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1.  Risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome during neutropenia recovery in patients with hematologic malignancies 
Critical Care  2009;13(6):R173.
Neutropenia recovery may be associated with deterioration in oxygenation and exacerbation of pre-existing pulmonary disease. However, risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during neutropenia recovery in patients with hematologic malignancies have not been studied.
We studied critically ill patients with hematologic malignancies with the dual objectives of describing patients with ARDS during neutropenia recovery and identifying risk factors for ARDS during neutropenia recovery. A cohort of consecutive neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) was studied. During a 6-year period, 71 patients recovered from neutropenia, of whom 38 (53.5%) developed ARDS during recovery.
Compared with non-ARDS patients, patients who experienced ARDS during neutropenia recovery were more likely to have pneumonia, be admitted to the ICU for respiratory failure, and receive mechanical ventilator therapy. The in-ICU mortality was significantly different between the two groups (86.8% versus 51.5%, respectively, for patients who developed ARDS during neutropenia recovery versus those who did not during neutropenia recovery). In multivariate analysis, only occurrence of pneumonia during the neutropenic episode was associated with a marked increase in the risk of ARDS (odds ratio, 4.76).
Patients with hematologic malignancies complicated by pneumonia during neutropenia are at increased risk for ARDS during neutropenia recovery.
PMCID: PMC2811915  PMID: 19886984
2.  Congenital neutropenia: diagnosis, molecular bases and patient management 
The term congenital neutropenia encompasses a family of neutropenic disorders, both permanent and intermittent, severe (<0.5 G/l) or mild (between 0.5-1.5 G/l), which may also affect other organ systems such as the pancreas, central nervous system, heart, muscle and skin. Neutropenia can lead to life-threatening pyogenic infections, acute gingivostomatitis and chronic parodontal disease, and each successive infection may leave permanent sequelae. The risk of infection is roughly inversely proportional to the circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil count and is particularly high at counts below 0.2 G/l.
When neutropenia is detected, an attempt should be made to establish the etiology, distinguishing between acquired forms (the most frequent, including post viral neutropenia and auto immune neutropenia) and congenital forms that may either be isolated or part of a complex genetic disease.
Except for ethnic neutropenia, which is a frequent but mild congenital form, probably with polygenic inheritance, all other forms of congenital neutropenia are extremely rare and have monogenic inheritance, which may be X-linked or autosomal, recessive or dominant.
About half the forms of congenital neutropenia with no extra-hematopoetic manifestations and normal adaptive immunity are due to neutrophil elastase (ELANE) mutations. Some patients have severe permanent neutropenia and frequent infections early in life, while others have mild intermittent neutropenia.
Congenital neutropenia may also be associated with a wide range of organ dysfunctions, as for example in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (associated with pancreatic insufficiency) and glycogen storage disease type Ib (associated with a glycogen storage syndrome). So far, the molecular bases of 12 neutropenic disorders have been identified.
Treatment of severe chronic neutropenia should focus on prevention of infections. It includes antimicrobial prophylaxis, generally with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and also granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). G-CSF has considerably improved these patients' outlook. It is usually well tolerated, but potential adverse effects include thrombocytopenia, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis and osteoporosis. Long-term treatment with G-CSF, especially at high doses, augments the spontaneous risk of leukemia in patients with congenital neutropenia.
PMCID: PMC3127744  PMID: 21595885
Neutropenia; Childhood; G-CSF; Severe congenital neutropenia; Adverse effects; ELANE; G6PC3; Shwachman Diamond Syndrome; Review
3.  Evaluation and Management of Patients with Isolated Neutropenia 
Seminars in hematology  2013;50(3):198-206.
Neutropenia, defined as an absolute neutrophil count below 1.5 × 109/L, encompasses a wide range of diagnoses, from normal variants to life-threatening acquired and congenital disorders. This review addresses the diagnosis and management of isolated neutropenia, not multiple cytopenias due to splenomegaly, bone marrow replacement, or myelosuppression by chemotherapy or radiation. Laboratory evaluation generally includes repeat complete blood counts with differentials and bone marrow examination with cytogenetics. Neutrophil antibody testing may be useful, but only in the context of clinical and bone marrow findings. The discovery of genes responsible for congenital neutropenias now permits genetic diagnosis in many cases. Management of severe chronic neutropenia includes common-sense precautions to avoid infection; aggressive treatment of bacterial or fungal infections; and administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Patients with severe congenital neutropenia, particularly those who respond poorly to G-CSF, have a risk of eventually developing myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and require monitoring for this complication, which can also occur without G-CSF therapy. Patients with cyclic, idiopathic and autoimmune neutropenia have virtually no risk of evolving to MDS or AML. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative therapy for congenital neutropenia with MDS/AML or with cytogenetic abnormalities indicating impending conversion.
PMCID: PMC3748385  PMID: 23953336
4.  A single dose of pegfilgrastim compared with daily filgrastim for supporting neutrophil recovery in patients treated for low-to-intermediate risk acute myeloid leukemia: results from a randomized, double-blind, phase 2 trial 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:195.
Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are often neutropenic as a result of their disease. Furthermore, these patients typically experience profound neutropenia following induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy and this may result in serious, potentially life-threatening, infection. This randomized, double-blind, phase 2 clinical trial compared the efficacy and tolerability of pegfilgrastim with filgrastim for assisting neutrophil recovery following induction and consolidation chemotherapy for de novo AML in patients with low-to-intermediate risk cytogenetics.
Patients (n = 84) received one or two courses of standard induction chemotherapy (idarubicin + cytarabine), followed by one course of consolidation therapy (high-dose cytarabine) if complete remission was achieved. They were randomized to receive either single-dose pegfilgrastim 6 mg or daily filgrastim 5 μg/kg, beginning 24 hours after induction and consolidation chemotherapy.
The median time to recovery from severe neutropenia was 22.0 days for both pegfilgrastim (n = 42) and filgrastim (n = 41) groups during Induction 1 (difference 0.0 days; 95% CI: -1.9 to 1.9). During Consolidation, recovery occurred after a median of 17.0 days for pegfilgrastim versus 16.5 days for filgrastim (difference 0.5 days; 95% CI: -1.1 to 2.1). Therapeutic pegfilgrastim serum concentrations were maintained throughout neutropenia. Pegfilgrastim was well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of filgrastim.
These data suggest no clinically meaningful difference between a single dose of pegfilgrastim and multiple daily doses of filgrastim for shortening the duration of severe neutropenia following chemotherapy in de novo AML patients with low-to-intermediate risk cytogenetics.
Trial registration NCT00114764
PMCID: PMC2483721  PMID: 18616811
5.  Effects of Mannose-Binding Lectin Polymorphisms on Irinotecan-Induced Febrile Neutropenia 
The Oncologist  2010;15(10):1063-1072.
The article investigates the effects of MBL2 genotypes on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors. Patients with high MBL2 promoter genotypes and haplotypes seemed more at risk for developing febrile neutropenia.
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is important in the innate immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms affect MBL expression, and genotypes yielding low MBL levels have been associated with an elevated risk for infections in hematological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, these reported associations are inconsistent, and data on patients with solid tumors are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of MBL2 genotypes on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors.
Patients and Methods.
Irinotecan-treated patients were genotyped for the MBL2 gene. Two promoter (−550 H/L and −221 X/Y) and three exon polymorphisms (52 A/D, 54 A/B, and 57 A/C) were determined, together with known risk factors for irinotecan-induced toxicity. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were recorded during the first course.
Of the 133 patients, 28% experienced severe neutropenia and 10% experienced febrile neutropenia. No associations were found between exon polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia. However, patients with the H/H promoter genotype, associated with high MBL levels, experienced significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients with the H/L and L/L genotypes (20% versus 13% versus 5%). Moreover, patients with the HYA haplotype encountered significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients without this high MBL-producing haplotype (16% versus 4%). In the subgroup with wild-type exon polymorphisms (A/A), patients with the high MBL promoter phenotype had the highest incidence of febrile neutropenia, regardless of known risk factors.
Patients with high MBL2 promoter genotypes and haplotypes seem more at risk for developing febrile neutropenia. If confirmed, these preliminary findings may contribute to more individualized approaches of irinotecan treatment.
PMCID: PMC3227891  PMID: 20930093
Irinotecan; MBL; Polymorphisms; Genotypes; Toxicity; Febrile neutropenia
6.  Vancomycin Dosing in Neutropenic Patients 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e112008.
To compare vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters in patients with and without neutropenia.
Patients ≥18 years admitted on general wards were included. Routinely vancomycin trough and peak plasma concentrations were measured with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Pharmacokinetic parameters of individual patients were determined with maximum a posterior Bayesian estimation (MW Pharm 3.60). Neutropenia was defined as neutrophils <0.5×109 cells/L.
Principal Findings
A total of 171 patients were included. Patients with neutropenia (n = 56) had higher clearance of vancomycin (CLva), 67 (±26) mL/min, compared to patients without neutropenia (n = 115), CLva 50 (±22) mL/min (p<0.001). No significant difference was found in serum creatinine and vancomycin volume of distribution. Neutropenia was positively associated with CLva, independently of relevant co-variables (B: 12.122, 95%CI: 1.095 to 23.149, p = 0.031). On average patients with neutropenia needed 33% higher doses of vancomycin to attain adequate exposure, i.e. AUC24≥400 mg×h/L. Furthermore, 15 initially neutropenic patients in our study group received vancomycin for a second administration period. Ten patients received the second administration period during another neutropenic period and 5 patients during a non-neutropenic phase. All 5 patients with vancomycin during both neutropenic and non-neutropenic phase had higher CLva (91 (±26) mL/min) during the neutropenic period and lower CLva (45 (±10) mL/min) during the non-neutropenic phase (p = 0.009).
This study shows that most patients with neutropenia have augmented CLva. In a small group of patients that received vancomycin during two episodes, the augmented CLva seems to be reversible in the non-neutropenic period. Our data indicate that it is important to increase the daily dose with one third in patients with neutropenia (from 15 mg/kg twice daily to 13 mg/kg three times daily). Frequent performance of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with neutropenia may prevent both therapy failure due to low AUCs and overcomes toxicity due to high vancomycin trough concentrations during recovery from neutropenia.
PMCID: PMC4229181  PMID: 25390637
7.  Risk assessment model for first-cycle chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with solid tumours 
European Journal of Cancer Care  2010;19(5):648-655.
LÓPEZ-POUSA A., RIFÀ J., CASAS DE TEJERINA A., GONZÁLEZ-LARRIBA J.L., IGLESIAS C., GASQUET J.A. & CARRATO A. (2010) European Journal of Cancer Care Risk assessment model for first-cycle chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with solid tumours
Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, the major dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, is directly associated with concomitant morbidity, mortality and health-care costs. The use of prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factors may reduce the incidence and duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and is recommended in high-risk patients. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict first-cycle chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (defined as neutropenia grade ≥3, with or without body temperature ≥38°C) in patients with solid tumours. A total of 1194 patients [56% women; mean age 58 ± 12 years; 94% Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status ≤1] with solid tumours were included in a multi-centre non-interventional prospective cohort study. A predictive logistic regression model was developed. Several factors were found to influence chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Higher ECOG status values increased toxicity (ECOG 2 vs. 0, P= 0.003; odds ratio 3.12), whereas baseline lymphocyte (P= 0.011; odds ratio 0.67) and neutrophil counts (P= 0.026; odds ratio 0.90) were inversely related to neutropenia occurrence. Sex and treatment intention also significantly influenced chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (P= 0.012). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 63% and 67% respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 17% and 94% respectively. Once validated, this model should be a useful tool for clinical decision making.
PMCID: PMC3082427  PMID: 20088918
solid tumours; neutropenia; predictive model
8.  Circulating Mitochondrial DNA in Patients in the ICU as a Marker of Mortality: Derivation and Validation 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(12):e1001577.
In this paper, Choi and colleagues analyzed levels of mitochondrial DNA in two prospective observational cohort studies and found that increased mtDNA levels are associated with ICU mortality, and improve risk prediction in medical ICU patients. The data suggests that mtDNA could serve as a viable plasma biomarker in MICU patients.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a critical activator of inflammation and the innate immune system. However, mtDNA level has not been tested for its role as a biomarker in the intensive care unit (ICU). We hypothesized that circulating cell-free mtDNA levels would be associated with mortality and improve risk prediction in ICU patients.
Methods and Findings
Analyses of mtDNA levels were performed on blood samples obtained from two prospective observational cohort studies of ICU patients (the Brigham and Women's Hospital Registry of Critical Illness [BWH RoCI, n = 200] and Molecular Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [ME ARDS, n = 243]). mtDNA levels in plasma were assessed by measuring the copy number of the NADH dehydrogenase 1 gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Medical ICU patients with an elevated mtDNA level (≥3,200 copies/µl plasma) had increased odds of dying within 28 d of ICU admission in both the BWH RoCI (odds ratio [OR] 7.5, 95% CI 3.6–15.8, p = 1×10−7) and ME ARDS (OR 8.4, 95% CI 2.9–24.2, p = 9×10−5) cohorts, while no evidence for association was noted in non-medical ICU patients. The addition of an elevated mtDNA level improved the net reclassification index (NRI) of 28-d mortality among medical ICU patients when added to clinical models in both the BWH RoCI (NRI 79%, standard error 14%, p<1×10−4) and ME ARDS (NRI 55%, standard error 20%, p = 0.007) cohorts. In the BWH RoCI cohort, those with an elevated mtDNA level had an increased risk of death, even in analyses limited to patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Study limitations include the lack of data elucidating the concise pathological roles of mtDNA in the patients, and the limited numbers of measurements for some of biomarkers.
Increased mtDNA levels are associated with ICU mortality, and inclusion of mtDNA level improves risk prediction in medical ICU patients. Our data suggest that mtDNA could serve as a viable plasma biomarker in medical ICU patients.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Intensive care units (ICUs, also known as critical care units) are specialist hospital wards that provide care for people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. In the US alone, more than 5 million people are admitted to ICUs every year. Different types of ICUs treat different types of problems. Medical ICUs treat patients who, for example, have been poisoned or who have a serious infection such as sepsis (blood poisoning) or severe pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs); trauma ICUs treat patients who have sustained a major injury; cardiac ICUs treat patients who have heart problems; and surgical ICUs treat complications arising from operations. Patients admitted to ICUs require constant medical attention and support from a team of specially trained nurses and physicians to prevent organ injury and to keep their bodies functioning. Monitors, intravenous tubes (to supply essential fluids, nutrients, and drugs), breathing machines, catheters (to drain urine), and other equipment also help to keep ICU patients alive.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although many patients admitted to ICUs recover, others do not. ICU specialists use scoring systems (algorithms) based on clinical signs and physiological measurements to predict their patients' likely outcomes. For example, the APACHE II scoring system uses information on heart and breathing rates, temperature, levels of salts in the blood, and other signs and physiological measurements collected during the first 24 hours in the ICU to predict the patient's risk of death. Existing scoring systems are not perfect, however, and “biomarkers” (molecules in bodily fluids that provide information about a disease state) are needed to improve risk prediction for ICU patients. Here, the researchers investigate whether levels of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with ICU deaths and whether these levels can be used as a biomarker to improve risk prediction in ICU patients. Mitochondria are cellular structures that produce energy. Levels of mtDNA in the plasma (the liquid part of blood) increase in response to trauma and infection. Moreover, mtDNA activates molecular processes that lead to inflammation and organ injury.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers measured mtDNA levels in the plasma of patients enrolled in two prospective observational cohort studies that monitored the outcomes of ICU patients. In the Brigham and Women's Hospital Registry of Critical Illness study, blood was taken from 200 patients within 24 hours of admission into the hospital's medical ICU. In the Molecular Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome study (acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life-threatening inflammatory reaction to lung damage or infection), blood was taken from 243 patients within 48 hours of admission into medical and non-medical ICUs at two other US hospitals. Patients admitted to medical ICUs with a raised mtDNA level (3,200 or more copies of a specific mitochondrial gene per microliter of plasma) had a 7- to 8-fold increased risk of dying within 28 days of admission compared to patients with mtDNA levels of less than 3,200 copies/µl plasma. There was no evidence of an association between raised mtDNA levels and death among patients admitted to non-medical ICUs. The addition of an elevated mtDNA level to a clinical model for risk prediction that included the APACHE II score and biomarkers that are already used to predict ICU outcomes improved the net reclassification index (an indicator of the improvement in risk prediction algorithms offered by new biomarkers) of 28-day mortality among medical ICU patients in both studies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that raised mtDNA plasma levels are associated with death in medical ICUs and show that, among patients in medical ICUs, measurement of mtDNA plasma levels can improve the prediction of the risk of death from the APACHE II scoring system, even when commonly measured biomarkers are taken into account. These findings do not indicate whether circulating cell-free mtDNA increased because of the underlying severity of illness or whether mtDNA actively contributes to the disease process in medical ICU patients. Moreover, they do not provide any evidence that raised mtDNA levels are associated with an increased risk of death among non-medical (mainly surgical) ICU patients. These findings need to be confirmed in additional patients, but given the relative ease and rapidity of mtDNA measurement, the determination of circulating cell-free mtDNA levels could be a valuable addition to the assessment of patients admitted to medical ICUs.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information about intensive care
The Society of Critical Care Medicine provides information for professionals, families, and patients about all aspects of intensive care
MedlinePlus provides links to other resources about intensive care (in English and Spanish)
The UK charity ICUsteps supports patients and their families through recovery from critical illness; its booklet Intensive Care: A Guide for Patients and Families is available in English and ten other languages; its website includes patient experiences and relative experiences of treatment in ICUs
Wikipedia has a page on ICU scoring systems (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
PMCID: PMC3876981  PMID: 24391478
9.  Risk Factors for Neutropenia in Clozapine-Treated Children and Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia 
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze rates of neutropenia and risk factors for neutropenia in hospitalized children and adolescents treated with clozapine.
A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients who received clozapine at any time during a hospitalization at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) between 1990 and 2011. All patients satisfied screening criteria for the NIMH childhood-onset schizophrenia study, including onset of psychosis before the age of 13 years. Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) values recorded during inpatient hospitalization were extracted for 87 eligible patients with a mean age of 13.35±2.46 years at hospitalization and a mean length of stay of 117±43 days.
Mild neutropenia only (lowest ANC<2000/mm3 but>1500/mm3) was observed in 27 (31%) patients and moderate neutropenia (any ANC<1500/mm3) was observed in 17 (20%) patients. There were no cases of agranulocytosis or severe infection. Significant risk factors for mild neutropenia compared with no hematologic adverse effects (HAEs) were male gender (p=0.012) and younger age (p<0.001). Male gender was also a significant risk factor for moderate neutropenia compared with no HAEs (p=0.003). If a child of African American ethnicity developed neutropenia during hospitalization at all that child was significantly more likely to develop moderate neutropenia than mild neutropenia only (p=0.017). African American boys had the highest rate of moderate neutropenia at 47%. Sixteen of the 17 patients exhibiting moderate neutropenia were successfully treated with clozapine by the time of discharge; 8 of these 16 required adjunctive lithium carbonate administration to maintain ANC>2000/mm3.
Our study shows that the rates of neutropenia in clozapine-treated children and adolescents are considerably higher than in the adult population. Younger age, African American ethnicity, and male gender were significant risk factors. These are also risk factors for benign neutropenia in healthy children and adolescents. Despite these high rates of neutropenia, all but one of the patients with neutropenia during hospitalization were successfully discharged on clozapine.
PMCID: PMC3608018  PMID: 23510445
10.  Hematologic Complications, Healthcare Utilization, and Costs in Commercially Insured Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Receiving Supportive Care 
American Health & Drug Benefits  2012;5(7):455-465.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is rare in people aged <50 years. Most patients with this disorder experience progressive worsening of blood cytopenias, with an increasing need for transfusion. The more advanced and severe the disorder, the greater the risk that it will progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Therapy is typically based on the patient's risk category, age, and performance status. Supportive care alone is a major option for lower-risk, older patients with MDS or those with comorbidities. The only potentially curative treatment option is hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, which is typically used to treat high-risk, younger patients.
To describe and compare the hematologic complications, healthcare utilization, and costs of supportive care in patients with MDS aged <50 years and in older patients aged ≥50 years.
Using the i3/Ingenix LabRx claims database, this retrospective study included patients who were continuously enrolled (ie, 6 months preindex through 1 year postindex) in the study and who had an initial claim of MDS (index date) between February 1, 2007, and July 31, 2008. Patients treated with hypomethylating agents or thalidomide analogues were excluded. Claims included information on office visits, medical procedures, hospitalizations, drug use, and tests performed. The hematologic complications, costs, and utilization analyses were stratified by age into 2 age-groups—patients aged <50 years and those aged ≥50 years. The MDS-related diagnoses, utilization, and costs were analyzed postindex. The data used in this study spanned the period from August 1, 2006, to July 31, 2009.
We identified 1133 newly diagnosed patients with MDS who received supportive care only during the study period; of these, 19.5% were younger than age 50 years. These younger patients included more females (62.0% vs 52.5%; P = .011) and had fewer comorbidities (mean Charlson comorbidy index, 1.2 vs 2.4; P <.001) and physician office visits than those aged ≥50 years. Postindex, compared with the older patients, the younger patients had less use of erythropoietin therapy and fewer transfusions, anemia diagnoses, and potential complications of neutropenia and pneumonia diagnoses; however, more diagnoses of neutropenia and of decreased white blood cell counts were seen in the younger patients than in the older patients (P ≤.034 for all comparisons). Furthermore, younger patients had fewer mean office visits in the postindex period than older patients (17.5 vs 24.2, respectively; P <.001) and fewer hospitalizations (32.1% vs 44.6%, respectively; P = .004), but they had a longer (although not statistically significant) mean length of hospital stay (21 vs 14 days, respectively; P = .131). Mean total healthcare charges were $96,277 (median, $21,287) in younger patients compared with $84,102 (median, $39,402) in older patients, although this difference, too, was not significant.
MDS is associated with frequent and prolonged hospitalizations, frequent outpatient visits, and high costs in younger and in older patients who are receiving supportive care. Although this study shows that younger patients aged <50 years do not have significantly higher costs overall, a small proportion may have a higher healthcare utilization and cost-related burden of MDS than patients aged ≥50 years.
PMCID: PMC4031699  PMID: 24991341
11.  Splenic rupture, secondary to G-CSF use for chemotherapy induced neutropenia: a case report and review of literature 
Cases Journal  2008;1:418.
Chemotherapy Induced neutropenia is a frequent and serious complication of cytotoxic cancer treatment.
Granulocyte colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) are frequently used to counter neutropenia, attempt rapid recovery of patients and allow for continuation of treatment without compromise on dose, especially in curative malignancies. Generally regarded as safe, G-CSF use has been very rarely reported to have resulted in serious side effects, such as, splenic rupture.
Case presentation
We are reporting a case of a twenty years old man, who was being treated for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and received colony stimulating factors for treatment of severe neutropenia and suffered from splenic rupture, He was treated with splenectomy.
Although extremely rare, splenic rupture can be a serious and sometimes life threatening complication of high dose colony stimulating factors therapy.
PMCID: PMC2615768  PMID: 19108744
12.  A patient with glycogen storage disease type Ib presenting with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bearing monosomy 7 and translocation t(3;8)(q26;q24) after 14 years of treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): A case report 
Glycogen storage disease type Ib is an autosomal recessive transmitted disorder of glycogen metabolism caused by mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate translocase gene on chromosome 11q23 and leads to disturbed glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis. Besides hepatomegaly, growth retardation, hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia, patients suffer from neutropenia associated with functional defects predisposing for severe infections. In order to attenuate these complications, long-term treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is common but this is associated with an increased risk for acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with inherited bone marrow failures such as severe congenital neutropenia. Onset of these myeloid malignancies is linked to cytogenetic aberrations involving chromosome 7. In addition, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is known to stimulate proliferation of monosomy 7 cells in vitro. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case report of a patient with glycogen storage disease type Ib, who developed acute myeloid leukemia with a classical monosomy 7 and acute myeloid leukemia-associated translocation t(3;8)(q26;q24) after 14 years of continuous treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
Case presentation
A 28-year-old Turkish man with glycogen storage disease type Ib was admitted to our department because of dyspnea and increasing fatigue. He also presented with gum bleeding, bone pain in his legs, night sweats, recurrent episodes of fever with temperatures up to 39°C and hepatosplenomegaly.
A blood count taken on the day of admission showed pancytopenia and a differential count displayed 30% blasts. A bone marrow biopsy was taken which showed a hypercellular marrow with dysplastic features of all three cell lines, while blast count was 20%. Classical cytogenetic analyses as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a monosomy 7 with a translocation t(3;8)(q26;q24). Based on these findings, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was made.
Our observations suggest that bone marrow examinations including cytogenetic analysis should be carried out on a regular basis in patients with glycogen storage disease type Ib who are on long-term treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for severe neutropenia, since this treatment might also contribute to an increased risk for acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes.
PMCID: PMC2566578  PMID: 18826620
13.  ELANE Mutations in Cyclic and Severe Congenital Neutropenia—Genetics and Pathophysiology 
There are two main forms of hereditary neutropenia: cyclic and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Cyclic neutropenia is an autosomal dominant disorder in which neutrophil counts fluctuate between nearly normal levels and close to zero with 21-day periodicity. In contrast, SCN, also known as Kostmann syndrome, consists of chronic and profound neutropenia, with a characteristic promyelocytic maturation arrest in the bone marrow. Unlike cyclic neutropenia, SCN displays frequent acquisition of somatic mutations in the gene, CSF3R, encoding the Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor (G-CSFR), and a strong predisposition to developing myelodysplasia (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cyclic neutropenia is caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene, ELANE (formerly known as ELA2), encoding the neutrophil granule serine protease, neutrophil elastase. SCN is genetically heterogeneous, but it is most frequently associated with ELANE mutations. While some of the different missense mutations in ELANE exhibit phenotype-genotype correlation, the same mutations are sometimes found in patients with either form of inherited neutropenia. The mutations lead to production of a mutant polypeptide, but no common biochemical abnormality, including effects on proteolysis, has been identified. Two non-mutually exclusive theories have been advanced to explain how the mutations might produce neutropenia. The mislocalization hypothesis states that mutations within neutrophil elastase or involving other proteins responsible for its intracellular trafficking cause neutrophil elastase to accumulate in inappropriate subcellular compartments. The misfolding hypothesis proposes that mutations prevent the protein from properly folding, thereby inducing the stress response pathway within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We discuss how the mutations themselves provide clues into pathogenesis, describe supporting and contradictory observations for both theories, and highlight outstanding questions relating to pathophysiology of neutropenia.
PMCID: PMC3559001  PMID: 23351986
Cyclic neutropenia; Severe congenital neutropenia; ELANE; Neutrophil elastase; Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)
14.  Treatment of severe neutropenia with high-dose pyridoxine in a patient with chronic graft versus host disease and squamous cell carcinoma: a case report 
The differential diagnosis of neutropenia includes medications, infections, autoimmune diseases, and deficiencies of Vitamin B12 and folate. The association of Vitamin B6 deficiency with severe neutropenia is a rare finding.
Case presentation
A 51-year-old Caucasian woman presented with fever and profound neutropenia (48 neutrophils/uL). Her clinical history included non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in remission following treatment with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, quiescent chronic graft-versus-host disease, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin metastatic to cervical lymph nodes. Medications included atenolol, topical clobetasol, Ditropan (oxybutynin), prophylactic voriconazole, prophylactic valganciclovir, Soriatane (acitretin), and Carac (fluorouracil) cream. The bone marrow was hypocellular without metastatic cancer or myelodysplasia. Neutropenia did not respond to stopping medications that have been associated with neutropenia (valganciclovir, voriconazole and Soriatane) or treatment with antibiotics or granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Blood tests revealed absence of antineutrophil antibodies, normal folate and B12 levels, moderate zinc deficiency and severe Vitamin B6 deficiency. Replacement therapy with oral Vitamin B6 restored blood vitamin levels to the normal range and corrected the neutropenia. Her cervical adenopathy regressed clinically and became negative on scintography following Vitamin B6 therapy and normalization of the blood neutrophil count.
Severe pyridoxine deficiency can lead to neutropenia. Screening for Vitamin B6 deficiency, along with folate and Vitamin B12 levels, is recommended in patients with refractory neutropenia, especially those with possible malabsorption syndromes, or a history of chronic-graft-versus host disease. Severe neutropenia may facilitate progression of squamous cell carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3169495  PMID: 21838907
15.  Pregnancy in glycogen storage disease type Ib: gestational care and report of first successful deliveries 
Journal of inherited metabolic disease  2010;33(0 3):S151-S157.
Patients with type Ia glycogen storage disease (GSD) have been surviving well into adulthood since continuous glucose therapy was introduced in the 1970s, and there have been many documented successful pregnancies in women with this condition. Historically, few individuals with type Ib GSD, however, survived into adulthood prior to the introduction of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the late 1980s. There are no previously published reports of pregnancies in GSD type Ib. In this case report we describe the course and management of five successful pregnancies in three patients with GSD type Ib. Patient 1 experienced an increase in glucose requirement in all three of her pregnancies, starting from the second trimester onwards. There were no major complications related to neutropenia except for oral ulcers. The infants did well, except for respiratory distress in two of them at birth. Patient 2 used cornstarch to maintain euglycemia, but precise dosing was not part of her regimen, and, hence, an increase in metabolic demands was difficult to demonstrate. She developed a renal calculus and urinary tract infection during her pregnancy and had chronic iron deficiency anemia but no neutropenia. The neonate did well after delivery. Patient 3 had poor follow-up during pregnancy. Increasing glucose requirements, worsening lipid profile, neutropenia associated with multiple infections, and anemia were noted. The newborn infant did well after delivery. In addition to the case reports, the challenges of the usage of G-CSF, the treatment of enterocolitis, and comparisons with the management of GSD Ia are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3800278  PMID: 20386986
16.  Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis 
Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed.
Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia.
A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure.
ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV.
PMCID: PMC3163109  PMID: 21507463
vasculitis; neutropenia; antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)
17.  Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia during Chemotherapy for HIV-Related Lymphoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(12):1468-1471.
We evaluated risk factors for neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia during vincristine-including chemotherapy to treat HIV-related lymphoma to investigate whether protease inhibitor (PI) treatment is associated with infectious complications due to drug interactions with chemotherapeutic agents. We included all HIV patients who received chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma at a single referral center in 1999-2010. Neutropenic fever was defined as absolute neutrophil count < 500 cells/µL with body temperature over 38℃; and prolonged neutropenia was defined if it persisted over 7 days. CODOX-M/IVAC and Stanford regimens were considered high-risk regimens for prolonged neutropenia. We analyzed 48 cycles of chemotherapy in 17 HIV patients with lymphoma. There were 22 neutropenic fever and 12 febrile prolonged neutropenia events. In multivariate analysis, neutropenic fever was associated with old age and low CD4 cell count, but not with PI use or ritonavir-boosted PI use. Low CD4 cell count and high-risk regimens were associated with febrile prolonged neutropenia. Neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia is associated with old age, low CD4 cell count, and high-risk regimens, but not PI use, in HIV patients undergoing chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma.
PMCID: PMC3524424  PMID: 23255844
Human Immunodeficiency Virus; Lymphoma; Neutropenia
18.  Advances in the Treatment of Neutropenia 
Purpose of review
This review updates treatment of neutropenia from articles published from January 2008 through April 2009.
Recent findings
Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia occurs most commonly in the first cycle of treatment. Older patients, patients with multiple co-morbidities, and those receiving more myelotoxic drugs are prone to develop neutropenia and its complications. Current guidelines recommend use of the myeloid growth factors for the first cycle of chemotherapy for patients with more that a 20 % risk of febrile neutropenia. Meta-analysis from randomized trials shows that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis is associated with patients receiving more intensive chemotherapy, having better survival, but also having a higher risk of secondary AML. Antibiotic remain the mainstay of treatment of febrile neutropenia and are increasingly used for prophylaxis in “low risk” patients. Diagnosis and treatment of other type of neutropenia is also steadily improving.
The myeloid growth factor G-CSF has radically changed our approach to the management of neutropenia. Antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment of febrile neutropenia.
PMCID: PMC3390973  PMID: 19550332
neutrophil; neutropenia; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); chemotherapy-induced neutropenia
19.  Efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim: a randomized, multicenter, active-control phase 3 trial in patients with breast cancer receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:386.
Lipegfilgrastim is a novel glyco-pegylated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in development for neutropenia prophylaxis in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This phase III, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, noninferiority trial compared the efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim in chemotherapy-naïve breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy.
Patients with high-risk stage II, III, or IV breast cancer and an absolute neutrophil count ≥1.5 × 109 cells/L were randomized to a single 6-mg subcutaneous injection of lipegfilgrastim (n = 101) or pegfilgrastim (n = 101) on day 2 of each 21-day chemotherapy cycle (4 cycles maximum). The primary efficacy endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia during cycle 1.
Cycle 1: The mean duration of severe neutropenia for the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups was 0.7 and 0.8 days, respectively (λ = −0.218 [95% confidence interval: –0.498%, 0.062%], p = 0.126), and no severe neutropenia was observed in 56% and 49% of patients in the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively. All cycles: In the efficacy population, febrile neutropenia occurred in three pegfilgrastim-treated patients (all in cycle 1) and zero lipegfilgrastim-treated patients. Drug-related adverse events in the safety population were reported in 28% and 26% of patients i006E the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively.
This study demonstrates that lipegfilgrastim 6 mg is as effective as pegfilgrastim in reducing neutropenia in patients with breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
Trial Registration
Eudra EEACTA200901599910
The study protocol, two global amendments (Nos. 1 and 2), informed consent documents, and other appropriate study-related documents were reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine Central Ethics Committee and local independent ethics committees (IECs).
PMCID: PMC3751756  PMID: 23945072
Neutropenia; Febrile neutropenia; Breast cancer; Recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; Lipegfilgrastim; Pegfilgrastim
20.  Phase II Study of High-Dose [131I]Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(25):4162-4168.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine ([131I]MIBG) in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL).
Fifty patients with metastatic PHEO or PGL, age 10 to 64 years, were treated with [131I]MIBG doses ranging from 492 to 1,160 mCi (median, 12 mCi/kg). Cumulative [131I]MIBG administered ranged from 492 to 3,191 mCi. Autologous hematopoietic stem cells were collected and cryopreserved before treatment with [131I]MIBG greater than 12 mCi/kg or with a total dose greater than 500 mCi. Sixty-nine [131I]MIBG infusions were given, which included infusions to 35 patients treated once and infusions to 15 patients who received two or three treatments. Response was evaluated by [123I]MIBG scans, computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, urinary catecholamines/metanephrines, and chromogranin A.
The overall complete response (CR) plus partial response (PR) rate in 49 evaluable patients was 22%. Additionally, 35% of patients achieved a CR or PR in at least one measure of response without progressive disease, and 8% of patients maintained stable disease for greater than 12 months. Thirty-five percent of patients experienced progressive disease within 1 year after therapy. The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 64%. Toxicities included grades 3 to 4 neutropenia (87%) and thrombocytopenia (83%). Grades 3 to 4 nonhematologic toxicity included acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 2), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n = 2), pulmonary embolism (n = 1), fever with neutropenia (n = 7), acute hypertension (n = 10), infection (n = 2), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 2), and hypogonadism (n = 4).
Although serious toxicity may occur, the survival and response rates achieved with high-dose [131I]MIBG suggest its utility in the management of selected patients with metastatic PHEO and PGL.
PMCID: PMC2734428  PMID: 19636009
21.  Prediction of docetaxel monotherapy-induced neutropenia based on the monocyte percentage 
Oncology Letters  2012;3(4):860-864.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 32 chemonaïve patients with either breast, lung or prostate cancer, who were treated with docetaxel (DOC) monotherapy, and evaluated whether the proportion of peripheral blood monocytes was capable of predicting the occurrence of neutropenia following chemotherapy. In the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) non‑administration group, the monocyte percentage was inversely correlated with the decrease in neutrophils (P=0.01; corrected correlation coefficient, -0.71). The neutrophil count decreased by ≥30% in 7 of 8 patients with <5% monocytes, whereas it decreased by >30% in 1 of 6 patients with ≥5% monocytes (P=0.01). Three of 8 patients with <5% monocytes experienced grade 4 neutropenia, while in the group with ≥5% monocytes, 1 of 6 patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia. The frequency of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was lower in patients with ≥5% monocytes than in patients with <5% monocytes, but the difference was not significant (P=0.41). Following G-CSF administration, grade 3 or 4 neutropenia had the tendency of lasting longer in patients with <5% monocytes than in those with ≥5% monocytes; however, the monocyte percentage was not correlated with the grade of neutropenia (P=0.34). The monocyte percentage following chemotherapy was inversely correlated with the decrease in neutrophils. The percentage of monocytes that are available in clinical practice may be predictive of neutropenia following chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that patients with <5% monocytes following DOC monotherapy are at risk of severe neutropenia and should be carefully monitored.
PMCID: PMC3362462  PMID: 22741007
monocyte; neutropenia; docetaxel; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; chemotherapy
22.  Secondary Infections in Cancer Patients with Febrile Neutropenia 
Turkish Journal of Hematology  2012;29(3):254-258.
Objective: Patients with neutropenia due to cancer chemotherapy are prone to severe infections. Cancer patients canexperience >1 infectious episode during the same period of neutropenia. This study aimed to determine the etiologicaland clinical characteristics of secondary infectious episodes in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia and to identifythe factors associated with the risk of secondary infectious episodes.
Material and Methods: All cancer patients that received antineoplastic chemotherapy at Ankara University, School ofMedicine, Department of Hematology between May 2004 and May 2005 and developed neutropenia were included in thestudy. Data were collected using survey forms that were completed during routine infectious diseases consultation visits.Categorical data were analyzed using the chi-square test, whereas Student’s t-test was used for continuous variables.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of secondary infections (SIs).
Results: SIs were observed during 138 (53%) of 259 febrile neutropenic episodes. Of the 138 episodes, 89 (64.5%)occurred in male patients with a mean age of 40.9 years (range: 17-76 years). In total, 80% of the SIs were clinically ormicrobiologically documented. Factors on d 4 of the initial febrile episode were analyzed via a logistic regression model. The presence of a central intravenous catheter (OR: 3.01; P<0.001), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as the underlyingdisease (OR: 2.12; P=0.008), diarrhea (OR: 4.59; P=0.005), and invasive aspergillosis (IA) during the initial febrileepisode (OR: 3.96; P=0.009) were statistically significant risk factors for SIs.
Conclusion: Among the cancer patients with neutropenia in the present study, AML as the underlying disease, thepresence of a central venous catheter, diarrhea, and IA during the initial febrile episode were risk factors for thedevelopment of SIs.
PMCID: PMC3986750  PMID: 24744669
Hematologic malignancy; Febrile neutropenia; Secondary infection
23.  Granulocyte colony stimulating factor in neutropenic patients with infective endocarditis 
Heart  1998;79(1):93-95.
A well known complication in the treatment of infectious endocarditis is development of neutropenia caused by treatment with antibiotics in high concentrations over long periods. Neutropenia often necessitates discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Three patients with infectious endocarditis who developed neutropenia are reported. The patients were treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a haematopoietic growth factor that stimulates neutrophils. G-CSF induced an immediate increase in white blood cell count, primarily neutrophils. G-CSF may be effective in ameliorating neutropenia in patients who receive antibiotics for treatment of infectious endocarditis.

 Keywords: granulocyte colony stimulating factor;  neutropenia;  endocarditis
PMCID: PMC1728566  PMID: 9505928
24.  Impact of granulocyte colony–stimulating factors in metastatic colorectal cancer patients 
Current Oncology  2014;21(1):e52-e61.
Delays in chemotherapy because of neutropenia may be associated with poorer outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect that granulocyte colony–stimulating factors (g-csfs) have on survival.
We conducted a chart review of all outpatients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer and treated with folfiri chemotherapy (irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin) with or without bevacizumab at Mount Sinai Hospital between 2007 and 2012. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare survival in neutropenic patients treated with g-csf, in neutropenic patients not so treated, and in patients without neutropenia.
The review identified 93 patients, 31 of whom did not experience a neutropenic event. Of the 62 who experienced neutropenia, 18 were managed with g-csf support, and 44, with reductions or delays in dose. Compared with patients experiencing a neutropenic episode not treated with g-csf, those treated with g-csf experienced a nonsignificant increase in time to event [progression or death: hazard ratio (hr): 1.37; 95% confidence limits (cl): 0.72, 2.61], but compared with patients not having a neutropenic episode, the same patients experienced a significant increase in time to event (hr: 2.07; 95% cl: 1.03, 4.15).
In patients who experienced neutropenia, g-csf did not have a statistically significant impact on survival. Time to event was prolonged in g-csf–treated patients compared with patients who did not experience neutropenia.
PMCID: PMC3921048  PMID: 24523621
Colorectal cancer; g-csf; metastasis; neutropenia; progression; survival
25.  Pneumonia during Remission Induction Chemotherapy in Patients with Acute Leukemia 
Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of death during induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia. The purpose of this study was to quantify the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with acute leukemia.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 801 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who underwent induction chemotherapy.
Measurements and Main Results: Pneumonia was present at induction start in 85 patients (11%). Of the 716 remaining patients, 148 (21%) developed pneumonia. The incidence rate of pneumonia was higher in MDS and AML than in ALL (0.013 vs. 0.008 vs. 0.003 pneumonias per day, respectively; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age greater than or equal to 60 years, AML, low platelet count, low albumin level, neutropenia, and neutrophil count greater than 7,300 were risk factors. The case fatality rate of pneumonia was 17% (40 of 233). Competing risk analysis demonstrated that in the absence of pneumonia, death was rare: 28-day mortality was 6.2% for all patients but only 1.26% in those without pneumonia. Compared with patients without pneumonia, patients with pneumonia had more intensive care unit days, longer hospital stays, and 49% higher costs (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Pneumonia after induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia continues to be common, and it is the most important determinant of early mortality after induction chemotherapy. Given the high incidence, morbidity, mortality, and cost of pneumonia, interventions aimed at prevention are warranted in patients with acute leukemia.
PMCID: PMC3960911  PMID: 23987587
pneumonia; opportunistic infections; leukemia; fungal pneumonia; epidemiology

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