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1.  Ten renin-angiotensin system-related gene polymorphisms in maximally treated Canadian Caucasian patients with heart failure 
AIMS
Racial differences in survival outcomes point towards a genetic role in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Furthermore, contemporary evidence links genetics to heart failure (HF) predisposition. We tested for a difference in prevalence of 10 renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-related gene polymorphisms between a homogenous population of HF patients and healthy controls.
METHODS
One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers and 58 HF patients were included in this study. The healthy control group consisted of males aged between 18 and 35 years old. The HF group consisted of patients (89.7% male) who were 63.8 ± 7.9 years old, were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III and had a documented left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% within the previous 6 months. Despite being treated maximally for their condition with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors and β-adrenoceptor blockers, they continued to be symptomatic and, as such, were a highly specialized and homogeneous patient population. Both groups were composed of Canadian Caucasians. The analyzed polymorphisms were: ACE (I/D), angiotensin-II-receptor-type-1 (AGTR1)(A1166C), angiotensinogen (AGT)(M235T and T174M), endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase (eNOS)(T-786C and Glu298Asp), adrenergic-receptor-â2 (ADRB2)(Gln27Glu), bradykinin-receptor-β2 (BDKRB2)(+9/−9), aldosterone-synthase (CYP11B2)(T-344C) and adducin-1 (ADD1)(Gly460Trp).
RESULTS
The AGT (T235) allele (P = 0.0025, OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.24, 3.30) was found to be more prevalent in our HF group. The AGT (174M)-AGT (235T) haplotype was also associated with the HF phenotype (P = 0.0069). Exploratory evaluation of gene-gene combinations revealed an indicative association of the AGT (T235)/ACE(D) combined polymorphisms in the HF group (P = 0.02, OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.11, 4.06).
CONCLUSIONS
This study demonstrates that the SNPs of AGT may be associated with HF in our population and that the AGT/ACE gene combination may play an important role in disease predisposition.
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTThe progression and pharmacological response of heart failure-affected patients are subject to interindividual variability.t is also acknowledged that the genotype frequency of certain gene polymorphisms varies across different ethnic groups and that a difference in gene polymorphism frequencies between healthy and heart failure patients seems to exist.
WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSThis study investigated associations between 10 gene polymorphisms of RAAS-related genes with an individual's susceptibility to heart failure.Our data suggest that the angiotensinogen (AGT) 235 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may be associated with heart failure in our population and that the AGT(M174)-AGT(T235) haplotype, as well as the AGT/angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene combination, may play an important role in disease predisposition.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03091.x
PMCID: PMC2432486  PMID: 18279468
ACE; angiotensin; heart failure; polymorphisms; RAAS; renin
2.  Renin–angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and endometrial cancer 
Endocrine Connections  2016;5(3):128-135.
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and its incidence is increasing. Dysregulation of the endometrial renin–angiotensin system (RAS) could predispose to EC; therefore, we studied the prevalence of RAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Australian women with EC. SNPs assessed were AGT M235T (rs699); AGTR1 A1166C (rs5186); ACE A240T and T93C (rs4291, rs4292) and ATP6AP2 (rs2968915). They were identified using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. The C allele of the AGTR1 SNP (rs5186) was more prevalent in women with EC (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.2–2.3), P=0.002). The CC genotype of this SNP is associated with upregulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). The G allele of AGT rs699, which is associated with higher angiotensinogen (AGT) levels, was less prevalent in women with EC (OR 0.54, 95% CI (0.39–0.74), P<0.001) compared with controls. AGT and AGT formed by removal of angiotensin I (des(Ang I)AGT) are both anti-angiogenic. In women with EC who had had hormone replacement therapy (HRT), the prevalence of the AGTR1 SNP (rs5186) and the ACE SNPs (rs4291 and rs4292) was greater than in women who had no record of HRT; SNP rs4291 is associated with increased plasma ACE activity. These data suggest there is an interaction between genotype, oestrogen replacement therapy and EC. In conclusion, the prevalence of two SNPs that enhance RAS activity was different in women with EC compared with healthy controls. These genetic factors may interact with obesity and hyperoestrogenism, predisposing ageing, obese women to EC.
doi:10.1530/EC-15-0112
PMCID: PMC5002951  PMID: 27068935
renin–angiotensin system; single nucleotide polymorphisms; endometrial cancer; angiotensinogen; angiotensin II type 1 receptor
3.  Murine double nullizygotes of the angiotensin type 1A and 1B receptor genes duplicate severe abnormal phenotypes of angiotensinogen nullizygotes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;101(4):755-760.
Rodents are the unique species carrying duplicated angiotensin (Ang) type 1 (AT1) receptor genes, Agtr1a and Agtr1b. After separately generating Agtr1a and Agtr1b null mutant mice by gene targeting, we produced double mutant mice homozygous for both Agtr1a and Agtr1b null mutation (Agtr1a-/-; Agtr1b-/-) by mating the single gene mutants. Agtr1a-/-, Agtr1b-/- mice are characterized by normal in utero survival but decreased ex utero survival rate. After birth they are characterized by low body weight gain, marked hypotension, and abnormal kidney morphology including delayed maturity in glomerular growth, hypoplastic papilla, and renal arterial hypertrophy. These abnormal phenotypes are quantitatively similar to those found in mutant mice homozygous for the angiotensinogen gene (Agt-/-), indicating that major biological functions of endogenous Ang elucidated by the abnormal phenotypes of Agt-/- are mediated by the AT1 receptors. Infusion of Ang II, AT1 blockers, or an AT2 blocker was without effect on blood pressure in Agtr1a-/-; Agtr1b-/- mice, indicating that AT2 receptor does not exert acute depressor effects in these mice lacking AT1 receptors. Also, unlike Agt-/- mice, some Agtr1a-/-; Agtr1b-/- mice have a large ventricular septum defect, suggesting that another receptor such as AT2 is functionally activated in Agtr1a-/-, Agtr1b-/- mice.
PMCID: PMC508622  PMID: 9466969
4.  Impact of interactions between risk alleles on clinical endpoints in hypertension 
Heart Asia  2016;8(1):83-89.
Objective
Impairment of the renin-angiotensinogen-aldosterone system (RAAS), one of the characteristics of essential hypertension (EH), imbalances vascular homeostasis. Despite inconsistent reports on individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a major predictor of EH, interactions among RAAS genetic variants are rarely investigated.
Methods
Using SNP markers, we studied potential interactions between angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II-type 1 receptor (AGTR1), and α adducin (ADD1) variants and their correlation with clinical endpoints in 545 individuals with hypertension and 400 age- and ethnicity-matched unrelated controls. Generalised multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) analysis identified the models for genotype interaction.
Results
Although the results on single genes were significant, gene-gene interactions were more reliable and promising as markers in predisposing hypertension. The best models to represent association of multi-locus interactions with augmented hypertension susceptibility were: (a) within gene 4-locus model comprised of AGT SNPs −217G/A, −20A/C, −6G/A and 235M/T (p=0.022, OR 6.1); and (b) between genes 5-locus model comprised of AGT −217G/A, −20A/C, −6G/A, 235M/T and ACE I/D (p=0.05, OR 4.6). Stratification of 4- and 5-locus GMDR models on the basis of risk alleles from ≤1 to ≥7 increased the ORs from 2.8 to 36.1 and from 0.9 to 16.1, respectively. Moreover, compared to ≤1 risk alleles the ≥7 interacting risk alleles in both 4- and 5-locus models showed an increment of 14.2% and 11.1% in systolic blood pressure, 7.7% and 1.1% in diastolic blood pressure, and 10.5% and 5.1% in mean arterial pressure, respectively, in patients.
Conclusions
Interactions among the genetic loci of RAAS components may be used as a predictor for susceptibility to hypertension.
doi:10.1136/heartasia-2016-010723
PMCID: PMC4898629  PMID: 27326240
HYPERTENSION; GENETICS
5.  Genetic polymorphisms of angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor and angiotensinogen and risk of renal dysfunction and coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus 
BMC Nephrology  2009;10:9.
Background
Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be important in promoting coronary heart disease (CHD) and renal dysfunction, but limited data are available on associations between angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGT1R) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes in type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Study participants were diabetics from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cardiovascular pathophysiology (including AGT1R T573C, AGT1R A1166C, and AGT M235T) and presence of renal dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) or history of CHD.
Results
The AGT1R 1166 C-allele was associated with eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (multivariable OR 1.63 [1.01, 2.65]) in the HPFS men (n = 733) and in the combined dataset (n = 1566) (OR 1.42 [1.02, 1.98]). The AGT1R 1166 C-allele was also associated with CHD in men (OR 1.57 [1.10, 2.24]). In NHS women (n = 833), AGT 235T-allele was associated with CHD (OR 1.72 [1.20, 2.47]). Removal of hypertension from the fully adjusted models did not influence results, suggesting that the associations may not be mediated by hypertension. There were significant interactions between sex and AGT1R 1166 C-allele (p = 0.008) and AGT M235T (p = 0.03) in models for CHD. No significant associations were seen between AGT1R T573 C-allele and renal dysfunction or CHD.
Conclusion
Polymorphisms in AGT1R and AGT genes are associated with renal dysfunction and CHD in type 2 diabetes and further support the important role of the RAS in these complications. Sex may modify associations between AGT1R 1166 C-allele and AGT 235T and CHD in type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-10-9
PMCID: PMC2669070  PMID: 19327134
6.  Common Genetic Variation, Residential Proximity to Traffic Exposure, and Left Ventricular Mass: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2010;118(7):962-969.
Background
Elevated left ventricular mass (LVM) is a strong predictor of negative cardiovascular outcomes, including heart failure, stroke, and sudden cardiac death. A relationship between close (< 50 m compared with > 150 m) residential proximity to major roadways and higher LVM has previously been described, but the mechanistic pathways that are involved in this relationship are not known. Understanding genetic factors that influence susceptibility to these effects may provide insight into relevant mechanistic pathways.
Objective
We set out to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in genes affecting vascular and autonomic function, blood pressure, or inflammation influence the relationship between traffic proximity and LVM.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study of 1,376 genotyped participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed between 2000 and 2002. The impact of tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) and inferred haplotypes in 12 candidate genes (ACE, ADRB2, AGT, AGTR1, ALOX15, EDN1, GRK4, PTGS1, PTGS2, TLR4, VEGFA, and VEGFB) on the relationship between residential proximity to major roadways and LVM was analyzed using multiple linear regression, adjusting for multiple potential confounders.
Results
After accounting for multiple testing and comparing homozygotes, tagSNPs in the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AGTR1, rs6801836) and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15, rs2664593) genes were each significantly (q < 0.2) associated with a 9–10% difference in the association between residential proximity to major roadways and LVM. Participants with suboptimal blood pressure control demonstrated stronger interactions between AGTR1 and traffic proximity.
Conclusions
Common polymorphisms in genes responsible for vascular function, inflammation, and oxidative stress appear to modify associations between proximity to major roadways and LVM. Further understanding of how genes modify effects of air pollution on CVD may help guide research efforts into specific mechanistic pathways.
doi:10.1289/ehp.0901535
PMCID: PMC2920916  PMID: 20308035
AGTR1; ALOX15; cardiac structure; cardiac MRI; gene-environment interactions; left ventricular mass; traffic, air pollution
7.  Polymorphism in the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor (AGTR1) is Associated with Age at Diagnosis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension 
Background
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, lethal disease associated with single gene disorders, connective tissue disease, exposures to anorexigens, and often idiopathic etiology. There is evidence that genes can modify the risk of PAH: 1) monogenic disorders associated with PAH are incompletely penetrant, and 2) not all patients with associated conditions at increased risk for PAH develop the disease. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) provides a set of candidate genes that could modulate pulmonary vascular disease similar to its effects on renal and peripheral vasculature.
Methods
We studied 247 subjects with PAH (177 subjects with idiopathic PAH (IPAH); 63 subjects with PAH/connective tissue disease (CTD); and 7 subjects with PAH associated with anorexigens). Subjects were genotyped for five common polymorphisms in angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), cardiac chymase A (CMA1), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Genotypes were tested for associations with age at diagnosis, hemodynamic parameters at diagnosis, and/or response to acute pulmonary vasodilator testing at diagnosis.
Results
Associations were demonstrated for AGTR1 and age at diagnosis in IPAH (p=0.005). Homozygotes for the C1166 allele (n=13) were associated with an age at diagnosis 26 years later than subjects with A/A (n=139) or A/C (n=90) genotypes. No associations were demonstrated for AGT, ACE, CMA1, or CYP11B2.
Conclusions
The 1166C polymorphism in AGTR1 appears to be associated with a later age at diagnosis in IPAH suggesting that this pathway could be involved in the biologic variability that is known to occur in PAH.
doi:10.1016/j.healun.2009.01.016
PMCID: PMC3712279  PMID: 19332265
genetic; pulmonary hypertension; renin; angiotensin; aldosterone
8.  Pharmacogenetic interactions of three candidate gene polymorphisms with ACE-inhibitors or β-blockers and the risk of atherosclerosis 
What is already known about this subject
To our knowledge, there are no prior studies which investigate whether there is a drug–gene interaction between the three genes involved in the renin–angiotensin system and ACE-inhibitor therapy or β-blocker therapy with these subclinical measurements of atherosclerosis.Some studies have found an effect on blood pressure or stroke/myocardial infarction, although the results are not conclusive.
What this study adds
The results do not indicate the presence of a strong drug–gene interaction between the use of ACE-inhibitors or β-blockers and the ACE insertion/deletion, AGT M235T or AGTR1573C/T polymorphism on the overall risk of atherosclerosis.
Aims
To investigate whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), angiotensinogen M235T or angiotensin II receptor type 1 573C/T polymorphism modify the risk of atherosclerosis associated with β-blocker or ACE-inhibitor therapy.
Methods
Data were used from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in the Netherlands, which started in 1990 and included 7983 subjects of ≥ 55 years. In this study, 2216 subjects with hypertension were included. Three subclinical measurements were used for atherosclerosis, i.e. peripheral arterial disease, carotid atherosclerosis and aortic atherosclerosis. The interaction between antihypertensive drugs and genetic polymorphisms on the risk of atherosclerosis was determined with binary logistic regression analysis.
Results
The risk of aortic atherosclerosis associated with long-term (≥4 years) β-blocker treatment compared with no use of β-blockers was higher in subjects with the TT genotype than in subjects with the MM genotype of the AGT gene [synergy index (SI) = 3.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14, 9.97]. The risk of carotid atherosclerosis associated with long-term ACE-inhibitor treatment compared with no use of ACE-inhibitors was lower in subjects with the TT genotype than in subjects with the MM genotype of the AGT gene (SI = 0.20; 95% CI 0.04, 0.95).
Conclusion
Overall, the risk of atherosclerosis in hypertensives taking a β-blocker or ACE-inhibitor-based regimen was not strongly modified by any of the three candidate gene polymorphisms.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02848.x
PMCID: PMC2000614  PMID: 17298481
antihypertensive drugs; atherosclerosis; pharmacogenetics; polymorphisms
9.  Renin angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and cerebral blood flow regulation: The MOBILIZE Boston study 
Background and purpose
Our objective was to investigate the associations between polymorphisms in representative genes of the renin angiotensin system with measures of cerebral blood flow regulation in older adults.
Methods
Participants in this analysis were white subjects (n=335) in the MOBILIZE Boston study, an observational study of community-dwelling elders who underwent transcranial Doppler while sitting and standing and during hypercapnea and hypocapnea. Autoregulation phenotype was the change in cerebrovascular resistance from sit to stand. Vasoreactivity (VR) phenotype was the slope of the change in cerebrovascular conductance vs change in end-tidal CO2. Total of 33 tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were selected in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT), the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the angiotensin receptor gene (AGTR). Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, mean arterial blood pressure, stroke and use of antihypertensives were conducted for each SNP and outcome. Bonferroni corrections were used to adjust p-values for multiple testing.
Results
In the AGT gene, only the rs699 SNP was associated with VR after Bonferroni correction (p=0.00028). Homozygous carriers of the CC genotype of this SNP had lower VR compared to the CT or TT genotypes. There were no significant associations with autoregulation measures. None of the SNP’s in the other genes was associated with our phenotypes.
Conclusion
This analysis suggests that the AGT gene may be involved in vasoreactivity independent of blood pressure. Larger studies are needed to confirm the role of this gene in cerebrovascular health and aging.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.572669
PMCID: PMC3563282  PMID: 20185782
Angiotensin; cerebral blood flow; vasoreactivity
10.  Molecular and clinical analysis of TRPC6 and AGTR1 genes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension 
Background
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive vascular disorder characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure. The aim of this study was to analyze 5′UTR region in canonical transient receptor potential isoform 6 (TRPC6) and 3′UTR region in Angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1) genes in patients with idiopathic and associated PAH. Correlation among mutations and clinical and functional parameters was further analyzed.
Methods
Analysis of TRPC6 and AGTR1 genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. We used a non-parametric test to determine if significant differences were found between the groups studied and chi-square test to compare clinical and hemodynamic variables among genotypes.
Results
Fifty five patients and fifty two controls were included in this study. We found statistically significant differences for c.1-361A > T (p = 0.0077), c.1-254C > G (p < 0.0001) and c.1-218C > T (p = 0.0021) in TRPC6 gene and c.1166A > C (p < 0.001) in AGTR1 gene, between patients and controls. Idiopathic PAH patients (IPAH) and controls presented significant differences for all 3 TRPC6 polymorphisms (p = 0.020), (p = 0.002) and (p = 0.008) respectively, and also showed differences for AGTR1 gene (p < 0.001). In associated PAH (APAH) patients we found statistical differences for c.1-254C > G (p < 0.001) and c.1-218C > T (p = 0.001) in TRPC6 gene and c.1166A > C (p = 0.001) in AGTR1 gene. Several clinical and hemodynamic parameters showed significant differences between carriers and non-carriers of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nineteen patients were carriers of all 3 SNPs in TRPC6 gene and presented a more severe phenotype with differences in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.016), systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.040), cardiac index (p < 0.001) and 6 minute walking test (p = 0.049). 16 of these patients harbored the SNP in AGTR1 gene. These patients showed differences in age at diagnosis (p = 0.049), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.033), cardiac index (p = 0.002) and 6 minute walking test (p = 0.039).
Conclusions
PAH is a rare disease with pulmonary vascular remodeling caused in part by a heterogeneous constellation of genetic arrangements. This study seems to suggest that c.1-361A > T, c.1-254C > G and c.1-218C > T polymorphisms in TRPC6 gene and c.1166A > C polymorphism in AGTR1 could have a role in the development of this disease.
doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0216-3
PMCID: PMC4307182  PMID: 25603901
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension; TRPC6; AGTR1; Polymorphism; Correlation genotype/phenotype
11.  Polymorphisms of the renin–angiotensin system are associated with blood pressure, atherosclerosis and cerebral white matter pathology 
Background
The renin–angiotensin system is involved in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We studied the association between the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the C573T polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and blood pressure, carotid atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular disease.
Methods
We genotyped over 6000 subjects from the Rotterdam Study and more than 1000 subjects from the Rotterdam Scan Study. We used logistic regression and univariate analyses, adjusting for age and sex with, for AGT, the MM and, for AT1R, the TT genotype as reference.
Results
We found that AGT−235T increased systolic (p for trend = 0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.04). The prevalence of carotid plaques was increased 1.25‐fold (95% CI 1.02–1.52) in AGT‐TT carriers. There was a significant increase in mean volume deep subcortical white matter lesions (WML) for AGT‐TT carriers (1.78 ml vs 1.09 ml in the reference group; p = 0.008). A significant interaction was found between AGT and AT1R, further increasing the effect on periventricular and subtotal WML (p for interaction = 0.02). We found a non‐significant increased risk of silent brain infarction for AGT‐TT carriers and AT1R‐CC carriers, but no effect on stroke.
Conclusion
We found an association between AGT and blood pressure, atherosclerosis and WML. Also, we found synergistic effects between AGT and AT1R on the development of WML. These findings raise the question of whether the renin–angiotensin system may be a therapeutic target for the prevention of cerebral white matter pathology.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.109819
PMCID: PMC2117548  PMID: 17220293
12.  Genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin system and blood pressure reactions to the cold pressor test 
Journal of hypertension  2010;28(12):2422-2428.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure (BP) responses to cold pressor test (CPT).
Methods
The CPT was conducted among 1,998 Han Chinese participants. BP measurements were obtained before and after the CPT using a standard sphygmomanometer according to a standard protocol. The association between SNP genotypes and BP responses to the CPT was assessed using a mixed linear model.
Results
Of 68 SNPs genotyped in 6 RAS genes, two were strongly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) responses to CPT (P ≤ 0.001; false discovery rate q-value < 0.05): rs2006765 and rs943580 in the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene. Compared to C allele carriers of rs2006765, the TT homozygotes had a significantly decreased DBP response to the CPT. For participants with the TT genotype, percent DBP responses were 5.68% (4.25%, 7.10%), compared to corresponding responses of 9.17% (8.66%, 9.68%) among participants with the CC+CT genotype. In addition, SNP rs4681443 of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene was significantly associated with percent SBP responses to CPT (P≤0.001; q-value <0.05).
Conclusion
Briefly, our study identified variants in the AGT and AGTR1 genes that may influence BP responses to CPT in Han Chinese population. These results show that genetic variants in the RAS play an important role in BP responses to CPT, and therefore in predicting future hypertension.
doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e32833ea74e
PMCID: PMC3029492  PMID: 20811292
blood pressure; cold pressor test; renin-angiotensin system; genetics; polymorphism
13.  Genetic Variation in ACE-related pathways associated with Sudden Cardiac Arrest Risk 
Background
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-related pathways influence arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk.
Objective
We investigated whether genetic variation in ACE-related pathways are associated with SCA risk. Because these pathways are sex-dependent and influenced by estrogen, we examined these genotype-SCA associations in the full study population, and tested for interaction with gender.
Methods
In a population-based case-control study set in King County WA, we genotyped 211 SCA cases (mean age 59, 80% male) and 730 age- and gender-matched controls of European descent for 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes (ACE, AGT, REN, AGTR1, AGTR2, ACE2, KNG1, BDKRB2). We examined association of SNPs and haplotypes with SCA risk using logistic regression.
Results
AGTR1 SNP rs1492099 (allele frequency=15%) was associated with decreased SCA risk (OR=0.62, 95%CI=0.4–0.9). Haplotype variation in AGTR2 was associated with SCA risk (global haplotype test p=0.001), with haplotype 2 (allele frequency=27%) associated with increased risk (OR=1.26, 95%CI=1.1–1.5). There was interaction with gender on SCA risk for variation in KNG1 (interaction p-value range=0.0004–0.017 for 6/8 SNPs). KNG1 SNP rs710448 (allele frequency=42%) was associated with decreased risk (OR=0.44, 95%CI=0.3–0.8) among women but not men. Other SNPs and haplotypes in the eight genes examined were not associated with SCA risk after multiple testing correction.
Conclusions
Variation in AGTR1 and AGTR2 are associated with SCA risk in a population-based case-control study. There was evidence of interaction with gender on SCA risk for variation in KNG1. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that variation in genes in ACE-related pathways influence SCA risk.
doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.06.013
PMCID: PMC2757102  PMID: 19716087
sudden death; cardiac arrest; epidemiology; genetics; polymorphism; renin-angiotensin system
14.  HNF4alpha Dysfunction as a Molecular Rational for Cyclosporine Induced Hypertension 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(1):e16319.
Induction of tolerance against grafted organs is achieved by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine, a prominent member of the calcineurin inhibitors. Unfortunately, its lifetime use is associated with hypertension and nephrotoxicity. Several mechanism for cyclosporine induced hypertension have been proposed, i.e. activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endothelin-mediated systemic vasoconstriction, impaired vasodilatation secondary to reduction in prostaglandin and nitric oxide, altered cytosolic calcium translocation, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In this regard the molecular basis for undue RAS activation and an increased signaling of the vasoactive oligopeptide angiotensin II (AngII) remain elusive. Notably, angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of AngII and transcriptional regulation of AGT is controlled by the hepatic nuclear factor HNF4alpha. To better understand the molecular events associated with cyclosporine induced hypertension, we investigated the effect of cyclosporine on HNF4alpha expression and activity and searched for novel HNF4alpha target genes among members of the RAS cascade. Using bioinformatic algorithm and EMSA bandshift assays we identified angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as genes targeted by HNF4alpha. Notably, cyclosporine represses HNF4alpha gene and protein expression and its DNA-binding activity at consensus sequences to AGT, AGTR1, ACE, and ACE2. Consequently, the gene expression of AGT, AGTR1, and ACE2 was significantly reduced as evidenced by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. While RAS is composed of a sophisticated interplay between multiple factors we propose a decrease of ACE2 to enforce AngII signaling via AGTR1 to ultimately result in vasoconstriction and hypertension. Taken collectively we demonstrate cyclosporine to repress HNF4alpha activity through calcineurin inhibitor mediated inhibition of nuclear factor of activation of T-cells (NFAT) which in turn represses HNF4alpha that leads to a disturbed balance of RAS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016319
PMCID: PMC3029342  PMID: 21298017
15.  Susceptibility and Gene Interaction Study of the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor (AGTR1) Gene Polymorphisms with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Multi-Ethnic Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58538.
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) has been reported to play a fibrogenic role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, five variants of the AGTR1 gene (rs3772622, rs3772627, rs3772630, rs3772633, and rs2276736) were examined for their association with susceptibility to NAFLD. Subjects made up of 144 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 198 controls were genotyped using TaqMan assays. The liver biopsy specimens were histologically graded and scored according to the method of Brunt. Single locus analysis in pooled subjects revealed no association between each of the five variants with susceptibility to NAFLD. In the Indian ethnic group, the rs2276736, rs3772630 and rs3772627 appear to be protective against NAFLD (p = 0.010, p = 0.016 and p = 0.026, respectively). Haplotype ACGCA is shown to be protective against NAFLD for the Indian ethnic subgroup (p = 0.03). Gene-gene interaction between the AGTR1 gene and the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene, which we previously reported as associated with NAFLD in this sample, showed a strong interaction between AGTR1 (rs3772627), AGTRI (rs3772630) and PNPLA3 (rs738409) polymorphisms on NAFLD susceptibility (p = 0.007). Further analysis of the NAFLD patients revealed that the G allele of the AGTR1 rs3772622 is associated with increased fibrosis score (p = 0.003). This is the first study that replicates an association between AGTR1 polymorphism and NAFLD, with further details in histological features of NAFLD. There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between any of the five variants of the AGTR1 gene and NAFLD in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians, the rs2276736, rs3772630 and rs3772627 appear to protect against NAFLD. We report novel findings of an association between the G allele of the rs3772622 with occurrence of fibrosis and of the gene-gene interaction between AGTR1gene and the much-studied PNPLA3 gene.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058538
PMCID: PMC3590220  PMID: 23484035
16.  Genetic Contributions to the Development of Complications in Preterm Newborns 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0131741.
Aim
We aimed to identify specific polymorphisms of genes encoding for vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen gene [AGT], angiotensinogen type 1 receptor [AGTR1], angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]), and heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX-1) in a cohort of preterm infants and correlate their presence with the development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) requiring mechanical ventilation (MV), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
Study Design
We carried out a retrospective study to evaluate the allele frequency and genotype distribution of polymorphisms of VEGFA, eNOS, AGT, AGTR1, ACE, and HMOX-1 in a population of preterm neonates (n=342) with a gestational age ≤28 weeks according to the presence or absence of RDS requiring MV, BPD, IVH, or ROP. Moreover, we evaluated through the haplotype reconstruction analysis whether combinations of the selected polymorphisms are related to the occurrence of RDS, BPD, IVH and ROP.
Results
In our population 157 infants developed RDS requiring MV, 71 BPD, 70 IVH, and 43 ROP. We found that TC+CC rs2070744 eNOS (41.7 vs. 25.4%, p=0.01) and GT+TT rs1799983 eNOS (51.8 vs. 35.2%, p=0.01) polymorphisms are independent risk factors for BPD. Haplotype reconstruction showed that haplotypes in VEGF and eNOS are significantly associated with different effects on RDS, BPD, IVH, and ROP in our population.
Conclusions
We found that TC+CC rs2070744 eNOS and GT+TT rs1799983 eNOS polymorphisms are independent predictors of an increased risk of developing BPD. Haplotypes of VEGFA and eNOS may be independent protective or risk markers for prematurity complications.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131741
PMCID: PMC4501716  PMID: 26172140
17.  Renin-Angiotensin System Gene Variants and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Influence of Angiotensinogen 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2015;2016:2161376.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successfully used to call for variants associated with diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, some variants are not included in the GWAS to avoid penalty in multiple hypothetic testing. Thus, candidate gene approach is still useful even at GWAS era. This study attempted to assess whether genetic variations in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and their gene interactions are associated with T2DM risk. We genotyped 290 T2DM patients and 267 controls using three genes of the RAS, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). There were significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls for AGT variants (P = 0.05) but not for ACE and AGTR1. Haplotype TCG of the AGT was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15–3.20, permuted P = 0.012); however, no evidence of significant gene-gene interactions was seen. Nonetheless, our analysis revealed that the associations of the AGT variants with T2DM were independently associated. Thus, this study suggests that genetic variants of the RAS can modestly influence the T2DM risk.
doi:10.1155/2016/2161376
PMCID: PMC4670722  PMID: 26682227
18.  Association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity in patients with sarcoidosis 
Thorax  1998;53(6):459-462.
BACKGROUND—Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) is considered to reflect disease activity in sarcoidosis. SACE activity is increased in many patients with active sarcoid lesions. The mechanism for the increased SACE activity in this disease has not been clarified. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been reported to have an association with SACE levels in sarcoidosis, but no evidence of an association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and SACE in this disease has been found. A study of the association of angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphisms with sarcoidosis was therefore undertaken.
METHODS—ACE (I/D), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AGTR2 ) gene polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and SACE levels were measured in three groups of patients: those with sarcoidosis or tuberculosis and normal controls.
RESULTS—There was no difference in allele frequency of AGTR1 and AGTR2 polymorphism among the three groups. Neither AGTR1 nor AGTR2 polymorphisms were associated with sarcoidosis. SACE activity was higher in patients with sarcoidosis with the AGTR1 A/C genotype than in others. However, this tendency was not detected in patients with tuberculosis.
CONCLUSIONS—The AGTR1 allele C is associated with high activity of SACE in patients with sarcoidosis. It is another predisposing factor for high levels of SACE in patients with sarcoidosis and is considered to be an independent factor from the ACE D allele for high levels of SACE in sarcoidosis. This fact could be one of the explanations for the increased SACE activity in sarcoidosis.


PMCID: PMC1745244  PMID: 9713444
19.  Chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes: I. Role of RAAS gene polymorphisms 
BMC Medical Genetics  2006;7:42.
Background
Renal failure in diabetes is mediated by multiple pathways. Experimental and clinical evidences suggest that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has a crucial role in diabetic kidney disease. A relationship between the RAAS genotypes and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) among type 2 diabetes subjects has therefore been speculated. We investigated the contribution of selected RAAS gene polymorphisms to CRI among type 2 diabetic Asian Indian subjects.
Methods
Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from six genes namely-renin (REN), angiotensinogen (ATG), angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene from the RAAS pathway and one from chymase pathway were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and tested for their association with diabetic CRI using a case-control approach. Successive cases presenting to study centres with type 2 diabetes of ≥2 years duration and moderate CRI diagnosed by serum creatinine ≥3 mg/dl after exclusion of non-diabetic causes of CRI (n = 196) were compared with diabetes subjects with no evidence of renal disease (n = 225). Logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study pair wise interactions between SNPs of different genes.
Results
Of the 12 SNPs genotyped, Glu53Stop in AGT and A>T (-777) in AT1 genes, were monomorphic and not included for further analysis. We observed a highly significant association of Met235Thr SNP in angiotensinogen gene with CRI (O.R. 2.68, 95%CI: 2.01–3.57 for Thr allele, O.R. 2.94, 95%CI: 1.88–4.59 for Thr/Thr genotype and O.R. 2.68, 95%CI: 1.97–3.64 for ACC haplotype). A significant allelic and genotypic association of T>C (-344) SNP in aldosterone synthase gene (O.R. 1.57, 95%CI: 1.16–2.14 and O.R. 1.81, 95%CI: 1.21–2.71 respectively), and genotypic association of GA genotype of G>A (-1903) in chymase gene (O.R. 2.06, 95%CI: 1.34–3.17) were also observed.
Conclusion
SNPs Met235Thr in angiotensinogen, T>C (-344) in aldosterone synthase, and G>A (-1903) in chymase genes are significantly associated with diabetic chronic renal insufficiency in Indian patients and warrant replication in larger sample sets. Use of such markers for prediction of susceptibility to diabetes specific renal disease in the ethnically Indian population appears promising.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-7-42
PMCID: PMC1479320  PMID: 16672053
20.  Gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system are associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss and cognitive decline in old age 
The American journal of psychiatry  2014;171(11):1214-1221.
Objective
Genetic factors confer risk for neuropsychiatric phenotypes, but the polygenic etiology of these phenotypes makes identification of genetic culprits challenging. An approach to this challenge is to examine the effects of genetic variation on relevant endophenotypes, such as hippocampal volume loss. Smaller hippocampus is associated with gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a system implicated in vascular disease. However, no studies have investigated longitudinally the effects of genetic variation of RAS on the hippocampus.
Method
We examined the effects of polymorphisms of AGTR1, the gene encoding angiotensin-II type 1 receptor of RAS, on longitudinal hippocampal volumes of older adults. 138 older adults (age ≥ 60 years) were followed for an average of about four years. Subjects underwent repeated structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive testing, and were genotyped for four AGTR1 SNPs with low pairwise linkage disequilibrium values and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype.
Results
Genetic variants at three AGTR1 SNPs (rs2638363, rs1492103, rs2675511) were independently associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss over the four-year follow-up in the right but not left hemisphere. Intriguingly, these AGTR1 risk alleles also predicted worse episodic memory performance but were not related to other cognitive measures. Two risk variants (rs2638363 and rs12721331) interacted with the APOE4 allele to accelerate right hippocampal volume loss.
Conclusions
Risk genetic variants of RAS may accelerate memory decline in older adults, an effect that may be conferred by accelerated hippocampal volume loss. Molecules involved in this system may hold promise as early therapeutic targets for late-life neuropsychiatric disorders.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13111543
PMCID: PMC4329281  PMID: 25124854
21.  Complementation of reduced survival, hypotension, and renal abnormalities in angiotensinogen-deficient mice by the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(6):1258-1264.
The aim of this study was to determine whether elements of the human renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could functionally replace elements of the mouse RAS by complementing the reduced survival and renal abnormalities observed in mice carrying a gene-targeted deletion of the mouse angiotensinogen gene (mAgt). Double transgenic mice containing the human renin (HREN) and human angiotensinogen (HAGT) genes were bred to mice heterozygous for the mAgt deletion and the compound heterozygotes were identified and intercrossed. The resulting progeny (n = 139) were genotyped at each locus and the population was stratified into two groups: the first containing both human transgenes (RA+) and the second containing zero or one, but not both human transgenes (RA-). Despite appropriate Mendelian ratios of RA- mice that were wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and homozygous (-/-) for the deletion of mAgt at birth, there was reduced survival of RA- mAgt-/- mice to adulthood (P < 0.001 by chi2). In contrast, we observed appropriate Mendelian ratios of RA+ mAgt+/+, RA+ mAgt+/-, and RA+ mAgt-/- mice at birth and in adults (P > 0.05 by chi2). These results demonstrate that the presence of both human transgenes rescues the postnatal lethality in mAgt-/- mice. The renal histopathology exhibited by RA- mAgt-/- mice, including thickened arterial walls, severe fibrosis, lymphocytic infiltration, and atrophied parenchyma, was also rescued in the RA+ mAgt-/- mice. Direct arterial blood pressure recordings in conscious freely moving mice revealed that BP (in mmHg) varied proportionally to mAgt gene copy number in RA+ mice (approximately 20 mmHg per mAgt gene copy, P < 0.001). BP in RA+ mAgt-/- mice (132+/-3, n = 14) was intermediate between wild-type (RA- mAgt+/+, 105+/-2, n = 9) and RA+ mAgt+/+ (174+/-3, n = 10) mice. These studies establish that the human renin and angiotensinogen genes can functionally replace the mouse angiotensinogen gene, and provides proof in principle that we can examine the regulation of elements of the human RAS and test the significance of human RAS gene variants by a combined transgenic and gene targeting approach.
PMCID: PMC507940  PMID: 9077534
22.  Screening the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Patients with Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis by Oligonucleotide-Based Custom DNA Array 
Early screening of individuals considered to be at risk for severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis is an important strategy for preventing ischemic cerebral stroke. The purpose of this study is to screening candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with severe ICA stenosis using a newly developed oligonucleotide-based custom DNA array. The subjects consisted of 47 controls and 46 patients with severe ICA stenosis (≥70%) who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Subjects gave informed consent and we obtained samples of blood and genomic DNA. We studied 8 candidate genes: renin-angiotensin system [angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3)]; growth factor [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)]; transgelin (SM22); cytokine [chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)]; coagulation-fibrinolysis system [5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)]; and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Genotyping of candidate SNPs was done with a line probe assay (LiPA) based on an oligonucleotide-based DNA array. Results: The allele frequency of PAI-1 –1965 delG (odds ratio (OR), 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2–0.6) and MTHFR (OR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.0–1.5) were significantly different between controls and cases with ICA stenosis by Fisher’s exact test. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus (DM), SNPs in PAI-1 –1965 delG and MTHFR were an independent risk for ICA stenosis. In conclusion, genetic factors of coagulation-fibrinolysis as well as diabetes mellitus (DM) were relevant in ICA stenosis.
PMCID: PMC2789695  PMID: 20066125
atherosclerosis; carotid artery stenosis; polymorphism; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; 5; 10-methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase
23.  Polymorphisms in the Renin-Angiotensin System and Migraine in Women 
Headache  2008;49(2):292-299.
Background
Recent findings suggest an association between the renin-angiotensin system and migraine. However, genetic studies are scarce and controversial.
Objective
To investigate the association between the AGTR1 1166A>C and AGT Met235Thr polymorphisms with migraine and migraine aura status.
Methods
We performed an association study among 25,000 Caucasian U.S. women, participating in the Women's Health Study, with information on the AGTR1 1166A>C and AGT Met235Thr polymorphisms. Migraine and migraine aura status were self-reported. We distinguished between any history of migraine, active migraine with aura, active migraine without aura, and prior migraine (history of migraine, but not in the year prior to baseline). We used logistic regression to investigate the genotype-migraine association.
Results
At baseline, 4,577 (18.3%) women reported any history of migraine; 39.5% of the 3,226 women with active migraine indicated aura. The polymorphisms were not associated with migraine or migraine specific subgroups. We also did not find a significant interaction between the polymorphisms.
Conclusions
Data from this large cohort of Caucasian women do not suggest an association of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system with migraine or aura status. Future studies should focus on haplotype analyses and additional gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions.
doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01287.x
PMCID: PMC2644741  PMID: 19178574
migraine; renin-angiotensin system; polymorphism; women
24.  Association of angiotensinogen gene T235 variant with progression of immunoglobin A nephropathy in Caucasian patients. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(4):814-820.
Genetic variability in the renin-angiotensin system may modify renal responses to injury and disease progression. We examined whether the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and the A1166--> C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene may be associated with disease progression in 168 Caucasian patients with IgA nephropathy. All patients had serial measurements of their creatinine clearance, proteinuria, and blood pressure (mean+/-SD) with a follow-up of 6.1+/-4.7 yr. The genotype frequencies for each gene were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and were similar to those of 100 Caucasian control subjects. We examined two primary outcomes: (a) the rate of deterioration of Ccr, and (b) the maximal level of proteinuria. We found that patients with the AGT MT (n = 79) and TT (n = 29) genotypes had a faster rate of deterioration of Ccr than those with the MM (n = 60) genotype (i.e., median values, -6.6 and -6.2 vs. -3. 0 ml/min/yr, respectively; P = 0.01 by Kruskal-Wallis test). Similarly, patients with AGT MT and TT genotypes had higher maximal values of proteinuria than those with the MM genotype (i.e., median values, 2.5 and 3.5 vs. 2.0 g/d, respectively; P < 0.02 by Kruskal-Wallis test). Neither the ACE insertion/deletion nor angiotensin II type I A1166--> C gene polymorphism was associated with disease progression or proteinuria in univariate analysis. Multivariant analysis, however, detected an interaction between the AGT and ACE gene polymorphisms with the presence of ACE/DD polymorphism adversely affecting disease progression only in patients with the AGT/MM genotype (P = 0.008). Neither of these gene polymorphisms was associated with systemic hypertension. Our results suggest that polymorphisms at the AGT and ACE gene loci are important markers for predicting progression to chronic renal failure in Caucasian patients with IgA nephropathy.
PMCID: PMC508253  PMID: 9259580
25.  Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging 
JCI Insight  null;1(14):e88942.
Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly.
In aging resistance vessels, mineralocorticoid receptors downregulate miR-155 expression thereby increasing pro-constrictive gene expression and enhancing vascular tone and vasoconstriction and ultimately increasing blood pressure.
doi:10.1172/jci.insight.88942
PMCID: PMC5033871  PMID: 27683672

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