The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason), is a serious pest of rice. Investigations into the gall midge-rice interaction will unveil the underlying molecular mechanisms which, in turn, can be used as a tool to assist in developing suitable integrated pest management strategies. The insect gut is known to be involved in various physiological and biological processes including digestion, detoxification and interaction with the host. We have cloned and identified two genes, OoprotI and OoprotII, homologous to serine proteases with the conserved His87, Asp136 and Ser241 residues. OoProtI shared 52.26% identity with mosquito-type trypsin from Hessian fly whereas OoProtII showed 52.49% identity to complement component activated C1s from the Hessian fly. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that both the genes were significantly upregulated in larvae feeding on resistant cultivar than in those feeding on susceptible cultivar. These results provide an opportunity to understand the gut physiology of the insect under compatible or incompatible interactions with the host. Phylogenetic analysis grouped these genes in the clade containing proteases of phytophagous insects away from hematophagous insects.
biotype; chymotrypsin; insect-plant interaction; phytophagous insects; real time PCR; trypsin
The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a major pest responsible for immense loss in rice productivity. Currently, very little knowledge exists with regard to this insect at the molecular level. The present study was initiated with the aim of developing molecular resources as well as identifying alterations at the transcriptome level in the gall midge maggots that are in a compatible (SH) or in an incompatible interaction (RH) with their rice host. Roche 454 pyrosequencing strategy was used to develop both transcriptomics and genomics resources that led to the identification of 79,028 and 85,395 EST sequences from gall midge biotype 4 (GMB4) maggots feeding on a susceptible and resistant rice variety, TN1 (SH) and Suraksha (RH), respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the maggots in SH and RH revealed over-representation of transcripts from proteolysis and protein phosphorylation in maggots from RH. In contrast, over-representation of transcripts for translation, regulation of transcription and transcripts involved in electron transport chain were observed in maggots from SH. This investigation, besides unveiling various mechanisms underlying insect-plant interactions, will also lead to a better understanding of strategies adopted by insects in general, and the Asian rice gall midge in particular, to overcome host defense.
Orseolia oryzae; susceptible host; resistant host; next generation sequencing (NGS); real time PCR; insect biotypes; insect-plant interaction
Using an enriched library method, seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the barley stem gall midge, Mayetiola hordei. Polymorphism at loci was surveyed on 57 individual midges collected on barley in Tunisia. Across loci, polymorphism ranged from two to six alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity varied between 0.070 and 0.877. Based on the number of alleles detected and the associated levels of heterozygosity, we believe that these loci will prove useful for population genetic studies on M. hordei.
Mayetiola destructor; dinucleotide; trinucleotide; molecular ecology
Gene-derived simple sequence repeats (genic SSRs), also known as functional markers, are often preferred over random genomic markers because they represent variation in gene coding and/or regulatory regions. We characterized 544 genic SSR loci derived from 138 candidate genes involved in wood formation, distributed throughout the genome of Populus tomentosa, a key ecological and cultivated wood production species. Of these SSRs, three-quarters were located in the promoter or intron regions, and dinucleotide (59.7%) and trinucleotide repeat motifs (26.5%) predominated. By screening 15 wild P. tomentosa ecotypes, we identified 188 polymorphic genic SSRs with 861 alleles, 2–7 alleles for each marker. Transferability analysis of 30 random genic SSRs, testing whether these SSRs work in 26 genotypes of five genus Populus sections (outgroup, Salix matsudana), showed that 72% of the SSRs could be amplified in Turanga and 100% could be amplified in Leuce. Based on genotyping of these 26 genotypes, a neighbour-joining analysis showed the expected six phylogenetic groupings. In silico analysis of SSR variation in 220 sequences that are homologous between P. tomentosa and Populus trichocarpa suggested that genic SSR variations between relatives were predominantly affected by repeat motif variations or flanking sequence mutations. Inheritance tests and single-marker associations demonstrated the power of genic SSRs in family-based linkage mapping and candidate gene-based association studies, as well as marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of P. tomentosa and related species.
candidate gene-derived SSRs; cross-species transferability; in silico analysis of SSR variations; Populus tomentosa; single marker–trait association mapping
Phlebotomus papatasi is a natural vector of Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in many countries. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, are common in eukaryotic genomes and are short, repeated nucleotide sequence elements arrayed in tandem and flanked by non-repetitive regions. The enrichment methods used previously for finding new microsatellite loci in sand flies remain laborious and time consuming; in silico mining, which includes retrieval and screening of microsatellites from large amounts of sequence data from sequence data bases using microsatellite search tools can yield many new candidate markers.
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were characterized in P. papatasi expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a public database, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). A total of 42,784 sequences were mined, and 1,499 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 3.5% and an average density of 15.55 kb per SSR. Dinucleotide motifs were the most common SSRs, accounting for 67% followed by tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats, accounting for 31.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. The length of microsatellites varied from 5 to 16 repeats. Dinucleotide types; AG and CT have the highest frequency. Dinucleotide SSR-ESTs are relatively biased toward an excess of (AX)n repeats and a low GC base content. Forty primer pairs were designed based on motif lengths for further experimental validation.
The first large-scale survey of SSRs derived from P. papatasi is presented; dinucleotide SSRs identified are more frequent than other types. EST data mining is an effective strategy to identify functional microsatellites in P. papatasi.
Among commonly applied molecular markers, simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites) possess advantages such as a high level of polymorphism and codominant pattern of inheritance at individual loci. To facilitate systematic and rapid genetic mapping in soybean, we designed a genotyping panel comprised 304 SSR markers selected for allelic diversity and chromosomal location so as to provide wide coverage. Most primer pairs for the markers in the panel were redesigned to yield amplicons of 80–600 bp in multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence-based sequencer analysis, and they were labelled with one of four different fluorescent dyes. Multiplex PCR with sets of six to eight primer pairs per reaction generated allelic data for 283 of the 304 SSR loci in three different mapping populations, with the loci mapping to the same positions as previously determined. Four SSRs on each chromosome were analysed for allelic diversity in 87 diverse soybean germplasms with four-plex PCR. These 80 loci showed an average allele number and polymorphic information content value of 14.8 and 0.78, respectively. The high level of polymorphism, ease of analysis, and high accuracy of the SSR genotyping panel should render it widely applicable to soybean genetics and breeding.
SSR marker; fluorescent primer; multiplex PCR; polymorphic information content; high-throughput genotyping
We describe a novel approach, selectively amplified microsatellite
(SAM) analysis, for the targeted development of informative simple
sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A modified selectively amplified
microsatellite polymorphic loci assay is used to generate multi-locus
SSR fingerprints that provide a source of polymorphic DNA markers
(SAMs) for use in genetic studies. These polymorphisms capture the
repeat length variation associated with SSRs and allow their chromosomal
location to be determined prior to the expense of isolating and
characterising individual loci. SAMs can then be converted to locus-specific SSR
markers with the design and synthesis of a single primer specific
to the conserved region flanking the repeat. This approach offers
a cost-efficient and rapid method for developing SSR markers for
predetermined chromosomal locations and of potential informativeness.
The high recovery rate of useful SSR markers makes this strategy
a valuable tool for population and genetic mapping studies. The
utility of SAM analysis was demonstrated by the development of SSR
markers in bread wheat.
Microsatellites or single sequence repeats (SSRs) are a powerful choice of marker in the study of Phytophthora population biology, epidemiology, ecology, genetics and evolution. A strategy was tested in which the publicly available unigene datasets extracted from genome sequences of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum were mined for candidate SSR markers that could be applied to a wide range of Phytophthora species.
A first approach, aimed at the identification of polymorphic SSR loci common to many Phytophthora species, yielded 171 reliable sequences containing 211 SSRs. Microsatellites were identified from 16 target species representing the breadth of diversity across the genus. Repeat number ranged from 3 to 16 with most having seven repeats or less and four being the most commonly found. Trinucleotide repeats such as (AAG)n, (AGG)n and (AGC)n were the most common followed by pentanucleotide, tetranucleotide and dinucleotide repeats. A second approach was aimed at the identification of useful loci common to a restricted number of species more closely related to P. sojae (P. alni, P. cambivora, P. europaea and P. fragariae). This analysis yielded 10 trinucleotide and 2 tetranucleotide SSRs which were repeated 4, 5 or 6 times.
Key studies on inter- and intra-specific variation of selected microsatellites remain. Despite the screening of conserved gene coding regions, the sequence diversity between species was high and the identification of useful SSR loci applicable to anything other than the most closely related pairs of Phytophthora species was challenging. That said, many novel SSR loci for species other than the three 'source species' (P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum) are reported, offering great potential for the investigation of Phytophthora populations. In addition to the presence of microsatellites, many of the amplified regions may represent useful molecular marker regions for other studies as they are highly variable and easily amplifiable from different Phytophthora species.
Earlier comparative maps between the genomes of rice (Oryza sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were linkage maps based on cDNA-RFLP markers. The low number of polymorphic RFLP markers has limited the development of dense genetic maps in wheat and the number of available anchor points in comparative maps. Higher density comparative maps using PCR-based anchor markers are necessary to better estimate the conservation of colinearity among cereal genomes. The purposes of this study were to characterize the proportion of transcribed DNA sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSR or microsatellites) by length and motif for wheat, barley and rice and to determine in-silico rice genome locations for primer sets developed for wheat and barley Expressed Sequence Tags.
The proportions of SSR types (di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats) and motifs varied with the length of the SSRs within and among the three species, with trinucleotide SSRs being the most frequent. Distributions of genomic microsatellites (gSSRs), EST-derived microsatellites (EST-SSRs), and transcribed regions in the contiguous sequence of rice chromosome 1 were highly correlated. More than 13,000 primer pairs were developed for use by the cereal research community as potential markers in wheat, barley and rice.
Trinucleotide SSRs were the most common type in each of the species; however, the relative proportions of SSR types and motifs differed among rice, wheat, and barley. Genomic microsatellites were found to be primarily located in gene-rich regions of the rice genome. Microsatellite markers derived from the use of non-redundant EST-SSRs are an economic and efficient alternative to RFLP for comparative mapping in cereals.
Introgression plays an important role in evolution of plant species via its influences on genetic diversity and differentiation. Outcrossing determines the level of introgression but little is known about the relationships of outcrossing rates, genetic diversity, and differentiation particularly in a weedy taxon that coexists with its conspecific crop.
Eleven weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) populations from China were analyzed using microsatellite (SSR) fingerprints to study outcrossing rate and its relationship with genetic variability and differentiation. To estimate outcrossing, six highly polymorphic SSR loci were used to analyze >5500 progeny from 216 weedy rice families, applying a mixed mating model; to estimate genetic diversity and differentiation, 22 SSR loci were analyzed based on 301 weedy individuals. Additionally, four weed-crop shared SSR loci were used to estimate the influence of introgression from rice cultivars on weedy rice differentiation. Outcrossing rates varied significantly (0.4∼11.7%) among weedy rice populations showing relatively high overall Nei's genetic diversity (0.635). The observed heterozygosity was significantly correlated with outcrossing rates among populations (r2 = 0.783; P<0.001) although no obvious correlation between outcrossing rates and genetic diversity parameters was observed. Allelic introgression from rice cultivars to their coexisting weedy rice was detected. Weedy rice populations demonstrated considerable genetic differentiation that was correlated with their spatial distribution (r2 = 0.734; P<0.001), and possibly also influenced by the introgression from rice cultivars.
Outcrossing rates can significantly affect heterozygosity of populations, which may shape the evolutionary potential of weedy rice. Introgression from the conspecific crop rice can influence the genetic differentiation and possibly evolution of its coexisting weedy rice populations.
The development of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from pea has provided a useful source for mining novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the present research, in order to find EST-derived SSR markers, 18 552 pea ESTs from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database were downloaded and assembled into 10 086 unigenes. A total of 586 microsatellites in 530 unigenes were identified, indicating that merely 5.25% of sequences contained SSRs. The most abundant SSRs within pea were tri-nucleotide repeat motifs, and among all the tri-nucleotide repeats, the motif GAA was the most abundant type. In total, 49 SSRs were used for primer design. EST-SSR loci were subsequently screened on 10 widely adapted varieties in China. Of these, nine loci showed polymorphic profiles that revealed two to three alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content value ranged from 0.18 to 0.58 with an average of 0.41. Furthermore, transferable analysis revealed that some of these loci showed transferability to faba bean. Because of their polymorphism and transferability, these nine novel EST-SSRs will be valuable tools for marker-assisted breeding and comparative mapping of pea in the future.
Pea; Expressed sequence tag (EST); Simple sequence repeat (SSR); Microsatellite
Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of nineteen commercially important Brazilians and six interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Coffealiberica. The set used comprised 52 newly developed SSR markers derived from microsatellite enriched libraries, 56 designed on the basis of coffee SSR sequences available from public databases, 6 already published, and 13 universal chloroplast microsatellite markers. Only 22 were polymorphic, these detecting 2-7 alleles per marker, an average of 2.5. Based on the banding patterns generated by polymorphic SSR loci, the set of twenty-five coffee varieties were clustered into two main groups, one composed of only Brazilian varieties, and the other of interspecific hybrids, with a few Brazilians. Color mutants could not be separated. Clustering was in accordance with material genealogy thereby revealing high similarity.
SSR; coffee; genetic similarity; molecular marker
Genomic libraries enriched for simple sequence repeats were constructed for Glossina morsitans morsitans, G. m. submorsitans, and G. m. centralis. Sixteen microsatellite markers were isolated from the libraries and evaluated on flies from natural G. m. morsitans populations and other Glossina species in the Morsitans and Palpalis species groups. The primers amplified appropriate sized DNA fragments in the Morsitans and Palpalis groups. In G. morsitans s.l., eight of 12 dinucleotide repeats and four of 12 trinucleotide repeats were polymorphic. The polymorphic loci showed a mean 7.5 ± 4.8 alleles per locus and their mean heterozygosity was 55.8 ± 7.7%.
Glossina morsitans complex; microsatellites; simple sequence repeats
We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), as well as partial sequence from a third cecidomyiid and a species from a related family, the Sciaridae. The sciarid sequence has a number of rearrangements of tRNA genes, relative to other dipterans, but is otherwise unremarkable. In contrast, the cecidomyiid genomes possess a number of very unusual features. First, the two complete sequences are very small compared with other dipteran mitochondrial genomes. The genome of Mayetiola destructor is only 14,759 bp while that of Rhopalomyia pomum is only 14,503 bp, comparable with genome sizes observed in some arachnids. Second, all three cecidomyiid species have very high A + T content—more than 83% for the coding region. Third, all three cecidomyiid species possess a number of rearrangements of tRNA genes, including variations within the family. Fourth, the most extraordinary feature of cecidomyiids examined in this study is an extreme truncation of all tRNA genes, including the loss of TΨC arms and apparent absence of the 3′ part of the aminoacyl stems.
The truncated tRNA genes of cecidomyiids are very similar to those previously reported for spiders and appear to represent a second, independent origin of these structural features. It is likely that they are made functional through RNA editing, perhaps using the 5′ end of the aminoacyl stem as a template for the construction of the required 3′ end.
Mayetiola destructor; truncated tRNA genes; RNA editing
Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.
Brassica rapa; expressed sequence-derived SSRs; integrated map; polymorphism information content; transferability
Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Our objective was to identify microsatellite markers that could be used to differentiate between male and female date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). The date palm is a dioecious plant whose sex cannot be determined until it reaches a reproductive age between 5 and 10 years. An early selection and/or differentiation of young seedlings into males and females could enhance breeding and assist research programs for genetic improvements of the date palm. Here, we report on the use of microsatellites for determining the sex of immature date palm. Using 14 microsatellite primer pairs with 129 date palm leaves and tissue culture samples from 34 cultivars which represent the major date palm diversity of Qatar, 254 microsatellite loci were detected, of these, 22 microsatellite loci could be used to identify 9 out of 12 male date palm samples (75%). The data also indicated that the heterozygous allele with the size 160/190 produced by the primer mPdCIR048 reoccurred 4 times exclusively in the 12 individual male samples but not in any of the 117 female date palm samples tested, and hence it is a promising candidate marker to detect male sex in date palm. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of 12 male samples with 7 female Khasab cultivars produced 2 autonomous groups of males and females and similar results were observed with 13 female Shishi cultivars. Our results suggest that the SSR markers described here have potential in sex identification of date palm.
Phoenix dactylifera; Sex identification; Sex marker; SSR; Microsatellite
Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic, highly invasive human pathogen with worldwide distribution. V. vulnificus strains are commonly divided into three biochemical groups (biotypes), most members of which are pathogenic. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) provide a source of high-level genomic polymorphism used in bacterial typing. Here, we describe the use of variations in mutable SSR loci for accurate and rapid genotyping of V. vulnificus. An in silico screen of the genomes of two V. vulnificus strains revealed thousands of SSR tracts. Twelve SSR with core motifs longer than 5 bp in a panel of 32 characterized and 56 other V. vulnificus isolates, including both clinical and environmental isolates from all three biotypes, were tested for polymorphism. All tested SSR were polymorphic, and diversity indices ranged from 0.17 to 0.90, allowing a high degree of discrimination among isolates (27 of 32 characterized isolates). Genetic analysis of the SSR data resulted in the clear distinction of isolates that belong to the highly virulent biotype 3 group. Despite the clonal nature of this new group, SSR analysis demonstrated high-level discriminatory power within the biotype 3 group, as opposed to other molecular methods that failed to differentiate these isolates. Thus, SSR are suitable for rapid typing and classification of V. vulnificus strains by high-throughput capillary electrophoresis methods. SSR (≥5 bp) by their nature enable the identification of variations occurring on a small scale and, therefore, may provide new insights into the newly emerged biotype 3 group of V. vulnificus and may be used as an efficient tool in epidemiological studies.
Studies were conducted to examine the population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme and surrounding areas in Central Kenya, under different agricultural systems. This study was motivated by observed differences in malaria transmission indices of An. arabiensis within the scheme compared with adjacent nonirrigated areas. Agricultural practices can modify local microclimate and influence the number and diversity of larval habitats and in so doing may occasion subpopulation differentiation. Thirty samples from each of the three study sites were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Seven microsatellite loci showed high polymorphism but revealed no genetic differentiation (FST = 0.006, P = 0.312) and high gene flow (Nm = 29–101) among the three populations. Genetic bottleneck analysis showed no indication of excess heterozygosity in any of the populations. There was high frequency of rare alleles, suggesting that An. arabiensis in the study area has a high potential of responding to selective pressures from environmental changes and vector control efforts. These findings imply that An. arabiensis in the study area occurs as a single, continuous panmictic population with great ability to adapt to human-imposed selective pressures.
Microsatellites; An. arabiensis; gene flow; agricultural practices; Kenya
Microsatellites or SSRs (simple sequence repeats) are ubiquitous short tandem duplications occurring in eukaryotic organisms. These sequences are among the best marker technologies applied in plant genetics and breeding. The abundant genomic, BAC, and EST sequences available in databases allow the survey regarding presence and location of SSR loci. Additional information concerning primer sequences is also the target of plant geneticists and breeders. In this paper, we describe a utility that integrates SSR searches, frequency of occurrence of motifs and arrangements, primer design, and PCR simulation against other databases. This simulation allows the performance of global alignments and identity and homology searches between different amplified sequences, that is, amplicons. In order to validate the tool functions, SSR discovery searches were performed in a database containing 28 469 nonredundant rice cDNA sequences.
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is an economically important pest on rice. In this study, 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from N. lugens genomic libraries using the method of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence Containing Repeats (FIASCO). Polymorphism of each locus was detected in 48 individuals from two natural populations. These microsatellite loci revealed 2 to 18 alleles, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to 0.937 and from 0.042 to 0.958, respectively. These markers will be useful for the future study of this agricultural pest in population genetics and molecular genetics.
Nilaparvata lugens; microsatellites; polymorphism; genetic diversity
Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety of sources and published cDNA markers into a composite P. taeda genetic map constructed from two reference mapping pedigrees. A dense genetic map that incorporates SSR loci will benefit complete pine genome sequencing, pine population genetics studies, and pine breeding programs. Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map.
The updated P. taeda genetic map, with an estimated genome coverage of 1,515 cM(Kosambi) across 12 linkage groups, incorporated 170 new SSR markers and 290 previously reported SSR, RFLP, and ESTP markers. The average marker interval was 3.1 cM. Of 233 mapped SSR loci, 84 were from cDNA-derived sequences (EST-SSRs) and 149 were from non-transcribed genomic sequences (genomic-SSRs). Of all 311 mapped cDNA-derived markers, 77% were associated with NCBI Pta UniGene clusters, 67% with RefSeq proteins, and 62% with functional Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Duplicate (i.e., redundant accessory) and paralogous markers were tentatively identified by evaluating marker sequences by their UniGene cluster IDs, clone IDs, and relative map positions. The average gene diversity, He, among polymorphic SSR loci, including those that were not mapped, was 0.43 for 94 EST-SSRs and 0.72 for 83 genomic-SSRs. The genetic map can be viewed and queried at http://www.conifergdb.org/pinemap.
Many polymorphic and genetically mapped SSR markers are now available for use in P. taeda population genetics, studies of adaptive traits, and various germplasm management applications. Annotating mapped genes with UniGene clusters and GO terms allowed assessment of redundant and paralogous EST markers and further improved the quality and utility of the genetic map for P. taeda.
The microsatellite, (GATA)n has been frequently used for DNA fingerprinting. However, very few attempts have been made to analyze (GATA)n-containing loci in rice.
Three polymorphic (GATA)n-harboring loci viz. OS1A6, OS1H10 and OS2E7, containing 7–13 repeat motifs were identified from a genomic library of a cultivated rice, Oryza sativa var. Basmati-370 using oligonucleotide probe (GATA)4. When (GATA)n flanking primers were used to screen 26 wilds (representing different genomes of rice), 16 cultivars, 47 Indian elite rice varieties and 37 lines resistant/susceptible to bacterial blight, up to 22 alleles were obtained at an individual locus. Also, interestingly the bacterial blight resistant lines clustered into a separate group from the remaining rice genotypes, when a dendrogram was constructed based on the polymorphism obtained at the three loci. This may be due to the partial homology of the clones OS1H10 and OS2E7 to regions encoding O. longistaminata receptor kinase-like protein and pathogenesis-related protein. The ability of these O. sativa flanking primers to amplify DNA of maize, wheat, barley and oat indicates that these (GATA)n-containing loci are conserved across different cereal genera.
The large allele number obtained reveals the potential of (GATA)n-containing loci as powerful tools to detect simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP). The (GATA)n-flanking primers were not only useful in distinguishing between closely related genotypes, but could also be used for cross-species amplification and are also conserved across different cereal genera. These loci could also cluster the bacterial blight resistant/susceptible lines into different groups based on the resistance genes present in them.
Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications.
A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes.
A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification, taxonomic studies, and genetic mapping. The study further shows that mining ESTs is a highly efficient strategy for polymorphism detection within the cultivated cassava gene pool.
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly variable features of all genomes. Their rapid evolution makes them useful for tracing the evolutionary history of populations and investigating patterns of selection and mutation across gnomes. The recently sequenced Daphnia pulex genome provides us with a valuable data set to study the mode and tempo of SSR evolution, without the inherent biases that accompany marker selection.
Here we catalogue SSR loci in the Daphnia pulex genome with repeated motif sizes of 1-100 nucleotides with a minimum of 3 perfect repeats. We then used whole genome shotgun reads to determine the average heterozygosity of each SSR type and the relationship that it has to repeat number, motif size, motif sequence, and distribution of SSR loci. We find that SSR heterozygosity is motif specific, and positively correlated with repeat number as well as motif size. For non-repeat unit polymorphisms, we identify a motif-dependent end-nucleotide polymorphism bias that may contribute to the patterns of abundance for specific homopolymers, dimers, and trimers. Our observations confirm the high frequency of multiple unit variation (multistep) at large microsatellite loci, and further show that the occurrence of multiple unit variation is dependent on both repeat number and motif size. Using the Daphnia pulex genetic map, we show a positive correlation between dimer and trimer frequency and recombination.
This genome-wide analysis of SSR variation in Daphnia pulex indicates that several aspects of SSR variation are motif dependent and suggests that a combination of unit length variation and end repeat biased base substitution contribute to the unique spectrum of SSR repeat loci.