Objective—To investigate whether localised skeletal muscle training, which does not have a great influence on the heart, improves abnormalities of calf muscle metabolism in patients with chronic heart failure.
Methods—Seven cardiac patients in New York Heart Association class II and III undertook a random order crossover trial. Training consisted of unilateral calf plantar flexion exercise. Before and after training, the patients' metabolic responses were examined during the calf exercise test with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and calf blood flow with plethysmography. The new Borg scale was employed as a subjective fatigue scale.
Results—In a constant load exercise test (70% of maximum load achieved during the incremental exercise), standardised phosphocreatine and intracellular pH decreased less after training (p < 0.05, repeated measures analysis of variance). The new Borg scale improved significantly after training (p < 0.05). Blood flow did not change significantly in either test.
Conclusions—In patients with chronic heart failure, localised calf skeletal muscle training improved oxidative capacity without changes in calf blood flow. This training also improved the subjective fatigue scale. This training method may therefore alleviate leg fatigue experienced in daily activities.
Keywords: heart failure; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; skeletal muscle; localised training
The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of static stretching of the plantar-flexor muscles on eccentric and concentric torque and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy subjects. Seventy five healthy male volunteers, with no previous history of trauma to the calf that required surgery, absence of knee flexion contracture and no history of neurologic dysfunction or disease, systemic disease affecting the lower extremities were selected for this study. The participants were divided into three equal groups. The control group did not stretch the plantar-flexor muscles. Two Experimental groups (trained and untrained) were instructed to perform static stretching exercise of 30 second duration and 5 repetitions twice daily. The stretching sessions were carried out 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The dorsiflexion range of motion was measured in all subjects. Also measured was the eccentric and concentric torque of plantar-flexors at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s pre and post stretching. Analysis of variance showed a significant increase in plantar-flexor eccentric and concentric torque (p < 0.05) of trained and untrained groups, and an increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (p < 0.05) at both angular velocities for the untrained group only. The static stretching program of plantar-flexors was effective in increasing the concentric and eccentric plantarflexion torque at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s. Increases in plantar-flexors flexibility were observed in untrained subjects.
calf muscle; isokinetic torque; static stretching
To assess the effects of sex, joint angle, and the gastrocnemius muscle on passive ankle joint complex stiffness (JCS).
Design and Setting:
A repeated-measures design was employed using sex as a between-subjects factor and joint angle and inclusion of the gastrocnemius muscle as within-subject factors. All testing was conducted in a neuromuscular research laboratory.
Twelve female and 12 male healthy, physically active subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years volunteered for participation in this study. The dominant leg was used for testing. No subjects had a history of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury or circulatory or neurologic disorders.
We determined passive ankle JCS by measuring resistance to passive dorsiflexion (5°·s−1) from 23° plantar flexion (PF) to 13° dorsiflexion (DF). Angular position and torque data were collected from a dynamometer under 2 conditions designed to include or reduce the contribution of the gastrocnemius muscle. Separate fourth-order polynomial equations relating angular position and torque were constructed for each trial. Stiffness values (Nm·degree−1) were calculated at 10° PF, neutral (NE), and 10° DF using the slope of the line at each respective position.
Significant condition-by-position and sex-by-position interactions and significant main effects for sex, position, and condition were revealed by a 3-way (sex-by-position, condition-by-position) analysis of variance. Post hoc analyses of the condition-by-position interaction revealed significantly higher stiffness values under the knee-straight condition compared with the knee-bent condition at both ankle NE and 10° DF. Within each condition, stiffness values at each position were significantly higher as the ankle moved into DF. Post hoc analysis of the sex-by-position interaction revealed significantly higher stiffness values at 10° DF in the male subjects. Post hoc analysis of the position main effect revealed that as the ankle moved into dorsiflexion, the stiffness at each position became significantly higher than at the previous position.
The gastrocnemius contributes significantly to passive ankle JCS, thereby providing a scientific basis for clinicians incorporating stretching regimens into rehabilitation programs. Further research is warranted considering the cause and application of the sex-by-position interaction.
muscle; pathology; rehabilitation; range of motion; flexibility
It has been thought that intramuscular ADP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations are important regulators of mitochondorial respiration. There is a threshold work rate or metabolic rate for cellular acidosis, and the decrease in muscle PCr is accelerated with drop in pH during incremental exercise. We tested the hypothesis that increase in muscle oxygen consumption (o2mus) is accelerated with rapid decrease in PCr (concomitant increase in ADP) in muscles with drop in pH occurs during incremental plantar flexion exercise.
Five male subjects performed a repetitive intermittent isometric plantar flexion exercise (6-s contraction/4-s relaxation). Exercise intensity was raised every 1 min by 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), starting at 10% MVC until exhaustion. The measurement site was at the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Changes in muscle PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi), ADP, and pH were measured by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. o2mus was determined from the rate of decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin and/or myoglobin using near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy under transient arterial occlusion. Electromyogram (EMG) was also recorded. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (o2pul ) was measured by the breath-by-breath gas analysis.
EMG amplitude increased as exercise intensity progressed. In contrast, muscle PCr, ADP, o2mus, and o2pul did not change appreciably below 40% MVC, whereas above 40% MVC muscle PCr decreased, and ADP, o2mus, and o2pul increased as exercise intensity progressed, and above 70% MVC, changes in muscle PCr, ADP, o2mus, and o2pul accelerated with the decrease in muscle pH (~6.78). The kinetics of muscle PCr, ADP, o2mus, and o2pul were similar, and there was a close correlation between each pair of parameters (r = 0.969~0.983, p < 0.001).
With decrease in pH muscle oxidative metabolism accelerated and changes in intramuscular PCr and ADP accelerated during incremental intermittent isometric plantar flexion exercise. These results suggest that rapid changes in muscle PCr and/or ADP with mild acidosis stimulate accelerative muscle oxidative metabolism.
This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n = 10) lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave), electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP) and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP). Enhanced torque of 17±8% and 9±8% was found during and 2.5–3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p≤0.05) and a trend to greater V-waves (p≤0.1). In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature.
To determine whether isotonic or isokinetic contractions produced greater electromyographic (EMG) activity per unit of work during isotonic and isokinetic knee-extension exercise.
Design and Setting:
Subjects performed three 3-second maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the dominant knee extensors for EMG normalization. Exercise testing performed on the Biodex System 3 Dynamometer involved 10 isokinetic contractions at 180°·s−1 and 10 isotonic contractions with the resistance set at 50% of the previously recorded maximal voluntary isometric contraction.
Recreationally active college students (10 men and 11 women).
Surface EMG signals were collected from the vastus medialis and lateralis muscles and then integrated (IEMG) over the concentric phase of each repetition for both exercises. The IEMG was divided by the total work performed during the concentric phase for each exercise (IEMG/W).
We analyzed the IEMG/W data using a 1-between (sex), 2-within (exercise and muscle) repeated-measures analysis of variance. There was a significant main effect for exercise, with the isotonic IEMG/W value being significantly greater than the isokinetic IEMG/W value. Additionally, the IEMG/W relationship did not appear to be affected by sex or individual muscle tested.
Per unit of work performed, the isotonic contractions resulted in greater motor unit recruitment or an increased rate of firing, or both. This finding may have implications for the early phase of rehabilitation, when goals include complete motor unit recruitment of injured or atrophied muscles.
rehabilitation; IEMG; dynamometry
This study investigated the relationship of lower extremity joint torques and weight-bearing symmetry to sit-to-stand (STS) performance in individuals with chronic stroke. A motion analysis system and two force plates measured STS duration and weight-bearing symmetry (determined by ground reaction forces) during three self-paced and three fast-paced conditions. An isokinetic dynamometer measured maximum concentric joint torques of the paretic and nonparetic ankle, knee, and hip, which were normalized by body mass. Pearson correlations indicated that (a) paretic ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension torques related to the duration of the self-paced STS condition (r = −0.450, −0.716, respectively), (b) paretic ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, and knee extension torques related to the duration of the fast-paced STS condition (r = −0.466, −0.616, −0.736, respectively), and (c) greater weight-bearing symmetry related to faster STS performance for both self-paced and fast-paced STS conditions (r = −0.565, −0.564, respectively) (p < 0.05). This evidence suggests that paretic muscle strength and the ability to load the paretic limb are important factors underlying the ability to rise from a chair in individuals with chronic stroke.
PMID: 16139747 CAMSID: cams1870
Stroke; Sit-to-stand; Torque; Weight-bearing
We hypothesized that lower extremity stress-rest perfusion imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) could evaluate the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Perfusion imaging may provide valuable quantitative information on PAD, particularly in patients with diabetes in whom microvascular functional abnormalities are common.
Twenty-six control subjects and 39 patients with symptomatic PAD, 19 with type-2 diabetes mellitus, were studied. Claudication threshold was determined by a modified treadmill exercise test. Bilateral pulse-volume recordings, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and post-exercise ABI were performed. CEU perfusion imaging of the gastrocnemius and soleus was performed at rest and after 2 min of plantar-flexion exercise.
During exercise, claudication occurred earlier in PAD patients with diabetes than without. Muscle blood flow during plantar-flexion exercise was lower (p<0.05) in patients with PAD (10.4±6.7) and PAD with diabetes (7.9±5.9) compared to control subjects (20.0±9.5). After adjusting for diabetes, the only diagnostic tests that predicted severity of disease defined by claudication threshold were CEU exercise blood flow (odds ratios: 0.67 [95% CI (0.51 to 0.88); p=0.003], and flow reserve (odds ratio: 0.64 [95% CI (0.46 to 0.89), p=0.008]). A multivariate model incorporating all non-invasive diagnostic tests indicated that the best models for predicting severity of disease were the combination of presence of diabetes and either exercise blood flow or flow reserve.
Limb microvascular perfusion imaging during exercise can be evaluated by CEU. Skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise and flow reserve are impaired in patients with PAD and correlate with the severity of symptoms.
The severity of associated soft tissue trauma in complex injuries of the extremities guides fracture treatment and decisively determines patient's prognosis. Trauma-induced microvascular dysfunction and increased tissue pressure is known to trigger secondary soft tissue damage and seems to adversely affect skeletal muscle function.
20 patients with isolated tibial fractures were included. Blood pressure and compartment pressure (anterior and deep posterior compartment) were measured continuously up to 24 hours. Corresponding perfusion pressure was calculated. After 4 and 12 weeks isokinetic muscle peak torque and mean power of the ankle joint in dorsal and plantar flexion were measured using a Biodex dynamometer.
A significant inverse correlation between the anterior perfusion pressure at 24 hours and deficit in dorsiflexion at 4 weeks was found for both, the peak torque (R = -0.83; p < 0.01) and the mean power (R = -0.84; p < 0.01). The posterior perfusion pressure at 24 h and the plantar flexion after 4 weeks in both, peak torque (R = -0.73, p =< 0.05) and mean power (R = -0.7, p =< 0.05) displayed a significant correlation.
The functional relationship between the decrease in intramuscular perfusion pressures and muscle performance in the early rehabilitation period indicate a causative and prognostic role of early posttraumatic microcirculatory derangements and skeletal muscle function. Therapeutic concepts aimed at effective muscle recovery, early rehabilitation, and decreased secondary tissue damage, should consider the maintenance of an adequate intramuscular perfusion pressure.
Ultrasonography was used to measure pennation angle and electromyography (EMG) to record muscle activity of the human tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SOL) muscles during graded isometric ankle plantar and dorsiflexion contractions done on a Biodex dynamometer. Data from eight male and eight female subjects were collected in increments of approximately 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) ranging from rest to MVC. A significant positive linear relationship (p < 0.05) between normalized EMG and pennation angle for all muscles was observed when subject specific pennation angles at rest and MVC were included in the analysis. These were included to account for gender differences and inter-subject variability in pennation angle. The coefficient of determination, R2, ranged between 0.76 for the TA to 0.87 for the SOL. The EMG-pennation angle relationships have ramifications for use in EMG-driven models of muscle force. The regression equations can be used to characterize fiber pennation angle more accurately and to determine how it changes with contraction intensity, thus providing improved estimates of muscle force when using musculoskeletal models.
ultrasound; regression; optimal pennation angle; sex differences
This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners.
This is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.
Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.
Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.
These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports.
Stride length; stride frequency; ground contact time; isometric torque; hamstrings to quadriceps ratio; asymmetry
A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports.
The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related differences in contractile and elastic properties of both dorsi- (DF) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles controlling the ankle joint in young and older adults. Experimental data were collected while twelve young and twelve older male and female participants performed maximal effort isometric and isovelocity contractions on a dynamometer. Equations were fit to the data to give torque-angle (Tθ) and torque-angular velocity (Tω) relations. Muscle series-elasticity was measured during ramped dynamometer contractions using ultrasonography to measure aponeurosis extension as a function of torque; second order polynomials were used to characterize the torque-extension (TΔL) relation. The results showed no age differences in DF maximal torque and none for female PF; however, older males had smaller maximal PF torques compared to young males. In both muscle groups and genders, older adults had decreased concentric force capabilities. Both DF and PF TΔL relations were more nonlinear in the older adults. Older PF, but not DF muscles, were stiffer compared to young. A simple antagonism model suggested age-related differences in Tθ and Tω relations would be magnified if antagonistic torque contributions were included. This assessment of static, dynamic, and elastic joint properties affords a comprehensive view of age-related modifications in muscle function. Although many clinical studies use maximal isometric strength as a marker of functional ability, the results demonstrate that there are also significant age-related modifications in ankle muscle dynamic and elastic properties.
BACKGROUND--Patients with respiratory failure have early fatiguability which may be due to limitation of oxygen supply for oxidative (mitochondrial) ATP synthesis. Skeletal muscle in exercise and recovery was studied to examine the effect of chronic hypoxia on mitochondrial activity in vivo. METHODS--The skeletal muscle of five patients with respiratory failure (PaO2 < 9 kPa) was studied by phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared with 10 age and sex matched controls. Patients lay in a 1.9 Tesla superconducting magnet with the gastrocnemius muscle overlying a six cm surface coil. Spectra were acquired at rest, during plantar flexion exercise, and during recovery from exercise. Relative concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP were measured from peak areas, and pH and free ADP concentration were calculated. For the start of exercise, the rates of PCr depletion and estimated lactic acid production were calculated. For the post exercise recovery period, the initial rate of PCr recovery (a quantitative measure of mitochondrial ATP synthesis), the apparent Vmax for mitochondrial ATP synthesis (calculated from initial PCr resynthesis and the end exercise ADP concentration which drives this process), and the recovery half times of PCr, Pi, and ADP (also measures of mitochondrial function) were determined. RESULTS--Considerably greater and faster PCr depletion and intracellular acidosis were found during exercise. This is consistent with limitation of oxygen supply to the muscle and might explain the early fatiguability of these patients. There was no abnormality in recovery from exercise, however, suggesting that mitochondria function normally after exercise. CONCLUSIONS--These results are consistent with one or more of the following: (a) decreased level of activity of these patients; (b) changes in the fibre type of the muscle; (c) decreased oxygen supply to the muscle during exercise but not during recovery. They are not consistent with an intrinsic defect of mitochondrial ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle in respiratory failure.
The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with reduced blood flow and muscle oxidative metabolism. Patients with CFS according to CDC criteria (n=19) were compared to normal sedentary subjects (n = 11). Muscle blood flow was measured in the femoral artery with Doppler ultrasound after exercise. Muscle metabolism was measured in the medial gastrocnemius muscle using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. CFS and controls were not different in hyperemic blood flow or phosphocreatine recovery rate. Cuff pressures of 50,60,70,80,and 90 mmHg were used to partially restrict blood flow during recovery. All pressures reduced blood flow and oxidative metabolism, with 90 mmHg reducing blood flow by 46% and oxidative metabolism by 30.7% in CFS patients. Hyperemic blood flow during partial cuff occlusion was significantly reduced in CFS patients (P < 0.01), and recovery of oxygen saturation was slower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in the amount of reduction in metabolism with partially reduced blood flow. In conclusion, CFS patients showed evidence of reduced hyperemic flow and reduced oxygen delivery, but no evidence that this impaired muscle metabolism. Thus, CFS patients might have altered control of blood flow, but this is unlikely to influence muscle metabolism. Further, abnormalities in muscle metabolism do not appear to be responsible for the CFS symptoms.
oxidative metabolism; exercise; reactive hyperemia; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; near-infrared spectroscopy; Doppler ultrasound; NIRS; oxygen saturation; 31-P MRS; NMR
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a relatively low dose of creatine on skeletal muscle metabolism and oxygen supply in a group of training athletes. METHODS: 31P magnetic resonance and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to study calf muscle metabolism in a group of 10 female members of a university swimming team. Studies were performed before and after a six week period of training during which they took either 2 g creatine daily or placebo. Calf muscle metabolism and creatine/choline ratios were studied in resting muscle, during plantar flexion exercise (10-15 min), and during recovery from exercise. RESULTS: There was no effect of creatine on metabolite ratios at rest or on metabolism during exercise and recovery from exercise. Muscle oxygen supply and exercise performance were not improved by creatine if compared to placebo treated subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Oral creatine supplementation at 2 g daily has no effect on muscle creatine concentration, muscle oxygen supply or muscle aerobic or anaerobic metabolism during endurance exercise.
People with Hereditary and Sporadic Spastic Parapresis (SP) walk with a stiff legged gait characterised by a lack of knee flexion.
We investigated the relationship between lower limb strength and stiffness and knee flexion during swing phase while walking in 20 people with SP and 18 matched controls.
Maximal isometric strength was measured using a dynamometer. Passive stiffness and spasticity was assessed during motor-driven slow (5°/s) and fast (60°/s) stretches at the ankle and knee while the subject was relaxed or preactivating the muscle. Walking was assessed using 3D motion analysis.
Isometric muscle strength was decreased in people with SP with over a 50% reduction in strength being found in the ankle dorsiflexors. Passive stiffness, assessed during slow stretches, was 35% higher in the plantarflexors in people with SP (P < 0.05). Faster stretches induced large stretch evoked muscle activity and over a 110% increase in stiffness at the ankle and knee in people with SP reflecting the presence of spasticity (P < 0.05). However, stretch reflex size and stiffness was similar between the groups following identical stretches of the pre-activated muscle (P > 0.05). Lower knee flexion during swing phase was associated with reduced knee flexion velocity at the end of stance phase which in turn was associated with reduced plantarflexor strength and increased passive stiffness in the knee extensors.
The relative importance of muscle paresis and passive stiffness in limiting walking in SP suggests that these impairments should be the target of future therapies.
Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis; Stiff legged gait; Spasticity; Stiffness; Walking; Paresis
Occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries (bi-CCA) in mice are popular models for the investigation of transient forebrain ischemia. Currently available technologies for assessing cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation in ischemic mice have limitations. This study tests a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter for monitoring both CBF and cerebral oxygenation in mice undergoing repeated transient forebrain ischemia. Concurrent flow measurements in a mouse brain were first conducted for validation purposes; DCS measurement was found highly correlated with laser Doppler measurement (R2 = 0.94) and less susceptible to motion artifacts. With unique designs in experimental protocols and fiber-optic probes, we have demonstrated high sensitivities of DCS flow-oximeter in detecting the regional heterogeneity of CBF responses in different hemispheres and global changes of both CBF and cerebral oxygenation across two hemispheres in mice undergoing repeated 2-minute bi-CCA occlusions over 5 days. More than 75% CBF reductions were found during bi-CCA occlusions in mice, which may be considered as a threshold to determine a successful bi-CCA occlusion. With the progress of repeated 2-minute bi-CCA occlusions over days, a longitudinal decline in the magnitudes of CBF reduction was observed, indicating the brain adaptation to cerebral ischemia through the repeated preconditioning.
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology; (170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.6480) Spectroscopy, speckle
Exercise training has been shown to increase regional blood flow capacity among muscle fibers that experience increased activity during exercise. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increased blood flow capacity is partially the result of increases in arteriolar density (number of arterioles/mm2 of tissue) specifically in skeletal muscle tissue with the largest relative increase in muscle fiber activity during training bouts.
We tested this hypothesis by comparing and contrasting the effects of endurance exercise training (ET) and interval sprint training (IST) on arteriolar density in soleus muscle (S) red (Gr) and white (Gw) portions of gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats. ET rats completed 10 weeks of treadmill training 30 m/min, 15% grade, 60 min/day, 5 days/wk while IST rats completed 10 wks of IST consisting of six 2.5 min exercise bouts, with 4.5 min rest between bouts (60 m/min, 15% incline), 5 days/wk. Our hypothesis would be supported if ET increased arteriolar density in S and Gr and if IST increased arteriolar density in Gw.
Results reveal that ET increased arteriolar density above values of sedentary rats (SED) in both the Gw (ET = 0.93 ± 0.19 arterioles/μm2; SED = 0.44 ± 0.09 arterioles/μm2) and Gr (ET = 0.97 ± 0.1 arterioles/μm2; SED = 0.51 ± 0.06 arterioles/μm2) muscles, but not in S (ET = 1.69 ± 0.45 arterioles/μm2; SED = 1.51 ± 0.34 arterioles/μm2) muscle. In contrast, IST did not alter arteriolar density in Gw or Gr muscle tissue. Although arterial wall thickness was greater in S (3.95 ± 0.40 μm) and Gr (6.24 ± 0.59 μm) than Gw (2.76 ± 0.18 μm), neither ET or IST altered mean wall thickness in either muscle.
Increases in blood flow capacity produced in Gr, and Gw by ET appear to be due in part to increased arteriolar density. In contrast, increased arteriolar density does not contribute to increased blood flow capacity of Gw in IST rats.
blood flow; capacity; vascular remodeling; exercise
It has been reported that the physiological motion of the stapes in human and several animals in response to acoustic stimulation is mainly piston-like at low frequencies. At higher frequencies, the pattern includes rocking motions around the long and short axes of the footplate in human and animal ears. Measurements of such extended stapes motions are highly sensitive to the exact angulation of the stapes in relation to the measurement devices and to measurement errors. In this study, velocity in a specific direction was measured at multiple points on the footplates of human temporal bones using a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) system, and the elementary components of the stapes motions, which were the piston-like motion and the rocking motions about the short and long axes of the footplate, were calculated from the measurements. The angular position of a laser beam with respect to the stapes and coordinates of the measurement points on the footplate plane were calculated by correlation between the SLDV measurement frame and the footplate-fixed frame, which was obtained from micro-CT images. The ratios of the rocking motions relative to the piston-like motion increased with frequency and reached a maximum around 7 kHz.
A novel method for quantitatively assessing measurements of complex stapes motions and error boundaries of the motion components is presented. In the frequency range of 0.5 to 8 kHz, the magnitudes of the piston-like and two rocking motions were larger than estimated values of the corresponding upper error bounds.
stapes; piston-like motion; rocking motion; Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV); micro-CT
OBJECTIVE—To estimate muscle metabolism and oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle in patients with chronic heart failure.
METHODS—13 patients with chronic heart failure and 15 controls performed calf plantar flexion for six minutes at a constant workload of 50% of one repetition maximum. During recovery from exercise, skeletal muscle content of oxygenated haemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and the level of phosphocreatine (PCr) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) time constants of PCr and oxy-Hb during recovery from exercise were significantly greater in patients with chronic heart failure than in normal subjects (τ PCr: 76.3 (30.2) s v 36.5 (5.8) s; τ oxy-Hb: 48.3 (7.3) s v 30.1 (7.7) s; p < 0.01). Both time constants were similar in normal subjects, while the τ PCr was significantly greater than the τ oxy-Hb in patients with chronic heart failure.
CONCLUSIONS—The slower recovery of PCr compared with oxy-Hb in patients with chronic heart failure indicates that haemoglobin resaturation is not a major rate limiting factor of PCr resynthesis. It is suggested that muscle metabolic recovery may depend more on oxygen utilisation than on haemoglobin resaturation or oxygen delivery in patients with chronic heart failure.
Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy; chronic heart failure; exercise tolerance
To examine the ability of the skeletal muscle of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients to adapt to chronic exercise, five patients performed localized nondominant wrist flexor training for 28 d. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) and phosphocreatine (PCr) were monitored by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in both forearms at rest and during submaximal wrist flexion exercise at 6, 12, 24, and 36 J.min-1 before and after exercise training. Simultaneous measurements of limb blood flow were made by plethysmography at 12, 24, and 36 J.min-1. Forearm muscle mass and endurance were measured by magnetic resonance imaging and wrist flexion exercise before and after training. The Pi/PCr ratio and pH were calculated from the measured Pi and PCr. Exercise cardiac output, heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, and lactate measured during training were not elevated above resting values, confirming that training was localized to the forearm flexor muscles. After training, muscle bioenergetics, as assessed by the slope of the regression line relating Pi/PCr to submaximal workloads, were improved in the trained forearm of each patient, although muscle mass, limb blood flow, and pH were unchanged. Forearm endurance increased by greater than 260% after training. In the dominant untrained forearm, none of the measured indices were affected. We conclude that localized forearm exercise training in CHF patients improves muscle energetics at submaximal workloads in the trained muscle, an effect which is independent of muscle mass, limb blood flow, or a central cardiovascular response during training. These findings indicate that peripheral muscle metabolic and functional abnormalities in CHF can be improved without altering cardiac performance.
Women with fibromyalgia (FM) have symptoms of increased muscular fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance, which may be associated with alterations in muscle microcirculation and oxygen metabolism. This study used near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies to noninvasively evaluate muscle blood flow, blood oxygenation and oxygen metabolism during leg fatiguing exercise and during arm arterial cuff occlusion in post-menopausal women with and without FM.
Fourteen women with FM and twenty-three well-matched healthy controls participated in this study. For the fatiguing exercise protocol, the subject was instructed to perform 6 sets of 12 isometric contractions of knee extensor muscles with intensity steadily increasing from 20 to 70% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). For the cuff occlusion protocol, forearm arterial blood flow was occluded via a tourniquet on the upper arm for 3 minutes. Leg or arm muscle hemodynamics, including relative blood flow (rBF), oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2] and [Hb]), total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2), were continuously monitored throughout protocols using a custom-built hybrid diffuse optical instrument that combined a commercial near-infrared oximeter for tissue oxygenation measurements and a custom-designed diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flowmeter for tissue blood flow measurements. Relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) and oxygen consumption rate (rVO2) were calculated from the measured blood flow and oxygenation data. Post-manipulation (fatiguing exercise or cuff occlusion) recovery in muscle hemodynamics was characterized by the recovery half-time, a time interval from the end of manipulation to the time that tissue hemodynamics reached a half-maximal value.
Subjects with FM had similar hemodynamic and metabolic response/recovery patterns as healthy controls during exercise and during arterial occlusion. However, tissue rOEF during exercise in subjects with FM was significantly lower than in healthy controls, and the half-times of oxygenation recovery (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) were significantly longer following fatiguing exercise and cuff occlusion.
Our results suggest an alteration of muscle oxygen utilization in the FM population. This study demonstrates the potential of using combined diffuse optical spectroscopies (i.e., NIRS/DCS) to comprehensively evaluate tissue oxygen and flow kinetics in skeletal muscle.
The purpose of this study was to assess the between-day reliability of the electromechanical delay (EMD) of selected neck muscles during the performance of maximal isometric contractions in five different directions.
Twenty-one physically active males participated in two testing sessions separated by seven to eight days. Using a custom-made fixed frame dynamometer, cervical force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded bilaterally from the splenius capitis, upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles during the performance of efforts in extension, flexion, left and right lateral bending, and protraction. The EMD was extracted using the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator. Reliability indices calculated for each muscle in each testing direction were: the difference in scores between the two testing sessions and corresponding 95% confidence intervals, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC).
EMD values showed no evidence of systematic difference between the two testing sessions across all muscles and testing directions. The SEM for extension, flexion and lateral bending efforts ranged between 2.5 ms to 4.8 ms, indicating a good level of measurement precision. For protraction, SEM values were higher and considered to be imprecise for research and clinical purposes. ICC values for all muscles across all testing directions ranged from 0.23 to 0.79.
EMD of selected neck muscles can be measured with sufficient precision for the assessment of neck muscle function in an athletic population in the majority of directions tested.
Dynamic exercise is characterized by relaxation periods between contractions. The relaxation period should be considered as a causal factor for determining the magnitude of blood flow during dynamic exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle relaxation periods determined by the response of each subject on the exercise-induced blood flow response.
Seven healthy female subjects performed dynamic plantar flexions twice in succession; the duration of each flexion was 1- s and they were performed at an intensity of 15%, 30% and 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Based on the blood flow response after a single contraction, we set up intervals between two successive contractions; the intervals corresponded to 50% (pre-Tpeak), 100% (Tpeak), and 150% (post-Tpeak) of the time required to reach peak blood flow.
In all the conditions, upon cessation of the contraction, there was a progressive, beat-by-beat increase in the blood flow through the popliteal artery that peaked by the 5th cardiac cycle. Peak values of blood flow achieved after exercise were significantly higher at pre-Tpeak than at Tpeak and post-Tpeak (p < 0.05).
The result indicate that at three intervals based on the time taken to reach the peak value, the highest blood flow value was obtained at the pre-Tpeak interval.