Obesity prevalence in the rural United States is higher than in urban or suburban areas, perhaps as a result of the food environment. Because rural residents live farther from supermarkets than their urban- and suburban-dwelling counterparts, they may be more reliant on smaller corner stores that offer fewer healthful food items.
As part of a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) healthy corner store initiative, we reviewed audit tools in the fall of 2010 to measure the consumer food environment in eastern North Carolina and chose the NEMS-S-Rev (Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Stores-Revised) to assess 42 food stores. During the spring and summer of 2011, 2 trained graduate assistants audited stores, achieving interrater reliability of at least 80%. NEMS-S-Rev scores of stores in rural versus urban areas were compared.
Overall, healthful foods were less available and of lower quality in rural areas than in urban areas. NEMS-S-Rev scores indicated that healthful foods were more likely to be available and had similar pricing and quality in rural corner stores than in urban corner stores.
Food store audit data provided a baseline to implement and evaluate a CPPW healthy corner store initiative in Pitt County. This work serves as a case study, providing lessons learned for engaging community partners when conducting rural food store audits.
We examined perceptions of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the food environment among African Americans (AA) with high blood pressure living in two low-income communities and objectively assessed local food outlets.
Focus groups were conducted with 30 AAs; participants discussed DASH and the availability of healthy foods in their community. Sessions were transcribed and themes identified. Fifty-four stores and 114 restaurants were assessed using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS).
Common themes included poor availability, quality, and cost of healthy foods; tension between following DASH and feeding other family members; and lack of congruity between their preferred foods and DASH. Food outlets in majority AA census tracts had lower NEMS scores (stores: −11.7, p=.01, restaurants: −8.3, p=.001) compared with majority White areas.
Interventions promoting DASH among lower income AAs should reflect the food customs, economic concerns, and food available in communities.
Hypertension; diet; food deserts; African American
Mini-CEX scores assess resident competence. Rater training might improve mini-CEX score interrater reliability, but evidence is lacking.
Evaluate a rater training workshop using interrater reliability and accuracy.
Randomized trial (immediate versus delayed workshop) and single-group pre/post study (randomized groups combined).
Academic medical center.
Fifty-two internal medicine clinic preceptors (31 randomized and 21 additional workshop attendees).
The workshop included rater error training, performance dimension training, behavioral observation training, and frame of reference training using lecture, video, and facilitated discussion. Delayed group received no intervention until after posttest.
Mini-CEX ratings at baseline (just before workshop for workshop group), and four weeks later using videotaped resident–patient encounters; mini-CEX ratings of live resident–patient encounters one year preceding and one year following the workshop; rater confidence using mini-CEX.
Among 31 randomized participants, interrater reliabilities in the delayed group (baseline intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.43, follow-up 0.53) and workshop group (baseline 0.40, follow-up 0.43) were not significantly different ( = 0.19). Mean ratings were similar at baseline (delayed 4.9 [95% confidence interval 4.6–5.2], workshop 4.8 [4.5–5.1]) and follow-up (delayed 5.4 [5.0–5.7], workshop 5.3 [5.0–5.6]; = 0.88 for interaction). For the entire cohort, rater confidence (1 = not confident, 6 = very confident) improved from mean (SD) 3.8 (1.4) to 4.4 (1.0), = 0.018. Interrater reliability for ratings of live encounters (entire cohort) was higher after the workshop (ICC 0.34) than before (ICC 0.18) but the standard error of measurement was similar for both periods.
Rater training did not improve interrater reliability or accuracy of mini-CEX scores.
Clinical trials registration
clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00667940
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0842-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
medical education; faculty development; rater training; clinical competence; assessment; randomized trial
The Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) has developed a clinical practice guideline (CPG) regarding the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Implementation of this CPG in the primary care setting requires an effective dissemination strategy.
To examine the change in knowledge, participant satisfaction and perceived changes in clinical practice among health care professionals working in the primary care setting following attendance at a workshop to disseminate the CTS CPG for COPD.
A 2.5 h workshop was conducted in three community health sites within Ontario. Each workshop comprised a didactic presentation and interactive case study discussions. Before, and one month following the workshop, a structured knowledge assessment questionnaire was administered. A structured satisfaction questionnaire and evaluative form that examined the impact of the workshop on the clinical management of COPD patients were administered immediately and three months following completion of the workshop, respectively.
Sixty-nine participants attended the workshop. The mean score for the structured knowledge assessment questionnaire increased from 8.5±2.7 to 10.6±2.0 following the workshop (P=0.008). Eighty-nine per cent and 96% of participants indicated that they would recommend the workshop to a colleague and had greater confidence in their management of COPD patients, respectively. Following attendance of the workshop, 73%, 69% and 46% described increased patient education, patient monitoring and the use of objective testing in clinical practice, respectively.
Workshop attendance was associated with high levels of satisfaction and important self-reported changes in clinical practice, which may reflect improved knowledge of the CTS CPG for COPD.
Clinical practice guideline; COPD; Dissemination
Availability and price of healthy foods in food stores has the potential to influence purchasing patterns, dietary intake, and weight status of individuals. This study examined whether demographic factors of the store neighborhood or store size have an impact on the availability and price of healthy foods in sample of grocery stores and supermarkets. The Nutrition Environment Measures Study-Store (NEMS-S) instrument, a standardized observational survey, was utilized to evaluate food stores (N=42) in a multi-site (Vermont and Arkansas) study in 2008. Census data associated with store census tract (median household income and proportion African-American) were used to characterize store neighborhood and number of cash registers was used to quantify store size. Median household income was significantly associated with the NEMS healthy food availability score (r=0.36, p<0.05); neither racial composition (r=−0.23, p=0.14) nor store size (r=0.27, p=0.09) were significantly related to the Availability score. Larger store size (r=0.40, p<0.01) was significantly associated with the NEMS-S Price scores, indicating more favorable prices for healthier items; neither racial composition nor median household income were significantly related to the Price score (ps>0.05). Even among supermarkets, healthier foods are less available in certain neighborhoods, although, when available, the quality of healthier options did not differ, suggesting that targeting availability may offer promise for policy initiatives. Furthermore, increasing access to larger stores that can offer lower prices for healthier foods may provide another avenue for enhancing food environments to lower disease risk.
diet; obesity; built environment; economics; race
To develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of a cultural competence train-the-trainer workshop for pharmacy educators.
A 2-day train-the-trainer workshop entitled Incorporating Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education (1.65 CEUs) was provided to pharmacy faculty from schools across the United States. Baseline, posttraining, and 9-month follow-up surveys assessed participants' (n = 50) characteristics and self-efficacy in developing and teaching content.
At baseline, 94% of faculty members reported no formal training in teaching cultural competence. After completing the workshop, participants' self-rated confidence for developing and teaching workshop content significantly increased. The number of participants who rated their ability to teach cultural competence as “very good” or “excellent” increased from 13% to 60% posttraining. Participants reported teaching 1 or more aspects of the workshop curriculum to nearly 3,000 students in the 9-months following training.
The workshop significantly increased faculty members' perceived and documented ability to teach cultural competence. The train-the-trainer model appears to be a viable and promising strategy for meeting the American Council for Pharmacy Education accreditation standards relating to the teaching of diversity, cultural issues, and health literacy.
cultural competence; pharmacy education; assessment; faculty development; train-the-trainer program
To determine if participation in a procedural skills workshop during family practice residency affects future use of these skills in postgraduate clinical practice.
Survey involving self-assessment of procedural skills experience and competence.
Former University of British Columbia family practice residents who trained in Vancouver, BC, including residents who participated in a procedural skills workshop in 2001 or 2003 and residents graduating in 2000 and 2002 who did not participate in the procedural skills workshop.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Self-assessed experience and competence in the 6 office-based procedural skills that were taught during the procedural skills workshops in 2001 and 2003.
Participation in a procedural skills workshop had no positive effect on future use of these skills in clinical practice. Participation in the workshop was associated with less reported experience (P = .091) in injection of lateral epicondylitis. As with previous Canadian studies, more women than men reported experience and competence in gynecologic procedures. More women than men reported experience (P = .001) and competence (P = .004) in intrauterine device insertion and experience (P = .091) in endometrial aspiration biopsy. More men than women reported competence (P = .052) in injection of trochanteric bursae. A third year of emergency training was correlated with an increase in reported experience (P = .021) in shoulder injection.
Participation in a procedural skills workshop during family practice residency did not produce a significant increase in the performance of these skills on the part of participants once they were in clinical practice. The benefit of a skills workshop might be lost when there is no opportunity to practise and perfect these skills. Sex bias in the case of some procedures might represent a needs-based acquisition of skills on the part of practising physicians. Short procedural skills workshops might be better suited to graduated physicians with more clinical experience.
The study evaluated the efficacy of three training modalities and the impact of ongoing consultation after training. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety among youths, an empirically supported treatment, was used as the exemplar. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three one-day workshops to examine the efficacy of training modality: routine training (training as usual), computer training (computerized version of training as usual), and augmented training (training that emphasized active learning). After training, all participants received three months of ongoing consultation that included case consultation, didactics, and problem solving.
Participants were 115 community therapists (mean age of 35.9 years; 90% were women). Outcome measures included the Adherence and Skill Checklist, used to rate a performance-based role-play; a knowledge test; and the Training Satisfaction Rating Scale.
All three training modalities resulted in limited gains in therapist adherence, skill, and knowledge. There was no significant effect of modality on adherence, skill, or knowledge from pretraining to posttraining. Participants were more satisfied with augmented and routine training than with computer training. Most important, number of consultation hours after training significantly predicted higher therapist adherence and skill at the three-month follow-up.
The findings suggest that training alone did not result in therapist behavior change. The inclusion of ongoing consultation was critical to influencing therapist adherence and skill. Implications for implementation science and mental health services research are discussed.
Patient, or parent/guardian, satisfaction with health care provision is important to health outcomes. Poor relationships with health workers, particularly with nursing staff, have been reported to reduce satisfaction with care in Africa. Participatory research approaches such as the Health Workers for Change initiative have been successful in improving provider-client relationships in various developing country settings, but have not yet been reported in the complex environment of hospital wards. We evaluated the HWC approach for improving the relationship between nurses and parents on a paediatric ward in a busy regional hospital in Tanzania.
The intervention consisted of six workshops, attended by 29 of 31 trained nurses and nurse attendants working on the paediatric ward. Parental satisfaction with nursing care was measured with 288 parents before and six weeks after the workshops, by means of an adapted Picker questionnaire. Two focus-group discussions were held with the workshop participants six months after the intervention.
During the workshops, nurses demonstrated awareness of poor relationships between themselves and mothers. To tackle this, they proposed measures including weekly meetings to solve problems, maintain respect and increase cooperation, and representation to administrative forces to request better working conditions such as equipment, salaries and staff numbers. The results of the parent satisfaction questionnaire showed some improvement in responsiveness of nurses to client needs, but overall the mean percentage of parents reporting each of 20 problems was not statistically significantly different after the intervention, compared to before it (38.9% versus 41.2%). Post-workshop focus-group discussions with nursing staff suggested that nurses felt more empathic towards mothers and perceived an improvement in the relationship, but that this was hindered by persisting problems in their working environment, including poor relationships with other staff and a lack of response from hospital administration to their needs.
The intended outcome of the intervention was not met. The priorities of the intervention – to improve nurse-parent relationships – did not match the priorities of the nursing staff. Development of awareness and empathy was not enough to provide care that was satisfactory to clients in the context of working conditions that were unsatisfactory to nurses.
To increase primary care providers’ awareness and use of genetic services; increase their knowledge of genetic issues; increase their confidence in core genetic competencies; change their attitudes toward genetic testing for hereditary diseases; and increase their confidence as primary care genetic resources.
Participants completed a workshop and 3 questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire, a survey that provided immediate feedback on the workshop itself, and a follow-up questionnaire 6 months later.
Primary care providers suggested by deans of nursing, midwifery, family medicine, and obstetric programs, as well as coordinators of nurse practitioner programs, in Ontario and by the Ontario College of Family Physicians.
A complex educational intervention was developed, including an interactive workshop and PowerPoint educational modules on genetic topics for participants’ use (available at www.mtsinai.on.ca/FamMedGen/).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Awareness and use of genetic services, knowledge of genetics, confidence in core clinical genetic skills, attitudes toward genetic testing, and teaching activities related to genetics.
The workshop was attended by 29 participants; of those, 21 completed the baseline questionnaire and the 6-month follow-up questionnaire. There was no significant change found in awareness or reported use of genetic services. There was significant improvement in self-assessed knowledge of (P = .001) and confidence in (P = .005) skills related to adult-onset genetic disorders. There were significant increases in confidence in many core genetic competencies, including assessing risk of hereditary disorders (P = .033), deciding who should be offered referral for genetic counseling (P = .003), discussing prenatal testing options (P = .034), discussing benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing (P = .033), and describing what to expect at a genetic counseling session (P = .022). There was a significant increase in the number of primary care providers agreeing that genetic testing was beneficial in the management of adult-onset diseases (P = .031) and in their confidence in being primary care genetic resources for adult-onset genetic disorders (P = .006).
Educational interventions that include interactive peer resource workshops and educational modules can increase knowledge of and confidence in the core competencies needed for the delivery of genetic services in primary care.
To design a training intervention and then test its effect on nurse leaders' perceptions of patient safety culture.
Three hundred and fifty-six nurses in clinical leadership roles (nurse managers and educators/CNSs) in two Canadian multi-site teaching hospitals (study and control).
A prospective evaluation of a patient safety training intervention using a quasi-experimental untreated control group design with pretest and posttest. Nurses in clinical leadership roles in the study group were invited to participate in two patient safety workshops over a 6-month period. Individuals in the study and control groups completed surveys measuring patient safety culture and leadership for improvement prior to training and 4 months following the second workshop.
Individual nurse clinical leaders were the unit of analysis. Exploratory factor analysis of the safety culture items was conducted; repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the effect of the training intervention on perceived safety culture (three factors). Hierarchical regression analyses looked at the influence of demographics, leadership for improvement, and the training intervention on nurse leaders' perceptions of safety culture.
A statistically significant improvement in one of three safety culture measures was shown for the study group (p<.001) and a significant decline was seen on one of the safety culture measures for the control group (p<.05). Leadership support for improvement was found to explain significant amounts of variance in all three patient safety culture measures; workshop attendance explained significant amounts of variance in one of the three safety culture measures. The total R2 for the three full hierarchical regression models ranged from 0.338 and 0.554.
Sensitively delivered training initiatives for nurse leaders can help to foster a safety culture. Organizational leadership support for improvement is, however, also critical for fostering a culture of safety. Together, training interventions and leadership support may have the most significant impact on patient safety culture.
Patient safety; safety culture; leadership; training intervention
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed a manual to guide primary care practices in structuring their office environment and routine visits so as to enhance nutrition screening, advice/referral, and follow-up for cancer prevention. The adoption of the manual's recommendations by primary care practices was evaluated by examining two strategies: physician training on how to implement the manual's recommendations versus simple mailing of the manual. This article reports on the results of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of these two strategies.
A three-arm, randomized, controlled study.
Free-standing primary care physician practices in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
Each study practice was randomly assigned to one of three groups. The training group practices were invited to send one member from their practice of their choosing to a 3-hour “train-a-trainer” workshop, the manual-only-group practices were mailed the nutrition manual, and the control group practices received no intervention. For training group practices, training was provided in the four major components of the nutrition manual: how to organize the office environment to support cancer prevention nutrition-related activities; how to screen patient adherence to the NCI dietary guidelines; how to provide dietary advice/referral; and how to implement a patient follow-up system to support patients in making changes in their nutrition-related behaviors.
The primary outcomes of the study were derived from two evaluation instruments. The observation instrument documented the tools and procedures recommended by the nutrition manual and adopted in patient charts and the office environment. The in-person structured interview evaluated the physician and staff's self-reported nutrition-related activities reflecting the nutrition manual's recommendations. Data from these two instruments were used to construct four adherence scores corresponding to the areas: office organization, nutrition screening, nutrition advice/referral, and patient follow-up.
The adoption of the manual's recommendations was highest among the practices in the training group as reflected by their higher adherence scores. They organized their office ( P =.005) and screened their patients regarding their eating habits ( P =.046) significantly more closely to the recommendations of the nutrition manual than practices in the manual-only group. However, despite being the highest in compliance, the training group practices were only 54.9% adherent to the manual's recommendations regarding nutrition advice/referral, and 28.5% adherent to its recommendations on office organization, 23.5% adherent to its recommendations on nutrition screening, and 14.6% adherent to its patient follow-up recommendations.
Primary care practices exposed to the nutrition manual in a training session adopted more of the manual's recommendations. Specifically, practices invited to training were more likely to perform nutrition screening and to structure their office environment to be conducive to providing nutrition-related services for cancer prevention. The impact of the training was moderate and not statistically significant for nutrition advice/referral or patient follow-up, which are important in achieving long-term dietary changes in patients. The overall low adherence scores to nutrition-related activities demonstrates that there is plenty of room for improvement among the practices in the training group.
nutrition education; nutrition counseling; cancer prevention; primary care physicians
Motivational interviewing (MI) offers effective strategies for enhancing behaviour change and is particularly useful for patients who exhibit poor adherence. This study evaluated MI training for cystic fibrosis (CF) teams, which comprised of one 4-hour workshop on MI principles, followed 6 months later by another on applying MI during brief consultations.
Health professionals (N = 60) from 7 teams completed questionnaires on learning outcomes 6 months after the first workshop, but before the second. Eleven participated in telephone-interview, 3 months after the second workshop.
Quantitative analysis showed all participants used MI with a patient at least once after the first workshop and felt the approach was potentially helpful. Although self-appraisal of skill and confidence in MI was ‘moderate’, all felt confident in their ability to develop their skills and almost all intended to use MI in the future. Qualitative analysis confirmed the positive experiences of training and of using MI in practice, particularly in relationship building. However MI was utilised depending on team support and workload pressures.
This study showed that initial MI training with CF team-members resulted in increased knowledge and confidence about acquiring and applying MI techniques. However, this was balanced with consideration of barriers to application, further training needs and ongoing team-based support.
Motivational interviewing; Training; Adherence; Cystic fibrosis
Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) as a guiding framework, a faith-based diet, nutrition and physical activity intervention for African Americans was implemented and evaluated as a small-scale randomized trial.
Five churches were recruited (intervention=3, control=2), resulting in an enrolled sample of 106 adults (intervention=74, control=32). The control group received a minimal intervention consisting of one educational workshop. The Living Well By Faith intervention group received a more intensive 8-week program. Classes were held twice a week and included educational workshops and exercise sessions. Both interventions were delivered at participating churches. Assessments for program evaluation occurred at baseline and 2-month follow-up. These included weight, blood pressure, percent body fat, and physical fitness using the step test.
The sample was predominantly African American, female and well educated. At baseline, no significant differences between intervention and control groups were found for any of the primary endpoints. At 2-months follow up, the intervention group, compared to the control group, showed significant decreases in weight (P<.02), BMI (P<.05), and % body fat (P<.03), with a significant increase in physical fitness (P<.02). Systolic blood pressure also showed group differences in the predicted direction (P=.10).
This study provides an exemplar of CBPR. The results obtained are sufficiently promising to support more research involving similar interventions of longer duration and with longer-term follow-up for evaluation.
African American; CBPR; Faith Based; Obesity; Diet; Nutrition and Physical Activity
Despite the increased emphasis on obesity and diet-related diseases, nutrition education remains lacking in many internal medicine training programs. We evaluated the attitudes, self-perceived proficiency, and knowledge related to clinical nutrition among a cohort of internal medicine interns.
Nutrition attitudes and self-perceived proficiency were measured using previously validated questionnaires. Knowledge was assessed with a multiple-choice quiz. Subjects were asked whether they had prior nutrition training.
Of the 114 participants, 61 (54%) completed the survey. Although 77% agreed that nutrition assessment should be included in routine primary care visits, and 94% agreed that it was their obligation to discuss nutrition with patients, only 14% felt physicians were adequately trained to provide nutrition counseling. There was no correlation among attitudes, self-perceived proficiency, or knowledge. Interns previously exposed to nutrition education reported more negative attitudes toward physician self-efficacy (p = 0.03).
Internal medicine interns’ perceive nutrition counseling as a priority, but lack the confidence and knowledge to effectively provide adequate nutrition education.
Patient handoffs are common during residency and are often performed with little or no training. We devised a simple intervention to improve the readiness of interns to perform handoffs.
We administered a 90-minute interactive workshop during intern orientation in 2009 and 2010. It consisted of a discussion, a case presentation, and a trigger video, followed by debriefing and a role-play exercise. The workshop required minimal technology and materials. Interns were surveyed on their readiness to perform handoffs before and after the workshop as well as 3 to 6 months after the workshop.
Eighty-nine interns participated in the workshop during a 2-year period. Seventy-four survey responses were collected. Self-reported readiness to perform a handoff increased by 26%. A total of 91% and 81% of respondents in 2010 and 2009, respectively, reported using aspects of the workshop up to 6 months later.
A brief workshop can improve interns' readiness to perform handoffs.
The lack of standardization of clinical diagnostic criteria, classification and severity scores of chronic graft-versus-host disease led the National Institutes of Health to propose consensus criteria for the purpose of clinical trials.
Here we describe a one-day workshop model conducted by the Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Brazil-Seattle Consortium Study Group to train investigators interested in participating in multicenter clinical trials in Brazil. Workshop participants included eight transplant physicians, one dermatologist, two dentists, three physical therapists and one psychologist from five institutions. Workshop participants evaluated nine patients with varying degrees of severity of mucocutaneous lesions and other manifestations of the disease followed by a training session to review and discuss the issues encountered with the evaluation and scoring of patients and in the methods used to evaluate grip strength and the 2-minute walk test.
Most participants had difficulties in rating the percentage of each type of mucocutaneous lesion and thought 20 minutes was insufficient to evaluate and record the scores of each patient using the National Institutes of Health criteria and other cutaneous assessments. Several specific areas of difficulties encountered by the evaluators were: 1) determining the percentage of erythema in movable and non-movable sclerosis, 2) whether to score all cutaneous findings in a particular area or just the dominant lesion; 3) clarification of the definition of poikiloderma in chronic graft-versus-host disease; 4) discrepant interpretation of the mouth score and 5) clarification on the methodology used for the evaluation of grip strength and the 2-minute walk tests.
Results of this workshop support the need to train investigators participating in clinical trials on chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Graft vs. host disease/diagnosis; Graft vs. host disease/classification; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Training
The study describes the creation and implementation of a culturally appropriate cancer education intervention, and assesses its efficacy among Native Americans in a community with documented cancer-related disparities.
Education workshops were developed and conducted on three reservations in Western South Dakota and Rapid City by trained community representatives. Over four-hundred individuals participated in the two-hour workshops. Participants answered demographic questions, questions about previous cancer screening (to establish baseline screening rates), and completed a pre and post workshop quiz to assess learning.
Participants demonstrated significant increases in cancer screening-related knowledge levels. Surveys reveal that participants found the information of high quality, great value and would recommend the program to friends. Pre-workshop data reveals cancer screening rates well below the national average.
Workshop participants increased their knowledge about cancer etiology and screening. This intervention may represent an effective tool for increasing cancer screening utilization among Native Americans.
A major challenge in studies of the impact of the local food environment is the accuracy of measures of healthy food access. The authors assessed agreement between self-reported and directly measured availability of healthful choices within neighborhood food stores and examined the validity of reported availability using directly measured availability as a “gold standard.” Reported availability was measured via a phone survey of 1,170 adults in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2004. Directly measured availability was assessed in 226 food stores in 2006 using a modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S). Whites, college-educated individuals, and higher income households (≥$50,000) had significantly higher reported and directly measured availability than did blacks, those with less education, and lower income households. Persons in areas with above average directly measured availability reported above average availability 70%–80% of the time (sensitivity = 79.6% for all stores within 1 mile (1.6 km) of participants’ homes and 69.6% for the store with the highest availability within 1 mile). Those with below average directly measured availability reported low availability only half the time. With revisions to improve specificity, self-reported measures can be reasonable indicators of healthy food availability and provide feasible proxy measures of directly assessed availability.
food; reproducibility of results; residence characteristics; self report; validity (epidemiology)
The quality of psychosocial assessment of children in consultations varies widely. One reason for this difference is the variability in effective mental health and communication training at undergraduate and post-qualification levels. In recognition of this problem, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health in the United Kingdom have developed the Child in Mind Project that aims to meet this deficit in medical training. This paper describes the evaluation of a workshop that explored the experiences and expectations of health care professionals in the development of a training programme for doctors.
The one-day inter-professional workshop was attended by 63 participants who were invited to complete evaluation forms before and immediately after the workshop.
The results showed that the workshop was partially successful in providing an opportunity for an inter-professional group to exchange ideas and influence the development of a significant project. Exploring the content and process of the proposed training programme and the opportunity for participants to share experiences of effective practice were valued. Participants identified that the current culture within many health care settings would be an obstacle to successful implementation of a training programme. Working within existing training structures will be essential. Areas for improvement in the workshop included clearer statement of goals at the outset and a more suitable environment for the numbers of participants.
The participants made a valuable contribution to the development of the training programme identifying specific challenges. Inter-professional collaborations are likely to result in more deliverable and relevant training programmes. Continued consultation with potential users of the programme – both trainers and trainees will be essential.
To evaluate the cost and cost-effectiveness of three strategies for teaching community program clinicians motivational interviewing (MI): self-study (SS), expert-led (EX), and train-the-trainer (TT).
This economic analysis was conducted as part of a three-arm clinician training trial comprising 12 community treatment programs randomly assigned to the three conditions (n = 92 clinician participants). EX and TT conditions used skill-building workshops and three monthly supervision sessions. SS provided clinicians MI training materials only. The primary outcome measure was the number of clinicians meeting MI performance standards at 12-week follow-up. Unit costs were obtained via surveys administered at the 12 participating programs. Resource utilizations and clinician outcomes were obtained from the training trial. Costs and outcomes were normalized to account for differing numbers of clinicians across programs and conditions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were used to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of the three training strategies.
SS is likely to be the most cost-effective training strategy if the threshold value to decision makers of an additional clinician meeting MI performance standards at 12-week follow-up is less than approximately $2,870, and EX is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy when the threshold value is greater than approximately $2,870.
This study provides accurate estimates of the economic costs and relative cost-effectiveness of three different strategies for training community program clinicians in motivational interviewing and should be of interest to decision makers seeking to implement empirically supported addiction treatments with scarce resources.
training costs; cost-effectiveness; implementation science; motivational interviewing; training strategies; dissemination
To evaluate the feasibility of regional physical therapy networks including continuing education in rheumatology. The aim of these networks was to improve care provided by primary care physical therapists by improving specific knowledge, technical and communicative skills and the collaboration with rheumatologists.
In two regions in The Netherlands continuing education (CE) programmes, consisting of a 5-day postgraduate training course followed by bimonthly workshops and teaching practices, were organised simultaneously. Network activities included consultations, newsletters and the development of a communication guideline. Endpoint measures included the participation rate, compliance, quality of the CE programme, teaching practices, knowledge, network activities, communication, number of patients treated and patient satisfaction.
Sixty-three physical therapists out of 193 practices (33%) participated in the project. They all completed the education programmes and were formally registered. All evaluations of the education programmes showed positive scores. Knowledge scores increased significantly directly after the training course and at 18 months. A draft guideline on communication between physical therapists and rheumatologists was developed, and 4 newsletters were distributed. A substantial proportion of physical therapists and rheumatologists reported improved communication at 18 months. The mean number of patients treated by physical therapists participating in the networks increased significantly. Patients' satisfaction scores within the networks were significantly higher than those from outside the networks at 18 months.
Setting up a system of networks for continuing education for physical therapists regarding the treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases is feasible. Further research will focus on the effectiveness of the system and its implementation on a larger scale.
physical therapy (specialty)/education; rheumatic diseases; community networks; continuing medical education; program evaluation
The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care funded the Ontario Lung Association to develop and implement a continuing medical education program to promote implementation of the Canadian asthma guidelines in primary care.
To determine baseline knowledge, preferred learning format, satisfaction with the program and reported impact on practice patterns.
A 3 h workshop was developed that combined didactic presentations and small group case discussions. Outcome measures included a workshop evaluation, baseline assessment of asthma management knowledge and three-month postreflective evaluations.
One hundred thirty-seven workshops were delivered to 2783 primary care providers (1313 physicians, 1470 allied health) between September 2002 and March 2005. Of the 2133 participants, 1007 physicians and 1126 allied health professionals submitted workshop evaluations. Most (98%) of the attendees indicated they would recommend the workshop to a colleague. The majority preferred the combination of didactic lecture plus interactive case discussions. A subset of physicians provided consent to use these data for research (n=298 pediatric and 288 adult needs assessments; n=349 postreflective evaluations). Important needs identified included appropriate medication for chronic asthma and development of written action plans. On the postreflective evaluations, 88.7% remained very satisfied, 95.5% reported increased confidence, 91.9% reported an influence on practice and 67.2% reported using a written action plan.
This continuing medical education program addresses identified needs of primary care providers. Participants reported improvements in asthma care, including prescribing practices, use of spirometry and written action plans. Similar programs should be considered as part of multifaceted asthma guidelines dissemination and implementation initiatives in other provinces and nationally.
Asthma; Continuing medical education; Guidelines
Physicians often do not provide adequate medication counseling.
To develop and evaluate an educational program to improve physicians’
assessment of adherence and their medication counseling skills, with
attention to health literacy.
We compared internal medicine residents’ confidence and counseling
behaviors, measured by self-report at baseline and one month after
participation in a two-hour interactive workshop.
Fifty-four residents participated; 35 (65%) completed the follow-up survey.
One month after training, residents reported improved confidence in
assessing and counseling patients (p<0.001),
including those with low health literacy (p<0.001).
Residents also reported more frequent use of desirable behaviors, such as
assessing patients’ medication understanding and adherence barriers
(p<0.05 for each), addressing costs when
prescribing (p<0.01), suggesting adherence aids
(p<0.01), and confirming patient understanding
with teach-back (p<0.05).
A medication counseling workshop significantly improved residents’
self-reported confidence and behaviors regarding medication counseling one
medication adherence; health literacy; health communication
Clinicians providing primary emergency medical care often receive little training in the management of dental emergencies. A multimodal educational intervention was designed to address this lack of training. Sustained competency in managing dental emergencies and thus the confidence to provide this care well after an educational intervention is of particular importance for remote and rural healthcare providers where access to professional development training may be lacking.
A descriptive study design with a survey instrument was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention for primary care clinicians. The survey was offered immediately before and at six months following the intervention. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed on pre and six month post-workshop matched pair responses, measuring self-reported proficiency in managing dental emergencies. The level of significance was set at p < 0.001. Confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for participants who scored an improved proficiency.
The educational intervention was associated with a significant and sustained increase in proficiency and confidence to treat, especially in oral local anaesthesia, management of avulsed teeth and dental trauma, as reported by clinicians at six months after the education. This was associated with a greater number of cases where dental local anaesthesia was utilised by the participants. Comments from participants before the intervention, noted the lack of dental topics in professional training.
The sustained effects of a brief multimodal educational intervention in managing dental emergencies on practice confidence and proficiency demonstrates its value as an educational model that could be applied to other settings and health professional groups providing emergency primary care, particularly in rural and remote settings.
Dental; Emergencies; Education; Medical; Proficiency; Confidence; Model