Despite the clinical importance of an accurate diagnosis in individuals with monogenic forms of diabetes, restricted access to genetic testing leaves many patients with undiagnosed diabetes. Recently, common variation near the HNF1 homeobox A (HNF1A) gene was shown to influence C-reactive protein levels in healthy adults. We hypothesized that serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) could represent a clinically useful biomarker for the identification of HNF1A mutations causing maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Serum hs-CRP was measured in subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 31), autoimmune diabetes (n = 316), type 2 diabetes (n = 240), and glucokinase (GCK) MODY (n = 24) and in nondiabetic individuals (n = 198). The discriminative accuracy of hs-CRP was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and performance was compared with standard diagnostic criteria. Our primary analyses excluded ∼11% of subjects in whom the single available hs-CRP measurement was >10 mg/l.
Geometric mean (SD range) hs-CRP levels were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.009) for HNF1A-MODY individuals, 0.20 (0.03–1.14) mg/l, than for any other group: autoimmune diabetes 0.58 (0.10–2.75) mg/l, type 2 diabetes 1.33 (0.28–6.14) mg/l, GCK-MODY 1.01 (0.19–5.33) mg/l, and nondiabetic 0.48 (0.10–2.42) mg/l. The ROC-derived C-statistic for discriminating HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes was 0.8. Measurement of hs-CRP, either alone or in combination with current diagnostic criteria, was superior to current diagnostic criteria alone. Sensitivity and specificity for the combined criteria approached 80%.
Serum hs-CRP levels are markedly lower in HNF1A-MODY than in other forms of diabetes. hs-CRP has potential as a widely available, cost-effective screening test to support more precise targeting of MODY diagnostic testing.
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) as a result of mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) is often misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Recent work has shown that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are lower in HNF1A-MODY than type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or glucokinase (GCK)-MODY. We aim to replicate these findings in larger numbers and other MODY subtypes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
hs-CRP levels were assessed in 750 patients (220 HNF1A, 245 GCK, 54 HNF4-α [HNF4A], 21 HNF1-β (HNF1B), 53 type 1 diabetes, and 157 type 2 diabetes).
hs-CRP was lower in HNF1A-MODY (median [IQR] 0.3 [0.1–0.6] mg/L) than type 2 diabetes (1.40 [0.60–3.45] mg/L; P < 0.001) and type 1 diabetes (1.10 [0.50–1.85] mg/L; P < 0.001), HNF4A-MODY (1.45 [0.46–2.88] mg/L; P < 0.001), GCK-MODY (0.60 [0.30–1.80] mg/L; P < 0.001), and HNF1B-MODY (0.60 [0.10–2.8] mg/L; P = 0.07). hs-CRP discriminated HNF1A-MODY from type 2 diabetes with hs-CRP <0.75 mg/L showing 79% sensitivity and 70% specificity (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.84).
hs-CRP levels are lower in HNF1A-MODY than other forms of diabetes and may be used as a biomarker to select patients for diagnostic HNF1A genetic testing.
Mutations in the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK) cause a mild hereditary form of diabetes termed maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)2 or GCK-MODY. The disease does not progress over time, and diabetes complications rarely develop. It has therefore been suggested that GCK-MODY represents a metabolically compensated condition, but experimental support for this notion is lacking. Here, we profiled metabolites in serum from patients with MODY1 (HNF4A), MODY2 (GCK), MODY3 (HNF1A), and type 2 diabetes and from healthy individuals to characterize metabolic perturbations caused by specific mutations. Analysis of four GCK-MODY patients revealed a metabolite pattern similar to that of healthy individuals, while other forms of diabetes differed markedly in their metabolite profiles. Furthermore, despite elevated glucose concentrations, carriers of GCK mutations showed lower levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides than healthy control subjects. The metabolite profiling was confirmed by enzymatic assays and replicated in a cohort of 11 GCK-MODY patients. Elevated levels of fatty acids are known to associate with β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and increased incidence of late complications. Our results show that GCK-MODY represents a metabolically normal condition, which may contribute to the lack of late complications and the nonprogressive nature of the disease.
Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young (MODY) is a monogenic and autosomal dominant form of diabetes mellitus with onset of the disease often before 25 years of age. It is due to dysfunction of pancreatic ß cells characterised by non-ketotic diabetes and absence of pancreatic auto-antibodies. It is frequently mistaken for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis of MODY is important as the GCK subtype has better prognosis and may not require any treatment. Subtypes HNF1A and HNF4A are sensitive to sulfonylureas, however diabetes complications are common if not treated early. Moreover, there is genetic implication for the patient and family. Rare MODY subtypes can be associated with pancreatic and renal anomalies as well as exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas. So far there are six widely accepted subtypes of MODY described but the list has grown to nine. Although the majority of diabetes mellitus in youth remains type 1 and the incidence of type 2 is rising, MODY should be considered in patients with non-ketotic diabetes at presentation, and in patients with a strong family history of diabetes mellitus without pancreatic auto-antibodies. Furthermore the diagnosis must be confirmed by molecular studies. With advancement in genomic technology, rapid screening for MODY mutations will become readily available in the future.
Incidental hyperglycemia in children generates concern about the presence of preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
To genetically evaluate two common forms of maturity-onset diabetes of youth (MODY), the short-term prognosis in children with mild hyperglycemia, and a positive family history of diabetes mellitus.
Asymptomatic children and adolescents (n = 14), younger than 15 yr, with fasting hyperglycemia, a positive family history of mild non-progressive hyperglycemia, and negative pancreatic autoantibodies were studied.
Patients and methods
Glucokinase gene (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha gene (HNF1A) causing two common forms of MODY were sequenced. The clinical outcome was evaluated after a follow-up period of 2.8 ± 1.3 yr.
GCK mutations were present in seven children. The confirmation of this diagnosis allowed discontinuation of insulin in two families and oral medications in three families. Mutations of HNF1A were not detected in any of the families. During the follow-up period, all the GCK mutation carrier children remained asymptomatic without medication and the last hemoglobin A1c levels were 6.4 ± 0.7%. In the GCK-negative children (n = 7), one developed T1DM, corresponding to 7.2% of the total group. Mild fasting hyperglycemia persisted during follow-up in four GCK-negative children and normalized in the remaining two.
The presence of mild persistent hyperglycemia in any patient without autoantibodies should lead to genetic analysis of GCK, particularly if there is a positive family history. Furthermore, those without GCK mutations should be followed with repeat autoantibody testing, and other genetic types of diabetes should be considered if hyperglycemia worsens.
DM; genetics; glucokinase; hyperglycemia; incidental hyperglycemia; MODY; prognosis
OBJECTIVE—1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a short-term marker of metabolic control in diabetes. Its renal loss is stimulated in hyperglycemic conditions by glycosuria, which results in a lowered plasma concentration. As a low renal threshold for glucose has been described in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), the 1,5-AG level may be altered in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the 1,5-AG levels in patients with HNF-1α MODY and in type 2 diabetic subjects with a similar degree of metabolic control. In addition, we aimed to evaluate this particle as a biomarker for HNF-1α MODY.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We included 33 diabetic patients from the Polish Nationwide Registry of MODY. In addition, we examined 43 type 2 diabetic patients and 47 nondiabetic control subjects. The 1,5-AG concentration was measured with an enzymatic assay (GlycoMark). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate 1,5-AG as a screening marker for HNF-1α MODY.
RESULTS—The mean 1,5-AG plasma concentration in diabetic HNF-1α mutation carriers was 5.9 μg/ml, and it was lower than that in type 2 diabetic patients (11.0 μg/ml, P = 0.003) and in nondiabetic control subjects (23.9 μg/ml, P < 0.00005). The ROC curve analysis revealed 85.7% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity of 1,5-AG in screening for HNF-1α MODY at the criterion of <6.5 μg/ml in patients with an A1C level between 6.5 and 9.0%.
CONCLUSIONS—1,5-AG may be a useful biomarker for differential diagnosis of patients with HNF-1α MODY with a specific range of A1C, although this requires further investigation. However, the clinical use of this particle in diabetic HNF-1α mutation carriers for metabolic control has substantial limitations.
It is important to identify patients with Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) as a molecular diagnosis determines both treatment and prognosis. Genetic testing is currently expensive and many patients are therefore not assessed and are misclassified as having either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Biomarkers could facilitate the prioritisation of patients for genetic testing. We hypothesised that patients with different underlying genetic aetiologies for their diabetes could have distinct metabolic profiles which may uncover novel biomarkers. The aim of this study was to perform metabolic profiling in urine from patients with MODY due to mutations in the genes encoding glucokinase (GCK) or hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and normoglycaemic control subjects. Urinary metabolic profiling by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and ultra performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to Q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was performed in a Discovery set of subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 14), GCK-MODY (n = 17), T2D (n = 14) and normoglycaemic controls (n = 34). Data were used to build a valid partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) model where HNF1A-MODY subjects could be separated from the other diabetes subtypes. No single metabolite contributed significantly to the separation of the patient groups. However, betaine, valine, glycine and glucose were elevated in the urine of HNF1A-MODY subjects compared to the other subgroups. Direct measurements of urinary amino acids and betaine in an extended dataset did not support differences between patients groups. Elevated urinary glucose in HNF1A-MODY is consistent with the previously reported low renal threshold for glucose in this genetic subtype. In conclusion, we report the first metabolic profiling study in monogenic diabetes and show that, despite the distinct biochemical pathways affected, there are unlikely to be robust urinary biomarkers which distinguish monogenic subtypes from T2D. Our results have implications for studies investigating metabolic profiles in complex traits including T2D.
To investigate the prevalence of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in Italian children with incidental hyperglycemia.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Among 748 subjects age 1–18 years with incidental hyperglycemia, minimal diagnostic criteria for MODY were met by 172 families. Mutational analyses of the glucokinase (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1Α) genes were performed.
We identified 85 GCK gene mutations in 109 probands and 10 HNF1Α mutations in 12 probands. In GCK patients, the median neonatal weight and age at the first evaluation were lower than those found in patients with HNF1A mutations. Median fasting plasma glucose and impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance frequency after oral glucose tolerance testing were higher in GCK patients, who also showed a lower frequency of diabetes than HNF1A patients.
GCK mutations are the prevailing cause of MODY (63.4%) when the index case is recruited in Italian children with incidental hyperglycemia.
Mutations in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-alpha (HNF1A) result in the commonest type of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). HNF1A-MODY carriers have reduced pancreatic beta cell mass, partially due to an increased rate of apoptosis. To date, it has not been possible to determine when apoptosis is occurring in HNF1A-MODY.We have recently demonstrated that beta cell apoptosis stimulates the expression of the pancreatic stone protein/regenerating (PSP/reg) gene in surviving neighbour cells, and that PSP/reg1A protein is subsequently secreted from these cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of PSP/reg1A are elevated during disease progression in HNF1A-MODY carriers, and whether it may provide information regarding the onset of beta-cell apoptosis.
We analysed serum PSP/reg1A levels and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with HNF1A-MODY, glucokinase (GCK-MODY), and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A control group of normoglycaemic subjects was also analysed.
PSP/reg1A serum levels were significantly elevated in HNF1A-MODY (n = 37) subjects compared to controls (n = 60) (median = 12.50 ng/ml, IQR = 10.61-17.87 ng/ml versus median = 10.72 ng/ml, IQR = 8.94-12.54 ng/ml, p = 0.0008). PSP/reg1A correlated negatively with insulin levels during OGTT, (rho = −0.40, p = 0.02). Interestingly we noted a significant positive correlation of PSP/reg1A with age of the HNF1A-MODY carriers (rho = 0.40 p = 0.02) with an age of 25 years separating carriers with low and high PSP/reg1A levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also had elevated serum levels of PSP/reg1A compared to controls, however this was independent of the duration of diabetes.
Our data suggest that beta cell apoptosis contributes increasingly to the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY in patients 25 years and over. PSP/reg1A may be developed as a serum marker to detect increased beta-cell apoptosis, or its therapeutic response.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY); Apoptosis; Serum biomarker; Beta-Cell; Type 1 diabetes; Pancreatic stone protein (PSP); Regenerating gene 1A (reg1A)
Premature atherosclerosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) accounts for approximately 2% of all diabetes, with mutations in the transcription factor; hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A) accounting for the majority of MODY cases. There is somewhat limited data available on the prevalence of macrovascular disease in HNF1A-MODY carriers with diabetes. Marked insulin resistance and the associated dyslipidaemia are not clinical features of HNF1A-MODY carriers. The scavenger protein CD36 has been shown to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, largely through its interaction with oxidised LDL. Higher levels of monocyte CD36 and plasma CD36(sCD36) are seen to cluster with insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine levels of sCD36 in participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes and to compare them with unaffected normoglycaemic family members and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We recruited 37 participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes and compared levels of sCD36 with BMI-matched participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normoglycaemic HNF1A-MODY negative family controls. Levels of sCD36 were correlated with phenotypic and biochemical parameters.
HNF1A-MODY participants were lean, normotensive, with higher HDL and lower triglyceride levels when compared to controls and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. sCD36 was also significantly lower in HNF1A-MODY participants when compared to both the normoglycaemic family controls and to lean participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In conclusion, sCD36 is significantly lower in lean participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes when compared to weight-matched normoglycaemic familial HNF1A-MODY negative controls and to lean participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lower levels of this pro-atherogenic marker may result from the higher HDL component in the lipid profile of HNF1A-MODY participants.
There is a significant clinical overlap between patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1A and HNF4A maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), two forms of monogenic diabetes. HNF1A and HNF4A are transcription factors that control common and partly overlapping sets of target genes. We have previously shown that elevated serum pancreatic stone protein / regenerating protein A (PSP/reg1A) levels can be detected in subjects with HNF1A-MODY. In this study, we investigated whether PSP/reg is differentially regulated by HNF1A and HNF4A.
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting were used to validate gene and protein expression in cellular models of HNF1A- and HNF4A-MODY. Serum PSP/reg1A levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured by ELISA in 31 HNF1A- and 9 HNF4A-MODY subjects. The two groups were matched for age, body mass index, diabetes duration, blood pressure, lipid profile and aspirin and statin use.
Inducible repression of HNF1A and HNF4A function in INS-1 cells suggested that PSP/reg induction required HNF4A, but not HNF1A. In contrast, crp gene expression was significantly reduced by repression of HNF1A, but not HNF4A function. PSP/reg levels were significantly lower in HNF4A subjects when compared to HNF1A subjects [9.25 (7.85-12.85) ng/ml vs. 12.5 (10.61-17.87) ng/ml, U-test P = 0.025]. hsCRP levels were significantly lower in HNF1A-MODY [0.22 (0.17-0.35) mg/L] compared to HNF4A-MODY group [0.81 (0.38-1.41) mg/L, U-test P = 0.002], Parallel measurements of serum PSP/reg1A and hsCRP levels were able to discriminate HNF1A- and HNF4A-MODY subjects.
Our study demonstrates that two distinct target genes, PSP/reg and crp, are differentially regulated by HNF1A and HNF4A, and provides clinical proof-of-concept that serum PSP/reg1A and hsCRP levels may distinguish HNF1A-MODY from HNF4A-MODY subjects.
HNF1A; HNF4A; MODY; PSP/reg; HsCRP; Gene regulation
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF-1α) is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in a variety of tissues (including liver and pancreas) that regulates a wide range of genes. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding HNF-1α (HNF1A) cause familial young-onset diabetes, also known as maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 3 (MODY3). The variability of the MODY3 clinical phenotype can be due to environmental and genetic factors as well as to the type and position of mutations. Thus, functional characterization of HNF1A mutations might provide insight into the molecular defects explaining the variability of the MODY3 phenotype. We have functionally characterized six HNF1A mutations identified in diabetic patients: two novel ones, p.Glu235Gly and c-57-64delCACGCGGT;c-55G>C; and four previously described, p.Val133Met, p.Thr196Ala, p.Arg271Trp and p.Pro379Arg. The effects of mutations on transcriptional activity have been measured by reporter assays on a subset of HNF-1α target promoters in Cos7 and Min6 cells. Target DNA binding affinities have been quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay using bacterially expressed glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-HNF-1α fusion proteins and nuclear extracts of transfected Cos7 cells. Our functional studies revealed that mutation c-57-64delCACGCGGT;c-55G>C reduces HNF1A promoter activity in Min6 cells and that missense mutations have variable effects. Mutation p.Arg271Trp impairs HNF-1α activity in all conditions tested, whereas mutations p.Val133Met, p.Glu235Gly and p.Pro379Arg exert differential effects depending on the target promoter. In contrast, substitution p.Thr196Ala does not appear to alter HNF-1α function. Our results suggest that HNF1A mutations may have differential effects on the regulation of specific target genes, which could contribute to the variability of the MODY3 clinical phenotype.
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes, consisting of a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant inherited disorders. Typical onset is in individuals prior to twenty five years, and presentation can mimic type 1 or 2 diabetes. Molecular genetic testing can allow precise identification of the different MODY sub-types. Making a specific diagnosis of MODY can have important implications for the guidance of appropriate treatment, prognosis and genetic counselling.
We present the cases of three children and their families diagnosed with MODY over the past two years. These families highlight the features of three of the more common MODY subtypes, including two with novel mutations, one of which segregates in a kindred that is strongly affected by both MODY and classic autoimmune mediated diabetes. To date, we have identified a prevalence of MODY in the paediatric diabetes population of the lower South Island, New Zealand, of approximately 2.5%. This prevalence, along with increasing access to molecular genetic testing, highlights the importance of consideration of MODY in atypical diabetes presentations in the paediatric/adolescent population.
MODY; Diabetes; Paediatrics; Monogenic Diabetes; Genetics
Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) is a consequence of heterozygous germline mutation in HNF1A. A subtype of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is also caused by biallelic somatic HNF1A mutations (H-HCA), and rare HCA may be related to MODY3. To better understand a relationship between the development of MODY3 and HCA, we compared both germline and somatic spectra of HNF1A mutations.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We compared 151 somatic HNF1A mutations in HCA with 364 germline mutations described in MODY3. We searched for genotoxic and oxidative stress features in HCA and surrounding liver tissue.
A spectrum of HNF1A somatic mutations significantly differed from the germline changes in MODY3. In HCA, we identified a specific hot spot at codon 206, nonsense and frameshift mutations mainly in the NH2-terminal part, and almost all amino acid substitutions were restricted to the POU-H domain. The high frequency of G-to-T tranversions, predominantly found on the nontranscribed DNA strand, suggested a genotoxic mechanism. However, no features of oxidative stress were observed in the nontumor liver tissue. Finally, in a few MODY3 patients with HNF1A germline mutation leading to amino acid substitutions outside the POU-H domain, we identified a different subtype of HCA either with a gp130 and/or CTNNB1 activating mutation.
Germline HNF1A mutations could be associated with different molecular subtypes of HCA. H-HCA showed mutations profoundly inactivating hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α function; they are associated with a genotoxic signature suggesting a specific toxicant exposure that could be associated with genetic predisposition.
To evaluate the heterogeneity in the clinical expression in a family with glucokinase mature-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Members (three generations) of the same family presented either with overt neonatal hyperglycemia, marked postprandial hyperglycemia, or glucosuria. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results in the GCK mutation carriers from this family were compared with those from other subjects with GCK mutations in the same codon (GCK261), with other missense and other types of GCK mutations in different codons from the European MODY Consortium database (GCKm).
Mutation G261R was found in the GCK gene. During the OGTT, glucose (P = 0.02) and insulin (P = 0.009) response at 2 h as well as at the 2-h glucose increment (GCK261 versus other missense GCK mutations, P = 0.003) were significantly higher in GCK261 than in GCKm carriers.
Differing from other GCKm carriers, the glucose and insulin response to oral glucose was significantly higher in GCK261 carriers, indicating clinical heterogeneity in GCK-MODY.
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a genetically heterogeneous monogenic disorder characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, onset usually before 25 yr of age, and abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function. Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor(HNF)-4alpha/MODY1, glucokinase/MODY2, and HNF-1alpha/MODY3 genes can cause this form of diabetes. In contrast to the glucokinase and HNF-1alpha genes, mutations in the HNF-4alpha gene are a relatively uncommon cause of MODY, and our understanding of the MODY1 form of diabetes is based on studies of only a single family, the R-W pedigree. Here we report the identification of a second family with MODY1 and the first in which there has been a detailed characterization of hepatic function. The affected members of this family, Dresden-11, have inherited a nonsense mutation, R154X, in the HNF-4alpha gene, and are predicted to have reduced levels of this transcription factor in the tissues in which it is expressed, including pancreatic islets, liver, kidney, and intestine. Subjects with the R154X mutation exhibited a diminished insulin secretory response to oral glucose. HNF-4alpha plays a central role in tissue-specific regulation of gene expression in the liver, including the control of synthesis of proteins involved in cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism and the coagulation cascade. Subjects with the R154X mutation, however, showed no abnormalities in lipid metabolism or coagulation except for a paradoxical 3.3-fold increase in serum lipoprotein(a) levels, nor was there any evidence of renal dysfunction in these subjects. The results suggest that MODY1 is primarily a disorder of beta-cell function.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY) is an inherited disorder due to mutations in glucokinase (GCK) gene, which lead to mild fasting hyperglycemia.
Herein an otherwise healthy 9-year old boy with hyperglycemia is presented in whom the diagnosis of MODY2 was suspected. Genetic studies showed heterozygous inactivating GCK gene mutation in exon 8 (c.1010delA) in this patient. The same mutation was found in his father as well. The patient received some dietary advices without any medication.
The identification of GCK mutation and diagnosis of MODY2 helps the clinicians to predict the disease course, prognosis and to exclude other types of diabetes.
Maturity-onset Diabetes; GCK; Fasting Hyperglycemia; Diabetes
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a nuclear receptor involved in glucose homeostasis and is required for normal β cell function. Mutations in the HNF4α gene are associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young type 1 (MODY1). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and nature of mutations in HNF4α gene in Iranian patients with a clinical diagnosis of MODY and their family members. Twelve families including 30 patients with clinically MODY diagnosis and 21 members of their family were examined using PCR-RFLP method and in case of mutation confirmed by sequencing techniques. Fifty age and sex matched subjects with normal fasting blood sugar (FBS) and Glucose tolerance test (GTT) were constituted the control group and investigated in the similar pattern. Single mutation of V255M in the HNF4α gene was detected. This known mutation was found in 8 of 30 patients and 3 of 21 individuals in relatives. Fifty healthy control subjects did not show any mutation. Here, it is indicated that the prevalence of HNF4α mutation among Iranian patients with clinical MODY is considerable. This mutation was present in 26.6% of our patients, but nothing was found in control group. In the family members, 3 subjects with the age of ≤25 years old carried this mutation. Therefore, holding this mutation in this range of age could be a predisposing factor for developing diabetes in future.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A)/hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4A) maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is frequently misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes, and patients are inappropriately treated with insulin. Blood C-peptide can aid in the diagnosis of MODY, but practical reasons limit its widespread use. Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR), a stable measure of endogenous insulin secretion, is a noninvasive alternative. We aimed to compare stimulated UCPCR in adults with HNF1A/4A MODY, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Adults with diabetes for ≥5years, without renal impairment, were studied (HNF1A MODY [n = 54], HNF4A MODY [n = 23], glucokinase MODY [n = 20], type 1 diabetes [n = 69], and type 2 diabetes [n = 54]). The UCPCR was collected in boric acid 120 min after the largest meal of the day and mailed for analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify optimal UCPCR cutoffs to differentiate HNF1A/4A MODY from type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
UCPCR was lower in type 1 diabetes than HNF1A/4A MODY (median [interquartile range]) (<0.02 nmol/mmol [<0.02 to <0.02] vs. 1.72 nmol/mmol [0.98–2.90]; P < 0.0001). ROC curves showed excellent discrimination (area under curve [AUC] 0.98) and identified a cutoff UCPCR of ≥0.2 nmol/mmol for differentiating HNF1A/4A MODY from type 1 diabetes (97% sensitivity, 96% specificity). UCPCR was lower in HNF1A/4A MODY than in type 2 diabetes (1.72 nmol/mmol [0.98–2.90] vs. 2.47 nmol/mmol [1.4–4.13]); P = 0.007). ROC curves showed a weak distinction between HNF1A/4A MODY and type 2 diabetes (AUC 0.64).
UCPCR is a noninvasive outpatient tool that can be used to discriminate HNF1A and HNF4A MODY from long-duration type 1 diabetes. To differentiate MODY from type 1 diabetes of >5 years’ duration, UCPCR could be used to determine whether genetic testing is indicated.
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the HNF1A gene. Liver adenomatosis has been reported in MODY3 patients. The patient reported in this paper is a Japanese girl who first developed hepatomegaly, fatty liver, and hepatic dysfunction at age 5 years. Liver biopsy demonstrated steatosis and degeneration of hepatocytes. At that time, blood glucose and HbA1c levels were within normal ranges. Elevated HbA1c was noticed 4 years later, but islet cell and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies were not detected in the serum. Therefore, MODY3 was suspected and subsequent analysis of the HNF1A gene identified a heterozygous germline splice donor-site mutation in intron 9. MODY3 patients should be screened by non-invasive liver imaging, and careful follow-up of liver disease should be performed.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Gene mutation; liver disease; MODY3; steatosis
We are seeing a progressive increase in the number of young patients with clinically defined maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) having a family history suggestive of a monogenic cause of their disease and no evidence of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to determine whether or not mutations in the 3 commonest forms of MODY, hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), HNF1α and glucokinase (GK), are a cause of diabetes in young Omanis.
The study was performed at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. Twenty young diabetics with a family history suggestive of monogenic inheritance were identified in less than 18 months; the median age of onset of diabetes was 25 years and the median body mass index (BMI) 29 at presentation. Screening for the presence of autoimmune antibodies against pancreatic beta cells islet cell antibody (ICA) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) was negative. Fourteen of them consented to genetic screening and their blood was sent to Prof. A. Hattersley’s Unit at the Peninsular Medical School, Exeter, UK. There, their DNA was screened for known mutations by sequencing exon 1–10 of the GCK and exon 2–10 of the HNF1α and HNF4α genes, the three commonest forms of MODY in Europe.
Surprisingly, none of the patients had any of the tested MODY mutations.
In this small sample of patients with clinically defined MODY, mutations of the three most commonly affected genes occurring in Caucasians were not observed. Either these patients have novel MODY mutations or have inherited a high proportion of the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility genes compounded by excessive insulin resistance due to obesity.
Diabetes Mellitus; Type II; Diabetes mellitus; maturity onset; MODY; mutations; Diabetes; familial; Young adults; Oman
The phenotype associated with heterozygous HNF4A gene mutations has recently been extended to include diazoxide responsive neonatal hypoglycemia in addition to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To date, mutation screening has been limited to patients with a family history consistent with MODY. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HNF4A mutations in a large cohort of patients with diazoxide responsive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH).
Subjects and methods
We sequenced the ABCC8, KCNJ11, GCK, GLUD1, and/or HNF4A genes in 220 patients with HH responsive to diazoxide. The order of genetic testing was dependent upon the clinical phenotype.
A genetic diagnosis was possible for 59/220 (27%) patients. KATP channel mutations were most common (15%) followed by GLUD1 mutations causing hyperinsulinism with hyperammonemia (5.9%), and HNF4A mutations (5%). Seven of the 11 probands with a heterozygous HNF4A mutation did not have a parent affected with diabetes, and four de novo mutations were confirmed. These patients were diagnosed with HI within the first week of life (median age 1 day), and they had increased birth weight (median +2.4 SDS). The duration of diazoxide treatment ranged from 3 months to ongoing at 8 years.
In this large series, HNF4A mutations are the third most common cause of diazoxide responsive HH. We recommend that HNF4A sequencing is considered in all patients with diazoxide responsive HH diagnosed in the first week of life irrespective of a family history of diabetes, once KATP channel mutations have been excluded.
Cystatin C is a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Its level is influenced, among the others, by CRP whose concentration is decreased in HNF1A-MODY. We hypothesized that cystatin C level might be altered in HNF1A-MODY. We aimed to evaluate cystatin C in HNF1A-MODY both as a diagnostic marker and as a method of assessing GFR. We initially examined 51 HNF1A-MODY patients, 56 subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), 39 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 43 non-diabetic individuals (ND) from Poland. Subjects from two UK centres were used as replication panels: including 215 HNF1A-MODY, 203 T2DM, 39 HNF4A-MODY, 170 GCK-MODY, 17 HNF1B-MODY and 58 T1DM patients. The data were analysed with additive models, adjusting for gender, age, BMI and estimated GFR (creatinine). In the Polish subjects, adjusted cystatin C level in HNF1A-MODY was lower compared with T1DM, T2DM and ND (p < 0.05). Additionally, cystatin C-based GFR was higher than that calculated from creatinine level (p < 0.0001) in HNF1A-MODY, while the two GFR estimates were similar or cystatin C-based lower in the other groups. In the UK subjects, there were no differences in cystatin C between HNF1A-MODY and the other diabetic subgroups, except HNF1B-MODY. In UK HNF1A-MODY, cystatin C-based GFR estimate was higher than the creatinine-based one (p < 0.0001). Concluding, we could not confirm our hypothesis (supported by the Polish results) that cystatin C level is altered by HNF1A mutations; thus, it cannot be used as a biomarker for HNF1A-MODY. In HNF1A-MODY, the cystatin C-based GFR estimate is higher than the creatinine-based one.
Monogenic diabetes; MODY; Cystatin C; HNF1A
We describe a maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) case with mutations involving both HNF4A and HNF1A genes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A male patient was diagnosed with diabetes at age 17; the metabolic control rapidly worsened to insulin requirement. At that time no relatives were known to be affected by diabetes, which was diagnosed years later in both the parents (father at age 50 years, mother at age 54 years) and the sister (at age 32 years, during pregnancy).
The genetic screening showed a double heterozygosity for the mutation p.E508K in the HNF1A/MODY3 gene and the novel variant p.R80Q in the HNF4A/MODY1 gene. The genetic testing of the family showed that the father carried the MODY3 mutation while the mother, the sister, and her two children carried the MODY1 mutation.
MODY1 and MODY3 mutations may interact by chance to give a more severe form of diabetes (younger age at presentation and early need of insulin therapy to control hyperglycemia).
Heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Over 600 GCK mutations have been reported of which ∼65% are missense. In many cases co-segregation has not been established and despite the importance of functional studies in ascribing pathogenicity for missense variants these have only been performed for <10% of mutations. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst diabetic subjects in Slovakia by sequencing GCK in 100 Slovakian probands with a phenotype consistent with GCK-MODY and to explore the pathogenicity of identified variants through family and functional studies.
Twenty-two mutations were identified in 36 families (17 missense) of which 7 (I110N, V200A, N204D, G258R, F419S, c.580-2A>C, c.1113–1114delGC) were novel. Parental DNA was available for 22 probands (covering 14/22 mutations) and co-segregation established in all cases. Bioinformatic analysis predicted all missense mutations to be damaging. Nine (I110N, V200A, N204D, G223S, G258R, F419S, V244G, L315H, I436N) mutations were functionally evaluated. Basic kinetic analysis explained pathogenicity for 7 mutants which showed reduced glucokinase activity with relative activity indices (RAI) between 0.6 to <0.001 compared to wild-type GCK (1.0). For the remaining 2 mutants additional molecular mechanisms were investigated. Differences in glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) –mediated-inhibition of GCK were observed for both L315H & I436N when compared to wild type (IC50 14.6±0.1 mM & 20.3±1.6 mM vs.13.3±0.1 mM respectively [p<0.03]). Protein instability as assessed by thermal lability studies demonstrated that both L315H and I436N show marked thermal instability compared to wild-type GCK (RAI at 55°C 8.8±0.8% & 3.1±0.4% vs. 42.5±3.9% respectively [p<0.001]). The minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst Slovakian patients with diabetes was 0.03%.
In conclusion, we have identified 22 GCK mutations in 36 Slovakian probands and demonstrate that combining family, bioinformatic and functional studies can aid the interpretation of variants identified by molecular diagnostic screening.