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1.  The combined effects of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and renal replacement therapy on meropenem pharmacokinetics: a matched cohort study 
Critical Care  2014;18(6):565.
Introduction
The scope of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is expanding; however, optimal drug prescription during ECMO remains a developing science. Currently, there are no clear guidelines for antibiotic dosing during ECMO. This open-label, descriptive, matched-cohort pharmacokinetics (PK) study aimed to compare the PK of meropenem in ECMO patients to critically ill patients with sepsis not receiving ECMO (controls).
Methods
Eleven adult patients on ECMO (venovenous (VV) ECMO, n = 6; venoarterial (VA) ECMO, n = 5) receiving intravenous (IV) meropenem were included. Meropenem plasma concentrations were determined using validated chromatography. Population PK analysis was performed using non-linear mixed effects modelling. This data was compared with previously published meropenem PK data from 10 critically ill adult patients not on ECMO (preserved renal function (n = 5) or receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) (n = 5). Using these data, we then performed Monte Carlo simulations (n = 1,000) to describe the effect of creatinine clearance on meropenem plasma concentrations.
Results
In total, five (two VV, three VA) out of eleven ECMO patients received RRT. The other six patients (four VV, two VA) had no significant impairment in renal function. A two-compartment model adequately described the data. ECMO patients had numerically higher volume of distribution (0.45 ± 0.17 versus 0.41 ± 0.13 L/kg, P = 0.21) and lower clearance compared to controls (7.9 ± 5.9 versus 11.7 ± 6.5 L/h, P = 0.18). Variability in meropenem clearance was correlated with creatinine clearance or the presence of RRT. The observed median trough concentrations in the controls were 4.2 (0.0 to 5.7) mg/L. In ECMO patients, while trough meropenem concentrations >2 mg/L were achieved in all patients, a more aggressive target of >8 mg/L for less susceptible microorganisms was observed in only eight out of eleven patients, with five of them being on RRT.
Conclusions
ECMO patients exhibit high PK variability. Decreased meropenem CL on ECMO appears to compensate for ECMO and critical illness-related increases in volume of distribution. Routine target concentrations >2 mg/L are maintained with standard dosing (1 g IV 8-hourly). However, an increase in dose may be necessary when targeting higher concentrations or in patients with elevated creatinine clearance.
doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0565-2
PMCID: PMC4302127  PMID: 25636084
2.  Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Meropenem during Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration 
The pharmacokinetic properties of meropenem were investigated in nine critically ill patients treated by continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). All patients received one dose of 1 g of meropenem intravenously. High-flux polysulfone membranes were used as dialyzers. Meropenem levels were measured in plasma and ultrafiltrate by high-performance liquid chromatography. The total body clearance and elimination half-life were 143.7 ± 18.6 ml/min and 2.46 ± 0.41 h, respectively. The post- to prehemofiltration ratio of meropenem was 0.24 ± 0.06. Peak plasma drug concentrations measured 60 min postinfusion were 28.1 ± 2.7 μg/ml, and trough levels after 6 h of CVVH were 6.6 ± 1.5 μg/ml. The calculated total daily meropenem requirement in these patients with acute renal failure and undergoing CVVH was 2,482 ± 321 mg. Based on these data, we conclude that patients with severe infections who are undergoing CVVH can be treated effectively with 1 g of meropenem every 8 h.
PMCID: PMC105843  PMID: 9736573
3.  Mass transfer, clearance and plasma concentration of procalcitonin during continuous venovenous hemofiltration in patients with septic shock and acute oliguric renal failure 
Critical Care  2003;7(6):R160-R166.
Objectives
To measure the mass transfer and clearance of procalcitonin (PCT) in patients with septic shock during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH), and to assess the mechanisms of elimination of PCT.
Setting
The medical department of intensive care.
Design
A prospective, observational study.
Patients
Thirteen critically ill patients with septic shock and oliguric acute renal failure requiring continuous venovenous postdilution hemofiltration with a high-flux membrane (AN69 or polyamide) and a 'conventional' substitution volume (< 2.5 l/hour).
Measurements and main results
PCT was measured with the Lumitest PCT Brahms® in the prefilter and postfilter plasma, in the ultrafiltrate at the beginning of CVVH (T0) and 15 min (T15'), 60 min (T60') and 6 hours (T6h) after setup of CVVH, and in the prefilter every 24 hours during 4 days. Mass transfer was determined and the clearance and the sieving coefficient were calculated according to the mass conservation principle. Plasma and ultrafiltrate clearances, respectively, at T15', T60' and T6h were 37 ± 8.6 ml/min (not significant) and 1.8 ± 1.7 ml/min (P < 0.01), 34.7 ± 4.1 ml/min (not significant) and 2.3 ± 1.8 ml/min (P < 0.01), and 31.5 ± 7 ml/min (not significant) and 5 ± 2.3 ml/min (P < 0.01). The sieving coefficient significantly increased from 0.07 at T15' to 0.19 at T6h, with no difference according to the nature of the membrane. PCT plasma levels were not significantly modified during the course of CCVH.
Conclusions
We conclude that PCT is removed from the plasma of patients with septic shock during CCVH. Most of the mass is eliminated by convective flow, but adsorption also contributes to elimination during the first hours of CVVH. The effect of PCT removal with a conventional CVVH substitution fluid rate (<2.5 l/hour) on PCT plasma concentration seems to be limited, and PCT remains a useful diagnostic marker in these septic patients. The impact of high-volume hemofiltration on the PCT clearance, the mass transfer and the plasma concentration should be evaluated in further studies.
PMCID: PMC374372  PMID: 14624691
clearance; continuous venovenous hemofiltration; elimination; procalcitonin; septic shock; sieving coefficient
4.  Continuous venovenous hemofiltration versus extended daily hemofiltration in patients with septic acute kidney injury: a retrospective cohort study 
Critical Care  2014;18(2):R70.
Introduction
Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) is superior to extended daily hemofiltration (EDHF) for the treatment of septic AKI is unknown. We compared the effect of CVVHF (greater than 72 hours) with EDHF (8 to 12 hours daily) on renal recovery and mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI).
Methods
A retrospective analysis of 145 septic AKI patients who underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT) between July 2009 and May 2013 was performed. These patients were treated by CVVHF or EDHF with the same polyacrylonitrile membrane and bicarbonate-based buffer. The primary outcomes measured were occurrence of renal recovery and all-cause mortality by 60 days.
Results
Sixty-five and eighty patients were treated with CVVHF and EDHF, respectively. Patients in the CVVHF group had significantly higher recovery of renal function (50.77% of CVVHF group versus 32.50% in the EDHF group, P = 0.026). Median time to renal recovery was 17.26 days for CVVHF patients and 25.46 days for EDHF patients (P = 0.039). Sixty-day all-cause mortality was similar between CVVHF and EDHF groups (44.62%, and 46.25%, respectively; P = 0.844). 55.38% of patients on CVVHF and 28.75% on EDHF developed hypophosphatemia (P = 0.001). The other adverse events related to RRT did not differ between groups. On multivariate analysis, including physiologically clinical relevant variables, CVVHF therapy was significantly associated with recovery of renal function (HR 3.74; 95% CI 1.82 to 7.68; P < 0.001), but not with mortality (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.41; P = 0.312).
Conclusions
Patients undergoing CVVHF therapy had significantly improved renal recovery independent of clinically relevant variables. The patients with septic AKI had similar 60-day all-cause mortality rates, regardless of type of RRT.
doi:10.1186/cc13827
PMCID: PMC4056629  PMID: 24716613
5.  Evaluation by Monte Carlo Simulation of the Pharmacokinetics of Two Doses of Meropenem Administered Intermittently or as a Continuous Infusion in Healthy Volunteers 
Meropenem is a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibacterial agent. In order to optimize levels in plasma relative to the MICs, the ideal dose level and dosage regimen need to be determined. The pharmacokinetics of meropenem were studied in two groups, each comprising eight healthy volunteers who received the following doses: 500 mg as an intravenous infusion over 30 min three times a day (t.i.d.) versus a 250-mg loading dose followed by a 1,500 mg continuous infusion over 24 h for group A and 1,000 mg as an intravenous infusion over 30 min t.i.d. versus a 500-mg loading dose followed by a 3,000-mg continuous infusion over 24 h for group B. Meropenem concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, respectively. Pharmacokinetic calculations were done by use of a two-compartment open model, and the data were extrapolated by Monte Carlo simulations for 10,000 simulated subjects for pharmacodynamic evaluation. There were no significant differences in total clearance and renal clearance between group A and group B or between the intermittent treatment and the continuous infusion. The analyses of the probability of target attainment by MIC for the high- and low-dose continuous infusions were robust up to MICs of 4 mg/liter and 2 mg/liter, respectively. The corresponding values for intermittent infusions were only 0.5 mg/liter and 0.25 mg/liter. When these observations were correlated with MICs obtained from the MYSTIC database, intermittent infusion results in adequate activity against two of the most common nosocomially acquired pathogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the evaluation shows a clear advantage of high-dose therapy administered as a continuous infusion. We believe that in the empirical therapy situation, the continuous-infusion mode of administration is most worth the extra efforts. We conclude that clinical trials for evaluation of the continuous infusions of meropenem in critically ill patients are warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.5.1881-1889.2005
PMCID: PMC1087638  PMID: 15855510
6.  Serum bactericidal activities and comparative pharmacokinetics of meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin. 
The pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities (SBAs) of imipenem and meropenem were investigated in a randomized crossover study. Twelve healthy male volunteers received a constant 30-min infusion of either 1 g of imipenem plus 1 g of cilastatin or 1 g of meropenem. The concentrations of the drugs in serum and urine were determined by bioassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were based on an open two-compartment model and a noncompartmental technique. At the end of infusion, the mean concentrations of imipenem and meropenem measured in serum were 61.2 +/- 9.8 and 51.6 +/- 6.5 mg/liter, respectively; urinary recoveries were 48.6% +/- 8.2% and 60.0% +/- 6.5% of the dose in 12 h, respectively; and the areas under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity were 96.1 +/- 14.4 and 70.5 +/- 10.3 mg.h/liter, respectively (P < or = 0.02). Imipenem had a mean half-life of 66.7 +/- 10.4 min; that of meropenem was 64.4 +/- 6.9 min. The volumes of distribution at steady state of imipenem and meropenem were 15.3 +/- 3.3 and 18.6 +/- 3.0 liters/70 kg, respectively, and the mean renal clearances per 1.73 m2 were 85.6 +/- 17.6 and 144.6 +/- 26.0 ml/min, respectively. Both antibiotics were well tolerated in this single-dose administration study. The SBAs were measured by the microdilution method of Reller and Stratton (L. B. Reller and C. W. Stratton, J. Infect. Dis. 136:196-204, 1977) against 40 clinically isolated strains. Mean reciprocal bactericidal titers were measured 1 and 6 h after administration. After 1 and 6 h the median SBAs for imipenem and meropenem, were 409 and 34.9 and 97.9 and 5.8, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus, 19.9 and 4.4 and 19.4 and 4.8, respectively, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 34.3 and 2.2 and 232 and 15.5, respectively, against Enterobacter cloacae, and 13.4 and 2.25 and 90.7 and 7.9, respectively, against Proteus mirabilis. Both drugs had rather short biological elimination half-lives and a predominantly renal route of elimination. Both carbapenems revealed high SBAs against clinically important pathogens at 1 h; meropenem had a higher SBA against E. cloacae and P. mirabilis, and the SBA of imipenem against S. aureus was greater than the SBA of meropenem.
PMCID: PMC163066  PMID: 8787889
7.  Short versus Long Infusion of Meropenem in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonates 
Prolonged infusion of meropenem has been suggested in studies with population pharmacokinetic modeling but has not been tested in neonates. We compared the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of meropenem given as a short (30-min) or prolonged (4-h) infusion to very-low-birth-weight (gestational age, <32 weeks; birth weight, <1,200 g) neonates to define the appropriate dosing regimen for a phase 3 efficacy study. Short (n = 9) or prolonged (n = 10) infusions of meropenem were given at a dose of 20 mg/kg every 12 h. Immediately before and 0.5, 1.5, 4, 8, and 12 h after the 4th to 7th doses of meropenem, blood samples were collected. Meropenem concentrations were measured by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. PK analysis was performed with WinNonlin software, and modeling was performed with NONMEM software. A short infusion resulted in a higher mean drug concentration in serum (Cmax) than a prolonged infusion (89 versus 54 mg/liter). In all but two patients in the prolonged-infusion group, the free serum drug concentration was above the MIC (2 mg/liter) 100% of the time. Meropenem clearance (CL) was not influenced by postnatal or postmenstrual age. In population PK analysis, a one-compartment model provided the best fit and the steady-state distribution volume (Vss) was scaled with body weight and CL with a published renal maturation function. The covariates serum creatinine and postnatal and gestational ages did not improve the model fit. The final parameter estimates were a Vss of 0.301 liter/kg and a CL of 0.061 liter/h/kg. Meropenem infusions of 30 min are acceptable as they balance a reasonably high Cmax with convenience of dosing. In very-low-birth-weight neonates, no dosing adjustment is needed over the first month of life.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00655-12
PMCID: PMC3421889  PMID: 22733063
8.  Assessment of pharmacokinetic changes of meropenem during therapy in septic critically ill patients 
Background
Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic commonly used in critically ill patients to treat severe infections. The available pharmacokinetic (PK) data has been mostly obtained from healthy volunteers as well as from clinical studies addressing selected populations, often excluding the elderly and also patients with renal failure. Our aim was to study PK of meropenem in a broader population of septic critically ill patients.
Methods
We characterized the PK of meropenem in 15 critically ill patients during the first 36 hrs of therapy. Aditionally, whenever possible, we collected a second set of late plasma samples after 5 days of therapy to evaluate PK intra-patient variability and its correlation with clinical course.
Patients received meropenem (1 g every 8 hrs IV). Drug plasma profiles were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The PK of meropenem was characterized and compared with clinical parameters.
Results
Fifteen septic critically ill patients (8 male, median age 73 yrs) were included. The geometric mean of the volume of distribution at the steady state (Vss)/weight was 0.20 (0.15-0.27) L/kg. No correlation of Vss/weight with severity or comorbidity scores was found. However the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score correlated with the Vss/weight of the peripheral compartment (r2 = 0.55, p = 0.021). The median meropenem clearance (Cl) was 73.3 (45–120) mL/min correlated with the creatinine (Cr) Cl (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.033).
After 5 days (N = 7) although Vss remained stable, a decrease in the proportion of the peripheral compartment (Vss2) was found, from 61.3 (42.5-88.5)% to 51.7 (36.6-73.1)%. No drug accumulation was noted.
Conclusions
In this cohort of septic, unselected, critically ill patients, large meropenem PK heterogeneity was noted, although neither underdosing nor accumulation was found. However, Cr Cl correlated to meropenem Cl and the Vss2 decreased with patient’s improvement.
doi:10.1186/2050-6511-15-21
PMCID: PMC4006523  PMID: 24731745
Meropenem; β-lactam antibiotics; Pharmacokinetics; Intensive care unit
9.  Pharmacokinetics of meropenem in patients with intra-abdominal infections. 
Noncompartmental and compartmental analyses of meropenem disposition in patients receiving 1-g intravenous intermittent infusions every 8 h were performed. Twelve patients (one woman and 11 men) participated in the meropenem pharmacokinetic analysis. Operative findings included perforated appendicitis (five patients), gangrenous appendicitis (five patients), peri-appendical abscess (one patient), and gunshot wound to the abdomen (one patient). The most common associated adverse drug reactions to meropenem were diarrhea and increased liver enzymes. The estimated noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters, mean +/- standard deviation, are as follows: maximum drug concentration in plasma, 47.58 +/- 17.59 micrograms/ml; half-life, 1.04 +/- 0.19 h; elimination rate constant, 0.68 +/- 0.12 h-1; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity, 57.5 +/- 20.12 micrograms x ml/h; total plasma clearance, 315.40 +/- 71.94 ml/min; renal clearance, 136.7 +/- 89.20 ml/min; volume of distribution at steady state, 26.68 +/- 6.88 liters; and mean residence time, 1.47 +/- 0.28 h. The two-compartment model best described meropenem disposition in our patients. Our findings differed from estimates for healthy volunteers possibly because of the physiologic changes as a result of surgery. Our findings suggest that meropenem (1,000 mg) administered intravenously every 8 h provides adequate concentrations for most intra-abdominal infections.
PMCID: PMC284414  PMID: 8141572
10.  Dosing Nomograms for Attaining Optimum Concentrations of Meropenem by Continuous Infusion in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Gram-Negative Infections: a Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics-Based Approach 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6343-6348.
The worrisome increase in Gram-negative bacteria with borderline susceptibility to carbapenems and of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae has significantly undermined their efficacy. Continuous infusion may be the best way to maximize the time-dependent activity of meropenem. The aim of this study was to create dosing nomograms in relation to different creatinine clearance (CLCr) estimates for use in daily clinical practice to target the steady-state concentrations (Csss) of meropenem during continuous infusion at 8 to 16 mg/liter (after the administration of an initial loading dose of 1 to 2 g over 30 min). The correlation between meropenem clearance (CLm) and CLCr was retrospectively assessed in a cohort of critically ill patients (group 1, n = 67) to create a formula for dosage calculation to target Css. The performance of this formula was validated in a similar cohort (group 2, n = 56) by comparison of the observed and the predicted Csss. A significant relationship between CLm and CLCr was observed in group 1 (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). The application of the formula to meropenem dosing in group 2, infusion rate (g/24 h) = [0.078 × CLCr (ml/min) + 2.85] × target Css × (24/1,000), led to a significant correlation between the observed and the predicted Csss (r = 0.92, P < 0.001). Dosing nomograms based on CLCr were created to target the meropenem Css at 8, 12, and 16 mg/liter in critically ill patients. These nomograms could be helpful in improving the treatment of severe Gram-negative infections with meropenem, especially in the presence of borderline susceptible pathogens or even of carbapenemase producers and/or of pathophysiological conditions which may enhance meropenem clearance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01291-12
PMCID: PMC3497191  PMID: 23045356
11.  Pharmacokinetics of imipenem-cilastatin in critically ill patients undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1997;41(12):2640-2645.
The pharmacokinetics of imipenem-cilastatin were investigated in 12 critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) managed by continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) while receiving a fixed combination of 500 mg of imipenem-cilastatin intravenously three or four times daily. No adverse drug reactions were observed. Plasma and hemofiltrate samples were taken at specified times during one dosing interval, and the concentrations of imipenem and cilastatin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated by a first-order, two-compartment pharmacokinetic model for both substances. Total clearances of imipenem and cilastatin (mean +/- standard deviations) were 122.2 +/- 28.6 and 29.2 +/- 13.7 ml/min, respectively, with hemofiltration clearances of 22.9 +/- 2.5 and 16.1 +/- 3.1 ml/min, respectively, and nonrenal, nonhemofiltration clearances of 90.8 +/- 26.3 and 13.2 +/- 13.9 ml/min, respectively. Mean imipenem dosage requirements were approximately 2,000 mg/24 h (2,111.8 +/- 493.4 mg/24 h). They were calculated in order to achieve an average steady-state concentration of 12 mg/liter to ensure that concentrations in plasma exceeded the MICs at which 90% of intermediately resistent bacteria are inhibited (8 mg/liter) during the majority of the dosing interval. By contrast, the recommended dosage for patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) and infections caused by intermediately resistant bacteria is 1,000 mg/24 h. This remarkable difference may be due (i) to differences in the nonrenal clearance of imipenem between patients with ARF and ESRF and (ii) to the additional clearance by the hemofilter. Since the total clearance of cilastatin was low, marked accumulation occurred, and this was particularly pronounced in patients with additional liver dysfunction. Thus, in patients with ARF managed by CVVH, rather high imipenem doses are required, and these inevitably result in a marked accumulation of cilastatin. The doses of imipenem recommended for patients with ESRF, however, will lead to underdosing and inadequate antibiotic therapy.
PMCID: PMC164183  PMID: 9420033
12.  An evaluation of ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients undergoing continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration 
Background
The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and the adequacy of 400 mg every 12 hours in critically ill Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) with particular reference to the effect of achieved flow rates on drug clearance.
Methods
This was an open prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit and research unit of a university teaching hospital. The study population was seven critically ill patients with sepsis requiring CVVHDF.
Blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected and assayed for ciprofloxacin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the model independent pharmacokinetic parameters; total body clearance (TBC), half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vd). CVVHDF was performed at prescribed dialysate rates of 1 or 2 L/hr and ultrafiltration rate of 2 L/hr. The blood flow rate was 200 ml/min, achieved using a Gambro blood pump and Hospal AN69HF haemofilter.
Results
Seventeen profiles were obtained. CVVHDF resulted in a median ciprofloxacin t1/2 of 13.8 (range 5.15-39.4) hr, median TBC of 9.90 (range 3.10-13.2) L/hr, a median Vdss of 125 (range 79.5-554) L, a CVVHDF clearance of 2.47+/-0.29 L/hr and a clearance of creatinine (Clcr) of 2.66+/-0.25 L/hr. Thus CVVHDF, at an average flow rate of ~3.5 L/hr, was responsible for removing 26% of ciprofloxacin cleared. At the dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, the median estimated Cpmax/MIC and AUC0-24/MIC ratios were 10.3 and 161 respectively (for a MIC of 0.5 mg/L) and exceed the proposed criteria of >10 for Cpmax/MIC and > 100 for AUC0-24/MIC. There was a suggestion towards increased ciprofloxacin clearance by CVVHDF with increasing effluent flow rate.
Conclusions
Given the growing microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin our results suggest that a dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, may be necessary to achieve the desired pharmacokinetic - pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) goals in patients on CVVHDF, however an extended interval may be required if there is concomitant hepatic impairment. A correlation between ciprofloxacin clearance due to CVVHDF and creatinine clearance by the filter was observed (r2 = 0.76), providing a useful clinical surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin clearance within the range studied.
Trial Registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52722850
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-11-11
PMCID: PMC3161942  PMID: 21816053
13.  Determinants of Ceftazidime Clearance by Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration and Continuous Venovenous Hemodialysis 
Although several dosage adjustment regimens have been proposed, there is little quantitative information to guide the initiation of ceftazidime therapy in patients who are receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. To determine the clearance of ceftazidime by continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD), we performed controlled clearance studies with stable hemodialysis patients with three hemofilters: a 0.6-m2 acrylonitrile copolymer (AN69; Hospal) filter, a 2.1-m2 polymethylmethacrylate filter (PMMA; Toray) filter and a 0.65-m2 polysulfone (PS; Fresenius) filter. Subjects received 1,000 mg of ceftazidime intravenously prior to the start of a clearance study. The concentration of ceftazidime in multiple plasma and dialysate or ultrafiltrate samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The diffusional clearances (CIdiffusion) and sieving coefficients of ceftazidime were compared by a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance with filter and blood, dialysate inflow, or ultrafiltration rate as the main effect and the patient as a random effect. The fraction of ceftazidime bound to plasma proteins was 17% ± 7% (range, 10 to 25%). The clearances of ceftazidime, urea, and creatinine by CVVHD were essentially constant at blood flow rates of 75 to 250 ml/min for all three filters. Significant linear relationships (P < 0.0001) were observed between CIdiffusion of ceftazidime and clearance of urea for all three filters: AN69 (slope = 0.83), PMMA (slope = 0.89), and PS (slope = 1.03). Ceftazidime clearance was membrane independent during CVVH and CVVHD. CVVH and CVVHD can significantly augment the clearance of ceftazidime. Dosing strategies for initiation of ceftazidime therapy in patients receiving CVVH and CVVHD are proposed.
PMCID: PMC89925  PMID: 10817721
14.  Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Cidofovir in Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration 
Dosage recommendations for cidofovir are available for renally competent as well as impaired patients; however, there are no data for patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy. We determined the single-dose concentration-versus-time profile of cidofovir in a critically ill patient undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). One dose of 450 mg cidofovir (5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously due to a proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and failure of first-line antiviral therapy. Additionally, 2 g of probenecid was administered orally 3 h prior to and 1 g was administered 2 h as well as 8 h after completion of the infusion. The concentrations of cidofovir in serum and ultrafiltrate were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The peak serum concentration measured at 60 min postinfusion was 28.01 mg/liter at the arterial port. The trough serum level was 19.33 mg/liter at the arterial port after 24 h. The value of the area under the concentration-versus-time curve from 0 to 24 h was 543.8 mg · h/liter. The total body clearance was 2.46 ml/h/kg, and the elimination half-life time was 53.32 h. The sieving coefficient was 0.138 ± 0.022. Total removal of the drug was 30.99% after 24 h. Because of these data, which give us a rough idea of the concentration profile of cidofovir in patients undergoing CVVH, a toxic accumulation of the drug following repeated doses may be expected. Further trials have to be done to determine the right dosage of cidofovir in patients undergoing CVVH to avoid toxic accumulation of the drug.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01343-13
PMCID: PMC4023731  PMID: 24419341
15.  Pharmacokinetics of Ganciclovir during Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration in Critically Ill Patients 
Ganciclovir is an antiviral agent that is frequently used in critically ill patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) is a common extracorporeal renal replacement therapy in intensive care unit patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir in anuric patients undergoing CVVHDF. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed for nine critically ill patients with proven or suspected CMV infection who were undergoing CVVHDF. All patients received a single dose of ganciclovir at 5 mg/kg of body weight intravenously. Serum and ultradiafiltrate concentrations were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and these data were used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean peak and trough prefilter ganciclovir concentrations were 11.8 ± 3.5 mg/liter and 2.4 ± 0.7 mg/liter, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters elimination half-life (24.2 ± 7.6 h), volume of distribution (81.2 ± 38.3 liters), sieving coefficient (0.76 ± 0.1), total clearance (2.7 ± 1.2 liters/h), and clearance of CVVHDF (1.5 ± 0.2 liters/h) were determined. Based on population pharmacokinetic simulations with respect to a target area under the curve (AUC) of 50 mg · h/liter and a trough level of 2 mg/liter, a ganciclovir dose of 2.5 mg/kg once daily seems to be adequate for anuric critically ill patients during CVVHDF.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00892-13
PMCID: PMC3910760  PMID: 24145543
16.  Pharmacokinetics of Cefotaxime and Desacetylcefotaxime in Infants during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation▿  
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to temporarily sustain cardiac and respiratory function in critically ill infants but can cause pharmacokinetic changes necessitating dose modifications. Cefotaxime (CTX) is used to prevent and treat infections during ECMO, but the current dose regimen is based on pharmacokinetic data obtained for non-ECMO patients. The objective of this study was to validate the standard dose regimen of 50 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (postnatal age [PNA], <1 week), 50 mg/kg three times a day (PNA, 1 to 4 weeks), or 37.5 mg/kg four times a day (PNA, >4 weeks). We included 37 neonates on ECMO, with a median (range) PNA of 3.3 (0.67 to 199) days and a median (range) body weight of 3.5 (2.0 to 6.2) kg at the onset of ECMO. Median (range) ECMO duration was 108 (16 to 374) h. Plasma samples were taken during routine care, and pharmacokinetic analysis of CTX and its active metabolite, desacetylcefotaxime (DACT), was done using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model for CTX and DACT adequately described the data. During ECMO, CTX clearance (CLCTX) was 0.36 liter/h (range, 0.19 to 0.75 liter/h), the volume of distribution of CTX (VCTX) was 1.82 liters (0.73 to 3.02 liters), CLDACT was 1.46 liters/h (0.48 to 5.93 liters/h), and VDACT was 11.0 liters (2.32 to 28.0 liters). Elimination half-lives for CTX and DACT were 3.5 h (1.6 to 6.8 h) and 5.4 h (0.8 to 14 h). Peak CTX concentration was 98.0 mg/liter (33.2 to 286 mg/liter). DACT concentration varied between 0 and 38.2 mg/liter, with a median of 10 mg/liter in the first 12 h postdose. Overall, CTX concentrations were above the MIC of 8 mg/liter over the entire dose interval. Only 1 of the 37 patients had a sub-MIC concentration for over 50% of the dose interval. In conclusion, the standard cefotaxime dose regimen provides sufficiently long periods of supra-MIC concentrations to provide adequate treatment of infants on ECMO.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01696-09
PMCID: PMC2863660  PMID: 20176908
17.  Clinical and microbiological efficacy of continuous versus intermittent application of meropenem in critically ill patients: a randomized open-label controlled trial 
Critical Care  2012;16(3):R113.
Introduction
Meropenem bactericidal activity depends on the time when the free drug concentrations remain above the minimum inhibitory concentration of pathogens. The goal of this study was to compare clinical and bacteriological efficacy of continuous meropenem infusion versus bolus administration in critically ill patients with severe infection, and to evaluate the safety of both dosing regimens.
Methods
Patients admitted to the interdisciplinary Intensive Care Unit (ICU) who suffered from severe infections and received meropenem were randomized either in the Infusion group (n = 120) or in the Bolus group (n = 120). Patients in the Infusion group received a loading dose of 2 g of meropenem followed by a continuous infusion of 4 g of meropenem over 24 hours. Patients in the Bolus group were given 2 g of meropenem over 30 minutes every 8 hours. Clinical and microbiological outcome, safety, meropenem-related length of ICU and hospital stay, meropenem-related length of mechanical ventilation, duration of meropenem treatment, total dose of meropenem, and ICU and in-hospital mortality were assessed.
Results
Clinical cure at the end of meropenem therapy was comparable between both groups (83.0% patients in the Infusion vs. 75.0% patients in the Bolus group; P = 0.180). Microbiological success rate was higher in the Infusion group as opposed to the Bolus group (90.6% vs. 78.4%; P = 0.020). Multivariate logistic regression identified continuous administration of meropenem as an independent predictor of microbiological success (OR = 2.977; 95% CI = 1.050 to 8.443; P = 0.040). Meropenem-related ICU stay was shorter in the Infusion group compared to the Bolus group (10 (7 to 14) days vs. 12 (7 to 19) days; P = 0.044) as well as shorter duration of meropenem therapy (7 (6 to 8) days vs. 8 (7 to 10) days; P = 0.035) and lower total dose of meropenem (24 (21 to 32) grams vs. 48 (42 to 60) grams; P < 0.0001). No severe adverse events related to meropenem administration in either group were observed.
Conclusions
Continuous infusion of meropenem is safe and, in comparison with higher intermittent dosage, provides equal clinical outcome, generates superior bacteriological efficacy and offers encouraging alternative of antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients.
doi:10.1186/cc11405
PMCID: PMC3580671  PMID: 22742765
18.  Sequential, single-dose pharmacokinetic evaluation of meropenem in hospitalized infants and children. 
Meropenem is a new carbapenem antibiotic which possesses a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against many of the pathogens responsible for pediatric bacterial infections. In order to define meropenem dosing guidelines for children, an escalating, single-dose, pharmacokinetic study at 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of body weight was performed. A total of 73 infants and children in four age groups were enrolled in the study: 2 to 5 months, 6 to 23 months, 2 to 5 years, and 6 to 12 years. The first patients enrolled were those in the oldest age group, who received the lowest dose. Subsequent enrollment was determined by decreasing age and increasing dose. Complete studies were performed on 63 patients. No age- or dose-dependent effects on pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were noted. Mean pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were as follows: half-life, 1.13 +/- 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state, 0.43 +/- 0.06 liters/kg; mean residence time, 1.57 +/- 0.11 h; clearance, 5.63 +/- 0.75 ml/min/kg; and renal clearance, 2.53 +/- 0.50 ml/min/liters kg. Approximately 55% of the administered dose was recovered as unchanged drug in the urine during the 12 h after dosing. No significant side effects were reported in any patients. By using the derived pharmacokinetic parameter estimates, a dose of 20 mg/kg given every 8 h will maintain plasma meropenem concentrations above the MIC that inhibits 90% of strains tested for virtually all potentially susceptible bacterial pathogens.
PMCID: PMC162815  PMID: 7486908
19.  An open prospective study of amikacin pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients during treatment with continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration 
Background
The objectives of the current study were to determine amikacin pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing treatment with continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and to determine whether peak and trough concentration data could be used to predict pharmacokinetic parameters. An open prospective study was undertaken, comprising five critically ill patients with sepsis requiring CVVHDF.
Methods
Peak and trough plasma concentrations and multiple serum levels in a dosage interval were measured and the latter fitted to both a one- and two-compartment model. Blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected and assayed for amikacin to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters; total body clearance (TBC), elimination rate constant (k) and volume of distribution (Vd). The concentration of amikacin in ultrafiltrate was used to determine the clearance via CVVHDF. CVVHDF was performed at prescribed dialysate rates of 1-2l h-1 and ultrafiltration rate of 2l h-1. Blood was pumped at 200ml/min using a Gambro blood pump and Hospal AN69HF haemofilter. Amikacin dosing was according to routine clinical practice in the Intensive Care Unit.
Results
The multi serum level study indicated that the one compartment model was adequate to characterize the pharmacokinetics in these patients suggesting that peak and trough plasma level data may be used to estimate individual patient pharmacokinetic parameters and to optimise individual patient dosing during treatment with CVVHDF. CVVHDF resulted in an amikacin k of 0.109+/−0.025 h, t1/2 of 6.74 +/− 1.69h, TBC of 3.39+/−0.817 h-1, and Vd of 31.4 +/− 3.27. The mean clearance due to CVVHDF of 2.86 l h-1 is similar to the creatinine clearance of 2.74 +/−0.4 lh-1. Amikacin was significantly cleared by CVVHDF, and its half life in patients on CVVHDF was approximately 2–3 times that reported in subjects without renal impairment and not undergoing haemodiafiltration for any reason.
Conclusions
CVVHDF contributes significantly to total clearance of amikacin. The use of pharmacokinetic parameter estimates obtained from two steady state serum-drug concentrations (peak and trough) can be used to guide individualised dosing of critically ill patients treated with CVVHDF. This is considered a useful strategy in this patient cohort, particularly in avoiding the risk of underdosing.
doi:10.1186/2050-6511-13-14
PMCID: PMC3517742  PMID: 23136834
Amikacin; Pharmacokinetics; Haemodiafiltration
20.  The plasma level and biomarker value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury are not affected by continuous venovenous hemofiltration and anticoagulation applied 
Critical Care  2014;18(2):R78.
Introduction
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI), and levels reflect severity of disease in critically ill patients. However, continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) may affect plasma levels by clearance or release of NGAL by activated neutrophils in the filter, dependent on the anticoagulation regimen applied. We therefore studied handling of NGAL by CVVH in patients with AKI.
Methods
Immediately before initiation of CVVH, prefilter blood was drawn. After 10, 60, 180, and 720 minutes of CVVH, samples were collected from pre- and postfilter (in- and outlet) blood and ultrafiltrate. CVVH with the following anticoagulation regimens was studied: no anticoagulation in case of a high bleeding tendency (n = 13), unfractionated heparin (n = 8), or trisodium citrate (n = 21). NGAL levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results
Concentrations of NGAL at inlet and outlet were similar, and concentrations did not change over time in any of the anticoagulation groups; thus no net removal or production of NGAL occurred. Concentrations of NGAL at inlet correlated with disease severity at initiation of CVVH and at the end of a CVVH run. Concentrations of NGAL in the ultrafiltrate were lower with citrate-based CVVH (P = 0.03) and decreased over time, irrespective of anticoagulation administered (P < 0.001). The sieving coefficient and clearance of NGAL were low and decreased over time (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
The plasma level and biomarker value of NGAL in critically ill patients with AKI are not affected by CVVH, because clearance by the filter was low. Furthermore, no evidence exists for intrafilter release of NGAL by neutrophils, irrespective of the anticoagulation method applied.
doi:10.1186/cc13838
PMCID: PMC4056788  PMID: 24755339
21.  Continuous infusion of ceftazidime in critically ill patients undergoing continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration: pharmacokinetic evaluation and dose recommendation 
Critical Care  2006;10(1):R26.
Introduction
In seriously infected patients with acute renal failure and who require continuous renal replacement therapy, data on continuous infusion of ceftazidime are lacking. Here we analyzed the pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in order to identify the optimal dosage in this setting.
Method
Seven critically ill patients were prospectively enrolled in the study. CVVHDF was performed using a 0.6 m2 AN69 high-flux membrane and with blood, dialysate and ultrafiltration flow rates of 150 ml/min, 1 l/hour and 1.5 l/hour, respectively. Based on a predicted haemodiafiltration clearance of 32.5 ml/min, all patients received a 2 g loading dose of ceftazidime, followed by a 3 g/day continuous infusion for 72 hours. Serum samples were collected at 0, 3, 15 and 30 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours; dialysate/ultrafiltrate samples were taken at 2, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Ceftazidime concentrations in serum and dialysate/ultrafiltrate were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results
The mean (± standard deviation) elimination half-life, volume of distribution, area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 72 hours, and total clearance of ceftazidime were 4 ± 1 hours, 19 ± 6 l, 2514 ± 212 mg/h per l, and 62 ± 5 ml/min, respectively. The mean serum ceftazidime steady-state concentration was 33.5 mg/l (range 28.8–36.3 mg/l). CVVHDF effectively removed continuously infused ceftazidime, with a sieving coefficient and haemodiafiltration clearance of 0.81 ± 0.11 and 33.6 ± 4 mg/l, respectively.
Conclusion
We conclude that a dosing regimen of 3 g/day ceftazidime, by continuous infusion, following a 2 g loading dose, results in serum concentrations more than four times the minimum inhibitory concentration for all susceptible pathogens, and we recommend this regimen in critically ill patients undergoing CVVHDF.
doi:10.1186/cc3993
PMCID: PMC1550796  PMID: 16507147
22.  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Imipenem during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Critically Ill Patients 
The pharmacokinetics of imipenem were studied in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH; n = 6 patients) or hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; n = 6 patients). Patients (mean ± standard deviation age, 50.9 ± 15.9 years; weight, 98.5 ± 15.9 kg) received imipenem at 0.5 g every 8 to 12 h (total daily doses of 1 to 1.5 g/day) by intravenous infusion over 30 min. Pre- and postmembrane blood (plasma) and corresponding ultrafiltrate or dialysate samples were collected 1, 2, 4, and 8 or 12 h (depending on dosing interval) after completion of the drug infusion. Drug concentrations were measured using validated high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Mean systemic clearance (CLS) and elimination half-life (t1/2) of imipenem were 145 ± 18 ml/min and 2.7 ± 1.3 h during CVVH versus 178 ± 18 ml/min and 2.6 ± 1.6 h during CVVHDF, respectively. Imipenem clearance was substantially increased during both CVVH and CVVHDF, with membrane clearance representing 25% and 32% of CLS, respectively. The results of this study indicate that CVVH and CVVHDF contribute to imipenem clearance to a greater degree than previously reported. Imipenem doses of 1.0 g/day appear to achieve concentrations adequate to treat most common gram-negative pathogens (MIC up to 2 μg/ml) during CVVH or CVVHDF, but doses of 2.0 g/day or more may be required to adequately treat and prevent resistance in pathogens with higher MICs (MIC = 4 to 8 μg/ml). Higher doses should only be used after consideration of potential central nervous system toxicities or other risks of therapy in these severely ill patients.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.6.2421-2428.2005
PMCID: PMC1140495  PMID: 15917542
23.  Population Pharmacokinetics of Meropenem in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Infants with Suspected or Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections 
Background
Suspected or complicated intra-abdominal infections are common in young infants and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Meropenem is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent with excellent activity against pathogens associated with intra-abdominal infections in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of meropenem in young infants as a basis for optimizing dosing and minimizing adverse events.
Methods
Premature and term infants <91 days of age hospitalized in 24 neonatal intensive care units were studied. Limited PK sampling was performed following single and multiple doses of meropenem 20–30 mg/kg of body weight every 8–12 hours based on postnatal and gestational age at birth. Population and individual patient (Bayesian) PK parameters were estimated using NONMEM®.
Results
Two hundred infants were enrolled and received study drug. One hundred eighty-eight infants with 780 plasma meropenem concentrations were analyzed. Their median (range) gestational age at birth and postnatal age at PK evaluation were 28 (23–40) weeks and 21 (1–92) days, respectively. In the final PK model, meropenem clearance (CL) was strongly associated with serum creatinine (SCR) and postmenstrual age (PMA) (CL [L/h/kg] = 0.12*[(0.5/SCR)**0.27]*[(PMA/32.7)**1.46]). Meropenem concentrations remained >4 μg/mL for 50% of the dose interval and >2 μg/mL for 75% of the dose interval in 96% and 92% of patients, respectively. The estimated penetration of meropenem into the cerebrospinal fluid was 70% (5–148).
Conclusions
Meropenem dosing strategies based on postnatal and gestational age achieved therapeutic drug exposure in almost all infants.
doi:10.1097/INF.0b013e31822e8b0b
PMCID: PMC3173561  PMID: 21829139
enterocolitis; necrotizing; infant; premature; cerebrospinal fluid
24.  Pharmacokinetics of Indinavir and Nelfinavir in Treatment-Naive, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects 
AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 388 was designed to compare a three-drug regimen (indinavir with dual nucleosides) to a four-drug regimen (indinavir plus nelfinavir or indinavir plus efavirenz with dual nucleosides). Blood samples from patients taking indinavir and nelfinavir were collected over 8 to 12 h following a specified dose and were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were derived by using noncompartmental analysis. Following administration of indinavir every 8 h in the absence of nelfinavir (n = 8), the median predose indinavir concentration (C0) was 369 ng/ml (range, <10 to 949 ng/ml; one subject had a concentration of <10 ng/ml), and the concentration 8 h after administration of the study dose was 159 ng/ml (range, 85 to 506 ng/ml). In the group receiving 1,000 mg of indinavir every 12 h with nelfinavir (n = 10), the median indinavir C0 was <10 ng/ml (range, <10 to 3,740 ng/ml; six subjects had a value of <10 ng/ml), and the C12 h was 44 ng/ml (range, <10 to 4,236 ng/ml; five subjects had a value of <10 ng/ml), while the subjects who received 1,200 mg of indinavir every 12 h with nelfinavir (n = 7) had a C0 of 146 ng/ml (range, 58 to 5,215 ng/ml) and a C12 h of 95 ng/ml (range, 12 to 954 ng/ml). Indinavir clearance was significantly lower in the presence of nelfinavir (median [interquartile range], 34.1 liters/h [range, 22.6 to 45.8 liters/h] versus 47.9 liters/h [range, 42.7 to 70.3 liters/h]; P < 0.017). For subjects receiving 1,000 mg of indinavir every 12 h, the median C0 value for nelfinavir (n = 9) was 1,779 ng/ml (range, <187.5 to 4,579 ng/ml), and the C12 h was 1,554 ng/ml (range, <187.5 to 5,540 ng/ml). Due to the unacceptable number of undetectable indinavir trough concentrations, 1,200 mg of indinavir appears to be the preferred dose in a twice-daily regimen that includes nelfinavir.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.3.918-923.2004
PMCID: PMC353135  PMID: 14982784
25.  Pharmacokinetics of Aztreonam in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Evaluation of Dose-Exposure Relationships Using Monte Carlo Simulation▿  
Aztreonam (AZM) is a monobactam antibiotic with a high level of activity against gram-negative micro-organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We evaluated AZM pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic data in eight CF patients and healthy subjects that were matched for age, gender, weight, and height were obtained and analyzed by using the nonparametric adaptive grid algorithm. Probabilities of target attainment using percentages of time of unbound concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) were obtained by using a Monte Carlo simulation. AZM total body clearance was significantly higher in CF patients (100.1 ± 17.1 versus 76.2 ± 7.4 ml/min in healthy subjects; P < 0.01). The pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for terminal half-life (1.54 ± 0.17 h [mean ± the standard deviation]) and volume of distribution (0.20 ± 0.02 liters/kg in patients with CF patients were not different from those in healthy subjects. Monte Carlo simulations with a target of a fT>MIC of 50 to 60% at a dose of 1,000 mg every 8 h indicated a clinical breakpoint of 4 mg/liter and 1 to 2 mg/liter for healthy subjects and CF patients, respectively. This study using matched controls showed that AZM total body clearance and not the volume of distribution is higher in CF patients as a result of increased renal clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates in healthy subjects resulted in a clinical susceptibility breakpoint of ≤4 mg/liter for a dose of 1,000 mg every 8 h. Patients suspected of having high clearance rates, such as CF patients, should be monitored closely, with dosing regimens adjusted accordingly.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01522-06
PMCID: PMC2043218  PMID: 17576827

Results 1-25 (961844)