urinary KS, to follow the response to ERT in MPSIVA patients.
Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal
disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The
disease can be clinically classified into three types: a severe infantile form,
a juvenile and an adultonset form. Cases with juvenile or adult onset GSDII
mimic limb-girdle muscular dystrophy or polymyositis and are often characterized
by respiratory involvement. GSDII patients are diagnosed by biochemical assay
and by molecular characterization of the GAA gene. Ascertaining a natural
history of patients with heterogeneous late-onset GSDII is useful for evaluating
their progressive functional disability. A significant decline is observed over
the years in skeletal and respiratory muscle function. Enzyme replacement
therapy (ERT) has provided encouraging results in the infantile form. It is not
yet known if ERT is effective in late-onset GSDII. We examined a series of 11
patients before and after ERT evaluating muscle strength by MRC, timed and
graded functional tests, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), respiratory function by
spirometric parameters and quality of life. We observed a partial improvement
during a prolonged follow-up from 3 to 18 months. The use of different clinical
parameters in the proposed protocol seems crucial to determine the efficacy of
ERT, since not all late-onset patients respond similarly to ERT.
glycogen storage disease type II; trial; protocol
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD, Krabbe disease), is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC). In the absence of GALC, the toxic metabolite psychosine accumulates in the brain and causes the death of the myelin-producing cells, oligodendrocytes. Currently, the only therapy for GLD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using bone marrow (BMT) or umbilical cord blood. However, this is only partially effective. Previous studies have shown that enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) provides some therapeutic benefit in the murine model of GLD, the Twitcher mouse. Experiments have also shown that two disparate therapies can produce synergistic effects when combined. The current study tests the hypothesis that BMT will increase the therapeutic effects of ERT when these two treatments are combined. Twitcher mice were treated with either ERT alone or both ERT and BMT during the first 2–4 days of life. Recombinant enzyme was delivered by intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intrathecal (IT) injections. Twitcher mice receiving ERT had supraphysiological levels of GALC activity in the brain 24 hours after injection. At 36 days of age, ERT-treated Twitcher mice had reduced psychosine levels, reduced neuroinflammation, improved motor function, and increased lifespan. Twitcher mice receiving both ERT and BMT had significantly increased lifespan, improved motor function, reduced psychosine levels, and reduced neuroinflammation in certain areas of the brain compared to untreated or ERT-treated Twitcher mice. Together, these results indicate that BMT enhances the efficacy of ERT in GLD.
globoid cell leukodystrophy; enzyme replacement therapy; bone marrow transplantation; Twitcher mouse; lysosomal storage disease; neurodegenerative disease
Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry were analysed to assess the relationship between enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase (ERT) and incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) in type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), and to determine whether the time interval between diagnosis and initiation of ERT influences the incidence rate of AVN. All patients with GD1 enrolled in the Gaucher Registry who received ERT and did not report AVN prior to starting therapy (n = 2700) were included. The incidence rate of AVN following initiation of ERT was determined. An incidence rate of AVN of 13·8 per 1000 person-years was observed in patients receiving ERT. Patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis had an incidence rate of 8·1 per 1000 person-years; patients who started ERT ≥2 years after diagnosis had an incidence rate of 16·6 per 1000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0·59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·36–0·96, P = 0·0343]. Splenectomy was an independent risk factor for AVN (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·23, 95% CI 1·61–3·08, P < 0·0001). In conclusion, the risk of AVN was reduced among patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis, compared to initiating treatment ≥2 years after diagnosis. A higher risk of AVN was observed among patients who had previously undergone splenectomy.
Gaucher disease; enzyme replacement therapy; avascular necrosis; imiglucerase
Gaucher disease (GD) type I is the most common type of GD. Its main clinical manifestations are hepatosplenomegaly as well as bone and hematological abnormalities. The objective of the present study was to perform a literature review on the growth and metabolism of GD type I patients.
We searched Pubmed and Scielo.br databases with predetermined study limits: case series (n≥5), clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucerase or imiglucerase. The outcomes of interest were the following: growth and development, weight, height, malnutrition, overweight, obesity, basal metabolism, hypermetabolism, insulin resistance, and diabetes. A total of 175 articles were found, of which 28 met the inclusion criteria; these articles were grouped into three central themes: 1) growth of children and adolescents before and after ERT; 2) metabolic changes that remained during ERT; and 3) changes in metabolic status resulting from the treatment.
Results and discussion
The articles included in the present literature review are very heterogeneous, which hinders the analysis of data. They indicated that GD patients usually show low weight and height before ERT, which are improved with treatment in children and adolescents. Studies evaluating the energy metabolism by indirect calorimetry have indicated that the disease is associated with hypermetabolism. In adults, some changes in energy metabolism remain on ERT, and alterations, such as insulin resistance, seem to be associated with the treatment. It is not clear which are the required doses of imiglucerase for obtaining an adequate cost-effective relation, as well as the advisable therapeutic measures to avoid possible long-term adverse effects related to ERT.
ERT tends to normalise the growth of children and adolescents with GD type I, it seems to cause a partial response in relation to some metabolic changes associated with the disease, and it can causes metabolic changes such as weight gain in adult patients. Therefore, additional research is necessary.
Gaucher Disease; Imiglucerase; Growth; Metabolism
Dysphagia is a known complication in Pompe Disease (PD), a severe metabolic myopathy due to alpha-glucosidase deficiency. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa is the only approved therapy for PD. Presently no data are available on the effects of ERT on dysphagia in PD patients. The aim of this work is to evaluate the course of this complication in a 6 years old boy affected by PD after treatment with ERT.
Dysphagia was assessed by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) at baseline, before the start of ERT and after 36 months of therapy. We used the Dysphagia Severity Rating Scale (DSS) to define the severity grade of dysphagia.
VFSS performed at baseline revealed complete incoordination of oral stage swallowing which was classified as a grade 1 dysphagia according to DSS. After 36 months of treatment VFSS revealed normal swallowing, classified as grade 0 by DSS.
Our results suggest that ERT is effective in improving dysphagia. VFSS may be a useful tool to investigate and monitor swallowing disorders in patients affected by PD.
Glycogen storage disease type II; Deglutition disorders; Enzyme replacement therapy
We report the structural characterization of plasmatic and urinary GAGs in a patient affected by MPS II (Hunter syndrome) before and during the first 10 months of enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT). Plasmatic GAGs before ERT were rich in pathological DS consisting of iduronic acid (IdoA) and composed of ~90% ΔDi4s and trace amounts of disulfated disaccharides. DS was also characterized as the main (~90%) urinary GAG mainly composed of ~90% ΔDi4s with minor percentages of monosulfated and disulfated disaccharides, in particular ΔDi2,4dis. After 300 days of ERT, plasmatic DS strongly decreased but ~14% of IdoA-rich ΔDi4s was still detected. Similarly, urinary galactosaminoglycans were mainly composed of 78% ΔDi4s, ~11% ΔDi6s and ~4% ΔDi0s with the persistence of ΔDi2,4dis (~4%). About 40% of IdoA-formed ΔDi4s were also calculated, thus confirming that pathological DS is still present in excreted urinary GAGs during ERT. By considering the % of IdoA, we observed rather similar kinetics of excretion in fluids from the beginning of the treatment. Immediately after the first enzyme infusion, a large amount of abnormal DS is removed from tissues reaching the blood compartment and eliminated via the urine, and this process lasts for about 2 weeks. After this, the percentage of IdoA-rich material present in biological fluids remains fairly constant over the following 9 months of treatment. To date, these are the first data regarding plasmatic and urinary kinetics directly measured on products released by the activity of the recombinant enzyme Idursulfase, iduronate-2-sulfatase, evaluated using specific and sensitive analytical procedures.
More than 500 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (MPS IH; Hurler syndrome) have been treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) throughout the world since the introduction of transplantation as therapy almost 30 years ago. More recently, the availability of recombinant α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) has resulted in the widespread treatment of less severe forms of MPS I with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). In addition, over 50 MPS IH patients have been treated with a combination of ERT and HCT. The rationale for both ERT and HCT stems from the pivotal experiments performed 4 decades ago that showed α-L-iduronidase supplied in the environment can correct the accumulation of substrate in MPS I cells. Our purpose is to address the multiple applications associated with the therapeutic delivery of IDUA: intermittent delivery of recombinant protein (ERT), continuous administration through cellular therapy (HCT), the use of other stem cells or, potentially, correction of the enzyme defect itself through gene therapy approaches. Even though gene therapy and non-hematopoietic stem cell approaches, have yet to be tested in a clinical setting, it is possible that all these approaches will in the near future be a part of a paradigm shift from unimodal to multimodal therapy for MPS I.
mucopolysaccharidosis type I; Hurler syndrome; hematopoietic cell transplantation; enzyme replacement therapy; co-modality therapy