Plants grown under iron deficiency show different morphological, biochemical and physiological changes. These changes include, among others, the elicitation of different strategies to improve the acquisition of Fe from the rhizosphere, the adjustment of Fe homeostasis processes and a reorganization of carbohydrate metabolism. The application of modern techniques that allow the simultaneous and untargeted analysis of multiple proteins and metabolites can provide insight into multiple processes taking place in plants under Fe deficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes induced in the root tip proteome and metabolome of sugar beet plants in response to Fe deficiency and resupply.
Root tip extract proteome maps were obtained by 2-D isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and approximately 140 spots were detected. Iron deficiency resulted in changes in the relative amounts of 61 polypeptides, and 22 of them were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Metabolites in root tip extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-MS, and more than 300 metabolites were resolved. Out of 77 identified metabolites, 26 changed significantly with Fe deficiency. Iron deficiency induced increases in the relative amounts of proteins and metabolites associated to glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle and anaerobic respiration, confirming previous studies. Furthermore, a protein not present in Fe-sufficient roots, dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine (DMRL) synthase, was present in high amounts in root tips from Fe-deficient sugar beet plants and gene transcript levels were higher in Fe-deficient root tips. Also, a marked increase in the relative amounts of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) was observed in Fe-deficient plants, and a further increase in these compounds occurred upon short term Fe resupply.
The increases in DMRL synthase and in RFO sugars were the major changes induced by Fe deficiency and resupply in root tips of sugar beet plants. Flavin synthesis could be involved in Fe uptake, whereas RFO sugars could be involved in the alleviation of oxidative stress, C trafficking or cell signalling. Our data also confirm the increase in proteins and metabolites related to carbohydrate metabolism and TCA cycle pathways.
Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency.
The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 184.108.40.206) and glutamate synthase (EC 220.127.116.11) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants.
The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves.
C/N metabolism; Cucumis sativus L.; Fe deficiency; GS/GOGAT cycle; Isocitrate dehydrogenase; Nitrate reductase
Hypoxia acts as a plant stress factor, particularly in cucumbers plants under hydroponic culture. Calcium is involved in stress signal transmission and in the growth of plants. To determine the effect of exogenous calcium on hypoxic-responsive proteins in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No.2) roots, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry.
Cucumber roots were used to analyze the influence of hypoxia on plants. The expressions of 38 protein spots corresponding to enzymes were shown to change in response to hypoxia. Of these, 30 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis). The proteins were categorized according to functional groups, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fermentative metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, energy metabolism, protein synthesis and defense against stress. Exogenous calcium appeared to alleviate hypoxic stress via these metabolic and physiological systems. Western blotting was used to analyze the accumulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC); calcium further increased the expression of ADH and PDC under hypoxia. In addition, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess the transcript levels of differentially expressed proteins.
Exogenous calcium enhanced the expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fermentative metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense in plants under hypoxia. Calcium appears to induce hypoxic tolerance of cucumber seedlings. These phenomena have prompted us to further investigate the mechanisms by which cucumbers respond to exogenous calcium under hypoxia.
Cucumber; Calcium; Hypoxic stress; Proteomics
Iron uptake in dicots depends on their ability to induce a set of responses in root cells including rhizosphere acidification through H+ extrusion and apoplastic Fe(III) reduction by Fe(III)-chelate reductase. These responses must be sustained by metabolic rearrangements aimed at providing the required NAD(P)H, ATP and H+. Previous results in Fe-deficient cucumber roots showed that high H+ extrusion is accompanied by increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, involved in the cytosol pH-stat; moreover 31P-NMR analysis revealed increased vacuolar pH and decreased vacuolar [inorganic phosphate (Pi)]. The opposite was found in soybean: low rhizosphere acidification, decreased PEPC activity, vacuole acidification, and increased vacuolar [Pi]. These findings, highlighting a different impact of the Fe deficiency responses on cytosolic pH in the two species, lead to hypothesize different roles for H+ and Pi movements across the tonoplast in pH homeostasis. The role of vacuole in cytosolic pH-stat involves the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) activities, which generating the ΔpH and ΔΨ, mediate the transport of solutes, among which Pi, across the tonoplast. Fluxes of Pi itself in its two ionic forms, H2PO4- predominating in the vacuole and HPO42- in the cytosol, may be involved in pH homeostasis owing to its pH-dependent protonation/deprotonation reactions. Tonoplast enriched fractions were obtained from cucumber and soybean roots grown with or without Fe. Both V-ATPase and V-PPase activities were analyzed and the enrichment and localization of the corresponding proteins in root tissues were determined by Western blot and immunolocalization. V-ATPase did not change its activity and expression level in response to Fe starvation in both species. V-PPase showed a different behavior: in cucumber roots its activity and abundance were decreased, while in Fe-deficient soybean roots they were increased. The distinct role of the two H+ pumps in Pi fluxes between cytoplasm and vacuole in Fe-deficient cucumber and soybean root cells is discussed.
V-ATPase; V-PPase; Fe deficiency; cucumber; soybean
Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis is a major nutritional disorder for crops growing in calcareous soils, and causes decreases in vegetative growth as well as marked yield and quality losses. With the advances in mass spectrometry techniques, a substantial body of knowledge has arisen on the changes in the protein profiles of different plant parts and compartments as a result of Fe deficiency. Changes in the protein profile of thylakoids from several species have been investigated using gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis approaches, and the same techniques have been used to investigate changes in the root proteome profiles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Medicago truncatula and a Prunus rootstock. High throughput proteomic studies have also been published using Fe-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana roots and thylakoids. This review summarizes the major conclusions derived from these “-omic” approaches with respect to metabolic changes occurring with Fe deficiency, and highlights future research directions in this field. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in root Fe homeostasis from a holistic point of view may strengthen our ability to enhance Fe-deficiency tolerance responses in plants of agronomic interest.
iron; metabolism; proteomics; root; thylakoid
Background and Aims
Brassinosteroids (BR) are a class of plant polyhydroxysteroids with diverse functions in plant growth and development. However, there is little information on the role of BRs played in the response to nutrient deficiency.
To evaluate the role of BR in the response of plants to iron (Fe) deficiency, the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on ferric reductase (FRO) activity, acidification of the rhizosphere and Fe content in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings under Fe-deficient (1 µm FeEDTA) and Fe-sufficient (50 µm FeEDTA) conditions were investigated.
There was a significant increase in FRO activity upon exposure of cucumber seedlings to an Fe-deficient medium, and the Fe deficiency-induced increase in FRO activity was substantially suppressed by EBR. In contrast, application of EBR to Fe-sufficient seedlings stimulated FRO activity. Ethylene production evoked by Fe deficiency was suppressed by EBR, while EBR induced ethylene production from Fe-sufficient seedlings. Fe contents in shoots were reduced by treatment with EBR, while Fe contents in roots were markedly increased under both Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions. The reductions in Fe contents of shoots were independent of chlorophyll (CHL) contents under Fe-sufficient conditions, but they were positively correlated with CHL contents under Fe-deficient conditions. At the transcriptional level, transcripts encoding FRO (CsFRO1) and Fe transporter (CsIRT1) were increased upon exposure to the Fe-deficient medium, and the increases in transcripts were reversed by EBR.
The results demonstrate that BRs are likely to play a negative role in regulating Fe-deficiency-induced FRO, expressions of CsFRO1 and CsIRT1, as well as Fe translocation from roots to shoots.
Brassinosteroids; iron deficiency; cucumber; Cucumis sativus; ferric reductase activity; Fe translocation
Plants respond to iron deprivation by inducing a series of physiological and morphological responses to counteract the nutrient deficiency. These responses include: (i) the acidification of the extracellular medium, (ii) the reduction of ferric ion and (iii) the increased transport of ferrous ion inside of root cells. This iron transport system is present in strategy I plants and is strictly regulated; at low iron concentration the responses are induced whereas upon iron supply they are repressed. The mechanisms related with this process has been extensively studied, however, the specific cellular effectors involved in sensing iron deficiency, the cascade of components participating in signal transduction, and the way iron is metabolized and delivered, are yet poorly understood. Recently, it has been proposed nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule required for plant responses to iron deficiency. NO is produced rapidly in the root epidermis of tomato plants that are growing under iron deficient conditions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that NO is required for the expression and activity of iron uptake components in roots during iron deprivation. Here we propose and discuss a working hypothesis to understand the way NO is acting in plants responses to iron deficiency. We specifically highlight the cross talk between NO and plant hormones, and the interaction between NO, iron and glutathione for the formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs). Finally, a potential role of DNICs in iron mobilization is proposed.
iron deficiency; nitric oxide; iron mobilization; dinitrosyl iron complexes; auxin; ethylene
Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions.
Hyoscyamus albus; roots; Fe deficiency; small-scale proteomics; hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase; tropane alkaloid biosynthesis; malic acid secretion
Iron deficiency induces a complex set of responses in plants, including developmental and physiological changes, to increase iron uptake from soil. In Arabidopsis, many transporters involved in the absorption and distribution of iron have been identified over the past decade. However, little is known about the signaling pathways and networks driving the various responses to low iron. Only the basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor FIT has been shown to control the expression of the root iron uptake machinery genes FRO2 and IRT1. Here, we characterize the biological role of two other iron-regulated transcription factors, bHLH100 and bHLH101, in iron homeostasis. First direct transcriptional targets of FIT were determined in vivo. We show that bHLH100 and bHLH101 do not regulate FIT target genes, suggesting that they play a non-redundant role with the two closely related bHLH factors bHLH038 and bHLH039 that have been suggested to act in concert with FIT. bHLH100 and bHLH101 play a crucial role in iron-deficiency responses, as attested by their severe growth defects and iron homeostasis related phenotypes on low-iron media. To gain further insight into the biological role of bHLH100 and bHLH101, we performed microarray analysis using the corresponding double mutant and showed that bHLH100 and bHLH101 likely regulate genes involved in the distribution of iron within the plant. Altogether, this work establishes bHLH100 and bHLH101 as key regulators of iron-deficiency responses independent of the master regulator FIT and sheds light on new regulatory networks important for proper growth and development under low iron conditions.
The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level.
The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long) plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction). However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate) increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1) and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2) in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process.
Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable and substrate-inducible nitrate uptake mechanism operates in cucumber leaves. Its activity appears to be related to that of PM H+-ATPase activity and in particular to the induction of CsHA2 isoform. However the question about the molecular entity responsible for the transport of nitrate into leaf cells therefore still remains unresolved.
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to depletion of iron in the environment by activating Aft1p, the major iron-dependent transcription factor, and by transcribing systems involved in the uptake of iron. Here, we have studied the transcriptional response to iron deprivation and have identified new Aft1p target genes. We find that other metabolic pathways are regulated by iron: biotin uptake and biosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, and purine biosynthesis. Two enzymes active in these pathways, biotin synthase and glutamate synthase, require an iron-sulfur cluster for activity. Iron deprivation activates transcription of the biotin importer and simultaneously represses transcription of the entire biotin biosynthetic pathway. Multiple genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid metabolism are induced by iron deprivation, whereas glutamate synthase, a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, is repressed. A CGG palindrome within the promoter of glutamate synthase confers iron-regulated expression, suggesting control by a transcription factor of the binuclear zinc cluster family. We provide evidence that yeast subjected to iron deprivation undergo a transcriptional remodeling, resulting in a shift from iron-dependent to parallel, but iron-independent, metabolic pathways.
Iron plays a crucial role in metabolism as a key component of catalytic and redox cofactors, such as heme or iron-sulfur clusters in enzymes and electron-transporting or regulatory proteins. Limitation of iron availability by the host is also one of the mechanisms involved in immunity. Pathogens must regulate their protein expression according to the iron concentration in their environment and optimize their metabolic pathways in cases of limitation through the availability of respective cofactors. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted pathogen of humans, requires high iron levels for optimal growth. It is an anaerobe that possesses hydrogenosomes, mitochondrion-related organelles that harbor pathways of energy metabolism and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We analyzed the proteomes of hydrogenosomes obtained from cells cultivated under iron-rich and iron-deficient conditions employing two-dimensional peptide separation combining IEF and nano-HPLC with quantitative MALDI-MS/MS. We identified 179 proteins, of which 58 were differentially expressed. Iron deficiency led to the upregulation of proteins involved in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and the downregulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Interestingly, iron affected the expression of only some of multiple protein paralogues, whereas the expression of others was iron independent. This finding indicates a stringent regulation of differentially expressed multiple gene copies in response to changes in the availability of exogenous iron.
Iron is a critical cofactor for a number of metalloenzymes involved in respiration and photosynthesis, but plants often suffer from iron deficiency due to limited supplies of soluble iron in the soil. Iron deficiency induces a series of adaptive responses in various plant species, but the mechanisms by which they are triggered remain largely unknown. Using pH imaging and hormone localization techniques, it has been demonstrated here that root Fe(III) reductase activity and proton extrusion upon iron deficiency are up-regulated by systemic auxin signalling in a Fe-efficient woody plant, Malus xiaojinensis. Split-root experiments demonstrated that Fe-deprivation in a portion of the root system induced a dramatic increase in Fe(III) reductase activity and proton extrusion in the Fe-supplied portion, suggesting that the iron deficiency responses were mediated by a systemic signalling. Reciprocal grafting experiments of M. xiaojinensis with Malus baccata, a plant with no capability to produce the corresponding responses, indicate that the initiation of the systemic signalling is likely to be determined by roots rather than shoots. Iron deficiency induced a substantial increase in the IAA content in the shoot apex and supplying exogenous IAA analogues (NAA) to the shoot apex could mimic the iron deficiency to trigger the corresponding responses. Conversely, preventing IAA transport from shoot to roots blocked the iron deficiency responses. These results strongly indicate that the iron deficiency-induced physiological responses are mediated by systemic auxin signalling.
IAA signal; iron deficiency responses; root Fe(lll) reductase activity; proton extrusion; Malus xiaojinensis
While research on iron nutrition in plants has largely focused on iron-uptake pathways, photosynthetic microbes such as the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provide excellent experimental systems for understanding iron metabolism at the subcellular level. Several paradigms in iron homeostasis have been established in this alga, including photosystem remodeling in the chloroplast and preferential retention of some pathways and key iron-dependent proteins in response to suboptimal iron supply. This review presents our current understanding of iron homeostasis in Chlamydomonas, with specific attention on characterized responses to changes in iron supply, like iron-deficiency. An overview of frequently used methods for the investigation of iron-responsive gene expression, physiology and metabolism is also provided, including preparation of media, the effect of cell size, cell density and strain choice on quantitative measurements and methods for the determination of metal content and assessing the effect of iron supply on photosynthetic performance.
photosynthesis; transcriptome; ferredoxin; respiration; ferroxidases; photo-oxidative stress; acidocalcisome
Purpose of review
Recent advances in the study of iron metabolism have led to a better understanding of the molecular basis for the interactions between iron and the inflammatory response. We will review this new information in the context of the gastrointestinal tract.
The effects of iron on microbial enteropathogens are well known. Recent work has demonstrated that iron also has potentially important effects on the intestinal microbiota. On the host side, hepcidin, a key regulator of mammalian iron metabolism, has emerged as an important mediator of the cross-talk between iron homeostasis and inflammation. Hepcidin-dependent changes in iron flux can influence the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and conversely, inflammatory cytokines can induce hepcidin expression and alter iron homeostasis. Hepcidin levels have been found to be elevated in some studies of inflammatory bowel disease, while manipulating hepcidin expression in animal models of this condition has beneficial effects on both inflammation and dysregulated iron metabolism.
The information on iron metabolism that has become available in recent years has shed new light on the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and is also starting to suggest new approaches to treating such diseases.
Iron; hepcidin; inflammation; microbiota
Plants react to iron deficiency stress adopting different kind of adaptive responses. Tomato, a Strategy I plant, improves iron uptake through acidification of rhizosphere, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and transport of Fe2+ into the cells. Large-scale transcriptional analyses of roots under iron deficiency are only available for a very limited number of plant species with particular emphasis for Arabidopsis thaliana. Regarding tomato, an interesting model species for Strategy I plants and an economically important crop, physiological responses to Fe-deficiency have been thoroughly described and molecular analyses have provided evidence for genes involved in iron uptake mechanisms and their regulation. However, no detailed transcriptome analysis has been described so far.
A genome-wide transcriptional analysis, performed with a chip that allows to monitor the expression of more than 25,000 tomato transcripts, identified 97 differentially expressed transcripts by comparing roots of Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient tomato plants. These transcripts are related to the physiological responses of tomato roots to the nutrient stress resulting in an improved iron uptake, including regulatory aspects, translocation, root morphological modification and adaptation in primary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and TCA cycle. Other genes play a role in flavonoid biosynthesis and hormonal metabolism.
The transcriptional characterization confirmed the presence of the previously described mechanisms to adapt to iron starvation in tomato, but also allowed to identify other genes potentially playing a role in this process, thus opening new research perspectives to improve the knowledge on the tomato root response to the nutrient deficiency.
Previous studies examining the metabolic consequences of dietary iron deficiency have reported elevated serum glucose concentrations in iron-deficient animals. Importantly, the majority of these findings were observed using an earlier version of a laboratory animal diet (AIN-76A) in which the primary carbohydrate source was sucrose – a disaccharide known to negatively impact both glucose and lipid homeostasis. The AIN-76A diet formula was improved in 1993 (AIN-93) to optimize animal nutrition with a major change being the substitution of cornstarch for sucrose. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of iron deficiency on steady-state glucose homeostasis and the hepatic expression of glucose- and lipid-related genes in rats fed an iron-deficient diet based on either an AIN-76A or AIN-93 diet.
The study design consisted of 6 treatment groups: control (C; 40 mg Fe/kg diet), iron deficient (ID; ≤ 3 mg Fe/kg diet), or pair-fed (PF; 40 mg Fe/kg) fed either an AIN-76A or AIN-93 diet for 21 d. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured in whole blood. Serum insulin and cortisol were measure by ELISA. Serum glucose and triacylglycerols were measured by standard colorimetric enzyme assays. Alterations in hepatic gene expression were determined by real-time qPCR.
Hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly reduced in both ID groups compared to the C and PF groups. Similarly, animals in the both ID groups exhibited elevated steady-state levels of blood glucose and insulin, and significantly decreased levels of circulating cortisol compared to their respective PF controls. Serum triacyglycerols were only increased in ID animals consuming the AIN-76A diet. Hepatic gene expression analyses revealed a ~4- and 3-fold increase in the expression of glucokinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 mRNA, respectively, in the ID group on either diet compared to their respective PF counterparts. In contrast, the expression of lipogenic genes was significantly elevated in the AIN-76 ID group, while expression of these genes was unaffected by iron status in the AIN-93 ID group.
These results indicate that an impaired iron status is sufficient to alter glucose homeostasis, though alterations in lipid metabolism associated with ID are only observed in animals receiving the AIN-76A diet.
Hyperglycemia; Lipogenesis; Insulin; Metabolism; Iron deficiency
Background and Aims
Under conditions of low iron availability, rice plants induce genes involved in iron uptake and utilization. The iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element binding factors 1 and 2 (IDEF1 and IDEF2) regulate transcriptional response to iron deficiency in rice roots. Clarification of the functions of IDEF1 and IDEF2 could uncover the gene regulation mechanism.
Spatial patterns of IDEF1 and IDEF2 expression were analysed by histochemical staining of IDEF1 and IDEF2 promoter-GUS transgenic rice lines. Expression patterns of the target genes of IDEF1 and IDEF2 were analysed using transformants with induced or repressed expression of IDEF1 or IDEF2 grown in iron-rich or in iron-deficient solutions for 1 d.
IDEF1 and IDEF2 were highly expressed in the basal parts of the lateral roots and vascular bundles. IDEF1 and IDEF2 expression was dominant in leaf mesophyll and vascular cells, respectively. These expression patterns were similar under both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. IDEF1 was strongly expressed in pollen, ovaries, the aleurone layer and embryo. IDEF2 was expressed in pollen, ovaries and the dorsal vascular region of the endosperm. During seed germination, IDEF1 and IDEF2 were expressed in the endosperm and embryo. Expression of IDEF1 target genes was regulated in iron-rich roots similar to early iron-deficiency stages. In addition, the expression patterns of IDEF2 target genes were similar between iron-rich conditions and early or subsequent iron deficiency.
IDEF1 and IDEF2 are constitutively expressed during both vegetative and reproductive stages. The spatial expression patterns of IDEF1 and IDEF2 overlap with their target genes in restricted cell types, but not in all cells. The spatial expression patterns and gene regulation of IDEF1 and IDEF2 in roots are generally conserved under conditions of iron sufficiency and deficiency, suggesting complicated interactions with unknown factors for sensing and transmitting iron-deficiency signals.
IDE; IDEF; iron deficiency; Oryza sativa; reproductive organs; seeds; transcriptional regulation; vegetative organs
Iron (Fe) deficiency is a nutritional disorder that poses severe problems in agriculture and health due to decreased yield of crop plants and poor quality of edible plant parts. Plants respond to suboptimal Fe availability with a suite of responses, aimed at improving Fe acquisition and re-establishing cellular Fe homeostasis. In a recent study, we reported a comprehensive analysis of Fe deficiency-induced changes in the Arabidopsis root proteome using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) differential LC/MS/MS. Proteins that differentially accumulate upon Fe deficiency were quantitatively identified from a total of 4,454 proteins that were detected in root cells. The abundance of several RNA-binding proteins without defined functions in the Fe deficiency response was increased by Fe deficiency. Among these were two members of the conserved eukaryotic elongation factor 5A (eIF5A) family. Due to a lack of responsiveness of the corresponding genes at the transcriptional level, these proteins have not been identified in transcriptional profiling studies. eIF5A plays an important role in regulating translation under stress conditions in eukaryotic cells and may be critical in adapting plants to prevailing environmental conditions.
iron deficiency; proteomics; iTRAQ; protein translation; RNA-binding proteins
Iron homeostasis in animal cells is controlled post-transcriptionally by the iron regulatory proteins IRP1 and IRP2. IRP1 can assume two different functions in the cell, depending on conditions. During iron scarcity or oxidative stress, IRP1 binds to mRNA stem-loop structures called iron responsive elements (IREs) to modulate the translation of iron metabolism genes. In iron-rich conditions, IRP1 binds an iron-sulfur cluster to function as a cytosolic aconitase. This functional duality of IRP1 connects the translational control of iron metabolizing proteins to cellular iron levels. The recently determined structures of IRP1 in both functional states reveal the large-scale conformational changes required for these mutually exclusive roles, providing new insights into the mechanisms of IRP1 interconversion and ligand binding.
Mounting evidence indicate that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule mediating iron deficiency responses through the upregulation of the expression of iron uptake-related genes. Accordingly, NO donors such as nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) were reported to improve the fitness of plants grown under iron deficiency. Here, we showed that glutathione, a by-product of GSNO, triggered the upregulation of the expression of iron uptake- and transport-related gene and an increase of iron concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings facing iron deficiency. Furthermore, we provided evidence that under iron deficiency, NO released by GSNO did not improve the root iron concentration but impacted the content of copper. Collectively, our data highlight the complexity of interpreting data based on the use of NO donors when investigating the role of NO in iron homeostasis.
iron; iron deficiency; glutathione; nitric oxide; nitrosoglutathione
Two experiments were conducted in the greenhouse. In one experiment, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and horned cucumber (C. metuliferus) cultigens were evaluated for resistance to four root-knot nematode species (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica), and, in a second experiment, a standard (12-week) test was compared with a rapid (6-week) test. In the first experiment, horned cucumber cultigens varied in response to the Meloidogyne species. 'Sumter' cucumber was more susceptible than the horned cucumber to Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. All cultigens were more resistant to M. hapla than to the other root-knot nematode species. In the second experiment, best results were obtained when the test was run for 12 weeks rather than 6 weeks after planting (or 10 and 4 weeks after inoculation, respectively). All cultigens were more resistant to M. arenaria than to either M. incognita or M. javanica.
African horned cucumber; cucumber; Cucumis metuliferus; Cucumis sativus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode resistance; root-knot nematode
Intravenous iron therapy is pivotal in the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease to optimize the response of hemoglobin to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Intravenous iron use in patients with chronic kidney disease is on the rise. Recent clinical trial data prompting safety concerns regarding the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents has stimulated new US Food and Drug Administration label changes and restrictions for these agents, and has encouraged more aggressive use of intravenous iron. The currently available intravenous iron products differ with regard to the stability of the iron-carbohydrate complex and potential to induce hypersensitivity reactions. Ferumoxytol is a newer large molecular weight intravenous iron formulation that is a colloidal iron oxide nanoparticle suspension coated with polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyl ether. Ferumoxytol has robust iron-carbohydrate complex stability with minimal dissociation or appearance of free iron in the serum, allowing the drug to be given in relatively large doses with a rapid rate of administration. Clinical trials have demonstrated the superior efficacy of ferumoxytol versus oral iron with minimal adverse effects. However, recent postmarketing data have demonstrated a risk of hypersensitivity that has prompted new changes to the product information mandated by the Food and Drug Administration. Additionally, the long-term safety of this agent has not been evaluated, and its place in the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease has not been fully elucidated.
iron; ferumoxytol; oxidative stress; safety; kidney disease
Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals.
Iron; IRP; Iron-responsive element; RNA-binding protein; Iron-sulfur protein; Post-transcriptional regulation
Most aerobic biodegradation pathways for hydrocarbons involve iron-containing oxygenases. In iron-limited environments, such as the rhizosphere, this may influence the rate of degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants. We investigated the effects of iron limitation on the degradation of toluene by Pseudomonas putida mt2 and the transconjugant rhizosphere bacterium P. putida WCS358(pWWO), both of which contain the pWWO (TOL) plasmid that harbors the genes for toluene degradation. The results of continuous-culture experiments showed that the activity of the upper-pathway toluene monooxygenase decreased but that the activity of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase was not affected under iron-limited conditions. In contrast, the activities of three meta-pathway (lower-pathway) enzymes were all found to be reduced when iron concentrations were decreased. Additional experiments in which citrate was used as a growth substrate and the pathways were induced with the gratuitous inducer o-xylene showed that expression of the TOL genes increased the iron requirement in both strains. Growth yields were reduced and substrate affinities decreased under iron-limited conditions, suggesting that iron availability can be an important parameter in the oxidative breakdown of hydrocarbons.