Deficient innate and adaptive immune responses cause newborn mammals to be more susceptible to bacterial infections than adult individuals. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play a pivotal role in bacterial recognition and subsequent immune responses. Several studies have indicated that activation of certain TLRs, in particular TLR-2, can result in suppression of inflammatory pathology. In this study, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from adult and newborn horses to investigate the influence of TLR-2 activation on the inflammatory response mediated by TLR-4. Data were analysed in a Bayesian hierarchical linear regression model, accounting for variation between horses. In general, cytokine responses were lower in PBMCs derived from foals compared with PBMCs from adult horses. Whereas in foal PBMCs expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9 was not influenced by separate and concomitant TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation, in adult horse PBMCs, both TLR ligands caused significant up-regulation of TLR-2 and down-regulation of TLR-9. Moreover, in adult horse PBMCs, interleukin-10 protein production and mRNA expression increased significantly following concomitant TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation (compared with sole TLR-4 activation). In foal PBMCs, this effect was not observed. In both adult and foal PBMCs, the lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response was not influenced by pre-incubation and co-stimulation with the specific TLR-2 ligand Pam3-Cys-Ser-Lys4. This indicates that the published data on other species cannot be translated directly to the horse, and stresses the necessity to confirm results obtained in other species in target animals. Future research should aim to identify other methods or substances that enhance TLR functionality and bacterial defence in foals, thereby lowering susceptibility to life-threatening infections during the first period of life.
Previous literature has shown that sedentary older women rely on peripheral adaptations to improve cardiorespiratory fitness with endurance training i.e. they show minimal increases in central parameters (cardiac output, Q) in response to endurance training. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine whether endurance trained older women were able to preserve maximal exercise Q and were characterized by a high stroke volume (SV) when compared to physically inactive older women. Trained (n = 7) and untrained (n = 1 0) women attended two maximal and one submaximal laboratory session. Breath-by-breath analysis was conducted using mass spectrometry and Q was assessed using acetylene open circuit inert gas wash-in. Multivariate analysis of variance and paired samples t-tests were used to determine between and within group differences. Trained women had a significantly higher VO2max (37.5 vs. 24.1 ml-1·kg·min-1) compared to untrained women. There were no differences for peripheral oxygen extraction (VO2/Q) at either submaximal or maximal work rates; however trained women had a significantly higher SV at maximal (119.3 vs. 94.6 ml) exercise compared to untrained women. In both trained and untrained women, SV did not rise significantly between submaximal and maximal exercise. Conclusion: Highly fit, endurance trained older women are able to preserve central parameters of VO2max. Peripheral oxygen extraction is similar between older trained and untrained women.
Older women are able to preserve stroke volume with high volumes of endurance training.
Stroke volume of endurance trained older women does not continue to rise until maximal exercise, as is the case in young endurance trained adults.
Peripheral oxygen extraction does not differ between endurance trained and physically inactive older women.
cardiac output; aging; exercise; running; VO2max
The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders.
In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90–120 km in a time-course experimental design.
These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon.
Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general.
We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses.
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s−1•mg−1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N = 3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N = 32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ∼78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness.
The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology.
Background: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) is a new marker of iron status and erythropoietic activity. It has been included in multivariable blood testing models for the detection of performance enhancing erythropoietin misuse in sport.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of different types and volumes of physical activity on sTfr concentration, variables of iron status (ferritin, transferrin, iron, and protein), and haematological indices.
Methods: Thirty nine subjects were divided into three groups: 1, untrained (n = 12); 2, moderately trained (n = 14); 3, highly trained (n = 13, seven men, six women). Groups 1 and 2 carried out two exercise tests: an incremental running test until exhaustion (test A) and a 45 minute constant speed running test at 70% VO2MAX (test B). Group 3 performed three days (women) or four days (men) of prolonged aerobic cycling exercise. The above variables together with haemoglobin and packed cell volume were analysed in venous blood samples before and after exercise. Changes in blood and plasma volume were estimated.
Results: sTfr levels were slightly increased in trained and untrained subjects immediately after test A. Test B and aerobic exercise had no significant effect on sTfr. Ferritin levels were increased after the laboratory tests for trained and untrained subjects and after prolonged aerobic exercise in male cyclists. Transferrin was increased significantly in trained and untrained subjects after both laboratory tests, but remained unchanged after prolonged exercise. Plasma and blood volumes were decreased after the laboratory tests but increased after aerobic exercise. No differences in the variables were observed between trained and untrained subjects with respect to response to exercise.
Conclusion: The changes in sTfr and the variables of iron status can be mainly attributed to exercise induced changes in volume. Taking these limitations into account, sTfr can be recommended as a marker of iron deficiency in athletes.
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of endurance training on heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation in female marathon runners by comparing with untrained controls. Six female marathon runners (M group) aged 32-40 years and eight age-matched untrained females (C group) performed a maximum-effort treadmill running exercise. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured during the exercise with a gas analyzer connected to subjects through a face mask. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the exercise. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to the exercise was obtained immediately after the exercise. Holter ECG was recorded and analyzed with power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) to investigate the cardiac ANS modulation. The M group had significantly higher VO2max, faster HR recovery after exercise, higher Mean RR, SDRR, HF power and lower LF/HF ratio at rest compared with the C group. The M group also presented greater percent decrease of blood pressure after exercise, although their blood pressure after exercise was higher than the C group. It is suggested that endurance training induced significant alterations in cardiac ANS modulation at rest and significant acceleration of HR recovery after exercise in female marathon runners. Faster HR recovery after exercise in the female marathon runners should result from their higher levels of HRV, higher aerobic capacity and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise compared with untrained controls.
Key PointsThe effects of endurance training on HR recovery after exercise and cardiac ANS modulation were investigated in female marathon runners by comparing with untrained controls.Time and frequency domain analysis of HRV was used to investigate cardiac ANS modulation.As compared with untrained controls, the female marathon runners showed faster HR recovery after exercise, which should result from their higher levels of HRV, higher aerobic capacity and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise.
Heart rate recovery; heart rate variability; female marathon runner
Eventing is generally recognized as a challenging equestrian discipline and wastage figures for this discipline are relatively high. There is a need for information that provides insight into the causes of wastage and withdrawal from competition, for animal welfare and economic reasons. The aim of the present investigation was to conduct a prospective study following the entire national selection of event horses (n = 20) and ponies (n = 9) in the Netherlands that prepared for the European Championship in 2010 (ponies) and 2011 (horses), noting causes of withdrawal and monitoring fitness using standardized exercise tests (SETs), with heart rate (HR; beats/min), speed (V; m/s) and plasma lactate concentrations (LA; mmol/L) as measured parameters.
In SET-I, performed at the beginning of the season, horses (n = 17) had a mean VLA4 (V at LA 4 mmol/L) of 10.3 ± 0.4 m/s with a mean V200 (V at 200 beats/min) of 11.4 ± 0.8 m/s and ponies (n = 9) a mean VLA4 of 7.8 ± 0.9 m/s and V200 of 9.6 ± 0.7 m/s. Before SET-II, performed six weeks before the European Championship, 16/20 horses and 6/9 ponies were withdrawn. The most common reason for withdrawal was locomotor injury (9/16 horses, 4/6 ponies; P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively). Other reasons included an animal ‘not meeting the competition criteria’ (4/16 horses, 2/6 ponies) and being sold (3/16 horses). Animals were divided on the basis of VLA4 and recovery-HR during SET-I into good and average performers. Average performers were significantly more likely to be injured (50.0%) than good performers (0%, P = 0.05). In a subpopulation of ten horses, in which all condition training sessions were evaluated for HR and speed, HRpeak was significantly lower in horses that stayed sound (186 ± 9 beats/min) compared with horses withdrawn from training and competition because of injury (201 ± 5 beats/min; P = 0.016).
Of the national selection, 45% of all animals were unavailable for the European Championship because of locomotor injuries. Field tests were useful in assessing the potential injury risk, as individuals with better fitness indices (good performers) were less likely to become injured than average performers. Furthermore, monitoring of training sessions showed predictive value for future injuries, as horses withdrawn because of injury later on showed already higher peak HRs during condition training than horses that stayed sound. Therefore the increase in peak HR seemed to precede visible lameness in a horse.
Horse; Eventing; Exercise; Fitness; Monitoring; Training
Systemic hypertension is a prominent feature in humans with metabolic syndrome (MS) and this is partly caused by an enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1) mediated vasoconstriction. There are indications that systemic hypertension might be a feature in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) but if ET-1 is involved in the development of hypertension in horses is not known. Increased levels of cortisol have also been found in humans with MS but there are no reports of this in horses. Before blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol can be evaluated in horses with EMS, it is necessary to investigate the interday variation of these parameters on clinically healthy horses. The aims of the present study were therefore to evaluate the interday variation and influence of transportation on systemic blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol in healthy Standardbred and Icelandic horses, and to detect potential breed differences.
Nine horses of each breed were included in the study. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples were collected between 6 and 9 am on two separate days. Eight of the horses (four of each breed) were transported to a new stable were they stayed overnight. The next morning, the sampling procedure was repeated.
The interday variation was higher for plasma ET-1 (37%) than for indirect pressure measurements (8-21%) and serum cortisol (18%). There were no differences in systemic blood pressure between the two breeds. The Icelandic horses had significantly lower serum cortisol and significantly higher plasma ET-1 concentrations compared to the Standardbred horses. Plasma ET-1 was significantly elevated after transportation, but systemic blood pressure and serum cortisol did not differ from the values obtained in the home environment.
Indirect blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol are of interest as markers for cardiovascular dysfunction in horses with EMS. The elevated plasma ET-1 concentrations recorded after transportation was likely caused by a stress response. This needs to be considered when evaluating plasma ET-1 in horses after transportation. The differences detected in plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol between the two breeds might be related to differences in genetic setup, training status as well as management conditions.
Horse; Plasma endothelin-1; Cortisol; Blood pressure; Transportation
Background—A suboptimal haematological status has often been recorded in athletes involved in intensive physical activity. There have even been reports of "sports anaemia" associated with intensive physical exercise. However, studies on the effect of different types of exercise practiced over a long period of time on the red blood cell variables in pubescent athletes are very few.
Aim—To assess the basic red blood cell variables in highly trained pubescent athletes from different sports and to compare the results with those for a control untrained group. Sex related differences in these variables were also assessed.
Methods—876 highly trained athletes (559 boys and 317 girls) were included in the study. Their mean (SEM) age, weight, and duration of training were: 14.01 (0.06) years, 56.24 (0.52) kg, and 3.52 (0.07) years respectively. The control group consisted of 357 untrained subjects (171 boys and 186 girls) with mean (SEM) age and weight of 14.58 (0.09) years and 57.75 (0.67) kg. The group of athletes was divided into seven subgroups according to the sport practiced: athletics (105), swimming (107), rowing (230), wrestling (225), weight lifting (47), various team sports (92), and other sports (67). Venous blood samples were drawn from the cubital vein, and the red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume were measured. Statistical indices were computed for each group and for each variable, and analysis of variance factorial analysis was performed to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences detected.
Results—The highly trained group was found to have lower red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and haemoglobin concentration (p<0.001) than the control untrained group (4.61 (0.01) x 1012/1 v 4.75 (0.02) x 1012/l, 0.389 (0.001) v 0.404 (0.002) l/l, and 133.01 (0.38) v 139.9 (0.62) g/l respectively). These variables were lower for the boys of the trained group than for the boys of the control group (p<0.001), and similarly for the girls (p<0.001). The lowest red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and haemoglobin concentration were measured in blood samples from the boys of the swimming subgroup (4.54 (0.06) x 1012/l, 0.386 (0.006) l/l, and 129.38 (1.80) g/1 respectively) and the rowing subgroup (4.66 (0.03) x 1012/l, 0.400 (0.003) l/l, and 136.21 (0.94) respectively). The same distribution was found for the girls: lowest in the rowing subgroup (4.32 (0.04) x 1012/1, 0.314 (0.003) l/l, and 124.27 (0.93) g/1) and the swimming subgroup (4.40 (0.05) x 1012/l, 0.375 (0.005) l/l, and 125.90 (1.30) g/1). No differences were found in the mean corpuscular volume.
Conclusions—Continuous (more than one year) high intensity sports training (twice a day/five days a week) results in a decrease in the basic red blood cell variables in pubescent boys and girls, this being most pronounced in the submaximal sports.
Key Words: erythrocytes; haemoglobin; packed cell volume; mean corpuscular volume; pubescence; training
We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR) and 7 untrained (UTR) subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively) were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP). Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively). [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05) in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01) and [GH] increased (p < 0.01) significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01) and higher (GH: p < 0.01) than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01) during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1) leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal) in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2) volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3) it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of energy expenditure than hormonal or metabolic modifications induced by acute exercise.
Key pointsTrials concerning acute exercise and leptin indicated discrepant results.Acute exercise with energy expenditure higher than 800 kcal can decrease leptinemia.Elite volleyball players presented decreased leptin levels than untrained subjects.
Hormones; anaerobic training; acute exercise; body fat.
Reduced activation of exercise responsive signalling pathways have been reported in response to acute exercise after training; however little is known about the adaptive responses of the mitochondria. Accordingly, we investigated changes in mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance in response to the same acute exercise before and after 10-d of intensive cycle training. Nine untrained, healthy participants (mean±SD; VO2peak 44.1±17.6 ml/kg/min) performed a 60 min bout of cycling exercise at 164±18 W (72% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, immediately and 3 h after exercise. The participants then underwent 10-d of cycle training which included four high-intensity interval training sessions (6×5 min; 90–100% VO2peak) and six prolonged moderate-intensity sessions (45–90 min; 75% VO2peak). Participants repeated the pre-training exercise trial at the same absolute work load (64% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle PGC1-α mRNA expression was attenuated as it increased by 11- and 4- fold (P<0.001) after exercise pre- and post-training, respectively. PGC1-α protein expression increased 1.5 fold (P<0.05) in response to exercise pre-training with no further increases after the post-training exercise bout. RIP140 protein abundance was responsive to acute exercise only (P<0.01). COXIV mRNA (1.6 fold; P<0.01) and COXIV protein expression (1.5 fold; P<0.05) were increased by training but COXIV protein expression was decreased (20%; P<0.01) by acute exercise pre- and post-training. These findings demonstrate that short-term intensified training promotes increased mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance. Furthermore, acute indicators of exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptation appear to be blunted in response to exercise at the same absolute intensity following short-term training.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute hypoxia alters the deoxygenation level in vastus lateralis muscle during a 30 s Wingate test, and to compare the muscle deoxygenation level between sprint athletes and untrained men. Nine male track sprinters (athletic group, VO2max 62.5 ± 4.1 ml/kg/min) and 9 healthy untrained men (untrained group, VO2max 49.9 ± 5.2 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed a 30 s Wingate test under simulated hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.164 and PIO2 = 114 mmHg) and normoxic conditions. During the exercise, changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb) in the vastus lateralis were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy. Decline in OxyHb, that is muscle deoxygenation, was expressed as percent change from baseline. Percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), and ventilation (VE) were measured continuously. In both groups, there was significantly greater muscle deoxygenation, lower SpO2, lower peakVO2, and higher peakVE during supramaximal exercise under hypoxia than under normoxia, but no differences in peak and mean power output during the exercise. Under hypoxia, the athletic group experienced significantly greater muscle deoxygenation, lower SpO2, greater decrement in peakVO2 and increment in peakVE during the exercise than the untrained group. When the athletic and untrained groups were pooled, the increment of muscle deoxygenation was strongly correlated with lowest SpO2 in the 30 s Wingate test under hypoxia. These results suggest that acute exposure to hypoxia causes a greater degree of peripheral muscle deoxygenation during supramaximal exercise, especially in sprint athletes, and this physiological response would be explained mainly by lower arterial oxygen saturation.
Key pointsThe deoxygenation trends in the vastus lateralis muscle during 30 s Wingate test in track sprinters and untrained men under simulated hypoxic and normoxic conditions was investigated using near infrared spectroscopy.Acute hypoxia caused a greater degree of peripheral muscle deoxygenation than normoxia, whereas there were no changes in performance such as power output during 30 s Wingate test.Sprint athletes show a greater degree of peripheral muscle deoxygenation during 30 s Wingate test in hypoxia when compared with untrained subjects.A larger difference in muscle deoxygenation between hypoxia and normoxia is accompanied by lowest SpO2 at the 30 s Wingate test in hypoxia.
NIRcws; muscle deoxygenation; hypoxic; 30s Wingate test; athletes
The molecular mechanisms underlying the sex differences in human muscle morphology and function remain to be elucidated. The sex differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome in both the resting state and following anabolic stimuli, such as resistance exercise (RE), might provide insight to the contributors of sexual dimorphism of muscle phenotypes. We used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the biceps brachii of young men and women who underwent an acute unilateral RE session following 12 weeks of progressive training. Bilateral muscle biopsies were obtained either at an early (4 h post-exercise) or late recovery (24 h post-exercise) time point. Muscle transcription profiles were compared in the resting state between men (n = 6) and women (n = 8), and in response to acute RE in trained exercised vs. untrained non-exercised control muscle for each sex and time point separately (4 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females; 24 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females). A logistic regression-based method (LRpath), following Bayesian moderated t-statistic (IMBT), was used to test gene functional groups and biological pathways enriched with differentially expressed genes.
This investigation identified extensive sex differences present in the muscle transcriptome at baseline and following acute RE. In the resting state, female muscle had a greater transcript abundance of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and gene transcription/translation processes. After strenuous RE at the same relative intensity, the time course of the transcriptional modulation was sex-dependent. Males experienced prolonged changes while females exhibited a rapid restoration. Most of the biological processes involved in the RE-induced transcriptional regulation were observed in both males and females, but sex specificity was suggested for several signaling pathways including activation of notch signaling and TGF-beta signaling in females. Sex differences in skeletal muscle transcriptional regulation might implicate a mechanism behind disproportional muscle growth in males as compared with female counterparts after RE training at the same relative intensity.
Sex differences exist in skeletal muscle gene transcription both at rest and following acute RE, suggesting that sex is a significant modifier of the transcriptional regulation in skeletal muscle. The findings from the present study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms for sex differences in muscle phenotypes and for muscle transcriptional regulation associated with training adaptations to resistance exercise.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can control some viral infections and may be important in the control of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Since there is limited evidence for an in vivo role of CTL in control of lentiviruses, dissection of immune mechanisms in animal lentiviral infections may provide needed information. Horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) a lentivirus, have acute plasma viremia which is terminated in immunocompetent horses. Viremic episodes may recur, but most horses ultimately control infection and become asymptomatic carriers. To begin dissection of the immune mechanisms involved in EIAV control, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from infected horses were evaluated for CTL to EIAV-infected cells. By using noninfected and EIAV-infected autologous equine kidney (EK) cells in 51Cr-release assays, EIAV-specific cytotoxic activity was detected in unstimulated PBMC from three infected horses. The EIAV-specific cytotoxic activity was major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted, as determined by assaying EIAV-infected heterologous EK targets, and was mediated by CD8+ T lymphocytes, as determined by depleting these cells by a panning procedure with an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody. MHC-restricted CD8+ CTL in unstimulated PBMC from infected horses caused significant specific lysis of autologous EK cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing EIAV genes, either env or gag plus 5' pol. The EIAV-specific MHC-restricted CD8+ CTL were detected in two EIAV-infected horses within a few days after plasma viremia occurred and were present after viremia was terminated. The detection of these immune effector cells in EIAV-infected horses permits further studies to determine their in vivo role.
The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age and habitual activity level, at rest and following a single bout of high-intensity exercise, on the levels of three proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), cleaved-PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), involved in the DNA repair and cell death responses to stress and genotoxic insults. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of young trained (22 ± 3 years, n = 6), young untrained (24 ± 4 years, n = 6), old trained (64 ± 3 years, n = 6) and old untrained (65 ± 6 years, n = 6) healthy males before, immediately after and three days following a high-intensity interval exercise bout.
PARP-1, which catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins and DNA in response to a range of intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, was increased at baseline in old trained and old untrained compared with young trained and young untrained participants (P ≤ 0.05). Following exercise, PARP-1 levels remained unchanged in young trained participants, in contrast to old trained and old untrained where levels decreased and young untrained where levels increased (P ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, baseline levels of the cleaved PARP-1, a marker of apoptosis, and PARG, responsible for polymer degradation, were both significantly elevated in old untrained compared with old trained, young trained and young untrained (P ≤ 0.05). Despite this baseline difference in PARG, there was no change in any group following exercise. There was a non-significant statistical trend (P = 0.072) towards increased cleaved-PARP-1 expression post-exercise in younger but not old persons, regardless of training status.
Collectively, these results show that exercise slows the progression towards a chronically stressed state but has no impact on the age-related attenuated response to acute exercise. Our findings provide valuable insight into how habitual exercise training could protect skeletal muscle from chronic damage to macromolecules and may reduce sarcopenia in older people.
PARP-1; Cleaved PARP-1; PARG; Apoptosis; DNA repair; Exercise; Training; Ageing
We recently demonstrated that low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) is highly beneficial in elderly subjects towards muscle strength and power, with a systemic adaptive response of anti-oxidant and stress-induced markers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of EMRT on oxidative stress biomarkers induced in old people (70–75 years) by a single bout of acute, intense exercise. Sixteen subjects randomly assigned to either a control, not exercising group (n=8) or a trained group performing EMRT protocol for 12-weeks (n=8), were submitted to a graded maximal exercise stress test (GXT) at baseline and after the 12-weeks of EMRT protocol, with blood samples collected before, immediately after, 1 and 24 h post-GXT test. Blood glutathione (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG), plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well as PBMCs cellular damage (Comet assay, apoptosis) and stress–protein response (Hsp70 and Hsp27 expression) were evaluated. The use of multiple biomarkers allowed us to confirm that EMRT per se neither affected redox homeostasis nor induced any cellular and oxidative damage. Following the GXT, the EMRT group displayed a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and a less pronounced increase in MDA, protein carbonyls and CK levels compared to control group. Moreover, we found that Hsp70 and Hsp27 proteins were induced after GXT only in EMRT group, while any significant modification within 24 h was detected in untrained group. Apoptosis rates and DNA damage did not show any significant variation in relation to EMRT and/or GXT.
In conclusion, the adherence to an EMRT protocol is able to induce a cellular adaptation allowing healthy elderly trained subjects to cope with the oxidative stress induced by an acute exercise more effectively than the aged-matched sedentary subjects.
•A low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) does not affect redox homeostasis at rest.•EMRT improves the general adaptive response to oxidative stress induced by graded maximal effort.•EMRT is effective intervention for improving the overall health of the older people.
Explosive-type moderate intensity resistance training (EMRT); Graded maximal exercise test (GXT); Oxidative stress; HSPs; Apoptosis; Elderly
Although recent investigations have shown chronic inflammation and inflammation-associated diseases might be ameliorated by exercise; little is known about the relation between exercise training with anti/pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Materials and Methods:
This cross sectional study was conducted to compare interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, interferon gamma (IFN-γ
) levels in serum, and their in vitro production by whole blood (WB) cells and by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to mitogens lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin. Twelve elite wrestlers with history of three times per week exercise training for about 9.5 years, and thirteen healthy silent controls were recruited. To analysis the cytokines by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the blood samples were taken 24 hr after the last training session from the wrestlers.
Serum analysis for IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-γ
indicated no statistical difference between the two groups. Meanwhile, 48 hr in vitro activation of WB and PBMCs by the mitogens revealed that IL-6 production was elevated in both WB and PBMCs. Whereas, IL-12 and IL-13 were decreased in supernatant of PBMCs and WB cells cultures, respectively.
It seems that wrestling cause immune system cells to produce anti-inflammatory myokine IL-6 and decrease production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 and IL-13.
Cytokines; Wrestling; Interleukins; Mitogens; PBMC; Whole blood culture
We investigated the response of insulin-like growth factor (IGF- I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and some hormones, i.e., testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), cortisol (C), and insulin (I), to maximal exercise in road cyclists with and without diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy. M-mode and two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography was performed in 30 professional male endurance athletes and a group of 14 healthy untrained subjects using a Hewlett-Packard Image Point HX ultrasound system with standard imaging transducers. Echocardiography and an incremental physical exercise test were performed during the competitive season. Venous blood samples were drawn before and immediately after the maximal cycling exercise test for determination of somatomedin and hormonal concentrations. The basal concentration of IGF-I was statistically higher (p < 0.05) in athletes with left ventricular muscle hypertrophy (LVH) when compared to athletes with a normal upper limit of the left ventricular wall (LVN) (p < 0.05) and to the control group (CG) (p < 0.01). The IGF-I level increased significantly at maximal intensity of incremental exercise in CG (p < 0.01), LVN (p < 0.05) and LVH (p < 0.05) compared to respective values at rest. Long-term endurance training induced an increase in resting (p < 0.01) and post-exercise (p < 0.05) IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in athletes with LVH compared to LVN. The testosterone (T) level was lower in LVH at rest compared to LVN and CG groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that resting serum IGF-I concentration were higher in trained subjects with LVH compared to athletes without LVH. Serum IGF- I/IGFBP-3 elevation at rest and after exercise might suggest that IGF-I act as a potent stimulant of left ventricular hypertrophy in chronically trained endurance athletes.
Key pointsIn sports training athletes engaged in the same training regimen acquired different stages of cardiac hypertrophy.Physical exercise had a significant effect on serum insulin-like growth factor - I concentration depending on maximal oxygen uptake during endurance exercise.Athletes with clinically diagnosed physiological left ventricular hypertrophy had higher resting serum insulin-like growth factor - I concentration compared to those without left ventricular hypertrophy and sedentary subjects.Increased insulin-like growth factor - I release during long-term training seems to significantly contribute to sports-specific functional adaptation of the left ventricle.
Echocardiography; heart; somatomedins; anabolic hormones; endurance training.
The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed and untrained (control or group 1, n = 6), ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6), ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8), ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8). All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day) on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week). After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD) and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate) were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001). However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary) rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
Moderate Aerobic Exercise; Ozone Exposure; Leukocytosis; Wistar Rats
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the major acute phase protein in horses. Its concentration increases in various pathologies but also in response to prolonged, strenuous effort. The purpose of this study was to establish whether routine race and endurance training produces changes in the SAA level in Arabian horses. Additionally, the differences between SAA response in experienced endurance horses and endurance horses that were beginning their career were investigated.
There were no changes in SAA concentrations after race training and endurance training in experienced horses. In horses that were beginning their endurance training, exercise produced an increase in SAA level as compared with rest level.
In Arabians, the SAA concentration seems to be a good indicator of endurance training but is useless in race training. The routine training of experienced horses, which were prepared for long distance rides, did not promote any changes in the SAA level. In contrast, a significant increase in the SAA concentration was observed in horses that were beginning their endurance training and were only prepared for moderate distance rides and underwent the same effort. Further research is needed to elucidate whether this difference reflects too heavy training or adaptation to an increasing workload. Additionally, the adaptation to long distance rides in Arabians may include a reduced acute phase response.
Serum amyloid A; Race horses; Endurance horses; Training
Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) appears to be an efficient and practical way to develop physical fitness.
Our objective was to estimate meta-analysed mean effects of HIT on aerobic power (maximum oxygen consumption [VO2max] in an incremental test) and sprint fitness (peak and mean power in a 30-s Wingate test).
Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, BIOSIS and Web of Science) were searched for original research articles published up to January 2014. Search terms included ‘high intensity’, ‘HIT’, ‘sprint’, ‘fitness’ and ‘VO2max’.
Inclusion criteria were fitness assessed pre- and post-training; training period ≥2 weeks; repetition duration 30–60 s; work/rest ratio <1.0; exercise intensity described as maximal or near maximal; adult subjects aged >18 years.
The final data set consisted of 55 estimates from 32 trials for VO2max, 23 estimates from 16 trials for peak sprint power, and 19 estimates from 12 trials for mean sprint power. Effects on fitness were analysed as percentages via log transformation. Standard errors calculated from exact p values (where reported) or imputed from errors of measurement provided appropriate weightings. Fixed effects in the meta-regression model included type of study (controlled, uncontrolled), subject characteristics (sex, training status, baseline fitness) and training parameters (number of training sessions, repetition duration, work/rest ratio). Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardized thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations (SDs) for baseline fitness.
A mean low-volume HIT protocol (13 training sessions, 0.16 work/rest ratio) in a controlled trial produced a likely moderate improvement in the VO2max of active non-athletic males (6.2 %; 90 % confidence limits ±3.1 %), when compared with control. There were possibly moderate improvements in the VO2max of sedentary males (10.0 %; ±5.1 %) and active non-athletic females (3.6 %; ±4.3 %) and a likely small increase for sedentary females (7.3 %; ±4.8 %). The effect on the VO2max of athletic males was unclear (2.7 %; ±4.6 %). A possibly moderate additional increase was likely for subjects with a 10 mL·kg−1·min−1 lower baseline VO2max (3.8 %; ±2.5 %), whereas the modifying effects of sex and difference in exercise dose were unclear. The comparison of HIT with traditional endurance training was unclear (−1.6 %; ±4.3 %). Unexplained variation between studies was 2.0 % (SD). Meta-analysed effects of HIT on Wingate peak and mean power were unclear.
Low-volume HIT produces moderate improvements in the aerobic power of active non-athletic and sedentary subjects. More studies are needed to resolve the unclear modifying effects of sex and HIT dose on aerobic power and the unclear effects on sprint fitness.
Nautilus Machine (NM) and Elastic Resistance (ER) have gained considerable popularity among athletes and recreational lifters seeking to increase muscle strength. However, there is controversy concerning the use of ER for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength among healthy-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of repeated near maximal contractions by ER/NM on indicators of muscle damage including: maximal strength decrement (MVIC), rate of muscle soreness (DOMS), concentration of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and increased high muscle signal on T2 weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nine healthy male subjects completed two modalities of exercise (5 sets × 10RM ER/NM) in a counterbalance cross-over study design with three weeks “wash-out” period between experiments. The MVIC was measured and DOMS rated and recorded for 4 consecutive days while blood samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Prior to and forty eight hours after completion of each mode of exercise, subjects underwent MRI scanning. The average of applied forces demonstrated significantly higher value for NM compared with ER (362 ± 34.2 N vs 266.73 ± 44.6 N respectively) throughout the 5 sets of dynamic exercise (all p < 0.05). However, the indicators of muscle damage (T2 relaxation time, DOMS, MVIC and serum CK) exhibited a very similar response across both modes of training. Plasma CK increased significantly following both modes of training with the peak value on Day 3 (p < 0.05). The time course of muscle soreness reached a significant level after both modes of exercise and showed a peak value on the 2nd day (p < 0.05). The T2 relaxation time demonstrated a statistically significant increase following ER and NM compared with the pre-test value (p < 0.05). The similarity of these responses following both the ER and NM exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably lower external force generation during ER. The importance of these findings is underlined by the fact that exercise-induced muscle damage has been shown to be the underlying mechanism of further muscle hypertrophy.
Key pointsExercise induced muscle soreness increased levels of plasma CK, increased MRI T2 signal and prolonged strength loss indicate the moderate to intense nature of the training protocol.The similarity of these responses following both the Elastic Resistance and Nautilus Machine exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably lower external force generation during ER.The data in the present study suggest elastic training is a viable mode of resistance exercise that can provide a training stimulus greater than that employed in rehabilitation settings.
Elastic resistance training; magnetic resonance imaging; muscle strain; muscle hypertrophy
The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.
Twenty-three untrained (n = 12) and trained (n = 11) normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.
No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute) was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute). No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm]) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm) on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women). Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs 97 ± 3 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (69 ± 5 mmHg vs 62 ± 5 mmHg), and mean arterial pressure (82 ± 6 mmHg vs 74 ± 4 mmHg) decreased significantly with rest in the untrained group, and no differences were found after land-walking. In the trained group, significant (P < 0.05) differences were found only for systolic blood pressure (110 ± 9 mmHg vs 100 ± 9 mmHg) after 60 minutes of water-walking; decreases in systolic blood pressure were found after 45 minutes (99 ± 7 mmHg) and 60 minutes (99 ± 6 mmHg) compared with rest (107 ± 5 mmHg) after land-walking.
Single water-walking and land-walking sessions induced important hypotension following exercise. Additionally, walking performed in chest-deep water has a better effect on exercise-induced hypotension in untrained healthy women than walking at a similar intensity on land.
water-based exercise; post-exercise hypotension; blood pressure; cardiovascular response; normotensive women
Increased oxidative stress during prolonged endurance exercise may end up with muscle damage, fatigue and decreased physical performance. We have recently shown that acute exercise at moderate intensity induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in trained trotters. The aim of this study was to measure the changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defense following an 80-km ride in the blood of endurance horses. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the ride. Unlike to our previous studies performed on trotters, in endurance horses there were no measurable changes in antioxidants or oxidative stress marker lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) after prolonged exercise. ORAC, vitamin E and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) concentration or glutathione related enzyme activities were not altered due to the 80-km ride. However, the base line levels of oxidative stress marker were higher in endurance horses compared to trotters. A positive correlation between the pre-ride LPO concentration and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after the ride was observed, which may indicate a protective response of glutathione peroxidase against exercise-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that endurance horses have higher oxidative stress levels compared to trotters and a single 80-km ride probably did not suffice to induce oxidative stress and to activate antioxidant defense mechanisms.
Key PointsReactive oxygen species (ROS) at lower concentrations have physiological role in the signal transduction and in the regulation of cellular functions. However, the overproduction of ROS results in oxidative stress, an imbalance favoring pro-oxidants over antioxidants.Increased oxidative stress which occurred during prolonged and strenuous physical exercise may end up with muscle damage, fatigue and decreased performance.Prolonged exercise at moderate intensity does not induce oxidative stress in endurance horses.Endurance horses have higher oxidative stress at rest compared to trotters which were trained for short bouts of exercise.
Horse; endurance; oxidative stress; antioxidants; ORAC
We evaluated differences in muscle fiber recruitment patterns between continuous and
interval training to develop an optimal training program for Thoroughbred horses. Five
well trained female thoroughbred horses (3–4 years old) were used. The horses performed
two different exercises on a 10% inclined treadmill: 90%VO2 max for 4 min
(continuous) and 90% VO2 max for 2 min × 2 times with 10-min interval
(interval). Muscle samples were obtained from the middle gluteal muscle before and
immediately after the exercises. Four muscle fiber types (type I, IIA, IIA/X, and IIX)
were immunohistochemically identified, and the optical density of periodic acid Schiff
staining (OD-PAS) in each fiber type and glycogen content of the muscle sample were
determined by quantitative histochemical and biochemical procedures, respectively. No
significant differences were found in the OD-PASs and glycogen contents between the
continuous and interval exercises, but the decreases in OD-PAS of fast-twitch muscle
fibers were obvious after interval as compared to continuous exercise. Interval exercise
may be a more effective training stimulus for the glycolytic capacity of fast-twitch
muscle fiber. The data about muscle fiber recruitment can provide significant insights
into the optimal training program not only for thoroughbred horses, but also for human
glycogen; interval exercise; muscle fiber; Thoroughbred