The yellow variegated2 (var2) mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied as a typical leaf-variegated mutant whose defect results from the lack of FtsH2 metalloprotease in chloroplasts. The var2 green sectors suffer from photo-oxidative stress and accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of compromised Photosystem II repair. This study investigated and compared microarray-based expression profiles of green and white sectors of var2 leaves. Results suggest that ROS that accumulate in chloroplasts of var2 green sectors do not cause much significant change in the transcriptional profile related to ROS signalling and scavenging. By contrast, transcriptome in the white sectors apparently differs from those in the green sectors and wild type. Numerous genes related to photosynthesis and chloroplast functions were repressed in the white sectors. Furthermore, many genes related to oxidative stress were up-regulated. Among them, ROS scavenging genes were specifically examined, such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 2 (CSD2), that were apparently up-regulated in white but not in the green sectors. Up-regulation of CSD2 appears to be partly attributable to the lack of a microRNA (miR398) in the white sectors. It was concluded that the white sectors exhibit a response to oxidative and other stresses, including CSD2 up-regulation, which might be commonly found in tissues with abnormal chloroplast differentiation.
Arabidopsis; chloroplasts; miR398; plastids; reactive oxygen species (ROS); superoxide dismutase (SOD); yellow variegated2 (var2)
Chloroplast-localized DER (Double Era-like GTPase) contains two consecutive GTP-binding domains, each of which possesses GTPase activity. DER binds to 23S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, and plays an essential role in chloroplast ribosomal RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis in higher plants
This study investigated protein characteristics and physiological functions of DER (Double Era-like GTPase) of higher plants. Nicotiana benthamiana DER (NbDER) contained two tandemly repeated GTP-binding domains (GD) and a C-terminal domain (CTD) that was similar to the K-homology domain involved in RNA binding. Both GDs possessed GTPase activity and contributed to the maximum GTPase activity of NbDER. NbDER fused to green fluorescent protein was localized primarily to chloroplast nucleoids. Arabidopsis der null mutants exhibited an embryonic lethal phenotype, indicating an essential function of DER during plant embryogenesis. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbDER resulted in a leaf-yellowing phenotype caused by disrupted chloroplast biogenesis. NbDER was associated primarily with the chloroplast 50S ribosomal subunit in vivo, and both the CTD and the two GD contributed to the association. Recombinant proteins of NbDER and its CTD could bind to 23S and 16S ribosomal RNAs in vitro. Depletion of NbDER impaired processing of plastid-encoded ribosomal RNAs, resulting in accumulation of the precursor rRNAs in the chloroplasts. NbDER-deficient chloroplasts contained significantly reduced levels of mature 23S and 16S rRNAs and diverse mRNAs in the polysomal fractions, suggesting decreased translation in chloroplasts. These results suggest that DER is involved in chloroplast rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis in higher plants.
Chloroplast abnormality; Nicotiana benthamiana; ribosomal RNA processing; ribosome association; RNA binding; virus-induced gene silencing.
In field conditions, the zebra2 (z2) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa) produces leaves with transverse pale-green/yellow stripes. It was recently reported that ZEBRA2 encodes carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and that low levels of lutein, an essential carotenoid for non-photochemical quenching, cause leaf variegation in z2 mutants. However, we found that the z2 mutant phenotype was completely suppressed by growth under continuous light (CL; permissive) conditions, with concentrations of chlorophyll, carotenoids and chloroplast proteins at normal levels in z2 mutants under CL. In addition, three types of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide [O2−], hydrogen peroxide [H2O2], and singlet oxygen [1O2]) accumulated to high levels in z2 mutants grown under short-day conditions (SD; alternate 10-h light/14-h dark; restrictive), but do not accumulate under CL conditions. However, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in z2 leaves were much lower than normal in both permissive CL and restrictive SD growth conditions, indicating that deficiency of these two carotenoids is not responsible for the leaf variegation phenotype. We found that the CRTISO substrate tetra-cis-lycopene accumulated during the dark periods under SD, but not under CL conditions. Its accumulation was also positively correlated with 1O2 levels generated during the light period, which consequently altered the expression of 1O2-responsive and cell death-related genes in the variegated z2 leaves. Taking these results together, we propose that the z2 leaf variegation can be largely attributed to photoperiodic accumulation of tetra-cis-lycopene and generation of excessive 1O2 under natural day-night conditions.
carotenoid isomerase; rice; singlet oxygen; tetra-cis-lycopene; zebra2
Background and Aims
Foliar variegation is recognized as arising from two major mechanisms: leaf structure and pigment-related variegation. Begonia has species with a variety of natural foliar variegation patterns, providing diverse examples of this phenomenon. The aims of this work are to elucidate the mechanisms underlying different foliar variegation patterns in Begonia and to determine their physiological consequences.
Six species and one cultivar of Begonia were investigated. Light and electron microscopy revealed the leaf structure and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in green and light areas of variegated leaves. Maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. Comparison with a cultivar of Ficus revealed key features distinguishing variegation mechanisms.
Intercellular space above the chlorenchyma is the mechanism of variegation in these Begonia. This intercellular space can be located (a) below the adaxial epidermis or (b) below the adaxial water storage tissue (the first report for any taxa), creating light areas on a leaf. In addition, chlorenchyma cell shape and chloroplast distribution within chlorenchyma cells differ between light and green areas. Chloroplasts from both areas showed dense stacking of grana and stroma thylakoid membranes. The maximum quantum yield did not differ significantly between these areas, suggesting minimal loss of function with variegation. However, the absence of chloroplasts in light areas of leaves in the Ficus cultivar led to an extremely low quantum yield.
Variegation in these Begonia is structural, where light areas are created by internal reflection between air spaces and cells in a leaf. Two forms of air space structural variegation occur, distinguished by the location of the air spaces. Both forms may have a common origin in development where dermal tissue becomes loosely connected to mesophyll. Photosynthetic functioning is retained in light areas, and these areas do not include primary veins, potentially limiting the costs of variegation.
Begonia; chlorenchyma; chlorophyll fluorescence; chloroplast; Ficus pumila ‘Sonny’; intercellular space; internal reflection; ultrastructure; variegation
Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts contain at least two 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) and an RNase R homolog (RNR1). PNPase has been implicated in both mRNA and 23S rRNA 3′ processing. However, the observed maturation defects do not affect chloroplast translation, suggesting that the overall role of PNPase in maturation of chloroplast rRNA is not essential. Here, we show that this role can be largely ascribed to RNR1, for which homozygous mutants germinate only on sucrose-containing media, and have white cotyledons and pale green rosette leaves. Accumulation of chloroplast-encoded mRNAs and tRNAs is unaffected in such mutants, suggesting that RNR1 activity is either unnecessary or redundant for their processing and turnover. However, accumulation of several chloroplast rRNA species is severely affected. High-resolution RNA gel blot analysis, and mapping of 5′ and 3′ ends, revealed that RNR1 is involved in the maturation of 23S, 16S and 5S rRNAs. The 3′ extensions of the accumulating 5S rRNA precursors can be efficiently removed in vitro by purified RNR1, consistent with this view. Our data suggest that decreased accumulation of mature chloroplast ribosomal RNAs leads to a reduction in the number of translating ribosomes, ultimately compromising chloroplast protein abundance and thus plant growth and development.
Protein quality control plays an important role in the photosynthetic apparatus because its components receive excess light energy and are susceptible to photooxidative damage. In chloroplasts, photodamage is targeted to the D1 protein of Photosystem II (PSII). The coordinated PSII repair cycle (PSII disassembly, D1 degradation and synthesis, and PSII reassembly) is necessary to mitigate photoinhibition. A thylakoid protease FtsH, which is formed predominantly as a heteromeric complex with two isoforms of FtsH2 and FtsH5 in Arabidopsis, is the major protease involved in PSII repair. A mutant lacking FtsH2 (termed var2) shows compromised D1 degradation. Furthermore, var2 accumulates high levels of chloroplastic reactive oxygen species (cpROS), reflecting photooxidative stress without functional PSII repair. To examine if the cpROS produced in var2 are connected to a ROS signaling pathway mediated by plasma membrane NADPH oxidase (encoded by AtRbohD or AtRbohF), we generated mutants in which either Rboh gene was inactivated under var2 background. Lack of NADPH oxidases had little or no impact on cpROS accumulation. It seems unlikely that cpROS in var2 activate plasma membrane NADPH oxidases to enhance ROS production and the signaling pathway. Mutants that are defective in PSII repair might be valuable for investigating cpROS and their physiological roles.
reactive oxygen species (ROS); photosystem II repair cycle; chloroplast; FtsH; NADPH oxidase; D1 protein; protein turnover
In most plants, a large fraction of photo-assimilated carbon is stored in the chloroplasts during the day as starch and remobilized during the subsequent night to support metabolism. Mutations blocking either starch synthesis or starch breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana reduce plant growth. Maltose is the major product of starch breakdown exported from the chloroplast at night. The maltose excess 1 mutant (mex1), which lacks the chloroplast envelope maltose transporter, accumulates high levels of maltose and starch in chloroplasts and develops a distinctive but previously unexplained chlorotic phenotype as leaves mature. The introduction of additional mutations that prevent starch synthesis, or that block maltose production from starch, also prevent chlorosis of mex1. In contrast, introduction of mutations in disproportionating enzyme (DPE1) results in the accumulation of maltotriose in addition to maltose, and greatly increases chlorosis. These data suggest a link between maltose accumulation and chloroplast homeostasis. Microscopic analyses show that the mesophyll cells in chlorotic mex1 leaves have fewer than half the number of chloroplasts than wild-type cells. Transmission electron microscopy reveals autophagy-like chloroplast degradation in both mex1 and the dpe1/mex1 double mutant. Microarray analyses reveal substantial reprogramming of metabolic and cellular processes, suggesting that organellar protein turnover is increased in mex1, though leaf senescence and senescence-related chlorophyll catabolism are not induced. We propose that the accumulation of maltose and malto-oligosaccharides causes chloroplast dysfunction, which may by signaled via a form of retrograde signaling and trigger chloroplast degradation.
Carbohydrate metabolism; photosynthesis; senescence; chloroplast biology; Arabidopsis; autophagy
HSP90.5 is a chloroplast localized HSP90 family molecular chaperone in Arabidopsis, and it has been implicated in plant abiotic stress resistance, photomorphogenesis and nuclear-encoded protein import into the chloroplast. However, how these processes are controlled by HSP90 is not well understood. To understand the role of HSP90.5 in chloroplast function and biogenesis, in this study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress a C-terminally FLAG-tagged HSP90.5. By characterizing three HSP90.5 cosuppression lines, we demonstrated the essential role of HSP90.5 in plant growth and chloroplast biogenesis.
Immunoblotting and quantitative PCR analyses revealed three independent HSP90.5 cosuppressing transgenic lines. All three cosuppression lines displayed a certain degree of variegated phenotype in photosynthetic tissues, and the cosuppression did not affect the expression of cytosolic HSP90 isoforms. HSP90.5 cosuppression was shown to be developmentally regulated and occurred mostly at late developmental stage in adult leaves and inflorescence tissues. HSP90.5 cosuppression also caused significantly reduced rosette leaf growth, transient starch storage, but did not affect rosette leaf initiation or inflorescence production, although the fertility was reduced. Isolation of chloroplasts and size exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that the FLAG at the HSP90.5 C-terminus does not affect its proper chloroplast localization and dimerization. Finally, transmission electron microscopy indicated that chloroplast development in HSP90.5 cosuppression leaves was significantly impaired and the integrity of chloroplast is highly correlated to the expression level of HSP90.5.
We thoroughly characterized three HSP90.5 cosuppression lines, and demonstrated that properly controlled expression of HSP90.5 is required for plant growth and development in many tissues, and especially essential for chloroplast thylakoid formation. Since the homozygote of HSP90.5 knockout mutant is embryonically lethal, this study provides transgenic lines that mimic the conditional knockout line or siRNA line of the essential HSP90.5 gene in Arabidopsis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-643) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Molecular chaperone HSP90; Chloroplast biogenesis; Transgene-induced gene silencing; Cosuppression; Transgenic plants; Protein folding; FLAG-tag
Variegated plants provide a valuable tool for studying chloroplast biogenesis by allowing direct comparison between green and white/yellow sectors within the same leaf. While variegated plants are abundant in nature, the mechanism of leaf variegation remains largely unknown. Current studies are limited to a few mutants in model plant species, and are complicated by the potential for cross-contamination during dissection of leaf tissue into contrasting sectors. To overcome these obstacles, an alternative approach was explored using tissue-culture techniques to regenerate plantlets from unique sectors. Stable green and pale yellow plants were developed from a naturally variegated Epipremnum aureum ‘Golden Pothos’. By comparing the gene expression between green and pale yellow plants using suppression subtractive hybridization in conjunction with homologous sequence search, nine down-regulated and 18 up-regulated genes were identified in pale yellow plants. Transcript abundance for EaZIP (Epipremnum aureum leucine zipper), a nuclear gene homologue of tobacco NTZIP and Arabidopsis CHL27, was reduced more than 4000-fold in qRT-PCR analysis. EaZIP encodes the Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase, one of the key enzymes in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. Examination of EaZIP expression in naturally variegated ‘Golden Pothos’ confirmed that EaZIP transcript levels were correlated with leaf chlorophyll contents, suggesting that this gene plays a major role in the loss of chlorophyll in the pale yellow sectors of E. aureum ‘Golden Pothos’. This study further suggests that tissue-culture regeneration of plantlets from different coloured sectors of variegated leaves can be used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of variegation.
Golden Pothos; Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase; tissue culture; transcript abundance; variegation formation
This study characterized ANU10, a novel chloroplast protein encoded by a nuclear gene in Arabidopsis, which influences leaf and chloroplast shape and is required for thylakoid stacking and grana formation.
The chloroplasts of land plants contain internal membrane systems, the thylakoids, which are arranged in stacks called grana. Because grana have not been found in Cyanobacteria, the evolutionary origin of genes controlling the structural and functional diversification of thylakoidal membranes in land plants remains unclear. The angulata10-1 (anu10-1) mutant, which exhibits pale-green rosettes, reduced growth, and deficient leaf lateral expansion, resulting in the presence of prominent marginal teeth, was isolated. Palisade cells in anu10-1 are larger and less packed than in the wild type, giving rise to large intercellular spaces. The ANU10 gene encodes a protein of unknown function that localizes to both chloroplasts and amyloplasts. In chloroplasts, ANU10 associates with thylakoidal membranes. Mutant anu10-1 chloroplasts accumulate H2O2, and have reduced levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids. Moreover, these chloroplasts are small and abnormally shaped, thylakoidal membranes are less abundant, and their grana are absent due to impaired thylakoid stacking in the anu10-1 mutant. Because the trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) has been reported to be required for thylakoid stacking, its levels were determined in anu10-1 thylakoids and they were found to be reduced. Together, the data point to a requirement for ANU10 for chloroplast and mesophyll development.
Arabidopsis thaliana; chloroplast; grana; LHCII trimers; mesophyll development; thylakoid biogenesis; thylakoid stacking.
Chloroplasts are the central nodes of the metabolic network in leaf cells of higher plants, and the conversion of proplastids into chloroplasts is tightly coupled to leaf development. During early leaf development, the structure and function of the chloroplasts differ greatly from those in a mature leaf, suggesting the existence of a stage-specific mechanism regulating chloroplast development during this period. Here, we discuss the identification of the genes affected in low temperature-conditional mutants of rice (Oryza sativa). These genes encode factors involved in chloroplast rRNA regulation (NUS1), and nucleotide metabolism in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and cytosol (V2, V3, ST1). These genes are all preferentially expressed in the early leaf developmental stage P4, and depleting them causes altered chloroplast transcription and translation, and ultimately leaf chlorosis. Therefore, it is suggested that regulation of cellular nucleotide pools and nucleotide metabolism is indispensable for chloroplast development under low temperatures at this stage. This review summarizes the current understanding of these factors and discusses their roles in chloroplast biogenesis.
chloroplast transcription; translation; Oryza sativa; low temperature; nucleotide metabolism
LEPA is one of the most conserved translation factors and is found from bacteria to higher plants. However, the physiological function of the chloroplast LEPA homolog in higher plants remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate the physiological role of cpLEPA in enabling efficient photosynthesis in higher plants. The cplepa-1 mutant displays slightly high chlorophyll fluorescence and pale green phenotypes under normal growth conditions. The growth of the cplepa-1 mutant is reduced when grown on soil, and greater reduction is observed under intense light illumination. Photosynthetic activity is impaired in the cplepa-1 mutants, which is reflected in the decreased steady-state levels of chloroplast proteins. In vivo protein labeling experiments explained the decrease in the steady-state levels of chloroplast proteins. An abnormal association of the chloroplast-encoded mRNAs with ribosomes suggests that the protein synthesis deficiencies in cplepa-1 are due to defects in translation initiation in the chloroplasts. The cpLEPA protein appears to be an essential translation factor that promotes the efficiency of chloroplast protein synthesis.
Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome.
pentatricopeptide repeat; green algae; chloroplast; mitochondrion; evolution; cyclin; small MutS-related; tRNA methyltransferase
We recently reported that autophagy plays a role in chloroplasts degradation in individually-darkened senescing leaves. Chloroplasts contain approximately 80% of total leaf nitrogen, mainly as photosynthetic proteins, predominantly ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). During leaf senescence, chloroplast proteins are degraded as a major source of nitrogen for new growth. Concomitantly, while decreasing in size, chloroplasts undergo transformation to non-photosynthetic gerontoplasts. Likewise, over time the population of chloroplasts (gerontoplasts) in mesophyll cells also decreases. While bulk degradation of the cytosol and organelles is mediated by autophagy, the role of chloroplast degradation is still unclear. In our latest study, we darkened individual leaves to observe chloroplast autophagy during accelerated senescence. At the end of the treatment period chloroplasts were much smaller in wild-type than in the autophagy defective mutant, atg4a4b-1, with the number of chloroplasts decreasing only in wild-type. Visualizing the chloroplast fractions accumulated in the vacuole, we concluded that chloroplasts were degraded by two different pathways, one was partial degradation by small vesicles containing only stromal-component (Rubisco containing bodies; RCBs) and the other was whole chloroplast degradation. Together, these pathways may explain the morphological attenuation of chloroplasts during leaf senescence and describe the fate of chloroplasts.
Arabidopsis; autophagy; chloroplast; dark treatment; leaf senescence; nutrients recycling
A chloroplast-localized tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein, SG1, was identified through a slow-greening mutant in Arabidopsis. SG1 is required for proplastid to chloroplast transition and its mutation disrupted the transcriptions of chloroplast-related genes. It also genetically interacts with GUN1 or GUN4.
A new gene, SG1, was identified in a slow-greening mutant (sg1) isolated from an ethylmethanesulphonate-mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana. The newly formed leaves of sg1 were initially albino, but gradually became pale green. After 3 weeks, the leaves of the mutant were as green as those of the wild-type plants. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that the mutant displayed delayed proplastid to chloroplast transition. The results of map-based cloning showed that SG1 encodes a chloroplast-localized tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR data demonstrated the presence of SG1 gene expression in all tissues, particularly young green tissues. The sg1 mutation disrupted the expression levels of several genes associated with chloroplast development, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The results of genetic analysis indicated that gun1 and gun4 partially restored the expression patterns of the previously detected chloroplast-associated genes, thereby ameliorating the slow-greening phenotype of sg1. Taken together, the results suggest that the newly identified protein, SG1, is required for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis.
Albino; Arabidopsis thaliana; chloroplast development; proplastid to chloroplast transition; slow greening; tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein.
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are mainly involved in regulating post-transcriptional processes in mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts. Mutations in the Arabidopsis PPR2 gene have previously been found to cause defects in seed development and reduced transmission through male and female gametophytes. However, the exact function of AtPPR2 has not been defined. We found that a loss-of-function mutation of AtPPR2 leads to arrest of the first mitotic division during both male and female gametogenesis. In addition, the Atppr2 mutation causes delayed embryogenesis, leading to embryonic lethality. Mutation in emb2750, which appears to be a weak mutant allele of the AtPPR2 locus, also results in defective seeds. However, a majority of emb2750 seeds were able to germinate, but their cotyledons were albino and often deformed, and growth of the emb2750 seedlings were arrested after germination. AtPPR2 is mainly expressed in plant parts that undergo cell division, and AtPPR2 protein was localized to chloroplasts. RNA immunoprecipitation and protein gel mobility shift assays showed that AtPPR2 binds to plastid 23S rRNA. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence that plastids and/or chloroplasts play a key role in cell division. AtPPR2 may modulate the translational process to fine-tune plastid function, thereby regulating cell division.
AtPPR2; pentatricopeptide repeat proteins; gametogenesis; embryogenesis; cell division; plastid
Chloroplast formation is associated with embryo development and seedling growth. However, the relationship between chloroplast differentiation and embryo development remains unclear. Five FtsHi genes that encode proteins with high similarity to FtsH proteins, but lack Zn2+-binding motifs, are present in the Arabidopsis genome. In this study, we showed that T-DNA insertion mutations in the Arabidopsis FtsHi4 gene resulted in embryo arrest at the globular-to-heart–shaped transition stage. Transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed abnormal plastid differentiation with a severe defect in thylakoid formation in the mutant embryos. Immunocytological studies demonstrated that FtsHi4 localized in chloroplasts as a thylakoid membrane-associated protein, supporting its essential role in thylakoid membrane formation. We further showed that FtsHi4 forms protein complexes, and that there was a significant reduction in the accumulation of D2 and PsbO (two photosystem II proteins) in mutant ovules. The role of FtsHi4 in chloroplast development was confirmed using an RNA-interfering approach. Additionally, mutations in other FtsHi genes including FtsHi1, FtsHi2, and FtsHi5 caused phenotypic abnormalities similar to ftshi4 with respect to plastid differentiation during embryogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that FtsHi4, together with FtsHi1, FtsHi2, and FtsHi5 are essential for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis.
The initiation of chloroplast development in the light is dependent on nuclear encoded components. The nuclear genes encoding key components in the photosynthetic machinery are regulated by signals originating in the plastids. These plastid signals play an essential role in the regulation of photosynthesis associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) when proplastids develop into chloroplasts. One of the plastid signals is linked to the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and accumulation of the intermediates the Mg-ProtoIX and its methyl ester Mg-ProtoIX-ME. Phytochrome-Associated Protein Phosphatase 5 (PAPP5) was isolated in a previous study as a putative Mg-ProtoIX interacting protein. In order to elucidate if there is a biological link between PAPP5 and the tetrapyrrole mediated signal we generated double mutants between the Arabidopsis papp5 and the crd mutants. The crd mutant over-accumulates Mg-ProtoIX and Mg-ProtoIX-ME and the tetrapyrrole accumulation triggers retrograde signalling. The crd mutant exhibits repression of PhANG expression, altered chloroplast morphology and a pale phenotype. However, in the papp5crd double mutant, the crd phenotype is restored and papp5crd accumulated wild type levels of chlorophyll, developed proper chloroplasts and showed normal induction of PhANG expression in response to light. Tetrapyrrole feeding experiments showed that PAPP5 is required to respond correctly to accumulation of tetrapyrroles in the cell and that PAPP5 is most likely a component in the plastid signalling pathway down stream of the tetrapyrrole Mg-ProtoIX/Mg-ProtoIX-ME. Inhibition of phosphatase activity phenocopied the papp5crd phenotype in the crd single mutant demonstrating that PAPP5 phosphatase activity is essential to mediate the retrograde signal and to suppress PhANG expression in the crd mutant. Thus, our results suggest that PAPP5 receives an inbalance in the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis through the accumulation of Mg-ProtoIX and acts as a negative regulator of PhANG expression during chloroplast biogenesis and development.
The Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1 (suppressor of fatty acid desaturase deficiency1) gene (also known as GLY1) is required for accumulation of 34:6 (i.e., 18:3–16:3) monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and for the activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), an inducible defense mechanism that confers resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens. SFD1, which has been suggested to be involved in lipid-based signaling in SAR, contains a putative chloroplast transit peptide and has glycerol-3-phosphate synthesizing dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) reductase (also referred as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity. The goals of this study were to determine if the DHAP reductase activity and chloroplast localization are required for SFD1’s involvement in galactolipid metabolism and SAR signaling. The crystal structure of a Leishmania mexicana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used to model SFD1 structure and identify Lys194, Lys279, and Asp332 as potential catalytic site residues in SFD1. Mutational analysis of SFD1 confirmed that Lys194, Lys279, and Asp332 are critical for SFD1’s DHAP reductase activity, and its involvement in SAR. SFD1 proteins with these residues individually substituted by Ala lacked DHAP reductase activity and were unable to complement the SAR defect of the sfd1 mutant. The SFD1–Ala279 protein was also unable to restore 34:6-MGDG content when expressed in the sfd1 mutant. In vivo imaging of a green fluorescent protein-tagged SFD1 protein demonstrated that SFD1 is targeted to the chloroplast. The N-terminal 43 amino acids, which are required for proper targeting of SFD1 to the chloroplast, are also required for SFD1’s function in lipid metabolism and SAR. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SFD1’s DHAP reductase activity is required in the chloroplast for lipid metabolism and defense signaling.
lipid signaling; plant defense; systemic acquired resistance
Chloroplast RNA metabolism is controlled and excecuted by hundreds of nuclear-encoded, chloroplast-localized RNA binding proteins. Contrary to the nucleo-cytosolic compartment or bacteria, there is little evidence for non-coding RNAs that play a role as riboregulators of chloroplasts. We mined deep-sequencing datasets to identify short (16–28 nt) RNAs in the chloroplast genome and found 50 abundant small RNAs (sRNAs) represented by multiple, in some cases, thousands of sequencing reads, whereas reads are in general absent from the surrounding sequence space. Other than sRNAs representing the most highly abundant mRNAs, tRNAs and rRNAs, most sRNAs are located in non-coding regions and many are found a short distance upstream of start codons. By transcript end mapping we show that the 5′ and 3′ termini of chloroplast RNAs coincide with the ends of sRNAs. Sequences of sRNAs identified in Arabidopsis are conserved between different angiosperm species and in several cases, we identified putative orthologs in rice deep sequencing datasets. Recently, it was suggested that small chloroplast RNA fragments could result from the protective action of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins against exonucleases, i.e. footprints of RNA binding proteins. Our data support this scenario on a transcriptome-wide level and suggest that a large number of sRNAs are in fact remnants of PPR protein targets.
All positive-strand RNA viruses induce the biogenesis of cytoplasmic membrane-bound virus factories for viral genome multiplication. We have previously demonstrated that upon plant potyvirus infection, the potyviral 6K2 integral membrane protein induces the formation of ER-derived replication vesicles that subsequently target chloroplasts for robust genome replication. Here, we report that following the trafficking of the Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) 6K2 vesicles to chloroplasts, 6K2 vesicles accumulate at the chloroplasts to form chloroplast-bound elongated tubular structures followed by chloroplast aggregation. A functional actomyosin motility system is required for this process. As vesicle trafficking and fusion in planta are facilitated by a superfamily of proteins known as SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors), we screened ER-localized SNARES or SNARE-like proteins for their possible involvement in TuMV infection. We identified Syp71 and Vap27-1 that colocalize with the chloroplast-bound 6K2 complex. Knockdown of their expression using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing vector showed that Syp71 but not Vap27-1 is essential for TuMV infection. In Syp71-downregulated plant cells, the formation of 6K2-induced chloroplast-bound elongated tubular structures and chloroplast aggregates is inhibited and virus accumulation is significantly reduced, but the trafficking of the 6K2 vesicles from the ER to chloroplast is not affected. Taken together, these data suggest that Syp71 is a host factor essential for successful virus infection by mediating the fusion of the virus-induced vesicles with chloroplasts during TuMV infection.
Potyviruses constitute the largest group of known plant viruses which includes many agriculturally important viruses. Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, potyviruses induce the cytoplasmic membranous-bound virus factory for viral genome multiplication. But the mechanism by which such a factory is formed and associated with cellular membranes remains elusive. Recently we have demonstrated that upon potyvirus infection, the potyviral 6K2 integral membrane protein is responsible for inducing the formation of the ER-derived replication vesicles that subsequently target chloroplasts for robust genome replication. Here, we report that following the trafficking of the TuMV 6K2 vesicles to chloroplasts, 6K2 vesicles accumulate at the chloroplasts to form chloroplast-bound elongated tubular structures followed by chloroplast aggregation. We show that a host protein, Syp71, is associated with the 6K2 vesicles. When the Syp71 gene is silenced, TuMV infection is inhibited and the formation of the chloroplast-bound 6K2 complex is arrested but the trafficking of the 6K2 vesicles from the ER to chloroplast is not affected. Therefore, Syp71 is a host factor that mediates the fusion of 6K2 vesicles with chloroplasts during TuMV infection. Our study sheds new light onto the mechanism underlying the association of potyviral 6K2 vesicles with chloroplasts.
Plant regulatory circuits coordinating nuclear and plastid gene expression have evolved in response to external stimuli. RNA editing is one of such control mechanisms. We determined the Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded homeodomain-containing protein OCP3 is incorporated into the chloroplast, and contributes to control over the extent of ndhB transcript editing. ndhB encodes the B subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) involved in cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I. In ocp3 mutant strains, ndhB editing efficiency decays, CEF is impaired and disease resistance to fungal pathogens substantially enhanced, a process recapitulated in plants defective in editing plastid RNAs encoding NDH complex subunits due to mutations in previously described nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide-related proteins (i.e. CRR21, CRR2). Furthermore, we observed that following a pathogenic challenge, wild type plants respond with editing inhibition of ndhB transcript. In parallel, rapid destabilization of the plastidial NDH complex is also observed in the plant following perception of a pathogenic cue. Therefore, NDH complex activity and plant immunity appear as interlinked processes.
Plastids originated from cyanobacteria that were incorporated into the eukaryotic cell through an endosymbiotic relationship. During the gradual evolution from endosymbiont to organelle, most genes of the cyanobacterial genome were transferred to the nuclear genome. Therefore, plastid biogenesis and function relies on nuclear gene expression and the import of these gene products into plastids, with the molecular dialogue between these two plant cell compartments therefore needing a precise coordination. Nuclei-to-chloroplast communication, and vice versa, are thus regulated through anterograde and retrograde signaling pathways, respectively. Post-transcriptional RNA editing of plastid RNAs by nuclear encoded regulatory proteins, such as pentatricopetide repeat (PPRs) proteins, represents one of such mechanisms of control. Through the characterization of the nuclear-encoded OCP3 protein, previously found to function as a disease resistance regulator in Arabidopsis, we have discovered a pathogen-sensitive editing-mediated control of the plastidial NDH complex involved in cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I. This led us to find that different PPRs controlling editing extent of transcripts for plastidial NDH complex are modulated by pathogenic cues. Our results thus represent the first series of evidence indicating engagement of chloroplast RNA editing and chloroplast NDH activity in plant immunity.
Chloroplast transformation in tobacco has been used extensively to produce recombinant proteins and enzymes. Chloroplast expression cassettes can be designed with different configurations of the cis-acting elements that govern foreign gene expression. With the aim to optimize production of recombinant hemicellulases in transplastomic tobacco, we developed a set of cassettes that incorporate elements known to facilitate protein expression in chloroplasts and examined expression and accumulation of a bacterial xylanase XynA. Biomass production is another important factor in achieving sustainable and high-volume production of cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, we compared productivity of two tobacco cultivars – a low-alkaloid and a high-biomass - as transplastomic expression platforms.
Four different cassettes expressing XynA produced various mutant phenotypes of the transplastomic plants, affected their growth rate and resulted in different accumulation levels of the XynA enzyme. The most productive cassette was identified and used further to express XynA and two additional fungal xylanases, Xyn10A and Xyn11B, in a high-biomass tobacco cultivar. The high biomass cultivar allowed for a 60% increase in XynA production per plant. Accumulation of the fungal enzymes reached more than 10-fold higher levels than the bacterial enzyme, constituting up to 6% of the total soluble protein in the leaf tissue. Use of a well-characterized translational enhancer with the selected expression cassette revealed inconsistent effects on accumulation of the recombinant xylanases. Additionally, differences in the enzymatic activity of crude plant extracts measured in leaves of different age suggest presence of a specific xylanase inhibitor in the green leaf tissue.
Our results demonstrate the pivotal importance of the expression cassette design and appropriate tobacco cultivar for high-level transplastomic production of recombinant proteins.
Transplastomic tobacco; Recombinant proteins; Cellulolytic enzymes; Chloroplast expression cassette; Cellulosic biofuels
Leaves are determinate organs; hence, precise control of cell proliferation and post-mitotic cell expansion is essential for their growth. A defect in cell proliferation often triggers enhanced post-mitotic cell expansion in leaves. This phenomenon is referred to as ‘compensation’. Several lines of evidence from studies on compensation have shown that cell proliferation and post-mitotic cell expansion are coordinately regulated during leaf development. Therefore, compensation has attracted much attention to the mechanisms for leaf growth. However, our understanding of compensation at the subcellular level remains limited because studies of compensation have focused mainly on cellular-level phenotypes. Proper leaf growth requires quantitative control of subcellular components in association with cellular-level changes. To gain insight into the subcellular aspect of compensation, we investigated the well-known relationship between cell area and chloroplast number per cell in compensation-exhibiting lines, and asked whether chloroplast proliferation is modulated in response to the induction of compensation.
We first established a convenient and reliable method for observation of chloroplasts in situ. Using this method, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana mutants fugu5 and angustifolia3 (an3), and a transgenic line KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2 overexpressor (KRP2 OE), which are known to exhibit typical features of compensation. We here showed that chloroplast number per cell increased in the subepidermal palisade tissue of these lines. We analyzed tetraploidized wild type, fugu5, an3 and KRP2 OE, and found that cell area itself, but not nuclear ploidy, is a key parameter that determines the activity of chloroplast proliferation. In particular, in the case of an3, we uncovered that promotion of chloroplast proliferation depends on the enhanced post-mitotic cell expansion. The expression levels of chloroplast proliferation-related genes are similar to or lower than that in the wild type during this process.
This study demonstrates that chloroplast proliferation is promoted in compensation-exhibiting lines. This promotion of chloroplast proliferation takes place in response to cell-area increase in post-mitotic phase in an3. The expression of chloroplast proliferation-related genes were not promoted in compensation-exhibiting lines including an3, arguing that an as-yet-unknown mechanism is responsible for modulation of chloroplast proliferation in these lines.
Cell area; Chloroplast number per cell; Compensation; Leaf growth; Nuclear ploidy
We used four mutants having albino or pale green phenotypes with disrupted nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins to analyze the regulatory system of metabolites in chloroplast. We performed an integrated analyses of transcriptomes and metabolomes of the four mutants. Transcriptome analysis was carried out using the Agilent Arabidopsis 2 Oligo Microarray, and metabolome analysis with two mass spectrometers; a direct-infusion Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR/MS) and a gas chromatograph-time of flight mass spectrometer. Among approximately 200 known metabolites detected by the FT-ICR/MS, 71 metabolites showed significant changes in the mutants when compared with controls (Ds donor plants). Significant accumulation of several amino acids (glutamine, glutamate and asparagine) was observed in the albino and pale green mutants. Transcriptome analysis revealed altered expressions of genes in several metabolic pathways. For example, genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated. These results suggest that nitrogen assimilation is constitutively promoted in the albino and pale green mutants. The accumulation of ammonium ions in the albino and pale green mutants was consistently higher than in Ds donor lines. Furthermore, genes related to pyridoxin accumulation and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated, which may have occurred as a result of the accumulation of glutamine in the albino and pale green mutants. The difference in metabolic profiles seems to be correlated with the disruption of chloroplast internal membrane structures in the mutants. In albino mutants, the alteration of metabolites accumulation and genes expression is stronger than pale green mutants.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11103-014-0194-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Albino or pale-green; Arabidopsis thaliana; Chloroplast; Metabolome; Transcriptome; Nitrogen assimilation