Rodents are the unique species carrying duplicated angiotensin (Ang) type 1 (AT1) receptor genes, Agtr1a and Agtr1b. After separately generating Agtr1a and Agtr1b null mutant mice by gene targeting, we produced double mutant mice homozygous for both Agtr1a and Agtr1b null mutation (Agtr1a-/-; Agtr1b-/-) by mating the single gene mutants. Agtr1a-/-, Agtr1b-/- mice are characterized by normal in utero survival but decreased ex utero survival rate. After birth they are characterized by low body weight gain, marked hypotension, and abnormal kidney morphology including delayed maturity in glomerular growth, hypoplastic papilla, and renal arterial hypertrophy. These abnormal phenotypes are quantitatively similar to those found in mutant mice homozygous for the angiotensinogen gene (Agt-/-), indicating that major biological functions of endogenous Ang elucidated by the abnormal phenotypes of Agt-/- are mediated by the AT1 receptors. Infusion of Ang II, AT1 blockers, or an AT2 blocker was without effect on blood pressure in Agtr1a-/-; Agtr1b-/- mice, indicating that AT2 receptor does not exert acute depressor effects in these mice lacking AT1 receptors. Also, unlike Agt-/- mice, some Agtr1a-/-; Agtr1b-/- mice have a large ventricular septum defect, suggesting that another receptor such as AT2 is functionally activated in Agtr1a-/-, Agtr1b-/- mice.
Reduced glomerular filtration rate is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease and death. Genetic polymorphisms, particularly in genes involved in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), may influence the rate of renal function decline.
We examined the relation between specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including those in the RAS, apolipoprotein E and alpha-adducin, and renal function decline assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over an 11-year period in 2578 Caucasian participants of the Nurses' Health Study. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between genotype and risk of eGFR decline of ≥25%.
After 11 years between creatinine measurements, the eGFR declined by ≥25% in 423 of 2578 (16%) women. The angiotensinogen (AGT) A-20C polymorphism was associated with a higher risk of renal function decline when two risk alleles were present than if one or no alleles were present (CC vs AA and AC) OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.02–3.26; p = 0.04). The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) A1166C polymorphism was marginally associated with a higher risk of renal function decline when two risk alleles were present (CC vs AA, OR = 1.41; 95% CI 0.98–2.01; p = 0.06). The alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of renal function decline when any number of risk alleles were present (WG vs GG, OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.61–0.99, p = 0.04; WW vs GG, OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.20–1.07, p = 0.07). Linear regression analysis with change in eGFR as the outcome showed a larger decline of 3.5 (95% CI 0.5 to 6.4, p = 0.02) ml/min/1.73 m2 in AGT A-20C CC homozygotes. No other polymorphisms were significantly associated with renal function decline or absolute change in eGFR over the study period.
Genetic variants in the angiotensinogen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor and alpha-adducin genes may contribute to loss of renal function in the general female Caucasian population.
We examined the in vivo function of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (Agtr1) on macrophages in renal fibrosis. Fourteen days after the induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), wild-type mice reconstituted with marrow lacking the Agtr1 gene (Agtr1–/–) developed more severe interstitial fibrosis with fewer interstitial macrophages than those in mice reconstituted with Agtr1+/+ marrow. These differences were not observed at day 5 of UUO. The expression of profibrotic genes — including TGF-β1, α1(I) collagen, and α1(III) collagen — was substantially higher in the obstructed kidneys of mice with Agtr1–/– marrow than in those with Agtr1+/+ marrow at day 14 but not at day 5 of UUO. Mice with Agtr1–/– marrow were characterized by reduced numbers of peripheral-blood monocytes and macrophage progenitors in bone marrow. In vivo assays revealed a significantly impaired phagocytic capability in Agtr1–/– macrophages. In vivo treatment of Agtr1+/+ mice with losartan reduced phagocytic capability of Agtr1+/+ macrophages to a level comparable to that of Agtr1–/– macrophages. Thus, during urinary tract obstruction, the Agtr1 on bone marrow–derived macrophages functions to preserve the renal parenchymal architecture, and this function depends in part on its modulatory effect on phagocytosis.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-related pathways influence arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk.
We investigated whether genetic variation in ACE-related pathways are associated with SCA risk. Because these pathways are sex-dependent and influenced by estrogen, we examined these genotype-SCA associations in the full study population, and tested for interaction with gender.
In a population-based case-control study set in King County WA, we genotyped 211 SCA cases (mean age 59, 80% male) and 730 age- and gender-matched controls of European descent for 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes (ACE, AGT, REN, AGTR1, AGTR2, ACE2, KNG1, BDKRB2). We examined association of SNPs and haplotypes with SCA risk using logistic regression.
AGTR1 SNP rs1492099 (allele frequency=15%) was associated with decreased SCA risk (OR=0.62, 95%CI=0.4–0.9). Haplotype variation in AGTR2 was associated with SCA risk (global haplotype test p=0.001), with haplotype 2 (allele frequency=27%) associated with increased risk (OR=1.26, 95%CI=1.1–1.5). There was interaction with gender on SCA risk for variation in KNG1 (interaction p-value range=0.0004–0.017 for 6/8 SNPs). KNG1 SNP rs710448 (allele frequency=42%) was associated with decreased risk (OR=0.44, 95%CI=0.3–0.8) among women but not men. Other SNPs and haplotypes in the eight genes examined were not associated with SCA risk after multiple testing correction.
Variation in AGTR1 and AGTR2 are associated with SCA risk in a population-based case-control study. There was evidence of interaction with gender on SCA risk for variation in KNG1. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that variation in genes in ACE-related pathways influence SCA risk.
sudden death; cardiac arrest; epidemiology; genetics; polymorphism; renin-angiotensin system
Background and purpose
Our objective was to investigate the associations between polymorphisms in representative genes of the renin angiotensin system with measures of cerebral blood flow regulation in older adults.
Participants in this analysis were white subjects (n=335) in the MOBILIZE Boston study, an observational study of community-dwelling elders who underwent transcranial Doppler while sitting and standing and during hypercapnea and hypocapnea. Autoregulation phenotype was the change in cerebrovascular resistance from sit to stand. Vasoreactivity (VR) phenotype was the slope of the change in cerebrovascular conductance vs change in end-tidal CO2. Total of 33 tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were selected in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT), the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the angiotensin receptor gene (AGTR). Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, mean arterial blood pressure, stroke and use of antihypertensives were conducted for each SNP and outcome. Bonferroni corrections were used to adjust p-values for multiple testing.
In the AGT gene, only the rs699 SNP was associated with VR after Bonferroni correction (p=0.00028). Homozygous carriers of the CC genotype of this SNP had lower VR compared to the CT or TT genotypes. There were no significant associations with autoregulation measures. None of the SNP’s in the other genes was associated with our phenotypes.
This analysis suggests that the AGT gene may be involved in vasoreactivity independent of blood pressure. Larger studies are needed to confirm the role of this gene in cerebrovascular health and aging.
Angiotensin; cerebral blood flow; vasoreactivity
Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be important in promoting coronary heart disease (CHD) and renal dysfunction, but limited data are available on associations between angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGT1R) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes in type 2 diabetes.
Study participants were diabetics from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cardiovascular pathophysiology (including AGT1R T573C, AGT1R A1166C, and AGT M235T) and presence of renal dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) or history of CHD.
The AGT1R 1166 C-allele was associated with eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (multivariable OR 1.63 [1.01, 2.65]) in the HPFS men (n = 733) and in the combined dataset (n = 1566) (OR 1.42 [1.02, 1.98]). The AGT1R 1166 C-allele was also associated with CHD in men (OR 1.57 [1.10, 2.24]). In NHS women (n = 833), AGT 235T-allele was associated with CHD (OR 1.72 [1.20, 2.47]). Removal of hypertension from the fully adjusted models did not influence results, suggesting that the associations may not be mediated by hypertension. There were significant interactions between sex and AGT1R 1166 C-allele (p = 0.008) and AGT M235T (p = 0.03) in models for CHD. No significant associations were seen between AGT1R T573 C-allele and renal dysfunction or CHD.
Polymorphisms in AGT1R and AGT genes are associated with renal dysfunction and CHD in type 2 diabetes and further support the important role of the RAS in these complications. Sex may modify associations between AGT1R 1166 C-allele and AGT 235T and CHD in type 2 diabetes.
Gene-gene interactions may be partly responsible for complex traits such as obesity. Increasing evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the etiology of obesity. How the epistasis of genes in the RAS contributes to obesity is still under research. We aim to evaluate the contribution of RAS-related gene interactions to a predisposition of obesity in a Chinese population.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We selected six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in angiotensin (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGTR1), MAS1, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and the bradykinin B2 receptor gene (BDKRB2), and genotyped them in 324 unrelated individuals with obesity (BMI ≥28 kg/m2) and 373 non-obese controls (BMI 18.5 to <24 kg/m2) from a large scale population-based cohort. We analyzed gene-gene interactions among 6 polymorphic loci using the Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) method, which has been shown to be effective for detecting gene-gene interactions in case-control studies with relatively small samples. Then we used logistic regression models to confirm the best combination of loci identified in the GMDR. It showed a significant gene-gene interaction between the rs220721 polymorphism in the MAS1 gene and the rs1799722 polymorphism in the gene BDKB2R. The best two-locus combination scored 9 for cross-validation consistency and 9 for sign test (p = 0.0107). This interaction showed the maximum consistency and minimum prediction error among all gene-gene interaction models evaluated. Moreover, the combination of the MAS1 rs220721 and the BDKRB2 rs1799722 was associated with a significantly increased risk of obesity (OR 1.82, CI 95%: 1.15–2.88, p = 0.0103).
Conclusions and Significance
These results suggest that the SNPs from the RAS-related genes may contribute to the risk of obesity in an interactive manner in a Chinese population. The gene-gene interaction may serve as a novel area for obesity research.
Early screening of individuals considered to be at risk for severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis is an important strategy for preventing ischemic cerebral stroke. The purpose of this study is to screening candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with severe ICA stenosis using a newly developed oligonucleotide-based custom DNA array. The subjects consisted of 47 controls and 46 patients with severe ICA stenosis (≥70%) who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Subjects gave informed consent and we obtained samples of blood and genomic DNA. We studied 8 candidate genes: renin-angiotensin system [angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3)]; growth factor [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)]; transgelin (SM22); cytokine [chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)]; coagulation-fibrinolysis system [5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)]; and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Genotyping of candidate SNPs was done with a line probe assay (LiPA) based on an oligonucleotide-based DNA array. Results: The allele frequency of PAI-1 –1965 delG (odds ratio (OR), 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2–0.6) and MTHFR (OR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.0–1.5) were significantly different between controls and cases with ICA stenosis by Fisher’s exact test. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus (DM), SNPs in PAI-1 –1965 delG and MTHFR were an independent risk for ICA stenosis. In conclusion, genetic factors of coagulation-fibrinolysis as well as diabetes mellitus (DM) were relevant in ICA stenosis.
atherosclerosis; carotid artery stenosis; polymorphism; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; 5; 10-methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase
Intellectual disability (ID) is a common developmental disability observed in one to three percent of the human population. A possible role for the Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AGTR2) in brain function, affecting learning, memory, and behavior, has been suggested in humans and rodents. Mice lacking the Agtr2 gene (Agtr2−/y) showed significant impairment in their spatial memory and exhibited abnormal dendritic spine morphology. To identify Agtr2 influenced genes and pathways, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on RNA isolated from brains of Agtr2−/y and control male mice at embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day one (P1). The gene expression profiles of the Agtr2−/y brain samples were significantly different when compared to profiles of the age-matched control brains. We identified 62 differently expressed genes (p ≤ 0.005) at E15 and in P1 brains of the Agtr2−/y mice. We verified the differential expression of several of these genes in brain samples using quantitative RT-PCR. Differentially expressed genes encode molecules involved in multiple cellular processes including microtubule functions associated with dendritic spine morphology. This study provides insight into Agtr2 influenced candidate genes and suggests that expression dysregulation of these genes may modulate Agtr2 actions in the brain that influences learning and memory.
Learning and memory; Intellectual Disability; Dendritic spine; Expression profiling; Agtr2
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the response to physiological and psychosocial stressors however its role in stress-related psychiatric disorders is poorly understood. We examined if variation in AGTR1, the gene coding for the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R), is associated with a diagnosis of depression and differences in white matter hyperintensities and frontotemporal brain volumes. 257 depressed and 116 nondepressed elderly Caucasian subjects completed clinical assessments and provided blood samples for genotyping. We utilized a haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (htSNP) analysis to test for variation in AGTR1. 1.5T MRI data for measurement of hyperintense lesions were available on 281 subjects, while 70 subjects completed 3T MRI allowing for measurements of the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Two htSNPs exhibited statistically significant frequency differences between diagnostic cohorts: rs10935724 and rs12721331. Although hyperintense lesion volume did not significantly differ by any htSNP, dlPFC and hippocampus volume differed significantly for several htSNPs. Intriguingly, for those htSNPs differing significantly for both dlPFC and hippocampus volume, the variant associated with smaller dlPFC volume was associated with larger hippocampal volume. This supports that genetic variation in AGTR1 is associated with depression and differences in frontotemporal morphology.
Geriatrics; renin-angiotensin system; MRI; genetic polymorphisms; hippocampus; amygdala; prefrontal cortex
Prior studies using creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have found limited associations between kidney function and markers of inflammation. Using eGFR and cystatin C, a novel marker of kidney function, the authors investigated the association of kidney function with multiple biomarkers in a diverse cohort.
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis consists of 6,814 participants of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese descent, enrolled from 2000–2002 from six U.S. communities. Measurements at the enrollment visit included serum creatinine, cystatin C, and six inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers. Creatinine-based eGFR was estimated using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and chronic kidney disease was defined by an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Adjusted partial correlations between cystatin C and all biomarkers were statistically significant: C-reactive protein (r = 0.08), interleukin-6 (r = 0.16), tumor necrosis factor-α soluble receptor 1 (TNF-αR1; r = 0.75), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (r = 0.21), fibrinogen (r = 0.14), and factor VIII (r = 0.11; two-sided p < 0.01 for all). In participants without chronic kidney disease, higher creatinine-based eGFR was associated only with higher TNF-αR1 levels.
In a cohort characterized by ethnic diversity, cystatin C was directly associated with multiple procoagulant and inflammatory markers. Creatinine-based eGFR had similar associations with these biomarkers among subjects with chronic kidney disease.
Many different genetic and clinical factors have been identified as causes or contributors to atherosclerosis. We present a model of preclinical atherosclerosis based on genetic and clinical data that predicts the presence of coronary artery calcification in healthy Americans of European descent aged 45 to 84 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Methods and Results:
We assessed 712 individuals for the presence or absence of coronary artery calcification, and their genotypes for 2882 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using these SNPs and relevant clinical data, a Bayesian network that predicts the presence of coronary calcification was constructed. The model contains 13 SNPs (from genes AGTR1, ALOX15, INSR, PRKAB1, IL1R2, ESR2, KCNK1, FBLN5, PPARA, VEGFA, PON1, TDRD6, PLA2G7, and one ancestry informative marker) and 5 clinical variables (sex, age, weight, smoking, and diabetes) and achieves 85% predictive accuracy, as measured by area under the ROC curve (AUC). This is a significant (p < 0.001) improvement upon models using just the SNP data or using just the clinical variables.
We present an investigation of joint genetic and clinical factors associated with atherosclerosis that shows predictive results for both cases, and enhanced performance for the combination.
atherosclerosis; genetics; risk factors
We have developed chimeric mice carrying 'regional' null mutation of the angiotensin type 1A (AT1A) receptor, the AT1 receptor subtype exclusively present in mouse juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. The chimeric mouse (Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+) is made up of wild-type (Agtr1a +/+) cells or cells homozygous for Agtr1a deletion (Agtr1a -/-). In the latter, the AT1A coding exon was replaced with a reporter gene, lacZ. In Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mice, these two clones of cells are found to be clustered and display patchy distributions in the kidney and heart. Tracking of lacZ activities in hetero- (Agtr1a +/-) and homozygous (Agtr1a -/-) deletion mutant offspring from Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mice revealed that the promoter activity of Agtr1a is localized in JG cells, afferent arteriolar walls, glomerular mesangial region and endothelial cells, and apical and basolateral proximal tubule membranes. The JG apparatuses of Agtr1a -/- mice are markedly enlarged with intense expression of renin mRNA and protein. In Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mice, these changes were proportional to the degree of chimerism. Within a given Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mouse, however, the degree of JG hypertrophy/hyperplasia and the expression of renin mRNA and protein were identical between Agtr1a +/+ and Agtr1a -/- cells. Thus, in the in vivo condition tested, the local interaction between angiotensin and the AT1 receptor on the JG cells has little functional contribution to the feedback regulation of JG renin synthesis.
Factors such as age and race/ethnicity might influence blood pressure (BP) response to drugs. Therapeutic response to the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril used as add-on therapy to stable calcium channel blocker therapy with verapamil sustained release 240 mg was addressed in a racially/ethnically diverse group of 1,832 hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the association with a polymorphism (1166A→C) in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AGTR1) was tested. BP response was compared between groups using analysis of covariance after adjustment for covariates associated with BP response. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. Trandolapril decreased mean unadjusted systolic and diastolic BPs by −9.1 ± 17.3 (SD) and −4.1 ± 10.1 mm Hg, respectively. The percentage of patients with BP under control (<140/90 mm Hg) increased from 6.7% to 41.3% (p <0.0001). Adjusted BP response was significantly associated with age and baseline systolic and diastolic BP (p <0.0001). Whereas the decrease in systolic BP was more pronounced in younger patients, the opposite was observed for diastolic BP decrease. Diastolic BP response was also significantly associated with race. Specifically, the adjusted diastolic BP decrease was significantly smaller in Hispanics and blacks than whites (p = 0.0032 and p = 0.0069, respectively). However, Hispanics achieved a decrease in systolic BP and an increase in BP control similar to the other ethnic groups. There was no genetic association between AGTR1 1166A→C genotype and BP response. In conclusion, trandolapril add-on therapy was effective in increasing BP control, with age and baseline BP associated with both systolic and diastolic BP response. Race was associated with diastolic BP response, although the difference is likely not to be clinically significant and AGTR1 genotype was not associated with BP response.
The renin-angiotensin system and endothelial function have both been associated with hypertension. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship of six previously characterized gene variants in the renin-angiotensin system and the NOS3 gene with blood pressure progression and incident hypertension.
We analyzed data from 18436 Caucasian women who participated in a prospective cohort study and were free of hypertension at baseline. Six previously characterized single nucleotide polymorphisms (NOS3 rs1800779, NOS3 rs3918226, NOS3 rs1799983, ACE rs1799752, AGT rs699, and AGTR1 rs5186) were genotyped. Blood pressure progression at 48 months and incident hypertension during the entire follow-up according to the different genotypes and inferred haplotypes were assessed by logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models, respectively.
At 48 months, 47.4% of the women had blood pressure progression. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for blood pressure progression associated with NOS3 rs1800779, NOS3 rs3918226, NOS3 rs1799983, ACE rs1799752, AGT rs699, and AGTR1 rs5186 were 1.00 (0.96–1.05), 1.00 (0.92–1.09), 0.99 (0.94–1.04), 0.96 (0.92–1.01), 1.04 (0.99–1.08), and 1.03 (0.98–1.08). During 9.8 years of follow-up, 29.6% of women developed incident hypertension. The hazard ratios (95% CI) for the six polymorphisms were 1.01 (0.97–1.06), 1.06 (0.99–1.14), 1.05 (1.01–1.09), 0.99 (0.95–1.02), 1.01 (0.97–1.05) and 0.99 (0.95–1.04). NOS3-haplotypes were not significantly associated with blood pressure progression (p=0.91) or incident hypertension (p=0.10).
Blood pressure progression and incident hypertension are not consistently associated with six well-characterized genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system and the NOS3 gene in a large cohort of Caucasian women.
Blood pressure; Hypertension; Gene polymorphism; Nitric oxide synthase; Angiotensin-converting enzyme; Renin-angiotensin System
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) are markers of kidney function that are known to be heritable. Many endocrine conditions have strong familial components. We tested for association between the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set and measures of kidney function and endocrine traits.
Genotype information on the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100K SNP set was available on 1345 participants. Serum creatinine and cystatin-C (cysC; n = 981) were measured at the seventh examination cycle (1998–2001); GFR (n = 1010) was estimated via the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation; UAE was measured on spot urine samples during the sixth examination cycle (1995–1998) and was indexed to urinary creatinine (n = 822). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured at the third and fourth examination cycles (1981–1984; 1984–1987) and mean value of the measurements were used (n = 810). Age-sex-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted residuals for these measurements were used in association with genotype data using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and family-based association tests (FBAT) models. We presented the results for association tests using additive allele model. We evaluated associations with 70,987 SNPs on autosomes with minor allele frequencies of at least 0.10, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium p-value ≥ 0.001, and call rates of at least 80%.
The top SNPs associated with these traits using the GEE method were rs2839235 with GFR (p-value 1.6*10-05), rs1158167 with cysC (p-value 8.5*10-09), rs1712790 with UAE (p-value 1.9*10-06), and rs6977660 with TSH (p-value 3.7*10-06), respectively. The top SNPs associated with these traits using the FBAT method were rs6434804 with GFR(p-value 2.4*10-5), rs563754 with cysC (p-value 4.7*10-5), rs1243400 with UAE (p-value 4.8*10-6), and rs4128956 with TSH (p-value 3.6*10-5), respectively. Detailed association test results can be found at . Four SNPs in or near the CST3 gene were highly associated with cysC levels (p-value 8.5*10-09 to 0.007).
Kidney function traits and TSH are associated with SNPs on the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100K SNP set. These data will serve as a valuable resource for replication as more SNPs associated with kidney function and endocrine traits are identified.
This study examines whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms: ACE (encoding for angiotensin converting enzyme) c.2306-117_404 I/D, AGTR1 (encoding for angiotensin II type-1 receptor) c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 (encoding for aldosterone synthase) c.-344C>T are associated with the extension of coronary atherosclerosis in a group of 647 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography. The extension of CAD was evaluated using the Gensini score. The polymorphisms were determined by PCR and RFLP assays. The associations between genotypes and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by pairwise comparisons using Wilcoxon test. The population has been divided into groups defined by: sex, smoking habit, past myocardial infarction, BMI (>, ≤ 25), age (>, ≤ 55), diabetes mellitus, level of total cholesterol (>, ≤ 200 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 130 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 40 mg/dl), triglycerides (>, ≤ 150 mg/dl). Significant associations between the ACE c.2306-117_404 I/D polymorphism and the Gensini score in men with high total cholesterol levels (PKruskal-Wallis = 0.008; Padjusted = 0.009), high level of LDL cholesterol (PKruskal-Wallis = 0.016; Padjusted = 0.028) and low level of HDL cholesterol (PKruskal-Wallis = 0.04; Padjusted = 0.055) have been found. No association between the AGTR1 c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 c.-344C>T and the Gensini score has been found. These results suggest that men who carry ACE c.2306-117_404 DD genotype and have high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels may be predisposed to the development of more severe CAD.
ACE; AGTR1; Atherosclerosis; CAD; CYP11B2; Gensini score; Life Sciences; Human Genetics; Plant Genetics & Genomics; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Microbial Genetics and Genomics; Life Sciences, general
We investigated the effect of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes on ventricular remodeling, growth, renal function and response to enalapril in infants with single ventricle.
Methods and Results
Single ventricle infants enrolled in a randomized trial of enalapril were genotyped for polymorphisms in 5 genes: angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, aldosterone synthase, and chymase. Alleles associated with RAAS upregulation were classified as risk alleles. Ventricular mass, volume, somatic growth, renal function using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and response to enalapril were compared between patients with ≥2 homozygous risk genotypes (high-risk), and those with <2 homozygous risk genotypes (low-risk) at two time points - before the superior-cavopulmonary-connection (pre-SCPC) and at age 14 months. Of 230 trial subjects, 154 were genotyped: 38 were high-risk, 116 were low-risk. Ventricular mass and volume were elevated in both groups pre-SCPC. Ventricular mass and volume decreased and eGFR increased after SCPC in the low-risk (p<0.05) but not the high-risk group. These responses were independent of enalapril treatment. Weight and height z-scores were lower at baseline and height remained lower in the high-risk group at 14 months especially in those receiving enalapril (p<0.05).
RAAS-upregulation genotypes were associated with failure of reverse remodeling after SCPC surgery, less improvement in renal function, and impaired somatic growth, the latter especially in patients receiving enalapril. RAAS genotype may identify a high-risk subgroup of single ventricle patients who fail to fully benefit from volume unloading surgery. Follow-up is warranted to assess longterm impact.
Clinical Trial Registration
Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT00113087
Recent findings suggest an association between the renin-angiotensin system and migraine. However, genetic studies are scarce and controversial.
To investigate the association between the AGTR1 1166A>C and AGT Met235Thr polymorphisms with migraine and migraine aura status.
We performed an association study among 25,000 Caucasian U.S. women, participating in the Women's Health Study, with information on the AGTR1 1166A>C and AGT Met235Thr polymorphisms. Migraine and migraine aura status were self-reported. We distinguished between any history of migraine, active migraine with aura, active migraine without aura, and prior migraine (history of migraine, but not in the year prior to baseline). We used logistic regression to investigate the genotype-migraine association.
At baseline, 4,577 (18.3%) women reported any history of migraine; 39.5% of the 3,226 women with active migraine indicated aura. The polymorphisms were not associated with migraine or migraine specific subgroups. We also did not find a significant interaction between the polymorphisms.
Data from this large cohort of Caucasian women do not suggest an association of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system with migraine or aura status. Future studies should focus on haplotype analyses and additional gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions.
migraine; renin-angiotensin system; polymorphism; women
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) has been reported to play a fibrogenic role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, five variants of the AGTR1 gene (rs3772622, rs3772627, rs3772630, rs3772633, and rs2276736) were examined for their association with susceptibility to NAFLD. Subjects made up of 144 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 198 controls were genotyped using TaqMan assays. The liver biopsy specimens were histologically graded and scored according to the method of Brunt. Single locus analysis in pooled subjects revealed no association between each of the five variants with susceptibility to NAFLD. In the Indian ethnic group, the rs2276736, rs3772630 and rs3772627 appear to be protective against NAFLD (p = 0.010, p = 0.016 and p = 0.026, respectively). Haplotype ACGCA is shown to be protective against NAFLD for the Indian ethnic subgroup (p = 0.03). Gene-gene interaction between the AGTR1 gene and the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene, which we previously reported as associated with NAFLD in this sample, showed a strong interaction between AGTR1 (rs3772627), AGTRI (rs3772630) and PNPLA3 (rs738409) polymorphisms on NAFLD susceptibility (p = 0.007). Further analysis of the NAFLD patients revealed that the G allele of the AGTR1 rs3772622 is associated with increased fibrosis score (p = 0.003). This is the first study that replicates an association between AGTR1 polymorphism and NAFLD, with further details in histological features of NAFLD. There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between any of the five variants of the AGTR1 gene and NAFLD in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians, the rs2276736, rs3772630 and rs3772627 appear to protect against NAFLD. We report novel findings of an association between the G allele of the rs3772622 with occurrence of fibrosis and of the gene-gene interaction between AGTR1gene and the much-studied PNPLA3 gene.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNAs) or their target sites (miR-SNPs) within the 3′-UTR of mRNAs are increasingly thought to play a major role in pathological dysregulation of gene expression. Here, we studied the functional role of miR-SNPs on miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. First, analyses were performed on a SNP located in the miR-155 target site within the 3′-UTR of the Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1; rs5186, A > C) mRNA. Second, a SNP in the 3′-UTR of the muscle RAS oncogene homolog (MRAS; rs9818870, C > T) mRNA was studied which is located outside of binding sites of miR-195 and miR-135. Using these SNPs we investigated their effects on local RNA structure, on local structural accessibility and on functional miRNA binding, respectively. Systematic computational RNA folding analyses of the allelic mRNAs in either case predicted significant changes of local RNA structure in the vicinity of the cognate miRNA binding sites. Consistently, experimental in vitro probing of RNA showing differential cleavage patterns and reporter gene-based assays indicated functional differences of miRNA-mediated regulation of the two AGTR1 and MRAS alleles. In conclusion, we describe a novel model explaining the functional influence of 3′-UTR-located SNPs on miRNA-mediated control of gene expression via SNP-related changes of local RNA structure in non-coding regions of mRNA. This concept substantially extends the meaning of disease-related SNPs identified in non protein-coding transcribed sequences within or close to miRNA binding sites.
AGTR1; MRAS; RNA secondary structure analysis; SNP; cardiovascular disease; miR-SNP; miRNA
A novel approach was employed to assess the contribution of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to obstructive nephropathy in neonatal mice having zero to four functional copies of the angiotensinogen gene (Agt). Two-day-old mice underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) or sham operation; 28 days later, renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy were quantitated. In all Agt genotypes, UUO reduced ipsilateral renal mass and increased that of the opposite kidney. Renal interstitial collagen increased after UUO linearly with Agt expression, from a fractional area of 25% in zero-copy mice to 54% in two-copy mice. Renal expression of transforming growth factor-β1 was increased by ipsilateral UUO in mice expressing Agt, but not in zero-copy mice. However, the prevalence of atrophic tubules due to UUO did not vary with Agt expression. Blood pressure was not different in all groups, except for a reduction in sham zero-copy mice. We conclude that a functional RAS is not necessary for compensatory renal growth. This study demonstrates conclusively that angiotensin regulates at least 50% of the renal interstitial fibrotic response in obstructive nephropathy, an effect independent of systemic hemodynamic changes. Angiotensin-induced fibrosis likely is a mechanism common to the progression of many forms of renal disease.
This longitudinal study examined the relationship between 2-year change in white matter hyperintense lesion (WML) volume and polymorphisms in genes coding for the angiotensin-II type 1 and type 2 receptors, AGTR1 A1166C and AGTR2 C3123A. 137 depressed and 94 nondepressed subjects age 60 years or older were enrolled. Standard clinical evaluations were performed on all subjects and blood samples obtained for genotyping. 1.5T MRI was obtained at baseline and approximately two years later. These scans were processed using a semi-automated segmentation process which allowed for the calculation of WML volume at each time point. Statistical models tested for the relationship between change in WML volume and genotype, while also controlling for age, sex, diagnostic strata, baseline WML volume, and comorbid cerebrovascular risk factors. In men, AGTR1 1166A allele homozygotes exhibited significantly less change in WML volume than 1166C carriers. We also found that men reporting hypertension with the AGTR2 3123C allele exhibit less change in WML volume than hypertensive men with the 3123A allele, or men without hypertension. There were no significant relationships between these polymorphisms and change in WML volume in women. No significant gene-gene or gene-depression interactions were observed. Our results parallel previously observed gender differences of the relationship between other renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms and hypertension. Further work is needed to determine if these observed relationships are secondary to polymorphisms affecting response to antihypertensive medication, and if antihypertensive medications can slow WML progression and lower the risk of morbidity associated with WMLs.
MRI; Major Depressive Disorder; Volumetric Study; Cerebrovascular Disease; Renin-Angiotensin System; Genetic Polymorphisms
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the reno-protective effect of ARB is dependent on the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on podocytes. For this purpose, we generated podocyte-specific knockout mice for AT1 gene (Agtr1a), and crossed with NEP25, in which selective podocyte injury can be induced by immunotoxin, LMB2. Four weeks after LMB2, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was not attenuated in Agtr1a knockout/ NEP25 (n=18), compared with that in control NEP25 mice (n=13) (8.08±2.41 in knockout vs. 4.84±0.73 in control). Both strains of mouse showed similar degrees of sclerosis (0.66±0.17 vs. 0.82±0.27 on 0 to 4 scale) and downregulation of nephrin (5.78±0.45 vs. 5.65±0.58 on 0 to 8 scale). In contrast, AT1 antagonist or an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, but not hydralazine, remarkably attenuated proteinuria and sclerosis in NEP25 mice. Moreover, continuous angiotensin II infusion induced microalbuminuria similarly in both Agtr1a knockout and wild type mice.
Thus, angiotensin inhibition can protect podocytes and prevent development of glomerulosclerosis independently of podocyte AT1. Possible mechanisms include inhibitory effects on AT1 of other cells, or through mechanisms independent of AT1.
Our study further demonstrates that measures that directly affect only non-podocyte cells can have beneficial effects even when sclerosis is triggered by podocyte-specific injury.
Podocyte; glomerulosclerosis; chronic renal failure; AT1 antagonist; knockout mice; proteinuria
The renin–angiotensin system is involved in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We studied the association between the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the C573T polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and blood pressure, carotid atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular disease.
We genotyped over 6000 subjects from the Rotterdam Study and more than 1000 subjects from the Rotterdam Scan Study. We used logistic regression and univariate analyses, adjusting for age and sex with, for AGT, the MM and, for AT1R, the TT genotype as reference.
We found that AGT−235T increased systolic (p for trend = 0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.04). The prevalence of carotid plaques was increased 1.25‐fold (95% CI 1.02–1.52) in AGT‐TT carriers. There was a significant increase in mean volume deep subcortical white matter lesions (WML) for AGT‐TT carriers (1.78 ml vs 1.09 ml in the reference group; p = 0.008). A significant interaction was found between AGT and AT1R, further increasing the effect on periventricular and subtotal WML (p for interaction = 0.02). We found a non‐significant increased risk of silent brain infarction for AGT‐TT carriers and AT1R‐CC carriers, but no effect on stroke.
We found an association between AGT and blood pressure, atherosclerosis and WML. Also, we found synergistic effects between AGT and AT1R on the development of WML. These findings raise the question of whether the renin–angiotensin system may be a therapeutic target for the prevention of cerebral white matter pathology.