Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging bio-therapeutic platform for cancer treatment, which is based on selective infection/killing of cancer cells by viruses. Herein we identify the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as an oncolytic virus. Using prostate cancer models, we show dramatic enhancement of RSV infectivity in vitro in the androgen-independent, highly metastatic PC-3 human prostate cancer cells compared to the non-tumorigenic RWPE-1 human prostate cells. The oncolytic efficiency of RSV was established in vivo using human prostate tumor xenografts in nude mice. Intra-tumoral and intra-peritoneal injections of RSV led to a significant regression of prostate tumors. Furthermore, enhanced viral burden in PC-3 cells led to selective destruction of PC-3 cancer cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors in vivo due to apoptosis triggered by the down-regulation of NF-κB activity (and the resulting loss of anti-apoptotic function of NF-κB) in RSV-infected PC-3 cells. The intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway constitutes the major apoptotic pathway; however, the death-receptor-dependent extrinsic pathway, mediated by the paracrine/autocrine action of tumor necrosis factor-α produced from infected cells, also partly contributed to apoptosis. Thus, the oncolytic property of RSV can potentially be exploited to develop targeted therapeutics for the clinical management of prostate tumors.
Oncolytic; respiratory syncytial virus; anti-cancer; prostate cancer; apoptosis
Oncolytic viruses have become of noticeable interest as a novel biological approach for selectively infecting cancer cells and triggering apoptosis in a number of malignant cells. Many researches are devoted to characterize more viruses with oncolytic properties.
Evidences on the oncolytic feature of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are conflicting; therefore, this study was designed to elucidate the possible role of RSV on the modulation of cell growth and apoptosis in the skin cancer cells.
Materials and Methods
Plaque assay was used to determine RSV titers. The cytotoxic effect of RSV in A431 (skin carcinoma cell line) was determined using MTT assay. The detection of apoptosis was performed via Annexin-V-FITC staining method and analyzed with flow cytometry.
The results indicated that A431 cell growth was inhibited following infection by RSV in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The most growth inhibitory effect of RSV was occurred at the MOI of 3, and 48 hour after infection. The inhibitory effect of RSV on the cell growth was accompanied by the induction of apoptosis in the skin cancer cells. The percentages of early and late apoptotic cells were increased following exposure to RSV in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.
This study delineated the beneficial role of RSV for growth regulation of skin cancer cells and highlighted the involvement of RSV in the induction of apoptosis in A431 cells. These findings might conduct evidence into the oncolytic properties of RSV in the skin cancer. Further studies are required to indicate intracellular targets for RSV-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells.
Oncolytic Viruses; Apoptosis; Skin Neoplasms; Flow Cytometry
Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains is one of the most promising new strategies for cancer therapy. In the current study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 against two human prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and PC-3 in cell culture and in tumor xenograft models. By viral proliferation assays and cell survival tests, we demonstrated that GLV-1h68 was able to infect, replicate in, and lyse these prostate cancer cells in culture. In DU-145 and PC-3 tumor xenograft models, a single intravenous injection with GLV-1h68 resulted in a significant reduction of primary tumor size. In addition, the GLV-1h68-infection led to strong inflammatory and oncolytic effects resulting in drastic reduction of regional lymph nodes with PC-3 metastases. Our data documented that the GLV-1h68 virus has a great potential for treatment of human prostate carcinoma.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oncolytic gene therapy is a promising treatment modality against cancer. We have demonstrated that androgen-induced cellular changes enhance oncolytic viral replication and improve efficacy in the treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line. Imaging of changes in 18-F deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive method of detecting altered cellular metabolism involved in cancer therapy. We therefore hypothesized that FDG-PET can predict tumor response to oncolytic HSV therapy. In this study, androgen increased cell kill (74%) in vitro and enhanced viral yield (2.4-fold) in vivo following HSV therapy. This enhanced efficacy was predicted by high FDG accumulation in intact animals compared to low FDG uptake following orchiectomy (p=0.002). This proof-of-concept study provides the mechanistic basis for selecting patients for targeted oncolytic viral therapy by means of a noninvasive molecular imaging method in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Herpes virus; hormonal therapy; prediction; fluorodeoxyglucose
Androgen receptor (AR) is the key molecule in androgen-refractory prostate cancer. Despite androgen ablative conditions, AR remains active and is necessary for the growth of androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells. Nuclear localization of AR is a prerequisite for its transcriptional activation. We examined AR localization in androgen-dependent and androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells.
METHODS AND RESULTS
We demonstrate increased nuclear localization of a GFP-tagged AR in the absence of hormone in androgen-refractory C4-2 cells compared to parental androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Analysis of AR mutants impaired in ligand-binding indicates that the nuclear localization of AR in C4-2 cells is truly androgen-independent. The hsp90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), inhibits basal PSA expression and disrupts the ligand-independent nuclear localization of AR at doses much lower than required to inhibit androgen-induced nuclear import.
Hsp90 is a key regulator of ligand-independent nuclear localization and activation of AR in androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells.
androgen receptor; Hsp90; prostate cancer; androgen-independence; intracellular localization
Prostate cancer is the most common solid malignancy in men, with 32,000 deaths annually. Piperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, has previously been reported to have anti-cancer activity in variety of cancer cell lines. The effect of piperine against prostate cancer is not currently known. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of piperine on androgen dependent and androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that piperine inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, PC-3, 22RV1 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Annexin-V staining demonstrated that piperine treatment induced apoptosis in hormone dependent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP). Using global caspase activation assay, we show that piperine-induced apoptosis resulted in caspase activation in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Further studies revealed that piperine treatment resulted in the activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1 proteins in LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Piperine treatment also disrupted androgen receptor (AR) expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Our evaluations further show that there is a significant reduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels following piperine treatment in LNCaP cells. NF-kB and STAT-3 transcription factors have previously been shown to play a role in angiogenesis and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells with piperine resulted in reduced expression of phosphorylated STAT-3 and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB) transcription factors. These results correlated with the results of Boyden chamber assay, wherein piperine treatment reduced the cell migration of LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Finally, we show that piperine treatment significantly reduced the androgen dependent and androgen independent tumor growth in nude mice model xenotransplanted with prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results support further investigation of piperine as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancers generally acquire an androgen-independent growth capacity with progression, resulting in resistance to antiandrogen therapy. Therefore, identification of the genes regulated through this process may be important for understanding the mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis. We here utilized androgen-dependent/independent transplantable tumors, newly established with the ‘transgenic rat adenocarcinoma in prostate’ (TRAP) model, to analyze their gene expression using microarrays. Among the overexpressed genes in androgen-independent prostate cancers compared with the androgen-dependent tumors, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) was included. In line with this, human prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145 (androgen independent) had higher expression of GST-pi compared with LNCaP (androgen dependent) as determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis. To investigate the roles of GST-pi expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancers, GST-pi was knocked down by a small interfering RNA (siRNA), resulting in significant decrease of the proliferation rate in the androgen-independent PC3 cell line. In vivo, administration of GST-pi siRNA–atelocollagen complex decreased GST-pi protein expression, resulting in enhanced numbers of TdT mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labering (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells. These findings suggest that GST-pi might play important roles in proliferation of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells.
Lethal phenotypes of human prostate cancer are characterized by progression to androgen-independence and metastasis. For want of a clinically relevant animal model, mechanisms behind this progression remain unclear. Our study used an in vivo model of androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell xenografts in male SCID mice to study the cellular and molecular biology of tumor progression. Primary tumors were established orthotopically, and the mice were then surgically castrated to withdraw androgens. Five generations of androgen-independent tumors were developed using castrated host mice. Tumor samples were used to determine expressions of cellular and molecular markers. Androgen-independent tumors had increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis compared to androgen-sensitive tumors, outcomes associated with elevated expression of p53, p21/waf1, bcl-2, bax and the bcl-2/bax ratio. Blood vessel growth in androgen-independent tumor was associated with increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Overexpression of androgen receptor mRNA and reduced expression of androgen receptor protein in androgen-independent tumors suggest that the androgen receptor signaling pathway may play an important role in the progression of human prostate cancer to androgen-independence. The in vivo orthotopic LNCaP tumor model described in our study mimics the clinical course of human prostate cancer progression. As such, it can be used as a model for defining the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer progression to androgen-independence and for evaluating the effect of preventive or therapeutic regimens for androgen-independent human prostate cancer.
prostate cancer; androgen-sensitive; androgen-independent; orthotopic model
Androgen independent prostate cancer growth and metastasis are a major cause of prostate cancer death. Aberrant androgen receptor activation due to androgen receptor mutation is an important mechanism of androgen independence. We determined the effectiveness and mechanism of 17α-estradiol (Sigma®) in blocking aberrant androgen receptor activation due to androgen receptor mutation.
Materials and Methods
We used LNCaP and MDA Pca-2b prostatic tumor cells (ATCC®) containing a mutated androgen receptor and WT estrogen receptor β to test 17α-estradiol inhibition of aberrant androgen receptor activation of prostate specific antigen gene expression and cell growth. Cotransfection analysis was used to further elucidate the mechanism of 17α-estradiol action. Xenograft animals with an LNCaP prostate tumor were prepared to study the in vivo effect of 17α-estradiol on tumor growth inhibition.
In LNCaP cells 17α-estradiol produced a dose dependent inhibition of cyproterone acetate (Sigma) or dihydrotestosterone induced prostate specific antigen gene expression. In MDA Pca-2b cells 17α-estradiol inhibited cortisol (Sigma) induced prostate specific antigen expression and blocked dihydrotestosterone and cortisol induced cell proliferation in LNCaP and MDA Pca-2b cells, respectively. Cotransfection analysis showed that 17α-estradiol inhibition of aberrant androgen receptor activation of prostate specific antigen gene expression was medicated via estrogen receptors. In xenograft mice with LNCaP prostate cancer 17α-estradiol but not 17β-estradiol (Sigma) significantly inhibited tumor growth, although each estrogen tended to decrease tumor growth.
Results suggest that 17α-estradiol with less classic estrogenic activity is a potential therapeutic agent for androgen independent prostate cancer due to androgen receptor mutation.
prostate; receptors; androgen; mutation; estradiol; prostatic neoplasms
Cancer cell metabolism responsive to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may be involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer and the ultimate failure of androgen-deprivation therapy. To investigate the metabolism regulation effects on androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer, an established LNCaP-s cell model that resembles the clinical scenario of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), was used in this current study. This cell line was cultured from androgen-sensitive LNCaP parental cells, in an androgen-reduced condition, resembling clinical androgen deprivation therapy. To assess the effects of smsDX on the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells we used wound healing assay and Matrigel™ invasion assay. We evaluated differentially expressed proteins of the parental LNCaP cells and LNCaP-s cells after ADT by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. The covered area in the wound and the number of cells invading through a Matrigel chamber were significantly smaller for cells treated with smsDX than they were for control cells treated with vehicle. 56 proteins were found differentially expressed in LNCaP-s cells compared to LNCaP cells, majority of them were down-regulated after ADT treatment. 104 proteins of LNCaP cells and 86 in LNCaP-s cells, separately, were found differentially expressed after treatment with smsDX, When we explored these protein functions within the website UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, surprisingly, most of the proteins were found to be involved in the cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function regulation. LNCaP-s as potential metastatic androgen-independent cancer cells, its metabolism and mitochondrial functions could be altered by a new somatostatin derivative smsDX, the smsDX regulatory effects on metabolism in LNCaP-s deliver more therapeutic information with the treatment of CRPC.
Prostate cancer is dependent on circulating testosterone in its early stages and is treatable with radiation and surgery. However, recurrent prostate tumors advance to an androgen-independent state where they progress in the absence of circulating testosterone leading to metastasis and death. During the development of androgen independence, prostate cancer cells are known to increase intracellular testosterone synthesis which maintains cancer cell growth in the absence of significant amounts of circulating testosterone. Overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR) occurs in androgen-independent prostate cancer and has been proposed as another mechanism promoting the development of androgen independence. The LNCaP-AR cell line is engineered to overexpress AR but is otherwise similar to the widely studied LNCaP cell line. We have previously shown that pomegranate extracts inhibit both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate polyphenols, ellagitannin-rich extract and whole juice extract on the expression of genes for key androgen synthesizing enzymes and the AR. We measured expression of the HSD3B2, AKR1C3 and SRD5A1 genes for the respective androgen synthesizing enzymes in LNCaP, LNCaP-AR, and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. A two-fold suppression of gene expression was considered statistically significant. Pomegranate polyphenols inhibited gene expression and AR most consistently in the LNCaP-AR cell line (P =.05). Therefore, inhibition by pomegranate polyphenols of gene expression involved in androgen synthesis enzymes and the AR may be of particular importance in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and the subset of human prostate cancers where AR is upregulated.
pomegranate; punicalagin; ellagic acid; prostate cancer; androgen receptor; androgen-independence
The bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) family of neuropeptides has been implicated in various in vitro and in vivo models of human malignancies including prostate cancers. It was previously shown that bombesin and/or neurotensin (NT) acts as a survival and migratory factor(s) for androgen-independent prostate cancers. However, a role in the transition from an androgen-dependent to -refractory state has not been addressed. In this study, we investigate the biological effects and signal pathways of bombesin and NT on LNCaP, a prostate cancer cell line which requires androgen for growth. We show that both neurotrophic factors can induce LNCaP growth in the absence of androgen. Concurrent transactivation of reporter genes driven by the prostate-specific antigen promoter or a promoter carrying an androgen-responsive element (ARE) indicate that growth stimulation is accompanied by androgen receptor (AR) activation. Furthermore, neurotrophic factor-induced gene activation was also present in PC3 cells transfected with the AR but not in the parental line which lacks the AR. Given that bombesin does not directly bind to the AR and is known to engage a G-protein-coupled receptor, we investigated downstream signaling events that could possibly interact with the AR pathway. We found that three nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, and Etk/BMX play important parts in this process. Etk/Bmx activation requires FAK and Src and is critical for neurotrophic factor-induced growth, as LNCaP cells transfected with a dominant-negative Etk/BMX fail to respond to bombesin. Etk's activation requires FAK, Src, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Likewise, bombesin-induced AR activation is inhibited by the dominant-negative mutant of either Src or FAK. Thus, in addition to defining a new G-protein pathway, this report makes the following points regarding prostate cancer. (i) Neurotrophic factors can activate the AR, thus circumventing the normal growth inhibition caused by androgen ablation. (ii) Tyrosine kinases are involved in neurotrophic factor-mediated AR activation and, as such, may serve as targets of future therapeutics, to be used in conjunction with current antihormone and antineuropeptide therapies.
Emergence of androgen-independent cancer cells during androgen deprivation therapy presents a significant challenge to successful treatment outcomes in prostate cancer. Elucidating the role of androgen deprivation in the transition from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent state may enable the development of more effective therapeutic strategies against prostate cancer. Herein, we describe an in vitro model for assessing the effects of continuous androgen-deprivation on prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) with respect to the expression of two prostate-specific markers: the androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Compared with androgen-containing normal growth medium, androgen-deprived medium apparently induced the concomitant downregulation of AR and PSMA over time. Decreased protein levels were confirmed by fluorescence imaging, western blotting and enzymatic activity studies. In contrast to the current understanding of AR and PSMA in prostate cancer progression, our data demonstrated that androgen-deprivation induced a decrease in AR and PSMA levels in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells, which may be associated with the development of more aggressive disease-state following androgen deprivation therapy.
androgen receptor; prostate-specific membrane antigen; androgen deprivation; prostate cancer
Previously, we have developed a unique in vitro LNCaP cell model, which includes androgen-dependent (LNCaP-C33), androgen-independent (LNCaP-C81) and an intermediate phenotype (LNCaP-C51) cell lines resembling the stages of prostate cancer progression to hormone independence. This model is advantageous in overcoming the heterogeneity associated with the prostate cancer up to a certain extent. We characterized and compared the gene expression profiles in LNCaP-C33 (androgen-dependent) and LNCaP-C81 (androgen-independent) cells using Affymetrix GeneChip array analyses. Multiple genes were identified exhibiting differential expression during androgen-independent progression. Among the important genes upregulated in androgen-independent cells were PCDH7, TPTE, TSPY, EPHA3, HGF, MET, EGF, TEM8, etc., whereas many candidate tumor suppressor genes (HTATIP2, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN1C, TP53, TP73, ICAM1, SOCS1/2, SPRY2, PPP2CA, PPP3CA, etc.) were decreased. Pathway prediction analysis identified important gene networks associated with growth-promoting and apoptotic signaling that were perturbed during androgen-independent progression. Further investigation of one of the genes, PPP2CA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of a serine phosphatase PP2A, a potent tumor suppressor, revealed that its expression was decreased in prostate cancer compared to adjacent normal/benign tissue. Furthermore, the downregulated expression of PPP2CA was significantly correlated with tumor stage and Gleason grade. Future studies on the identified differentially-expressed genes and signaling pathways may be helpful in understanding the biology of prostate cancer progression and prove useful in developing novel prognostic biomarkers and therapy for androgen-refractory prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer; Gene expression; Transcriptomic variation; Androgenin-independence; Gene-networks
Intracellular levels of zinc have shown a strong inverse correlation to growth and malignancy of prostate cancer. To date, studies of zinc supplementation in prostate cancer have been equivocal and have not accounted for bioavailability of zinc. Therefore, we hypothesized that direct intra-tumoral injection of zinc could impact prostate cancer growth. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic properties of the pH neutral salt zinc acetate on the prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145 and LNCaP. Zinc acetate killed prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, independent of androgen sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner in a range between 200 and 600 μM. Cell death occurred rapidly with 50% cell death by six hours and maximal cell death by 18 hours. We next established a xenograft model of prostate cancer and tested an experimental treatment protocol of direct intra-tumoral injection of zinc acetate. We found that zinc treatments halted the growth of the prostate cancer tumors and substantially extended the survival of the animals, whilst causing no detectable cytoxicity to other tissues. Thus, our studies form a solid proof-of-concept that direct intra-tumoral injection of zinc acetate could be a safe and effective treatment strategy for prostate cancer.
The management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer represents a major challenge in the therapy of this tumor, and identification of novel androgen receptor antagonists is needed to render treatment more effective. We analyzed the activity of two novel androgen receptor antagonists, (S)-11 and (R)-9, in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of hormone-sensitive or castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In vitro experiments were performed on LNCaP, LNCaP-AR, LNCaP-Rbic and VCaP human prostate cancer cells. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by SRB and BrdU uptake, AR transactivation by luciferase reporter assay and PSA levels by Real Time RT-PCR and ELISA assays. Cell cycle progression-related markers were evaluated by western blot. In vivo experiments were performed on SCID mice xenografted with cells with different sensitivity to hormonal treatment. In hormone-sensitive LNCaP and LNCaP-AR cells, the latter expressing high androgen receptor levels, (R)-9 and (S)-11 exhibited a higher cytotoxic effect compared to that of the reference compound ((R)-bicalutamide), also in the presence of the synthetic androgen R1881. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect produced by (R)-9 was higher than that of (S)-11 in the two hormone-resistant LNCaP-AR and VCaP cells. A significant reduction in PSA levels was observed after exposure to both molecules. Moreover, (S)-11 and (R)-9 inhibited DNA synthesis by blocking the androgen-induced increase in cyclin D1 protein levels. In vivo studies on the toxicological profile of (R)-9 did not reveal the presence of adverse events. Furthermore, (R)-9 inhibited tumor growth in various in vivo models, especially LNCaP-Rbic xenografts, representative of recurrent disease. Our in vitro results highlight the antitumor activity of the two novel molecules (R)-9 and (S)-11, making them a potentially attractive option for the treatment of CRPC.
Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, TNFSF12) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. TWEAK activates the Fn14 receptor, and may regulate cell death, survival and proliferation in tumor cells. However, there is little information on the function and regulation of this system in prostate cancer. Fn14 expression and TWEAK actions were studied in two human prostate cancer cell lines, the androgen-independent PC-3 cell line and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Additionally, the expression of Fn14 was analyzed in human biopsies of prostate cancer. Fn14 expression is increased in histological sections of human prostate adenocarcinoma. Both prostate cancer cell lines express constitutively Fn14, but, the androgen-independent cell line PC-3 showed higher levels of Fn14 that the LNCaP cells. Fn14 expression was up-regulated in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in presence of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IFNγ) as well as in presence of bovine fetal serum. TWEAK induced apoptotic cell death in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. Moreover, in PC-3 cells, co-stimulation with TNFα/IFNγ/TWEAK induced a higher rate of apoptosis. However, TWEAK or TWEAK/TNFα/IFNγ did not induce apoptosis in presence of bovine fetal serum. TWEAK induced cell death through activation of the Fn14 receptor. Apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, release of mitochondrial cytochrome C and an increased Bax/BclxL ratio. TWEAK/Fn14 pathway activation promotes apoptosis in androgen-independent PC-3 cells under certain culture conditions. Further characterization of the therapeutic target potential of TWEAK/Fn14 for human prostate cancer is warranted.
The majority of the prostatic cancers are adenocarcinomas characterized by glandular formation and the expression of luminal differentiation markers androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Most adenocarcinomas are indolent and androgen-dependent. Hormonal therapy that inhibits AR signaling produces symptomatic relief in patients with advanced and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) is a variant form of prostate cancer (PC). In contrast to adenocarcinoma, the tumor cells of SCNC do not form glands and are negative for AR and PSA. SCNC is extremely aggressive and does not respond to hormonal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the important and relevant features of two most commonly used PC cell lines, LNCaP and PC3, with prostatic adenocarcinoma and SCNC.
Xenograft tumors of LNCaP and PC3 were prepared and compared with human prostatic adenocarcinoma and SCNC for the expression of key signaling molecules by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
LNCaP cells express AR and PSA and their growth is inhibited by androgen withdrawal, similar to human prostatic adenocarcinoma. PC3 cells do not express AR and PSA and their proliferation is independent of androgen, similar to SCNC. Adenocarcinoma cells and LNCaP cells are negative for neuroendocrine markers and stem cell-associated marker CD44 while SCNC and PC3 cells are positive. LNCaP cells have identical cytokeratin profiles to adenocarcinoma while PC3 cells have cytokeratin profiles similar to SCNC.
LNCaP cells share common features with adenocarcinoma while PC3 cells are characteristic of SCNC.
prostate cancer; small cell carcinoma; adenocarcinoma; PC3; LNCaP
RasGRP3 mediates the activation of the Ras signaling pathway that is present in many human cancers. Here we explored the involvement of RasGRP3 in the formation and maintenance of the prostate cancer phenotype. RasGRP3 expression was elevated in multiple human prostate tumor tissue samples and in the human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU 145 compared to the androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Down regulation of endogenous RasGRP3 in PC-3 and DU145 cells reduced Ras-GTP formation, inhibited cell proliferation, impeded cell migration and induced apoptosis. Anchorage independent growth of the PC-3 cells and tumor formation in mouse xenografts of both cell lines was likewise inhibited. Inhibition of RasGRP3 expression reduced AKT and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and sensitized the cells to killing by carboplatin. Conversely, exogenous RasGRP3 elevated Ras-GTP, stimulated proliferation, and provided resistance to PMA-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. RasGRP3 overexpressing LNCaP cells displayed a markedly enhanced rate of xenograft tumor formation in both male and female mice compared to the parental line. Suppression of RasGRP3 expression in these cells inhibited downstream RasGRP3 responses, caused the cells to resume the LNCaP morphology, and suppressed growth, confirming the functional role of RasGRP3 in the altered behavior of these cells. We conclude that RasGRP3 contributes to the malignant phenotype of the prostate cancer cells and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for human prostate cancer.
prostate cancer; Ras; phorbol ester; guanine nucleotide exchange factor; Ras activator; C1 domain
We examined the hypothesis that nontoxic concentrations of selenium induce apoptosis and growth inhibition selectively in prostate cancer cells but not in benign prostate cells. Nontumorigenic BPH-1 prostate epithelial cells, androgen-sensitive LNCaP, and androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells were exposed to sodium selenite at 1 to 10 μmol/l for 24 to 72 h. Cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion, flow cytometry, DNA laddering, and caspase activation. BPH-1 cells were more sensitive for cytotoxic selenium effects than malignant prostate cells, whereas LNCaP cells were more sensitive than PC-3 cells. At noncytotoxic selenium concentrations, there was no apoptosis in BPH-1 and PC-3 cells and no growth inhibition of LNCaP and BPH-1 cells. PC-3 cells were refractory to apoptosis induction but were growth inhibited at non-cytotoxic concentrations. LNCaP cells were growth stimulated at 1 μmol/l and sensitive to apoptosis induction at higher noncytotoxic concentrations. Thus, noncytotoxic selenite concentrations did not induce growth inhibition or apoptosis selectively in prostate cancer cells. Growth stimulation of LNCaP cells by low concentrations suggests the possibility of adverse effects of selenium supplementation on hormone sensitive prostate cancer, whereas inhibition of PC-3 cell proliferation at noncytotoxic concentrations suggests potential benefit of selenium in advanced prostate cancer.
The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPARγ ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated PPARγ ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPARγ. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest both PPARγ and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.
PPAR gamma; androgen receptor; androgen- independent prostate cancer
The β1-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase was isolated and identified as an androgen down-regulated gene. Expression was observed at high levels in androgen-independent as compared to androgen-dependent (responsive) human prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts when grown in the presence of androgens. Down-regulation of the β1-subunit was initiated at concentrations between 0.01 nM and 0.03 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 after relatively long incubation times (> 24 h). Using polyclonal antibodies, the concentration of β1-subunit protein, but not of the α1-subunit protein, was markedly reduced in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP-FGC) cultured in the presence of androgens. In line with these observations it was found that the protein expression of total Na+,K+-ATPase in the membrane (measured by 3H-ouabain binding) was also markedly decreased. The main function of Na+,K+-ATPase is to maintain sodium and potassium homeostasis in animal cells. The resulting electrochemical gradient is facilitative for transport of several compounds over the cell membrane (for example cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent experimentally used in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer). Here we observed that a ouabain-induced decrease of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in LNCaP-FGC cells results in reduced sensitivity of these cells to cisplatin-treatment. Surprisingly, androgen-induced decrease of Na+,K+-ATPase expression, did not result in significant protection against the chemotherapeutic agent. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
Na+,K+-ATPase; androgens; prostate; androgen-dependent; androgen-independent; cisplatin
In the majority of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), product of a gene that is almost exclusively regulated by the androgen receptor (AR), still acts as a serum marker reflecting disease burden, indicating that AR signaling is activated even under castrate level of serum androgen. Accumulated evidence shows that transcriptional ability of AR is activated both in ligand-dependent and -independent manners in CRPC cells. Some androgen-independent sublines derived from originally androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells overexpress the AR and PSA, for which silencing the AR gene suppresses cellular proliferation. The overexpression of the AR confers androgen-independent growth ability on androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. Some patient-derived prostate cancer xenograft lines also acquire castration-resistant growth ability secreting PSA. More recent publications have shown that the AR activated in CRPC cells regulates distinct gene sets from that in androgen-dependent status. This concept provides very important insights in the development of novel anti-prostate cancer drugs such as new generation anti-androgens and CYP17 inhibitors.
prostate cancer; castration resistant; androgen receptor; molecular target
The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of a novel flavonoid, ampelopsin (AMP) on the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. AMP showed the more potent activity in inhibiting the proliferation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP and, to less extent, androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, primarily by induction of apoptosis associated with down-regulation of bcl-2. On the other hand, AMP showed much less activity in inhibiting the proliferation of normal prostate epithelial cells than that of prostate cancer cell lines. AMP also inhibited the migration and invasion of PC-3 cells in vitro associated with down-regulation of CXCR4 expression. In the animal study using an orthotopic prostate tumor model, AMP (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors and lymph node and lung metastases in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control mice, mice treated with AMP at 300 mg/kg BW had reduced final tumor weight by 49.2% (P<0.05), lymph node metastases by 54.5% (P = 0.3) and lung metastases by 93% (P<0.05), but had no apparent alteration on food intake or body weight. The in vivo anti-growth and anti-metastasis activities of AMP were associated with induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells, reduction of prostate tumor angiogenesis, and reduction of CXCR4 expression. Our results provide supporting evidence to warrant further investigation to develop AMP as a novel efficacious and safe candidate agent against progression and metastasis of prostate cancer.
Apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms targeted in the development of therapies against various cancers, including prostate cancer. Resistance to chemotherapy poses a significant problem for the effective treatment of androgen-independent (hormone-refractory) prostate cancer. Although high concentrations of sodium selenite exert strong anticarcinogenic effects in several cell culture systems and animal models, the therapeutic potential of selenite in patients with advanced or metastatic prostate cancer is extremely limited by the genotoxicity of high-dose selenite. We examined the ability of nontoxic concentrations of selenite to promote apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in carmustine-sensitized androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells. Androgen-dependent LNCaP cells exhibited a significant decrease in cell viability when exposed to nontoxic concentrations of selenite, whereas androgen-independent PC-3 and DU145 cells showed a significant decrease in cell viability only at higher concentrations. Treatment of PC-3 cells with a combination of nontoxic selenite and carmustine resulted in greater increases in cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, growth inhibition, apoptosis, and DNA double-strand breaks, with concomitant decreases in DNA synthesis, glutathione, glutathione reductase, and antiapoptotic proteins. Combination treatment with carmustine and selenite triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis in PC-3 cells, which was not apparent when these cells were treated with selenite or carmustine alone. Genotoxicity in normal prostate epithelial cells was completely absent in the combination treatment of carmustine and selenite. In addition, carmustine decreased the induction of DNA double strand breaks by high-dose selenite in normal prostate epithelial cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that a nontoxic dose of selenite, in combination with carmustine, significantly induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells without causing undesirable genotoxicity in normal prostate epithelial cells, suggesting that this combination therapy may be a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
apoptosis; glutathione; glutathione reductase; oxidative stress; DNA damage; genotoxicity; combination therapy