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1.  Metabolic abnormality of calf skeletal muscle is improved by localised muscle training without changes in blood flow in chronic heart failure 
Heart  1997;78(5):437-443.
Objective—To investigate whether localised skeletal muscle training, which does not have a great influence on the heart, improves abnormalities of calf muscle metabolism in patients with chronic heart failure.
Methods—Seven cardiac patients in New York Heart Association class II and III undertook a random order crossover trial. Training consisted of unilateral calf plantar flexion exercise. Before and after training, the patients' metabolic responses were examined during the calf exercise test with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and calf blood flow with plethysmography. The new Borg scale was employed as a subjective fatigue scale.
Results—In a constant load exercise test (70% of maximum load achieved during the incremental exercise), standardised phosphocreatine and intracellular pH decreased less after training (p < 0.05, repeated measures analysis of variance). The new Borg scale improved significantly after training (p < 0.05). Blood flow did not change significantly in either test.
Conclusions—In patients with chronic heart failure, localised calf skeletal muscle training improved oxidative capacity without changes in calf blood flow. This training also improved the subjective fatigue scale. This training method may therefore alleviate leg fatigue experienced in daily activities.

 Keywords: heart failure;  magnetic resonance spectroscopy;  skeletal muscle;  localised training
PMCID: PMC1892289  PMID: 9415000
2.  Plantar-flexor Static Stretch Training Effect on Eccentric and Concentric Peak Torque – A comparative Study of Trained versus Untrained Subjects 
Journal of Human Kinetics  2012;34:49-58.
The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of static stretching of the plantar-flexor muscles on eccentric and concentric torque and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy subjects. Seventy five healthy male volunteers, with no previous history of trauma to the calf that required surgery, absence of knee flexion contracture and no history of neurologic dysfunction or disease, systemic disease affecting the lower extremities were selected for this study. The participants were divided into three equal groups. The control group did not stretch the plantar-flexor muscles. Two Experimental groups (trained and untrained) were instructed to perform static stretching exercise of 30 second duration and 5 repetitions twice daily. The stretching sessions were carried out 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The dorsiflexion range of motion was measured in all subjects. Also measured was the eccentric and concentric torque of plantar-flexors at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s pre and post stretching. Analysis of variance showed a significant increase in plantar-flexor eccentric and concentric torque (p < 0.05) of trained and untrained groups, and an increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (p < 0.05) at both angular velocities for the untrained group only. The static stretching program of plantar-flexors was effective in increasing the concentric and eccentric plantarflexion torque at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s. Increases in plantar-flexors flexibility were observed in untrained subjects.
doi:10.2478/v10078-012-0063-z
PMCID: PMC3590825  PMID: 23486840
calf muscle; isokinetic torque; static stretching
3.  The Effects of Sex, Joint Angle, and the Gastrocnemius Muscle on Passive Ankle Joint Complex Stiffness 
Journal of Athletic Training  2001;36(4):369-375.
Objective:
To assess the effects of sex, joint angle, and the gastrocnemius muscle on passive ankle joint complex stiffness (JCS).
Design and Setting:
A repeated-measures design was employed using sex as a between-subjects factor and joint angle and inclusion of the gastrocnemius muscle as within-subject factors. All testing was conducted in a neuromuscular research laboratory.
Subjects:
Twelve female and 12 male healthy, physically active subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years volunteered for participation in this study. The dominant leg was used for testing. No subjects had a history of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury or circulatory or neurologic disorders.
Measurements:
We determined passive ankle JCS by measuring resistance to passive dorsiflexion (5°·s−1) from 23° plantar flexion (PF) to 13° dorsiflexion (DF). Angular position and torque data were collected from a dynamometer under 2 conditions designed to include or reduce the contribution of the gastrocnemius muscle. Separate fourth-order polynomial equations relating angular position and torque were constructed for each trial. Stiffness values (Nm·degree−1) were calculated at 10° PF, neutral (NE), and 10° DF using the slope of the line at each respective position.
Results:
Significant condition-by-position and sex-by-position interactions and significant main effects for sex, position, and condition were revealed by a 3-way (sex-by-position, condition-by-position) analysis of variance. Post hoc analyses of the condition-by-position interaction revealed significantly higher stiffness values under the knee-straight condition compared with the knee-bent condition at both ankle NE and 10° DF. Within each condition, stiffness values at each position were significantly higher as the ankle moved into DF. Post hoc analysis of the sex-by-position interaction revealed significantly higher stiffness values at 10° DF in the male subjects. Post hoc analysis of the position main effect revealed that as the ankle moved into dorsiflexion, the stiffness at each position became significantly higher than at the previous position.
Conclusions:
The gastrocnemius contributes significantly to passive ankle JCS, thereby providing a scientific basis for clinicians incorporating stretching regimens into rehabilitation programs. Further research is warranted considering the cause and application of the sex-by-position interaction.
PMCID: PMC155431  PMID: 12937478
muscle; pathology; rehabilitation; range of motion; flexibility
4.  Muscle oxidative metabolism accelerates with mild acidosis during incremental intermittent isometric plantar flexion exercise 
Background
It has been thought that intramuscular ADP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations are important regulators of mitochondorial respiration. There is a threshold work rate or metabolic rate for cellular acidosis, and the decrease in muscle PCr is accelerated with drop in pH during incremental exercise. We tested the hypothesis that increase in muscle oxygen consumption (o2mus) is accelerated with rapid decrease in PCr (concomitant increase in ADP) in muscles with drop in pH occurs during incremental plantar flexion exercise.
Methods
Five male subjects performed a repetitive intermittent isometric plantar flexion exercise (6-s contraction/4-s relaxation). Exercise intensity was raised every 1 min by 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), starting at 10% MVC until exhaustion. The measurement site was at the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Changes in muscle PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi), ADP, and pH were measured by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. o2mus was determined from the rate of decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin and/or myoglobin using near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy under transient arterial occlusion. Electromyogram (EMG) was also recorded. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (o2pul ) was measured by the breath-by-breath gas analysis.
Results
EMG amplitude increased as exercise intensity progressed. In contrast, muscle PCr, ADP, o2mus, and o2pul did not change appreciably below 40% MVC, whereas above 40% MVC muscle PCr decreased, and ADP, o2mus, and o2pul increased as exercise intensity progressed, and above 70% MVC, changes in muscle PCr, ADP, o2mus, and o2pul accelerated with the decrease in muscle pH (~6.78). The kinetics of muscle PCr, ADP, o2mus, and o2pul were similar, and there was a close correlation between each pair of parameters (r = 0.969~0.983, p < 0.001).
Conclusion
With decrease in pH muscle oxidative metabolism accelerated and changes in intramuscular PCr and ADP accelerated during incremental intermittent isometric plantar flexion exercise. These results suggest that rapid changes in muscle PCr and/or ADP with mild acidosis stimulate accelerative muscle oxidative metabolism.
doi:10.1186/1476-5918-4-2
PMCID: PMC1079909  PMID: 15720727
5.  Effects of Isokinetic Passive Exercise and Isometric Muscle Contraction on Passive Stiffness 
Journal of Physical Therapy Science  2013;25(10):1347-1352.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic passive exercise and motion velocity on passive stiffness. In addition, we also discuss the effects of the contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles on passive stiffness. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 healthy men with no bone or joint disease. [Methods] Isokinetic passive exercise and isometric muscle contraction were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. The angular acceleration measured by the accelerometer was compared before and after each task. [Results] After the passive exercise, the angular acceleration increased in the phase of small damped oscillation. Moreover, the effect was higher at high-speed movement. The angular acceleration was decreased by the contraction of the agonist muscle. Conversely, the angular acceleration was increased by the contraction of the antagonist muscle. [Conclusion] Isokinetic passive exercise reduced passive stiffness. Our results suggest the possibility that passive stiffness is increased by agonist muscle contraction and decreased by antagonist muscle contraction.
doi:10.1589/jpts.25.1347
PMCID: PMC3820188  PMID: 24259791
Passive stiffness; Angular acceleration; Isokinetic passive exercise
6.  Cortical and Spinal Excitability during and after Lengthening Contractions of the Human Plantar Flexor Muscles Performed with Maximal Voluntary Effort 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49907.
This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n = 10) lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave), electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP) and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP). Enhanced torque of 17±8% and 9±8% was found during and 2.5–3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p≤0.05) and a trend to greater V-waves (p≤0.1). In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049907
PMCID: PMC3498207  PMID: 23166794
7.  Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study 
Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity), on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time) during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque) was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value) and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors) versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS) showed a significant univariate correlation (r = −0.70, P < 0.004) with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.
doi:10.1155/2014/759030
PMCID: PMC3929060  PMID: 24624296
8.  Analysis of Isokinetic Knee Extension / Flexion in Male Elite Adolescent Wrestlers 
Wrestling requires strength of the upper and lower body musculature which is critical for the athletic performance. Evaluation of the adolescent’s skeletal muscle is important to understand body movement, especially including those involved in sports. Strength, power and endurance capacity are defined as parameters of skeletal muscle biomechanical properties. The isokinetic dynamometer is an important toll for making this type of evaluation. However, load range phase of range of motion has to be considered to interpret the data correctly. With this in mind we aimed to investigate the lover body musculature contractile characteristics of adolescent wrestlers together with detailed analyses of load range phase of motion. Thirteen boys aged 12 - 14 years participated to this study. Concentric load range torque, work and power of knee extension and flexion were measured by a Cybex Norm dynamometer at angular velocities from 450°/sec to 30°/sec with 30°/sec decrements for each set. None of the wrestlers were able to attain load range for angular velocities above 390°/sec and 420°/sec for extension and flexion respectively. Detailed analyses of the load range resulted in statistically significant differences in the normalized load range peak torque for extension at 270°/sec (1.44 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.14 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05), and for flexion at 300°/sec (1.26 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.03 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05), compared to total peak torque data. Similarly, the significant difference was found for the work values at 90°/sec (1.91 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 and 1.59 ± 0.24 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for extension and 1.73 ± 0.21 Nm·kg-1 and 1.49 ± 0.19 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for flexion, p < 0.05), and was evident at higher angular velocities (p < 0.001) for both extension and flexion. At extension, load range power values were significantly smaller than total power for all angular velocities except 150°/sec (p < 0.05 for 120 and 180°/sec, p < 0.001 for others). Finally, load range flexion power was found to be higher than total power with statistically significance (p < 0.05 for 60, 120, 150, 180, 210, 270 and 300°/sec, p < 0.001 for 240 °/sec). Extra caution is required for correct interpretation of load range data in terms of considering the load range during limb movement. Evaluation of muscle performance of these adolescent wrestlers at regular intervals may give us an opportunity to obtain a healthy maturation profile of these adolescent wrestlers.
Key PointsConsideration of load range for peak torque, work and power calculation resulted significant differences in the data presented by isokinetic dynamometer. Therefore evaluation of the dynamometer data required consideration of the load range for correct analysis and interpretation.Contraction velocity has critical importance in determining the load range attaining ability for a moving limb during load range evaluation. In fact alterations in contraction speed may be due to a number of changes in muscle morphology, subjects’ age and the ratio between type I and type II muscle fiber area.
PMCID: PMC3899666  PMID: 24501564
Wrestling; adolescent; isokinetic dynamometer; muscle; load range
9.  Knee Extensor Electromyographic Activity-to-Work Ratio is Greater With Isotonic Than Isokinetic Contractions 
Journal of Athletic Training  2001;36(4):384-387.
Objective:
To determine whether isotonic or isokinetic contractions produced greater electromyographic (EMG) activity per unit of work during isotonic and isokinetic knee-extension exercise.
Design and Setting:
Subjects performed three 3-second maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the dominant knee extensors for EMG normalization. Exercise testing performed on the Biodex System 3 Dynamometer involved 10 isokinetic contractions at 180°·s−1 and 10 isotonic contractions with the resistance set at 50% of the previously recorded maximal voluntary isometric contraction.
Subjects:
Recreationally active college students (10 men and 11 women).
Measurements:
Surface EMG signals were collected from the vastus medialis and lateralis muscles and then integrated (IEMG) over the concentric phase of each repetition for both exercises. The IEMG was divided by the total work performed during the concentric phase for each exercise (IEMG/W).
Results:
We analyzed the IEMG/W data using a 1-between (sex), 2-within (exercise and muscle) repeated-measures analysis of variance. There was a significant main effect for exercise, with the isotonic IEMG/W value being significantly greater than the isokinetic IEMG/W value. Additionally, the IEMG/W relationship did not appear to be affected by sex or individual muscle tested.
Conclusions:
Per unit of work performed, the isotonic contractions resulted in greater motor unit recruitment or an increased rate of firing, or both. This finding may have implications for the early phase of rehabilitation, when goals include complete motor unit recruitment of injured or atrophied muscles.
PMCID: PMC155433  PMID: 12937480
rehabilitation; IEMG; dynamometry
10.  Limb Stress-Rest Perfusion Imaging With Contrast Ultrasound For The Assessment Of Peripheral Arterial Disease Severity 
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging  2008;1(3):343-350.
Objectives
We hypothesized that lower extremity stress-rest perfusion imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) could evaluate the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Background
Perfusion imaging may provide valuable quantitative information on PAD, particularly in patients with diabetes in whom microvascular functional abnormalities are common.
Methods
Twenty-six control subjects and 39 patients with symptomatic PAD, 19 with type-2 diabetes mellitus, were studied. Claudication threshold was determined by a modified treadmill exercise test. Bilateral pulse-volume recordings, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and post-exercise ABI were performed. CEU perfusion imaging of the gastrocnemius and soleus was performed at rest and after 2 min of plantar-flexion exercise.
Results
During exercise, claudication occurred earlier in PAD patients with diabetes than without. Muscle blood flow during plantar-flexion exercise was lower (p<0.05) in patients with PAD (10.4±6.7) and PAD with diabetes (7.9±5.9) compared to control subjects (20.0±9.5). After adjusting for diabetes, the only diagnostic tests that predicted severity of disease defined by claudication threshold were CEU exercise blood flow (odds ratios: 0.67 [95% CI (0.51 to 0.88); p=0.003], and flow reserve (odds ratio: 0.64 [95% CI (0.46 to 0.89), p=0.008]). A multivariate model incorporating all non-invasive diagnostic tests indicated that the best models for predicting severity of disease were the combination of presence of diabetes and either exercise blood flow or flow reserve.
Conclusions
Limb microvascular perfusion imaging during exercise can be evaluated by CEU. Skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise and flow reserve are impaired in patients with PAD and correlate with the severity of symptoms.
doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2008.04.001
PMCID: PMC2651026  PMID: 19356447
11.  Muscle Strength and Weight-Bearing Symmetry Relate to Sit-to-Stand Performance in Individuals with Stroke 
Gait & posture  2005;22(2):126-131.
This study investigated the relationship of lower extremity joint torques and weight-bearing symmetry to sit-to-stand (STS) performance in individuals with chronic stroke. A motion analysis system and two force plates measured STS duration and weight-bearing symmetry (determined by ground reaction forces) during three self-paced and three fast-paced conditions. An isokinetic dynamometer measured maximum concentric joint torques of the paretic and nonparetic ankle, knee, and hip, which were normalized by body mass. Pearson correlations indicated that (a) paretic ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension torques related to the duration of the self-paced STS condition (r = −0.450, −0.716, respectively), (b) paretic ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, and knee extension torques related to the duration of the fast-paced STS condition (r = −0.466, −0.616, −0.736, respectively), and (c) greater weight-bearing symmetry related to faster STS performance for both self-paced and fast-paced STS conditions (r = −0.565, −0.564, respectively) (p < 0.05). This evidence suggests that paretic muscle strength and the ability to load the paretic limb are important factors underlying the ability to rise from a chair in individuals with chronic stroke.
doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.08.002
PMCID: PMC3167866  PMID: 16139747 CAMSID: cams1870
Stroke; Sit-to-stand; Torque; Weight-bearing
12.  Initial intramuscular perfusion pressure predicts early skeletal muscle function following isolated tibial fractures 
Background
The severity of associated soft tissue trauma in complex injuries of the extremities guides fracture treatment and decisively determines patient's prognosis. Trauma-induced microvascular dysfunction and increased tissue pressure is known to trigger secondary soft tissue damage and seems to adversely affect skeletal muscle function.
Methods
20 patients with isolated tibial fractures were included. Blood pressure and compartment pressure (anterior and deep posterior compartment) were measured continuously up to 24 hours. Corresponding perfusion pressure was calculated. After 4 and 12 weeks isokinetic muscle peak torque and mean power of the ankle joint in dorsal and plantar flexion were measured using a Biodex dynamometer.
Results
A significant inverse correlation between the anterior perfusion pressure at 24 hours and deficit in dorsiflexion at 4 weeks was found for both, the peak torque (R = -0.83; p < 0.01) and the mean power (R = -0.84; p < 0.01). The posterior perfusion pressure at 24 h and the plantar flexion after 4 weeks in both, peak torque (R = -0.73, p =< 0.05) and mean power (R = -0.7, p =< 0.05) displayed a significant correlation.
Conclusion
The functional relationship between the decrease in intramuscular perfusion pressures and muscle performance in the early rehabilitation period indicate a causative and prognostic role of early posttraumatic microcirculatory derangements and skeletal muscle function. Therapeutic concepts aimed at effective muscle recovery, early rehabilitation, and decreased secondary tissue damage, should consider the maintenance of an adequate intramuscular perfusion pressure.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-3-14
PMCID: PMC2358881  PMID: 18419823
13.  CAN PENNATION ANGLES BE PREDICTED FROM EMGS FOR THE PRIMARY ANKLE PLANTAR AND DORSIFLEXORS DURING ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS? 
Journal of biomechanics  2008;41(11):2492-2497.
Ultrasonography was used to measure pennation angle and electromyography (EMG) to record muscle activity of the human tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SOL) muscles during graded isometric ankle plantar and dorsiflexion contractions done on a Biodex dynamometer. Data from eight male and eight female subjects were collected in increments of approximately 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) ranging from rest to MVC. A significant positive linear relationship (p < 0.05) between normalized EMG and pennation angle for all muscles was observed when subject specific pennation angles at rest and MVC were included in the analysis. These were included to account for gender differences and inter-subject variability in pennation angle. The coefficient of determination, R2, ranged between 0.76 for the TA to 0.87 for the SOL. The EMG-pennation angle relationships have ramifications for use in EMG-driven models of muscle force. The regression equations can be used to characterize fiber pennation angle more accurately and to determine how it changes with contraction intensity, thus providing improved estimates of muscle force when using musculoskeletal models.
doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.05.005
PMCID: PMC2548308  PMID: 18579147
ultrasound; regression; optimal pennation angle; sex differences
14.  Anthropometric, Gait and Strength Characteristics of Kenyan Distance Runners 
This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners.
Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports.
PMCID: PMC3761913  PMID: 24149957
Stride length; stride frequency; ground contact time; isometric torque; hamstrings to quadriceps ratio; asymmetry
15.  Isokinetic profile of dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle--a comparative study of élite versus untrained subjects. 
A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports.
PMCID: PMC1332153  PMID: 8044488
16.  MUSCLE METABOLISM WITH BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTION IN CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME 
The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with reduced blood flow and muscle oxidative metabolism. Patients with CFS according to CDC criteria (n=19) were compared to normal sedentary subjects (n = 11). Muscle blood flow was measured in the femoral artery with Doppler ultrasound after exercise. Muscle metabolism was measured in the medial gastrocnemius muscle using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. CFS and controls were not different in hyperemic blood flow or phosphocreatine recovery rate. Cuff pressures of 50,60,70,80,and 90 mmHg were used to partially restrict blood flow during recovery. All pressures reduced blood flow and oxidative metabolism, with 90 mmHg reducing blood flow by 46% and oxidative metabolism by 30.7% in CFS patients. Hyperemic blood flow during partial cuff occlusion was significantly reduced in CFS patients (P < 0.01), and recovery of oxygen saturation was slower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in the amount of reduction in metabolism with partially reduced blood flow. In conclusion, CFS patients showed evidence of reduced hyperemic flow and reduced oxygen delivery, but no evidence that this impaired muscle metabolism. Thus, CFS patients might have altered control of blood flow, but this is unlikely to influence muscle metabolism. Further, abnormalities in muscle metabolism do not appear to be responsible for the CFS symptoms.
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00141.2003
PMCID: PMC2680353  PMID: 14578362
oxidative metabolism; exercise; reactive hyperemia; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; near-infrared spectroscopy; Doppler ultrasound; NIRS; oxygen saturation; 31-P MRS; NMR
17.  Skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise and recovery in patients with respiratory failure. 
Thorax  1993;48(5):486-490.
BACKGROUND--Patients with respiratory failure have early fatiguability which may be due to limitation of oxygen supply for oxidative (mitochondrial) ATP synthesis. Skeletal muscle in exercise and recovery was studied to examine the effect of chronic hypoxia on mitochondrial activity in vivo. METHODS--The skeletal muscle of five patients with respiratory failure (PaO2 < 9 kPa) was studied by phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared with 10 age and sex matched controls. Patients lay in a 1.9 Tesla superconducting magnet with the gastrocnemius muscle overlying a six cm surface coil. Spectra were acquired at rest, during plantar flexion exercise, and during recovery from exercise. Relative concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP were measured from peak areas, and pH and free ADP concentration were calculated. For the start of exercise, the rates of PCr depletion and estimated lactic acid production were calculated. For the post exercise recovery period, the initial rate of PCr recovery (a quantitative measure of mitochondrial ATP synthesis), the apparent Vmax for mitochondrial ATP synthesis (calculated from initial PCr resynthesis and the end exercise ADP concentration which drives this process), and the recovery half times of PCr, Pi, and ADP (also measures of mitochondrial function) were determined. RESULTS--Considerably greater and faster PCr depletion and intracellular acidosis were found during exercise. This is consistent with limitation of oxygen supply to the muscle and might explain the early fatiguability of these patients. There was no abnormality in recovery from exercise, however, suggesting that mitochondria function normally after exercise. CONCLUSIONS--These results are consistent with one or more of the following: (a) decreased level of activity of these patients; (b) changes in the fibre type of the muscle; (c) decreased oxygen supply to the muscle during exercise but not during recovery. They are not consistent with an intrinsic defect of mitochondrial ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle in respiratory failure.
PMCID: PMC464498  PMID: 8322233
18.  Arterial spin labeling MRI reproducibly measures peak-exercise calf muscle perfusion in healthy volunteers and patients with peripheral arterial disease 
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging  2012;5(12):1224-1230.
Objectives
We hypothesized that arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla (T) would be a reliable non-contrast technique for measuring peak exercise calf muscle blood flow in both healthy volunteers and patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and will discriminate between these groups.
Background
Prior work demonstrated the utility of first-pass gadolinium-enhanced calf muscle perfusion MRI in patients with PAD. However, patients with PAD often have advanced renal disease and cannot receive gadolinium.
Methods
PAD patients had claudication and an ankle brachial index 0.4–0.9. Age-matched normal subjects (NL) had no PAD risk factors and were symptom-free with exercise. All performed supine plantar flexion exercise in a 3T MRI scanner using a pedal ergometer until exhaustion or limiting symptoms and were imaged at peak exercise with 15 averaged ASL images. Peak perfusion was measured from ASL blood flow images by placing a region of interest in the calf muscle region with the greatest signal intensity. Perfusion was compared between PAD and NL and repeat testing was performed in 12 subjects (5 NL, 7 PAD) for assessment of reproducibility.
Results
Peak exercise calf perfusion (mean±SD) of 15 NL (age 54±9 years) was higher than in 15 PAD (age 64±5 years, ABI 0.70±0.14) (80±23mL/min-100g vs. 49±16mL/min-100g, p<0.001). Five NL performed exercise matched to PAD and again demonstrated higher perfusion (84±25mL/min-100g, p<0.002). As a measure of reproducibility, intra-class correlation coefficient between repeated studies was 0.87 (95% CI 0.61–0.96). Inter-observer reproducibility was 0.96 (95% CI 0.84–0.99).
Conclusions
ASL is a reproducible non-contrast technique for quantifying peak exercise blood flow in calf muscle. Independent of exercise time, ASL discriminates between NL and PAD. This technique may prove useful for clinical trials of therapies for improving muscle perfusion, especially in patients unable to receive gadolinium.
doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2012.03.022
PMCID: PMC3531823  PMID: 23236972
Peripheral arterial disease; Magnetic resonance imaging; Perfusion; Arterial spin labeling
19.  Contractile and Elastic Ankle Joint Muscular Properties in Young and Older Adults 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(1):e15953.
The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related differences in contractile and elastic properties of both dorsi- (DF) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles controlling the ankle joint in young and older adults. Experimental data were collected while twelve young and twelve older male and female participants performed maximal effort isometric and isovelocity contractions on a dynamometer. Equations were fit to the data to give torque-angle (Tθ) and torque-angular velocity (Tω) relations. Muscle series-elasticity was measured during ramped dynamometer contractions using ultrasonography to measure aponeurosis extension as a function of torque; second order polynomials were used to characterize the torque-extension (TΔL) relation. The results showed no age differences in DF maximal torque and none for female PF; however, older males had smaller maximal PF torques compared to young males. In both muscle groups and genders, older adults had decreased concentric force capabilities. Both DF and PF TΔL relations were more nonlinear in the older adults. Older PF, but not DF muscles, were stiffer compared to young. A simple antagonism model suggested age-related differences in Tθ and Tω relations would be magnified if antagonistic torque contributions were included. This assessment of static, dynamic, and elastic joint properties affords a comprehensive view of age-related modifications in muscle function. Although many clinical studies use maximal isometric strength as a marker of functional ability, the results demonstrate that there are also significant age-related modifications in ankle muscle dynamic and elastic properties.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015953
PMCID: PMC3019216  PMID: 21264315
20.  Effect of creatine on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle in swimmers. 
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a relatively low dose of creatine on skeletal muscle metabolism and oxygen supply in a group of training athletes. METHODS: 31P magnetic resonance and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to study calf muscle metabolism in a group of 10 female members of a university swimming team. Studies were performed before and after a six week period of training during which they took either 2 g creatine daily or placebo. Calf muscle metabolism and creatine/choline ratios were studied in resting muscle, during plantar flexion exercise (10-15 min), and during recovery from exercise. RESULTS: There was no effect of creatine on metabolite ratios at rest or on metabolism during exercise and recovery from exercise. Muscle oxygen supply and exercise performance were not improved by creatine if compared to placebo treated subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Oral creatine supplementation at 2 g daily has no effect on muscle creatine concentration, muscle oxygen supply or muscle aerobic or anaerobic metabolism during endurance exercise.
PMCID: PMC1332335  PMID: 8889115
21.  Diffuse optical monitoring of repeated cerebral ischemia in mice 
Optics Express  2011;19(21):20301-20315.
Occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries (bi-CCA) in mice are popular models for the investigation of transient forebrain ischemia. Currently available technologies for assessing cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation in ischemic mice have limitations. This study tests a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter for monitoring both CBF and cerebral oxygenation in mice undergoing repeated transient forebrain ischemia. Concurrent flow measurements in a mouse brain were first conducted for validation purposes; DCS measurement was found highly correlated with laser Doppler measurement (R2 = 0.94) and less susceptible to motion artifacts. With unique designs in experimental protocols and fiber-optic probes, we have demonstrated high sensitivities of DCS flow-oximeter in detecting the regional heterogeneity of CBF responses in different hemispheres and global changes of both CBF and cerebral oxygenation across two hemispheres in mice undergoing repeated 2-minute bi-CCA occlusions over 5 days. More than 75% CBF reductions were found during bi-CCA occlusions in mice, which may be considered as a threshold to determine a successful bi-CCA occlusion. With the progress of repeated 2-minute bi-CCA occlusions over days, a longitudinal decline in the magnitudes of CBF reduction was observed, indicating the brain adaptation to cerebral ischemia through the repeated preconditioning.
doi:10.1364/OE.19.020301
PMCID: PMC3495871  PMID: 21997041
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology; (170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.6480) Spectroscopy, speckle
22.  Muscle paresis and passive stiffness: Key determinants in limiting function in Hereditary and Sporadic Spastic Paraparesis 
Gait & Posture  2012;35(2):266-271.
Background
People with Hereditary and Sporadic Spastic Parapresis (SP) walk with a stiff legged gait characterised by a lack of knee flexion.
Objective
We investigated the relationship between lower limb strength and stiffness and knee flexion during swing phase while walking in 20 people with SP and 18 matched controls.
Methods
Maximal isometric strength was measured using a dynamometer. Passive stiffness and spasticity was assessed during motor-driven slow (5°/s) and fast (60°/s) stretches at the ankle and knee while the subject was relaxed or preactivating the muscle. Walking was assessed using 3D motion analysis.
Results
Isometric muscle strength was decreased in people with SP with over a 50% reduction in strength being found in the ankle dorsiflexors. Passive stiffness, assessed during slow stretches, was 35% higher in the plantarflexors in people with SP (P < 0.05). Faster stretches induced large stretch evoked muscle activity and over a 110% increase in stiffness at the ankle and knee in people with SP reflecting the presence of spasticity (P < 0.05). However, stretch reflex size and stiffness was similar between the groups following identical stretches of the pre-activated muscle (P > 0.05). Lower knee flexion during swing phase was associated with reduced knee flexion velocity at the end of stance phase which in turn was associated with reduced plantarflexor strength and increased passive stiffness in the knee extensors.
Conclusions
The relative importance of muscle paresis and passive stiffness in limiting walking in SP suggests that these impairments should be the target of future therapies.
doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.09.018
PMCID: PMC3657152  PMID: 22050971
Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis; Stiff legged gait; Spasticity; Stiffness; Walking; Paresis
23.  Exercise Training Produces Non-Uniform Increases in Arteriolar Density of Rat Soleus and Gastrocnemius Muscle 
Objective
Exercise training has been shown to increase regional blood flow capacity among muscle fibers that experience increased activity during exercise. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increased blood flow capacity is partially the result of increases in arteriolar density (number of arterioles/mm2 of tissue) specifically in skeletal muscle tissue with the largest relative increase in muscle fiber activity during training bouts.
Methods
We tested this hypothesis by comparing and contrasting the effects of endurance exercise training (ET) and interval sprint training (IST) on arteriolar density in soleus muscle (S) red (Gr) and white (Gw) portions of gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats. ET rats completed 10 weeks of treadmill training 30 m/min, 15% grade, 60 min/day, 5 days/wk while IST rats completed 10 wks of IST consisting of six 2.5 min exercise bouts, with 4.5 min rest between bouts (60 m/min, 15% incline), 5 days/wk. Our hypothesis would be supported if ET increased arteriolar density in S and Gr and if IST increased arteriolar density in Gw.
Results
Results reveal that ET increased arteriolar density above values of sedentary rats (SED) in both the Gw (ET = 0.93 ± 0.19 arterioles/μm2; SED = 0.44 ± 0.09 arterioles/μm2) and Gr (ET = 0.97 ± 0.1 arterioles/μm2; SED = 0.51 ± 0.06 arterioles/μm2) muscles, but not in S (ET = 1.69 ± 0.45 arterioles/μm2; SED = 1.51 ± 0.34 arterioles/μm2) muscle. In contrast, IST did not alter arteriolar density in Gw or Gr muscle tissue. Although arterial wall thickness was greater in S (3.95 ± 0.40 μm) and Gr (6.24 ± 0.59 μm) than Gw (2.76 ± 0.18 μm), neither ET or IST altered mean wall thickness in either muscle.
Conclusion
Increases in blood flow capacity produced in Gr, and Gw by ET appear to be due in part to increased arteriolar density. In contrast, increased arteriolar density does not contribute to increased blood flow capacity of Gw in IST rats.
doi:10.1080/10739680600556829
PMCID: PMC2646594  PMID: 16627360
blood flow; capacity; vascular remodeling; exercise
24.  Dissociation between muscle metabolism and oxygen kinetics during recovery from exercise in patients with chronic heart failure 
Heart  2000;83(2):161-166.
OBJECTIVE—To estimate muscle metabolism and oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle in patients with chronic heart failure.
METHODS—13 patients with chronic heart failure and 15 controls performed calf plantar flexion for six minutes at a constant workload of 50% of one repetition maximum. During recovery from exercise, skeletal muscle content of oxygenated haemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and the level of phosphocreatine (PCr) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) time constants of PCr and oxy-Hb during recovery from exercise were significantly greater in patients with chronic heart failure than in normal subjects (τ PCr: 76.3 (30.2) s v 36.5 (5.8) s; τ oxy-Hb: 48.3 (7.3) s v 30.1 (7.7) s; p < 0.01). Both time constants were similar in normal subjects, while the τ PCr was significantly greater than the τ oxy-Hb in patients with chronic heart failure.
CONCLUSIONS—The slower recovery of PCr compared with oxy-Hb in patients with chronic heart failure indicates that haemoglobin resaturation is not a major rate limiting factor of PCr resynthesis. It is suggested that muscle metabolic recovery may depend more on oxygen utilisation than on haemoglobin resaturation or oxygen delivery in patients with chronic heart failure.


Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy; chronic heart failure; exercise tolerance
doi:10.1136/heart.83.2.161
PMCID: PMC1729323  PMID: 10648488
25.  Complex Stapes Motions in Human Ears 
It has been reported that the physiological motion of the stapes in human and several animals in response to acoustic stimulation is mainly piston-like at low frequencies. At higher frequencies, the pattern includes rocking motions around the long and short axes of the footplate in human and animal ears. Measurements of such extended stapes motions are highly sensitive to the exact angulation of the stapes in relation to the measurement devices and to measurement errors. In this study, velocity in a specific direction was measured at multiple points on the footplates of human temporal bones using a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) system, and the elementary components of the stapes motions, which were the piston-like motion and the rocking motions about the short and long axes of the footplate, were calculated from the measurements. The angular position of a laser beam with respect to the stapes and coordinates of the measurement points on the footplate plane were calculated by correlation between the SLDV measurement frame and the footplate-fixed frame, which was obtained from micro-CT images. The ratios of the rocking motions relative to the piston-like motion increased with frequency and reached a maximum around 7 kHz.
A novel method for quantitatively assessing measurements of complex stapes motions and error boundaries of the motion components is presented. In the frequency range of 0.5 to 8 kHz, the magnitudes of the piston-like and two rocking motions were larger than estimated values of the corresponding upper error bounds.
doi:10.1007/s10162-010-0207-6
PMCID: PMC2914244  PMID: 20165895
stapes; piston-like motion; rocking motion; Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV); micro-CT

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