The migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS) is a recently developed, validated questionnaire for assessing the impact of migraine on individual patients. We carried out a pilot study to assess the stability and reliability of a preliminary Italian version of MIDAS, based on the original 6-item version. One hundred four patients with migraine without aura completed the MIDAS form during a session with a neurologist and again 21 days later. Eighhty-six patients (83%) returned the second form. Pearson's (r = 0.8) and Spearman's (r = 0.7) tests showed a good test-retest reliability for the scores obtained at first and second compilations. In the majority of patients, the disability grade was stable after 21 days (Wilcoxon signed rank test p > 0.05). Our preliminary adaptation of the MIDAS questionnaire is satisfactorily stable and highly reliable, preparing the way for definitive Italian version.
Key words Migraine; Disability; Migraine disability assessment questionnaire; MIDAS; Italian version; Reliability
Background and Purpose
Chronic migraine (CM) has a significant impact on daily activities, and analgesic overuse is a major contributing factor to migraine transformation. Limited information is available on the functional consequences of CM stemming from analgesic overuse. This study evaluated the impact of the frequency of analgesic medication use on headache-related disability and clinical features in patients with CM.
Patients with CM were enrolled consecutively and classified into two groups according to their frequency of medication use: <15 days/month (CM-ML, n=52) and ≥15 days/month (CM-MH, n=68). All patients completed a structured questionnaire concerning the clinical features of their migraine, a validated version of the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), and the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6).
The pain intensity, as measured by a visual analog scale, was greater in the CM-MH group than in the CM-ML group (8.5±0.2 vs. 7.7±0.3, mean±SD; p<0.05). In the disability domain, the MIDAS scores were significantly higher for CM-MH patients than for CM-ML patients (47.6±4.8 vs. 26.8±4.5, p<0.01). The impact from migraine, as measured by the HIT-6, was greater for CM-MH patients than for CM-ML patients (65.6±1.0 vs. 62.1±1.0, p<0.05).
Our results indicate that the headache pain intensity and disability are greater in patients with CM who use medication frequently.
chronic migraine; disability; HIT-6; medication overuse; MIDAS
Migraine is associated with functional impairment. The migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire is a scientific instrument which captures headache-related disability. The Italian version of MIDAS was developed through a multistep standardized methodology. Studies on Italian clinical samples confirmed that migraine patients are disabled in all activity domains. Migraine exhibits a peculiar disability pattern: non-work activities are more affected than work activities; among patients in paid work, most continue working with a headache attack. We also found that MIDAS disability grades correlate with health-related quality of life scores at the SF-36 survey, namely with the extent to which physical health, emotional state and pain interfere with functioning in different roles. We conclude that MIDAS (also in its Italian version) is a reliable and useful instrument for assessing the impact of migraine on patients' daily activities, and that it can used not only in clinical practice but also in clinical research.
Key words Migraine; Disability; Migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS); Italian version; Disability pattern; Health-related quality of life
Migraine is an heterogeneous
disorder. Most patients are disabled
both in work and in non–work
activities. Different instruments to
assess migraine–related disability
have been developed. Among these,
the migraine disability assessment
(MIDAS) questionnaire is the most
studied. Population–based studies
have shown that MIDAS is a simple
but reliable and scientifically sound
instrument. This instrument
improves patient–physician communication.
It can help healthcare professionals
to understand migraine
severity in individual patients, and
rapidly assess treatment needs
(screening instrument). Furthermore,
reduction in headache–related disability
is a major goal of migraine
treatment. Change in MIDAS score
after treatment intervention may be a
useful end point, both in everyday
practice and in clinical trials.
Ongoing studies will confirm the
potential of MIDAS as a valid outcome
Migraine; Disability; Migraine disability assessment
(MIDAS) questionnaire; Communication; Outcome measure
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess psychometric properties of the six-item Headache Impact Text (HIT-6™) across episodic and chronic migraine.
Methods: Using a migraine screener and number of headache days per month (HDPM), participants from the National Survey of Headache Impact (NSHI) study and the HIT-6 validation study (HIT6-V) were selected for this study. Eligible participants were categorized into three groups: chronic migraine (CM: ≥ 15 HDPM); episodic migraine (EM: < 15 HDPM); non-migraine headaches. Reliability and validity of the HIT-6 were evaluated.
Results: A total of 2,049 survey participants met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for this study. Participants were identified as 6.4% CM; 42.1% EM; 51.5% non-migraine, with respective mean HIT-6 scores: 62.5 ± 7.8; 60.2 ± 6.8; and 49.1 ± 8.7. High reliability was demonstrated with internal consistency (time1/time2) of 0.83/0.87 in NSHI, and 0.82/0.92 in HIT6-V. Intra-class correlation for test-retest reliability was very good at 0.77. HIT-6 scores correlated significantly (p < .0001) with total Migraine Disability Assessment Scale scores (r = 0.56), headache pain severity (r = 0.46), and HDPM (r = 0.29). Discriminant validity analysis showed significantly different HIT-6 scores (F = 488.02, p < .0001) across the groups.
Conclusion: Results from these analyses confirm that the HIT-6 is a reliable and valid tool for discriminating headache impact across episodic and chronic migraine.
HIT-6; migraine; chronic migraine; episodic migraine; headache
Background and Purpose
Complete information on migraine-related disabilities facilitate the making of appropriate treatment decisions. Although the accessibility and ease of use of the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) make it a very promising instrument, there are few data available for comparing HIT-6 scores with the actual amount of disability.
To determine whether the disability measured using the HIT-6 questionnaire realistically reflects the amount of disability as extracted from a headache diary, which would help when deciding a management plan, 130 patients with migraine without aura were instructed to complete a headache diary on the days on which headache occurred. Each diary booklet also contained questions on the resulting disability, and comprised five items originating from the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale. After submitting their diaries, the participants completed the HIT-6 for the same time period.
Disability as recorded in diaries was present for a mean of 2.7 days per month, and its duration differed significantly with HIT-6 score: 0.9, 2.6, and 4.6 days per month for littleto-no impact, moderate impact, and severe impact, respectively. The summed disability score from diaries was also related to the HIT-6 score. Headache frequency was the only headache characteristic that contributed significantly to the HIT-6 score.
This study demonstrates that the HIT-6 could be useful for assessing headache-related disability in migraine patients, especially given that the questionnaire is both simple and ease of use.
migraine; disability; Headache Impact Test-6; Migraine Disability Assessment Scale; diary
We developed a 77-item self-reporting questionnaire to assess the burden of migraine (BURMIG), including headache characteristics, migraine associated disability, comorbidities, management, and the consequences on the patients’ lives. We translated BURMIG into four languages (French, Portuguese, German and English) and tested it in 130 headache patients (20 pain clinic, 17 primary care and 93 general public) in Luxembourg. We performed a linguistic and a face-content validation and tested the questionnaire for its comprehensiveness, internal consistency and for its retest-reliability at an interval of 1 month (completion rates were 79.6 and 76.4%, for test and retest, respectively). Retest-reliability for the different parts of the questionnaire varied between 0.6 and 1.0 (Kappa coefficient), with an intracorrelation coefficient of 0.7–1.0. The internal consistency was between 0.74 and 0.91 (Cronbach’s alpha). The questionnaire BURMIG is suitable to evaluate the burden of migraine and can be used in English, German, French and Portuguese.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-008-0059-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Headache; Questionnaire; Burden; Validation; English; German; French; Portuguese
Migraine is associated with
functional impairment. The migraine
disability assessment (MIDAS) scale
is a scientific instrument which captures
headache–related disability. The
Italian version of MIDAS was developed
through a multi–step standardized
methodology. Studies on Italian
clinical samples showed that
migraine patients were disabled in all
activity domains. Non–work activities
were more affected than work activities.
Among patients in paid work,
most continued working with a
headache attack, although productivity
was significantly reduced. The
Italian MIDAS was used also in
patients with transformed migraine
and drug overuse. These patients
were markedly disabled. MIDAS
scores were higher than those found
in migraine patients. When disability
was assessed after 6 months from
withdrawal therapy, MIDAS scores
were significantly lower than at baseline.
Our results confirmed the negative
impact of the lives of headache
patients, and suggest the use of
MIDAS as a sensitive outcome measure
for monitoring patients’
Migraine; Disability; Transformed migraine; Migraine disability assessment (MIDAS); Outcome measure
Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significant impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of migraine headaches in medical students, to measure its impact on their life, and to assess their knowledge about the ailment. Information about lifestyle variables was also collected.
Materials and Methods:
All medical students who confirmed of having headache for more than 1 year formed the study group. Students filled a detailed questionnaire focusing on demographics, pain characteristics, accompanying factors, triggers, and family history of migraine. Lifestyle variables were enquired and migraine associated disability was assessed by MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment). The diagnosis of migraine was made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Results are expressed in n = numbers and percentage.
Sixty-eight percent of medical students had headache. The prevalence of migraine in the whole cohort was 28%; however, of the headache group, migraine constituted 42%. There was a female preponderance. One-fourth of the students had weekly or daily attacks with 31% students reporting increase in their headache intensity and frequency. Forty-four percent of students had severe headaches. Dizziness, allodynia, and neck stiffness were reported as accompanying symptoms. Trigger factors were identified in 99% students, predominant of which were poor sleep hygiene, environmental changes, head movements, and mental stress. Only 4% of students did regular exercise. Twenty-seven percent of students reported self-medication use of analgesics. One-fourth of the students had migraine-associated disability but only 6% realized that they had migraine.
Our study found a high prevalence of headache with migraine in medical students. The students’ awareness of the disease was very low with one-fourth of the students resorting to self-medication. Our study identified previously less-recognized triggers like head movement and accompanying symptoms like neck stiffness. Migraine-attributed burden was high in medical students.
Impact on life; medical students; migraine
Background. Migraine-specific quality of life (MSQ) is a valid and reliable questionnaire. Linguistic validation of Persian MSQ questionnaire, analysis of psychometric properties between chronic and episodic migraine patients, and capability of MSQ to differentiate between chronic and episodic migraines were the aims of this study. Method. Participants were selected from four different neurology clinics that were diagnosed as chronic or episodic migraine patients. Baseline data included information from MSQ v. 2.1, MIGSEV, SF-36, and symptoms questionnaire. At the third week from the baseline, participants filled out MSQ and MIGSEV. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and test-retest reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficients) were used to assess reliability. Convergent and discriminant validities were also assessed. Results. A total of 106 participants were enrolled. Internal consistencies of MSQ among all patients, chronic and episodic migraines, were 0.92, 0.91, and 0.92, respectively. Test-retest correlation of MSQ dimensions between visits 1 and 2 varied from 0.41 to 0.50. Convergent, item discriminant, and discriminant validities were approved. In all visits MSQ scores were lower in chronic migraine than episodic migraine; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Persian translation of MSQ is consistent with original version of MSQ in terms of psychometric properties in both chronic and episodic migraine patients.
This prospective study investigated the effectiveness of a three-tier modularized out- and inpatient multidisciplinary integrated headache care program. N = 204 patients with frequent headaches (63 migraine, 11 tension-type headache, 59 migraine + tension-type headache, 68 medication-overuse headache and 3 with other primary headaches) were enrolled. Outcome measures at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-ups included headache frequency, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), standardized headache diary and a medication survey. Mean reduction in headache frequency was 5.5 ± 8.5 days/month, p < 0.001 at 6 months’ follow-up and 6.9 ± 8.3 days/month, p < 0.001 after 1 year. MIDAS decreased from 53.0 ± 60.8 to 37.0 ± 52.4 points, p < 0.001 after 6 months and 34.4 ± 53.2 points, p < 0.001 at 1 year. 44.0 % patients demonstrated at baseline an increased HAD-score for anxiety and 16.7 % of patients revealed a HAD-score indicating a depression. At the end of treatment statistically significant changes could be observed for anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression (p < 0.006). The intake frequency of attack-aborting medication decreased from 10.3 ± 7.3 days/month at admission to 4.7 ± 4.1 days/month, p < 0.001 after 6 months and reached 3.8 ± 3.5 days/month, p < 0.001 after 1 year. At baseline 37.9 % of patients had experience with non-pharmacological treatments and 87.0 % at 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, an integrated headache care program was successfully established. Positive health-related outcomes could be obtained with a multidisciplinary out- and inpatient headache treatment program.
Integrated; Care; Multidisciplinary treatment program; Outcome study; Headache-related disability; Headache-related quality of life; Chronic headache
Based on the knowledge that migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are associated with reduced effectiveness at work and impairment of function in social roles, we studied the different influences that these primary headaches have on work in a specialized and homogeneous population. We studied 140 consecutive male patients, aged 18–35 years, attending an outpatient headache clinic at the Neurology Department of an Army General Hospital. Using International Headache Society (IHS) criteria, 60 patients were diagnosed with migraine and 80 patients with TTH. The impact of headache on work during the preceding 2 months was assessed using a selfadministered questionnaire, based on MIDAS. Two parameters of work disability were derived: the lost work days (LWD) and the days with reduced effectiveness while being at work (REWD). Of 142 LWD due to headaches, 95 (66.9%) were attributable to migraine and 47 (33.1%) to TTH (plt;0.001). Of 490 REWD, 120 (24.4%) were reported by migraineurs and 370 (75.5%) by TTH patients (p<0.001). The number of LWD in migraine was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in TTH group; the number of REWD in TTH group was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in migraine group. Pain intensity was the main factor contributing to disability at work in migraine group (plt;0.001), in contrast with TTH group in which there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between pain intensity and duration of pain. Patients with migraine were much more likely to report actual lost workdays because of headache whereas TTH was responsible for the largest proportion of decreased work effectiveness. Assessing headache severity with an objective method (i.e. questionnaire) may improve headache care and lead to proper treatment decisions. Special attention must be given to particular populations.
Key words Migraine; Tension-type headache; Worn effectiveness
Research suggests that food intolerance may be a precipitating factor for migraine like headaches.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay) Test and subsequent dietary elimination advice for the prevention of migraine like headaches.
Randomised controlled trial.
Community based volunteers in the UK.
Volunteers who met the inclusion criteria for migraine like headaches and had one or more food intolerance were included in the study. Participants received either a true diet (n = 84) or a sham diet (n = 83) sheet. Participants were advised to remove the intolerant foods from their diet for 12 weeks.
Main outcome measures
Number of headache days over a 12 week period (item A MIDAS questionnaire). Other measures includes the total MIDAS score and total HIT-6 score.
The results indicated a small decrease in the number of migraine like headaches over 12 weeks, although this difference was not statistically significant (IRR 1.15 95% CI 0.94 to 1.41, p = 0.18). At the 4 week assessment, use of the ELISA test with subsequent diet elimination advice significantly reduced the number of migraine like headaches (IRR 1.23 95%CI 1.01 to 1.50, p = 0.04). The disability and impact on daily life of migraines were not significantly different between the true and sham diet groups.
Use of the ELISA test with subsequent diet elimination advice did not reduce the disability or impact on daily life of migraine like headaches or the number of migraine like headaches at 12 weeks but it did significantly reduce the number of migraine like headaches at 4 weeks.
Trial registration number
headache; diet; food elimination; randomised controlled trial
The aim of this study was to translate the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Korean and to evaluate its reliability and validity for use with Korean-speaking patients with fibromyalgia (FM). After translating the FIQ into Korean, we administered it to 55 patients with FM (28 patients filled out the questionnaire again 7 days later) together with a Korean version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R). The tender-point count (TPC) was calculated from tender points identified by thumb palpation. In addition to sociodemographic characteristics, the severity of relevant current clinical symptoms, e.g., pain intensity, fatigue, and morning stiffness, were assessed by 10-cm visual analog scales (VAS). The test-retest reliability was between 0.466 and 0.780 (total 0.778). Cronbach's alpha was 0.800 for FIQ1 (the first assessment) and 0.857 for FIQ2 (the second assessment), indicating acceptable levels of internal consistency for both assessments. Significant correlations were obtained between the FIQ items, the HAQ, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the subscales of the SCL-90-R. In conclusion, the Korean version of the FIQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring health status and physical functioning in Korean patients with FM.
Migraine is a highly
prevalent and disabling disease that
is substantially undiagnosed in primary
care. Recently, the ID
Migraine, a self–administered questionnaire,
was shown to be a valid
and reliable screener for migraine
in primary care in the USA. To
validate an Italian version of the
ID Migraine, we planned a multicentric
study, evaluating at least
220 patients affected by various
form of headache. The responses to
the questionnaire were compared
with the diagnosis of headache
made by a headache specialist
blind to the result of the questionnaire.
Sensitivity, specificity, and
positive and negative predictive
values for migraine were calculated.
The statistical analysis on 140
patients now examined showed a
very good performance of the ID
Migraine with high sensitivity:
0.94 (95% CI: 0.89–0.95), specificity:
0.70 (95% CI: 0.54–0.86)
and positive predictive value: 0.89
(0.82–0.95). If confirmed, these
results would establish ID
Migraine as a valid screening
instrument for migraine in Italian
headache patients and warrant further
investigation in primary care
to assess the validity of this ID
screener in Italian population.
Migraine; ID migraine; Italian ID migraine; Migraine
recognition; Headache centers; Primary care
Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most common manifestation of pain in childhood. Estimates of the prevalence of headache in children and adolescents vary widely (depending on the setting, methodology, and diagnostic criteria applied) and the impact is not well understood.
To quantify the impact of headache in a school population.
Design of study
A questionnaire survey.
A total of 1037 school children between the ages of 12 and 15 years were surveyed, of whom 49% were female. Main outcome measures were headache frequency, disease-specific impact using the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score (PedMIDAS), and generic quality of life impact using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL4).
Twenty per cent of the study population had headache one or more times a week, with an average PedMIDAS score of over 12.1 (and an impact on over 12 days in a 3-month period). Ten per cent of the population had a PedMIDAS score of 16.8 and a PedsQL4 generic quality of life score of 70.1, indicating a poorer quality of life than that of children with asthma, diabetes, or cancer. An average of 0.6 days of school was lost in a 3-month period across all school children.
There is a significant impact of headache on the quality of life of children. This impact is both unrecognised and unmet. GPs have an important role in identification and management of this problem.
children; headache; quality of life
Background. Inflammation has a key role in migraine pathophysiology. Vitamin D is an effective anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between migraine and two vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (TaqI and FokI) and also the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and headache severity.
Methods. In this case-control study we assessed 103 patients with newly diagnosed migraine without aura and 100 healthy subjects. Patients filled headache impact test-6 (HIT-6) as a tool to assess headache severity. Results. Genotype frequencies of VDR were significantly different between control and migraine patients. Heterozygote genotypes (Ff and Tt) were statistically more frequent in the migraine patients than the control subjects both for TaqI gene (P = 0.018; OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.03–3.18) and FokI gene polymorphisms (P = 0.001; OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.47–5.77). Also f and t alleles were more frequent in the migraine patients. Total HIT-6 score was significantly different between FokI heterozygote and homozygote patients (60.32 ± 1.87 versus 49.87 ± 2.69, resp., P = 0.004). Conclusions. In conclusion our results showed that TaqI and FokI gene polymorphisms are associated with migraine without aura in Iranians patients. Also headache severity in FokI heterozygote patients was significantly greater than in the homozygote patients.
The Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire version 2.1 (MSQ) has been shown to have good psychometric performance in measuring headache impact in migraine patients, but its properties specifically in chronic migraine (CM) patients are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the MSQ in a group of CM patients undergoing prophylactic treatment.
Measurement properties of the MSQ were examined using two international, multicenter, randomized clinical trials evaluating onabotulinumtoxinA as headache prophylaxis in CM patients (N = 1,376). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the latent structure of the MSQ in CM patients. The reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness of the MSQ were assessed.
CFA confirmed the currently proposed three-factor MSQ latent structure across the two studies. Good reliability was observed for all three MSQ scales, across studies and time points. MSQ scale scores strongly correlated with the scores of the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6). Analysis of known-groups validity indicated that MSQ scale scores discriminated between groups of patients differing in their 28-day headache frequency were as follows <10, 10–14, and ≥15 days, and the sample-derived quartiles of the total cumulative hours of headache were as follows <140, 140 to <280, 280 to <420, and ≥420 h (p < 0.0001), across both studies and time points. MSQ change scores were higher in magnitude in groups experiencing greater decline in headache frequency (p < 0.001).
The MSQ is a psychometrically valid tool that can be used to reliably measure the impact of migraine among CM patients.
Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ); Psychometric properties; Validity; Chronic migraine; Health-related quality of life; PREEMPT
Research increasingly suggests that obesity is an exacerbating factor for migraine. However, it is less clear whether weight loss may help to alleviate migraine in obese individuals. We examined whether weight loss after bariatric surgery is associated with improvements in migraine headaches.
In this prospective observational study, 24 patients who had migraine according to the ID-Migraine screener were assessed before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. At both time points, patients had their weight measured and reported on frequency of headache days, average headache pain severity, and headache-related disability over the past 90 days via the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire. Changes in headache measures and the relation of weight loss to these changes were assessed using paired-sample t tests and logistic regression, respectively.
Patients were mostly female (88%), middle-aged (mean age 39.3), and severely obese (mean body mass index 46.6) at baseline. Mean (±SD) number of headache days was reduced from 11.1 ± 10.3 preoperatively to 6.7 ± 8.2 postoperatively (p < 0.05), after a mean percent excess weight loss (%EWL) of 49.4%. The odds of experiencing a ≥50% reduction in headache days was related to greater %EWL, independent of surgery type (p < 0.05). Reductions in severity were also observed (p < 0.05) and the number of patients reporting moderate to severe disability decreased from 12 (50.0%) before surgery to 3 (12.5%) after surgery (p < 0.01).
Severely obese migraineurs experience marked alleviation of headaches after significant weight reduction via bariatric surgery. Future studies are needed to determine whether more modest, behaviorally produced weight losses can effect similar migraine improvements.
Classification of evidence:
This study provides Class III evidence that bariatric surgery is associated with reduction of migraine headaches in severely obese individuals.
Although there is a considerably high prevalence of developmental disorders in Turkey there are not many assessment tools related to evaluating the impact of these children on their family. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Impact on Family Scale (IPFAM), a health related quality of life measurement to be utilized in clinical trials, health care services, research and evaluation.
Caregivers of 85 children with developmental disabilities answered the questionnaire and 65 of them answered it twice with a one week interval. The reliability of the measurement was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between total impact score of IPFAM, WeeFIM and the physiotherapists' evaluation via Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to determine the child's disability.
Test-retest reliability was found to be ICC = 0.953 for total impact, 0.843 for financial support, 0.940 for general impact, 0.871 for disruption of social relations and 0.787 for coping. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's alpha and was found to be 0.902 for total impact of IPFAM. For construct validity the correlation between total impact score of IPFAM and WeeFIM was r = -0,532 (p < 0.001) and the correlation between total impact score of IPFAM and the physiotherapist's evaluation was r = 0.519 (p < 0.001).
The Turkish version of IPFAM was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the impact of developmental disorders of the child on the family.
Aims and Objectives:
Translation of the Insomnia Severity Index from English to Hindi and Validation of the Hindi version.
Materials and Methods:
The translation process of the Insomnia Severity Index was initiated after obtaining due permission from the author of the original version of the same. Translation was carried out by using standard translation procedures, such as combined translation, decentering, and pretest method. The final version of the Insomnia Severity Index in Hindi was finally validated. A randomly selected sample size of 65 subjects was enrolled for the purpose of validation and testing the reliability of Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Insomnia was present in 45 subjects and they constituted the insomnia group. The rest 20 subjects did not have insomnia and were included in the control group. The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index was applied to both the groups.
The total sample constituted of 50.8% males and 49.2% females. The mean age in the control group was 30.8±8.3 years and that in the insomnia group was 40.3±4 years (t=3.04; P=0.001). The translated version of the Insomnia Severity Index showed a reliability of 0.91 (Cronbach's α=0.91). This was not just simple translation, but many of the words were changed to adapt it for the local population.
The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a valid and reliable tool that can be administered for the assessment of severity of insomnia.
Hindi; insomnia; insomnia severity index; validation
To examine the feasibility of administering behavioral migraine management training by telephone (TAT) and the acceptability of TAT to adolescents with episodic migraine.
34 adolescents (M = 14 years) with migraine (M = 3.6 migraines/month; M = 29.2 hours duration) were randomly assigned to a two-month telephone administered behavioral migraine management program (TAT) or to a standard Triptan Treatment (TT). Outcome was assessed at three- and eight-month evaluations. Participants completed a daily migraine diary that yielded information about number, duration and severity of migraines and migraine-related disability, as well as the Migraine Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire - Adolescent. In addition, TAT participants evaluated key aspects of the TAT program using 5-point Likert-like rating scales. Lastly, the ability of adolescents to demonstrate specific headache management skills following TAT was assessed.
All fifteen adolescents who entered TAT successfully demonstrated either full or partial mastery of two or more skills and nearly half demonstrated at least partial mastery of all four skills evaluated. Ninety three percent of the TAT participants reported having a positive relationship with their phone counselor. They also reported a preference for the telephone-based treatment over in-clinic visits and rated the manual and tapes as helpful. Treatment effects (in terms of percent improvement) ranged from consistently large across both evaluations for improvement in number of migraines (54% and 71%), disability equivalent hours (80% and 63%) and quality of life (44% and 48%), to moderate or variable for migraine duration (35% and 23%) and severity (30% and 34%). The TT group also showed clinically meaningful reductions in headache parameters and improvements in quality of life.
Completion rates for TAT were high; adolescents evaluated their experience with TAT positively and were able to exhibit key behavioral headache management skills following treatment. While clinically significant improvements in migraine and migraine-related disability/quality of life were observed with both TAT and treatment as usual (triptan therapy), the small study size and the absence of a control group do not permit conclusions about the effectiveness of either treatment. Nonetheless these results indicate TAT may be a promising treatment format for improving access to behavioral treatments for underserved adolescents and justifies further evaluation of TAT both alone and in combination with drug therapy.
migraine; quality of life; behavior; treatment; adolescent; headache
Health assessment measurements for patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have to be meaningful, valid and relevant. A commonly used questionnaire for patients with RA is the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ), which has been available in Swedish since 1988. The HAQ has been revised and improved several times and the latest version is the Multi Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ). The aim of this study was to translate the MDHAQ to Swedish conditions and to test the validity and reliability of this version for persons with RA.
Translation and adaption of the MDHAQ were performed according to guidelines by Guillemin et al. The translated version was tested for face validity and test-retest in a group of 30 patients with RA. Content validity, criterion validity and internal consistency were tested in a larger study group of 83 patients with RA. Reliability was tested with test-retest and Cronbach´s alpha for internal consistency. Two aspects of validity were explored: content and criterion validity. Content validity was tested with a content validity index.
Criterion validity was tested with concurrent validity by exploring the correlation between the MDHAQ-S and the AIMS2-SF. Floor and ceiling effects were explored.
Test-retest with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) gave a coefficient of 0.85 for physical function and 0.79 for psychological properties. Reliability test with Cronbach´s alpha gave an alpha of 0.65 for the psychological dimension and an alpha of 0.88 for the physical dimension of the MDHAQ-S.
The average sum of the content validity index for each item was of the MDHAQ-S was 0.94. The MDHAQ-S had mainly a moderate correlation with the AIMS2-SF, except for the social dimension of the AIMS2-SF, which had a very low correlation with the MDHAQ-S.
The MDHAQ-S was considered to be reliable and valid, but further research is needed concerning sensitivity to change.
Health assessment; Rheumatoid arthritis; Rehabilitation
The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is perhaps the most widely used and well-studied retrospective measure of childhood abuse or neglect. This study tested the initial reliability and validity of a Korean translation of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-K) among non-psychotic psychiatric outpatients.
The CTQ-K was administered to a total of 163 non-psychotic psychiatric outpatients at a university-affiliated training hospital. Internal consistency, four-week test-retest reliability, and validity were calculated. A portion of the participants (n=65) also completed the Trauma Assessment Questionnaire (TAQ), the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon.
Four-week test-retest reliability was high (r=0.87) and internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α=0.88). Each type of childhood trauma was significantly correlated with the corresponding subscale of the TAQ, thus confirming its concurrent validity. In addition, the CTQ-K total score was positively related to post-traumatic symptoms and pathological dissociation, demonstrating the convergent validity of the scale. The CTQ-K was also negatively correlated with the competence and safety subscale of the TAQ, confirming discriminant validity. Additionally, we confirmed the factorial validity by identifying a five-factor structure that explained 64% of the total variance.
Our study indicates that the CTQ-K is a measure of psychometric soundness that can be used to assess childhood abuse or neglect in Korean patients. It also supports the cross-cultural equivalence of the scale.
Childhood trauma questionnaire; Reliability and validity; Trauma; Child abuse; Culture
Migraine is a common neurological disorder with a significant genetic component. Less information is known about the contribution of minor genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the migraine process. In the present study, we aim to investigate the role of CACNA1A gene polymorphism on severity and related factors in family positive migraine patients.
Materials and Methods:
We included 74 common migraine patients consequently. Headache severity was evaluated according to Headache Impact Test (HIT6) questionnaire and quality of life of patients was investigated according to MSQ (Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire v2.1) questionnaire. Thirty patients with positive family history of migraine were selected and sequencing analysis after DNA extraction was performed.
Direct sequencing revealed a known SNP G to A transition in the exon 16 (nt2369, G → A) in 9 patients. There was no significantly correlation between polymorphism and type of migraine, severity, frequency, duration and quality of life in family positive migraine. Evaluated migraine severity by HIT6 questioner couldn't act as a risk factor for this polymorphism (OR: 0.93, CI%95 0.82-1.06 P = 0.3).
In Iranian population no significant association was seen between Thr698Thr (nt2369) polymorphism and head pain severity in familial migraine. Confirmation of this hypothesis needs further investigation.
Migraine; quality of life; single nucleotide polymorphism; severity