Malocclusion should be identified at its earliest before it produces any detrimental effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the orthodontic status and treatment need of school children in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, using Dental Aesthetic Index.
Materials & Methods:
One thousand children in the age group of 12 - 14 years who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered. The demographic details of the students along with the information on the orthodontic status were collected using a predesigned questionnaire by a single orthodontist. The information on orthodontic status was obtained using Dentofacial Anomalies with the criteria of Dental Aesthetic Index (W H O Oral Health Assessment form 1997).
Results were subjected to ANOVA, Tukeys test and chi square test using SPSS, version 16. 86.1% of the subjects had DAI score of less than 25, suggesting ‘no treatment’; 10% had DAI score of 26-30, suggesting ‘elective treatment’; 3% had DAI score of 31-35, suggesting ‘highly desirable treatment’; 0.9% had DAI score of >36, indicating ‘mandatory treatment’; Higher prevalence of malocclusion among females than males.
It is necessary to identify this abnormality at its earliest before it produces detrimental effects. It is also essential to know the prevalence of malocclusion in any society, as it reveals the true extent of the problem and guides in overcoming it. The general public can, then, be educated on widespread occurrence of malocclusion and its deleterious effects, so that appropriate preventive and corrective measures can be instituted.
How to cite this article:
Anita G, Kumar GA, Reddy V, Reddy TP, Rao MS, Wankhade SB. Dental Aesthetic Index of school students in Telangana region - An epidemiological study.
J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):55-60
Dental Aesthetic Index; malocclusion; orthodontic treatment
Blindness is a major global public health problem and recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) provided a comprehensive estimate for prevalence and causes of blindness for the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). It also highlighted that uptake of services was also an issue, predominantly among lower socio-economic groups, women, and rural populations. On the basis of this analysis, L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) developed a pyramidal model of eye care delivery. This article describes the LVPEI eye care delivery model. The article discusses infrastructure development, human resource development, and service delivery (including prevention and promotion) in the context of primary and secondary care service delivery in rural areas. The article also alludes to opportunities for research at these levels of service delivery and the amenability of the evidence generated at these levels of the LVPEI eye health pyramid for advocacy and policy planning. In addition, management issues related to the sustainability of service delivery in rural areas are discussed. The article highlights the key factors required for the success of the LVPEI rural service delivery model and discusses challenges that need to be overcome to replicate the model. The article concludes by noting the potential to convert these challenges into opportunities by integrating certain aspects of the existing healthcare system into the model. Examples include screening of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in order to promote higher community participation. The results of such integration can serve as evidence for advocacy and policy.
Comprehensive eye care; eye care model; pyramidal model
To compare self-administered versions of three questionnaires for detecting heavy and problem drinking: the CAGE, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and an augmented version of the CAGE.
Three Department of Veterans Affairs general medical clinics.
Random sample of consenting male outpatients who consumed at least 5 drinks over the past year (“drinkers”). Heavy drinkers were oversampled.
An augmented version of the CAGE was included in a questionnaire mailed to all patients. The AUDIT was subsequently mailed to “drinkers.” Comparison standards, based on the tri-level World Health Organization alcohol consumption interview and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, included heavy drinking (>14 drinks per week typically or ≥5 drinks per day at least monthly) and active DSM-IIIR alcohol abuse or dependence (positive diagnosis and at least one alcohol-related symptom in the past year). Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were used to compare screening questionnaires.
Of 393 eligible patients, 261 (66%) returned the AUDIT and completed interviews. For detection of active alcohol abuse or dependence, the CAGE augmented with three more questions (AUROC 0.871) performed better than either the CAGE alone or AUDIT (AUROCs 0.820 and 0.777, respectively). For identification of heavy-drinking patients, however, the AUDIT performed best (AUROC 0.870). To identify both heavy drinking and active alcohol abuse or dependence, the augmented CAGE and AUDIT both performed well, but the AUDIT was superior (AUROC 0.861).
For identification of patients with heavy drinking or active alcohol abuse or dependence, the self-administered AUDIT was superior to the CAGE in this population.
alcohol abuse; screening; CAGE; AUDIT; alcohol drinking
Traditionally, the distribution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in India has been characterized by widespread prevalence of ancestral lineages (TbD1+ strains and variants) in the south and the modern forms (TbD1− CAS and variants) predominating in the north of India. The pattern was, however, not clearly known in the south-central region such as Hyderabad and the rest of the state of Andhra Pradesh where the prevalence of both tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the highest in the country; this area has been the hotspot of TB vaccine trials. Spoligotyping of 101 clinical isolates obtained from Hyderabad and rural Andhra Pradesh confirmed the occurrence of major genogroups such as the ancestral (or the TbD1+ type or the East African Indian (EAI) type), the Central Asian (CAS) or Delhi type and the Beijing lineage in Andhra Pradesh. Sixty five different spoligotype patterns were observed for the isolates included in this study; these were further analyzed based on specific genetic signatures/mutations. It was found that the major genogroups, CAS and “ancestral,” were almost equally prevalent in our collection but followed a north-south compartmentalization as was also reported previously. However, we observed a significant presence of MANU lineage in south Andhra Pradesh, which was earlier reported to be overwhelmingly present in Mumbai. This study portrays genotypic diversity of M. tuberculosis from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh and provides a much needed snapshot of the strain diversity that will be helpful in devising effective TB control programs in this part of the world.
This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender.
A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A self-administered questionnaire assessed six alcohol consumption measures: length of time of last (most recent) drinking occasion; amount consumed during last drinking occasion; frequency of alcohol consumption; heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks in a row); problem drinking; and possible alcohol dependence as measured by CAGE. The questionnaire also collected information on seven relevant student sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, academic year of study, current living circumstances - accommodation with parents, whether student was in intimate relationship, socioeconomic status of parents - parental education, income sufficiency) and two academic achievement variables (importance of achieving good grades at university, and one’s academic performance in comparison with one’s peers).
The majority of students (65% of females, 76% of males) reported heavy episodic drinking at least once within the last 2 weeks, and problem drinking was prevalent in 20% of females and 29% of males. Factors consistently positively associated with all six indicators of alcohol consumption were male gender and perceived insufficient income. Other factors such as living away from home, being in 1st or 2nd year of studies, having no intimate partner, and lower academic achievement were associated with some, but not all indicators of alcohol consumption.
The high level of alcohol consumption calls for regular/periodic monitoring of student use of alcohol, and for urgent preventive actions and intervention programmes at the universities in the UK.
Heavy episodic drinking; Problem drinking; Alcohol dependence; University students; Sociodemographic and educational characteristics; Gender
To investigate drinking patterns and gender differences in alcohol-related problems in a Brazilian population, with an emphasis on the frequency of heavy drinking.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probability adult household sample (n = 1,464) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Alcohol intake and ICD-10 psychopathology diagnoses were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1. The analyses focused on the prevalence and determinants of 12-month non-heavy drinking, heavy episodic drinking (4-5 drinks per occasion), and heavy and frequent drinking (heavy drinking at least 3 times/week), as well as associated alcohol-related problems according to drinking patterns and gender.
Nearly 22% (32.4% women, 8.7% men) of the subjects were lifetime abstainers, 60.3% were non-heavy drinkers, and 17.5% reported heavy drinking in a 12-month period (26.3% men, 10.9% women). Subjects with the highest frequency of heavy drinking reported the most problems. Among subjects who did not engage in heavy drinking, men reported more problems than did women. A gender convergence in the amount of problems was observed when considering heavy drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinkers were twice as likely as abstainers to present lifetime depressive disorders. Lifetime nicotine dependence was associated with all drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinking was not restricted to young ages.
Heavy and frequent episodic drinking was strongly associated with problems in a community sample from the largest city in Latin America. Prevention policies should target this drinking pattern, independent of age or gender. These findings warrant continued research on risky drinking behavior, particularly among persistent heavy drinkers at the non-dependent level.
Alcohol; Heavy episodic drinking; Binge drinking; Epidemiology; Brazil
Globally, limited data are available on changing trends of blindness from a single region.
To report the changing trends in the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment (VI), and visual outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural district of Andhra Pradesh, India, over period of one decade.
Settings and Design:
Rural setting; cross-sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services (RACSS) method, population-based, cross-sectional survey was done in a rural district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants ≥50 years of age. Further, a comparative analysis was done with participants ≥50 years from the previously concluded Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) study, who belonged to the same district.
Done using 11th version of Stata.
Using RACSS, 2160/2300 (93.9%) participants were examined as compared with the APEDS dataset (n=521). Age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness in RACSS and APEDS was 8% (95% CI, 6.9–9.1%) and 11% (95% CI, 8.3–13.7%), while that of VI was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.2–15.1%) and 40.3% (95% CI, 36.1–44.5%), respectively. Cataract was the major cause of blindness in both the studies. There was a significant reduction in blindness following cataract surgery as observed through RACSS (17.3%; 95% CI, 13.5–21.8%) compared with APEDS (34%; 95% CI, 20.9–49.3%).
There was a significant reduction in prevalence of blindness and VI in this rural district of India over a decade.
Blindness; cataract; outcomes; prevalence; rapid
The factors influencing the short-term outcome of alcohol dependence patients psychiatric set up were studied prospectively in an Indian population. Consecutive 60 patients with alcohol dependence syndrome according to the ICD 10 criteria, were studied. Positive outcome was noted in 55%, negative in 35%; and 10% were lost to follow up at the end of one year. There was no difference between the groups on educational level, marital status, economic status, religion, social support, associated physical or psychiatric diagnoses, type of treatment for deaddiction, age of regular drinking, days of previous abstinence and inpatient treatment days. However the negative outcome group were younger, and their average age for problem drinking was significantly less than the other group. They achieved many mile-stones of drinking career like onset of day drinking, development of dependence, diagnosis of dependence earlier. The negative outcome group also had higher psychosocial problem index, family history of alcoholism, more follow-up days using the mental health services. They did not come for follow up as quickly as the abstinent group after initiation of pathological drinking.The study suggested many clearly identifiable variables, which may distinguish prospectively patients with probable positive and negative outcome one year after the alcohol deaddiction treatment
Alcohold dependence; predictors; outcome
HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population.
Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors.
FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities.
FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use.
alcohol; female sex worker; HIV; India; qualitative study
Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited.
Methods During 2004–08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30–79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately.
Results Overall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286 g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of all men) reported weekly heavy drinking episodes, with the prevalence highest in younger men. Drinking alcohol was positively correlated with regular smoking, blood pressure and heart rate. Among male weekly drinkers, each 20 g/day alcohol consumed was associated with 2 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure. Potential indicators of problem drinking were reported by 24% of male weekly drinkers.
Conclusion The prevalence and patterns of drinking in China differ greatly by age, sex and geographical region. Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of unfavourable health behaviours and characteristics.
Alcohol; drinking; cohort study; descriptive analysis; China
To evaluate whether training primary care clinicians in maintenance care for patients who have changed their drinking influences practice behavior.
We randomized 15 physician and 3 mid-level clinicians in 2 primary care offices in a 2:1 design. The 12 intervention clinicians received a total of 2 ¼ hours of training in the maintenance care of alcohol problems in remission, a booster session, study materials and chart-based prompts at eligible patients' visits. Six controls provided usual care. Screening forms in the waiting rooms identified eligible patients, defined as those who endorsed: 1 or more items on the CAGE questionnaire or that they had an alcohol problem in the past; that they have “made a change in their drinking and are trying to keep it that way”; and that they drank <15 (men) or <10 (women) drinks per week in the past month. Exit interviews with patients evaluated the clinician's actions during the visit.
Of the 164 patients, 62% saw intervention clinicians. Compared with patients of control clinicians, intervention patients were more likely to report that their clinician asked about their alcohol history (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3, 5.8). Intervention clinicians who asked about the alcohol history were more likely to assess prior and planned alcohol treatment, assist through offers for prescriptions and treatment referral, and receive higher satisfaction ratings for the visit.
Systemic prompts and training in the maintenance care of alcohol use disorders in remission might increase primary care clinicians' inquiries about the alcohol history as well as appropriate assessment and intervention after an initial inquiry.
primary health care; alcohol-related disorders; recurrence/PC
This study was carried out to find out the drinking pattern in a rural population, using multivariate techniques. 386 current users identified in a community were assessed with regard to their drinking behaviours using a structured interview. For purposes of the study the questions were condensed into 46 meaningful variables. In bivariate analysis, 14 variables including dependent variables such as dependence, MAST & CAGE (measuring alcoholic status), Q.F. Index and troubled drinking were found to be significant. Taking these variables and other multivariate techniques too such as ANOVA, correlation, regression analysis and factor analysis were done using both SPSS PC + and HCL magnum mainframe computer with FOCUS package and UNIX systems. Results revealed that number of factors such as drinking style, duration of drinking, pattern of abuse, Q.F. Index and various problems influenced drinking and some of them set up a vicious circle. Factor analysis revealed mainly 3 factors, abuse, dependence and social drinking factors. Dependence could be divided into low/moderate dependence. The implications and practical applications of these tests are also discussed.
Alcohol; drinking pattern; drinking behaviour; social drinking; drug dependence
Understanding the prevalence and risk factors for common causes of ulcerative genital disease in the general population would inform current STI syndromic management and HIV testing strategies in high HIV prevalence regions of India.
Persons 15-49 years old from 32 rural and 34 urban clusters were sampled using a stratified random method to represent adults in the high HIV prevalence Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh state. Interviews were conducted and dry blood spots were collected on 12,617 study participants. Testing for HSV-2 and syphilis was performed.
Adjusted HSV-2 and syphilis seroprevalence rates were 4.70% and 2.08% for men and 7.07% and 1.42% for women. For men, tattooing, >3 lifetime sex partners, tobacco use, and sex with men in the past 6 months were associated with HSV-2 or syphilis (ORs, 1.66-2.95, p < 0.05). Male circumcision was positively associated with HSV-2 infection (OR, 1.37, p = 0.028) though this could be due to residual confounding. In women, greater than one lifetime partner remained significantly associated with HSV-2 in multivariate analysis (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.39-4.87). Among all behavioral risk factors and other covariates in women and men, HIV infection exhibited the strongest association with HSV-2 and syphilis (ORs, 8.2-14.2, p < 0.001). The proportion of individuals with HSV-2 who were HIV infected was less than the proportion with syphilis who were HIV infected (11.8% vs. 22.7%; p = 0.001).
Nearly one in four persons surveyed in this population-based study that were seroprevalent for syphilis, were also HIV infected. Common population risk factors for syphilis, HSV-2 and HIV and high rates of co-seroprevalence suggest that HIV testing, STI testing and service strategies for these would benefit from direct linkage in India.
To determine the effects of excessive drinking and alcohol dependency on mortality and chronic health problems in a rural community in South Korea, this study represents a nested case-control study. In 1998, we conducted the Alcohol Dependence Survey (ADS), a population survey of a village in Korea. To measure the effects of alcohol on chronic health conditions and mortality over time, in 2004, we identified 290 adults from the ADS sample (N=1,058) for follow-up. Of those selected, 145 were adults who had alcohol problems, either alcohol dependence as assessed in the ADS by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (N=59), or excessive drinking without dependency (N=86). Further 145 nondrinkers were identified, matching those with alcohol problems in age and sex. We revisited the village in 2004 and completed personal interviews with them. In multivariate logistic regressions, the rates of mortality and morbidity of chronic health conditions were three times greater for alcohol dependents compared with the rate for nondrinkers. Importantly, however, excessive drinking without dependency was not associated with the rates of either mortality or morbidity. Future investigations would benefit by attending more specifically to measures for alcohol dependence as well as measures for alcohol consumption.
Alcoholism; Alcohol Drinking; Mortality; Morbidity; Korea
The role of alcohol in causing acute medical admissions is recognised but not well quantified. Using a questionnaire we have studied prospectively alcohol intake in patients aged 18-60 years admitted to a medical unit and have analysed the contribution of alcohol to their admission. One hundred and six patients (61 male: 45 female) who fulfilled our preset age criteria were studied. Alcohol intake (mean +/- SEM) was 9 +/- 1 and 12 +/- 1 units on average and heavy drinking days respectively, and 38 +/- 6 units during their last drinking week. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was > 60 U/l (upper limit of normal) in 29 (n = 92). Eighteen (30%) men had drunk > 50 units and seven (16%) women had taken > 35 units in their last drinking week. In 25 (41%) men and 11 (24%) women alcohol intake was felt to contribute to their admission. In this subgroup, intake was 15 +/- 2 and 20 +/- 1 units on average and heavy drinking days respectively, and 87 +/- 13 units in the last drinking week. GGT was available in 29 and was abnormal in 18. Admission diagnoses were drug overdose (n = 16), alcohol withdrawal symptoms (n = 7), liver disease (n = 6), haematemesis (n = 14) and others (n = 3). Fifteen (42%) felt they had a definite alcohol problem. The use and abuse of alcohol contributes significantly to the general medical workload in the age group studied.
A study was undertaken in a north London general practice to see which questions and investigations were useful in assessing the drinking patterns of patients. In a 10-month period in 1984, 855 patients were interviewed by means of a questionnaire about quantity and frequency of drinking and the CAGE questionnaire to determine their drinking habits. They were also asked to blow into an alcolmeter. A blood sample was taken from 119 patients who said they drank more than 20 units of alcohol weekly or who scored more than two on the CAGE questionnaire or who had a positive alcolmeter reading, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels and mean corpuscular volume were determined.
The study showed that questions about quantity and frequency of drinking, taking under two minutes to administer in the consultation, are sufficient to raise suspicions about drinking problems. Detailed investigation can then be undertaken in patients who say they drink more than 20 units of alcohol weekly.
Depressive symptoms, intimate partner violence and hazardous drinking are common among patients attending general practice. Despite the high prevalence of these three problems; the relationship between them remains relatively unexplored.
This paper explores the association between depressive symptoms, ever being afraid of a partner and hazardous drinking using cross-sectional screening data from 7667 randomly selected patients from a large primary care cohort study of 30 metropolitan and rural general practices in Victoria, Australia. The screening postal survey included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Fast Alcohol Screening Test and a screening question from the Composite Abuse Scale on ever being afraid of any intimate partner.
23.9% met criteria for depressive symptoms. A higher proportion of females than males (20.8% vs. 7.6%) reported ever being afraid of a partner during their lifetime (OR 3.2, 95%CI 2.5 to 4.0) and a lower proportion of females (12%) than males (25%) were hazardous drinkers (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.4 to 0.5); and a higher proportion of females than males (20.8% vs. 7.6%) reported ever being afraid of a partner during their lifetime (OR 3.2, 95%CI 2.5 to 4.0). Men and women who had ever been afraid of a partner or who were hazardous drinkers had on average higher depressive symptom scores than those who had never been afraid or who were not hazardous drinkers. There was a stronger association between depressive symptoms and ever been afraid of a partner compared to hazardous drinking for both males (ever afraid of partner; Diff 6.87; 95% CI 5.42, 8.33; p < 0.001 vs. hazardous drinking in last year; Diff 1.07, 95% CI 0.21, 1.94; p = 0.015) and females (ever afraid of partner; Diff 5.26; 95% CI 4.55, 5.97; p < 0.001 vs. hazardous drinking in last year; Diff 2.23, 95% CI 1.35, 3.11; p < 0.001), even after adjusting for age group, income, employment status, marital status, living alone and education level.
Strategies to assist primary care doctors to recognise and manage intimate partner violence and hazardous drinking in patients with depression may lead to better outcomes from management of depression in primary care.
Alcohol is the 5th leading risk factor to the global disease burden and disability and about half of the global alcohol burden was attributable to injuries. Despite a large body of evidence documenting the associations between alcohol and injuries, data from Asian countries including South Korea are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between episodic heavy past-year drinking, problem drinking symptomatic of alcohol dependence and alcohol-related and intentional injuries. Data from 1,989 injured patients recruited for the WHO/NIAAA Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injury in South Korea were analyzed with respect to the prevalence rates and associations between injuries and frequency of past-year episodic heavy drinking and problem drinking. In estimating the odds ratios (ORs) and the associated 95% confidence intervals between alcohol intake and injuries multivariable logistic models were employed to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics and selected drinking variables. All analyses were conducted using the SAS 9.2 software. Findings of this study were consistent with prior studies that the risk of alcohol-related or intentional injury was positively associated with the frequency of episodic heavy drinking. The magnitudes of the associations were larger with frequent consumption of 5+ drinks (OR=4.0 approximately) than with frequent consumption of 12+ drinks (OR=3.1). Strong associations were also noted between RAPS4-assessed alcohol dependence and alcohol-related and intentional injuries. Further, the prevalence of intentional injury and its association with alcohol increased sharply once the acute alcohol intake exceeded 90 ml. Our results were consistent with prior studies that episodic heavy consumption, acute intoxication and problem drinking are pervasive among emergency room patients. Results of our study also lent support for administering a single-item screener querying consumption of 5+ drinks at a sitting in the past 12 months as a triage tool in Korea.
emergency room (ER) study; episodic heavy drinking; problem drinking; alcohol-related and intentional injury
This study examined routine computerized screening for alcohol and drug use of men and women seeking outpatient psychiatric services (excluding chemical dependency treatment) and prevalence based on electronic medical records of consecutive admissions.
The sample of 422 patients, ages 18–91, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Measures included 30-day, one-year, and lifetime substance use and alcohol-related problems.
Seventy-five percent of patients completed electronic intakes during the study period. Prior-month alcohol use was reported by 90 men (70%) and 180 women (62%). Of these patients, heavy drinking (five or more drinks on one occasion) was reported by 37 men (41%) and 41 women (23%). Prior-month cannabis use was reported by 17 men (13%) and 32 women (11%).
Computerized intake systems that include alcohol and drug screening can be integrated into outpatient psychiatric settings. Heavy drinking and use of nonprescribed drugs are commonly reported, which provides an important intervention opportunity.
Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making.
Alcohol dependence; alcohol screening; stratum specific likelihood ratio; risk stratification; assessment; treatment
Intention to quit and setting a quit date are key steps in the process towards improving quit rates and are thus an integral part of tobacco cessation efforts. The present study examined various motivating factors of “intention to quit” and “setting a quit date” in patients visiting public health facilities in two states of India.
A total of 1569 tobacco-users visiting public health facilities in 12 districts of the states of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat were assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of socio-demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, previous quit attempts and motivational factors on “intention to quit within 30 days” and “setting a quit date”.
Only 12% of patients intended to quit tobacco within 30 days and about 11% of them were ready to set a quit date. Respondents aged above 25 years were 53% less likely to quit tobacco within 30 days when compared to those below 25 years (95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 0.22 to 0.99). Smokeless tobacco users were associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.15 to 3.65) for “setting a quit date” when compared to smokers. Those with 1 to 5 previous quit attempts (in the past twelve months) were associated with an OR of 2.2 (95% CI: 1.38 to 3.51) for “intention to quit” and 2.46 (95% CI: 1.52 to 3.96) for “setting a quit date”. “Concern for personal health” and “setting an example for children” were associated with ORs of 3.42 (95% CI: 1.35 to 8.65) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.03 to 6.03) respectively for “setting a quit date”.
This study is amongst the first in India to explore factors associated with the “intention to quit” and “setting a quit date” among patients visiting public health facilities. Our findings suggest that socio-economic and individual-level factors are important factors depicting intention to quit and setting a quit date. We recommend the need for well-defined studies to understand the long term effects of factors influencing tobacco cessation for patients visiting public health facilities in India.
Intention to quit; Motivating factors; Public health facilities; Tobacco; India
To determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and congenital heart disease (CHD) using clinical and echocardiographic criteria in rural and urban school children in Andhra Pradesh, South India.
Materials and methods
A total of 4213 school children between 5 and 16 years of age were screened. 1177 were from rural schools and 3036 from urban schools. Prevalence of RHD and CHD was estimated.
Clinically RHD was present in 3 (prevalence 0.7/1000). Using echocardiography RHD was detected in 32 (7.6/1000), 11 (7.3/1000) from rural and 21 (7/1000) from urban schools. (P = 0.000, O.R = 0.093 and C.I. = 0.023–0.317). Total prevalence of RHD is 8.3/1000.
Clinically CHD was present in 39 (9.2/1000) children, rural 9 (7.6/1000) and urban 30 (9.9/1000). Using echocardiography CHD was detected in 44 (10.4/1000) children, rural 11 (9.3/1000) and urban 33 (10.8/1000).
RHD was detected several fold using echocardiographic screening than by clinical examination alone. Longitudinal follow-up of children with echocardiographically diagnosed subclinical RHD is needed.
Congenital heart disease (CHD); Echocardiography; Rheumatic heart disease (RHD)
Severe alcohol misuse as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–Consumption (AUDIT-C) is associated with increased risk of future fractures and trauma-related hospitalizations. This study examined the association between AUDIT-C scores and two-year risk of any type of trauma among US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients and assessed whether risk varied by age or gender.
Outpatients (215, 924 male and 9168 female) who returned mailed AUDIT-C questionnaires were followed for 24 months in the medical record for any International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-9) code related to trauma. The two-year prevalence of trauma was examined as a function of AUDIT-C scores, with low-level drinking (AUDIT-C 1–4) as the reference group. Men and women were examined separately, and age-stratified analyses were performed.
Having an AUDIT-C score of 9–12 (indicating severe alcohol misuse) was associated with increased risk for trauma. Mean (SD) ages for men and women were 68.2 (11.5) and 57.2 (15.8), respectively. Age-stratified analyses showed that, for men ≤50 years, those with AUDIT-C scores ≥9 had an increased risk for trauma compared with those with AUDIT-C scores in the 1–4 range (adjusted prevalence, 25.7% versus 20.8%, respectively; OR = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.50). For men ≥65 years with average comorbidity and education, those with AUDIT-C scores of 5–8 (adjusted prevalence, 7.9% versus 7.4%; OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02–1.31) and 9–12 (adjusted prevalence 11.1% versus 7.4%; OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30–2.17) were at significantly increased risk for trauma compared with men ≥65 years in the reference group. Higher AUDIT-C scores were not associated with increased risk of trauma among women.
Men with severe alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C 9–12) demonstrate an increased risk of trauma. Men ≥65 showed an increased risk for trauma at all levels of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C 5–8 and 9–12). These findings may be used as part of an evidence-based brief intervention for alcohol use disorders. More research is needed to understand the relationship between AUDIT-C scores and risk of trauma in women.
Alcohol; Trauma; Fracture; AUDIT-C; Age; Gender; Screening; Women
A large-scale prevalence survey of blindness and visual impairment (The Andhra Pradesh Eye Diseases Study [APEDS1]) was conducted between 1996-2000 on 10,293 individuals of all ages in three rural and one urban clusters in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. More than a decade later (June 2009-March 2010), APEDS1 participants in rural clusters were traced (termed APEDS2) to determine ocular risk factors for mortality in this longitudinal cohort.
Methods and Findings
Mortality hazard ratio (HR) analysis was performed for those aged >30 years at APEDS1, using Cox proportional hazard regression models to identify associations between ocular exposures and risk of mortality. Blindness and visual impairment (VI) were defined using Indian definitions. 799/4,188 (19.1%) participants had died and 308 (7.3%) had migrated. Mortality was higher in males than females (p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, smoking and education status the mortality HR was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5-2.5) for blindness; 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.7) for VI; 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) for pure nuclear cataract, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) for pure cortical cataract; 1.96 (95% CI: 1.6-2.4) for mixed cataract, 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4-2.9) for history of cataract surgery, and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9) for any cataract. When all these factors were included in the model, the HRs were attenuated, being 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0) for blindness and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9-1.5) for VI. For lens type, the HRs were as follows: pure nuclear cataract, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-2.1); pure cortical cataract, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1); mixed cataract, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.2), and history of previous cataract surgery, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6).
All types of cataract, history of cataract surgery and VI had an increased risk of mortality that further suggests that these could be potential markers of ageing.
How does specific information about contamination in a household's drinking water affect water handling behavior? We randomly split a sample of households in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The treatment group observed a contamination test of the drinking water in their own household storage vessel; while they were waiting for their results, they were also provided with a list of actions that they could take to remedy contamination if they tested positive. The control group received no test or guidance. The drinking water of nearly 90% of tested households showed evidence of contamination by fecal bacteria. They reacted by purchasing more of their water from commercial sources but not by making more time-intensive adjustments. Providing salient evidence of risk increases demand for commercial clean water.