Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world and complement factor H (CFH) polymorphism has been found to associate with the AMD. To investigate whether the Y402H variant in CFH is associated with AMD in Chinese populations, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to estimate the magnitude of the gene effect and the possible mode of action.
A meta-analysis was performed using data available from ten case-control studies assessing association between the CFH Y402H polymorphism and AMD in Chinese populations involving 1538 AMD. Data extraction and study quality assessment were performed in duplicate. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) an allele contrast and genotype contrast were estimated using fixed- effects models. The Q-statistic test was used to assess heterogeneity, and Funnel plot was used to evaluate publication bias.
Seven of ten case-control studies were neovascular AMD, and few studies came from west and north of China. There was strong evidence for association between CFH and AMD in Chinese population, with those having risk allele C 2.35 times more likely to have AMD than subjects with T allele. Evidence of publication bias was not observed in our meta-analysis.
This meta-analysis summarizes the strong evidence for an association between CFH and AMD in Chinese and indicates each C allele increasing the odds of AMD by 2.33-fold.But more evidences about the relation between CFH polymorphism and different type of Chinese AMD from various district were needed.
age-related macular degeneration; complement factor H polymorphism; meta-analysis; Chinese population
Genetic factors explain a majority of risk variance for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for late AMD implicate genes in complement, inflammatory and lipid pathways, the genetic architecture of early AMD has been relatively under studied. We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of early AMD, including 4,089 individuals with prevalent signs of early AMD (soft drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial changes) and 20,453 individuals without these signs. For various published late AMD risk loci, we also compared effect sizes between early and late AMD using an additional 484 individuals with prevalent late AMD. GWAS meta-analysis confirmed previously reported association of variants at the complement factor H (CFH) (peak P = 1.5×10−31) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) (P = 4.3×10−24) loci, and suggested Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphisms (rs2075650; P = 1.1×10−6) associated with early AMD. Other possible loci that did not reach GWAS significance included variants in the zinc finger protein gene GLI3 (rs2049622; P = 8.9×10−6) and upstream of GLI2 (rs6721654; P = 6.5×10−6), encoding retinal Sonic hedgehog signalling regulators, and in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene (rs621313; P = 3.5×10−6), involved in melanin biosynthesis. For a range of published, late AMD risk loci, estimated effect sizes were significantly lower for early than late AMD. This study confirms the involvement of multiple established AMD risk variants in early AMD, but suggests weaker genetic effects on the risk of early AMD relative to late AMD. Several biological processes were suggested to be potentially specific for early AMD, including pathways regulating RPE cell melanin content and signalling pathways potentially involved in retinal regeneration, generating hypotheses for further investigation.
A novel locus in the hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene was found to be significantly related to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in our genome-wide association study. We evaluated its association and interaction with previously identified genetic variants and modifiable factors.
Participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study with advanced AMD (n=545 cases) or no AMD (n=275 controls) were evaluated. AMD status was determined using fundus photography. Covariates included cigarette smoking, body mass index (BMI), and dietary lutein. Individuals were genotyped for the rs10468017 polymorphism in LIPC as well as seven previously identified AMD genetic loci. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were then performed.
The TT genotype of the LIPC variant was associated with a reduced risk of AMD, with odds ratios (OR) of 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20–0.90) and p=0.014 for the TT genotype versus the CC genotype, controlling for age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and nutritional factors. Controlling for seven other AMD genetic variants, the OR was 0.50, 95% (CI 0.20–1.1, p=0.077). The magnitude of the effect was similar for both atrophic and neovascular forms of AMD. Cigarette smoking and higher BMI increased the risk, while higher dietary lutein reduced the risk of advanced AMD, adjusting for genetic variants. There were no significant interactions between LIPC and smoking, BMI, or lutein. There was a possible association between LIPC and complement factor H (CFH) rs1410996, and a possible interaction effect between LIPC and both CFH rs10033900 and the complement factor I (CFI) variants in terms of risk of AMD.
LIPC is associated with reduced risk of advanced AMD, independent of demographic and environmental variables. Both genetic susceptibility and behavioral and lifestyle factors modify the risk of developing AMD.
There is evidence that smoking is a risk factor for age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, not all studies have demonstrated this association and several key questions about the role of smoking in AMD have still to be determined. The aim of this study was to further investigate this relation for both choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and geographic atrophy (GA).
To investigate the relation between smoking and the risk of developing age related macular degeneration (AMD) in white people, 435 cases with end stage AMD were compared with 280 controls. All subjects had graded stereoscopic colour fundus photography and AMD was defined as the presence of GA or CNV. Smoking history was assessed using multiple parameters in a detailed questionnaire.
Comparison of current and former smokers with non‐smokers was consistent with smoking being a risk factor for AMD but did not reach statistical significance. There was a strong association between AMD and pack years of cigarette smoking (p = 0.002), the odds ratio increasing with the amount smoked; for subjects with more than 40 pack years of smoking the odds ratio was 2.75 (95% CI 1.22 to 6.20) compared with non‐smokers. Both types of AMD showed a similar relation; smoking more than 40 pack years of cigarettes was associated with an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI 1.28 to 9.20) for GA and 2.49 (95% CI 1.06 to 5.82) for CNV. Stopping smoking was associated with reduced odds of AMD and the risk in those who had not smoked for over 20 years was comparable to non‐smokers. The risk profile was similar for males and females. Passive smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of AMD (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.40) in non‐smokers.
The authors have demonstrated a strong association between the risk of both GA and CNV and pack years of cigarette smoking. This provides support for a causal relation between smoking and AMD. They also show an increased risk for AMD in non‐smokers exposed to passive smoking. Stopping smoking appears to reduce the risk of developing AMD.
age related macular degeneration; smoking; case control
Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and kidney disease may have shared risk factors, including cardiovascular disease risk factors; additionally AMD and dense deposit disease share a common causal link, with both associated with polymorphisms in the complement pathway. Accordingly, we explored a population-based cohort of US adults to examine if markers of kidney disease identify a higher risk population for prevalent AMD.
Methods. A cross-sectional nested case–control study matching on age, sex and race was performed using data on adult participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictor variables included urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Study outcomes included late AMD, defined as neovascular disease or geographic atrophy (5:1 matching), and a composite of both early AMD, defined as soft drusen or pigment irregularities with or without any drusen, and late AMD (1:1 matching).
Results. There were 51 participants with late AMD and 865 with any AMD. In conditional logistic regression adjusting for diabetes, hypertension and total cholesterol, lower eGFR was independently associated with late AMD [odds ratio (OR) = 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51–6.13], while albuminuria was not significant. For any AMD, neither albuminuria nor eGFR were significant in adjusted models. In sensitivity analyses excluding diabetics, albuminuria was associated with any AMD (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11–1.29 and 1.57, 95% CI: 0.61–3.69 for micro- and macroalbuminuria, respectively, P = 0.03).
Conclusions. Late AMD is more common among individuals with reduced kidney function. Whether this association reflects a common causal pathway or shared risk factors such as hypertension requires additional investigation.
age-related macular degeneration; albuminuria; chronic kidney disease; dense deposit disease; glomerular filtration rate
To determine the association of high-risk alleles in the complement factor H (CFH; Y402H, rs1061170) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility (ARMS2; A69S, rs10490924) genes with reticular macular disease (RMD), a major clinical subphenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Using retinal images from the Columbia Macular Genetics Study, we identified 67 subject individuals with RMD. A comparison group of 64 subjects with AMD without RMD was matched by ethnicity, age, sex, and AMD clinical stage.
In the RMD group, 53 of 67 subjects (79.1%) were female, the mean age was 83 years, and 47 of 67 (70.1%) had late AMD, with closely matched values in the non-RMD group. The frequencies of the CFH 402H allele were 39.6% in the RMD group (53 of 134 individuals) and 58.6% in the non-RMD group (75 of 128 individuals) (χ2=8.8; P=.003; odds ratio, 0.46 [95% confidence interval, 0.28–0.76]). The corresponding frequencies of the risk allele for ARMS2 were 44.0% (40 of 128 individuals) and 31.3% (40 of 128 individuals), respectively (χ2=4.0; P=.045; odds ratio, 1.73 [95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.90]). Homozygosity for 402Hwas particularly associated with the absence of RMD, occurring in 8 of 67 subjects (11.9%) with RMD vs 24 of 64 subjects (37.5%) without RMD(P χ.001). Retinal macular disease also was associated with hypertension among male patients.
The AMD-associated CFH 402H risk variant is significantly associated with the absence of RMD but enhanced risk for RMD is conferred by the ARMS2 69S AMD risk allele. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that 402H may confer a survival benefit against certain infections, some of which may cause RMD.
Reticular macular disease may be genetically distinct from the rest of AMD.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a genetically complex disorder of the photoreceptor-RPE-Bruch's membrane-choriocapillaris complex. Family and twin studies have shown that the susceptibility for this disease is genetically influenced. The heritability has been estimated to be up to 71%. Linkage and association studies have identified several chromosomal regions that are likely to contain susceptibility loci with strongest evidence found on chromosome 1q31 and 10q26. Variants in the complement factor H (CFH) gene have been shown by several independent studies to be associated with an increased risk for AMD in Caucasian populations. These findings imply that the innate immune system may play a significant role in AMD pathogenesis. The LOC387715/HTRA1 locus within 10q26 has been identified as a second major locus contributing to AMD pathogenesis. The two late forms of AMD, choroidal neovascularization and geographic atrophy, have not been found to be different in risk allele distribution. Variants within CFH and LOC387715/HTRA1 may contribute to the increased risk of late AMD largely through their impact on precursors, such as drusen and/or other RPE/Bruch's membrane changes. Considering variants at CFH, LOC387715/HTRA1 and complement component 2-complement factor B (C2-FB), high-risk homozygotes at all three loci may have a 250-fold increased risk compared to baseline. However, the identification of genetic factors has not resulted in therapeutic strategies to modify the disease so far and additional genetic and environmental factors are yet to be discovered in order to influence the onset and the progression of AMD.
Major genetic factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have recently been identified as susceptibility risk factors, underlying the role of the complement pathway in AMD. Our purpose was to analyze the role of the R102G polymorphism of the complement component (C3) gene in a French population, in a case-control study.
A total of 1,080 patients with exudative AMD and 406 controls were recruited and genotyped for Y402H of complement factor H (CFH), rs10490924 of age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and R102G of the C3 gene.
The distribution of the R102G genotypes was significantly different in the AMD patients compared to controls (p=0.02). The Odds Ratio compared to C/C individuals was 1.4 (95% CI 1.1–1.8) for C/G individuals and 1.4 (95% CI 0.8–2.4) for G/G individuals. In a dominant model, the adjusted Odds Ratio for carriers of the G allele is 1.4 (95% CI 1.0–1.9; p=0.03).
Our study shows C3 to be a moderate susceptibility gene for exudative AMD in the French population.
Association between genetic variants in complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), component 2 (C2), and in the ARMS2/HTRA1 region with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) comes mainly from studies of European ancestry and case-control studies of late-stage disease. We investigated associations of both early and late AMD with these variants in a population-based study of people aged 60 years and older in India.
Fundus images were graded using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System and participants assigned to one of four mutually exclusive stages based on the worse affected eye (0 = no AMD, 1–3 = early AMD, 4 = late AMD). Multinomial logistic regression was used to derive risk ratios (RR) accounting for sampling method and adjusting for age, sex, and study center.
Of 3569 participants, 53.2% had no signs of AMD, 45.6% had features of early AMD, and 1.2% had late AMD. CFH (rs1061170), C2 (rs547154), or CFB (rs438999) was not associated with early or late AMD. In the ARMS2 locus, rs10490924 was associated with both early (adjusted RR 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–1.33, P < 0.0001) and late AMD (adjusted RR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.15–2.86; P = 0.01); rs2672598 was associated only with early AMD (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.23; P = 0.02); rs10490923 was not associated with early or late AMD.
Two variants in ARMS2/HTRA1 were associated with increased risk of early AMD, and for one of these, the increased risk was also evident for late AMD. The study provides new insights into the role of these variants in early stages of AMD in India.
We report results from a genetic association study of early AMD in an Indian population. Two variants in the ARMS/HTRA1 region were associated with early AMD but variants in C2, CFH, and CFB were not.
There is increasing impetus to use pharmaceutical interventions, ie, ranibizumab or bevacizumab, for the treatment of particular macular diseases. This paper describes the evidence and decision-making of the National List of Essential Medicines Committee that recently announced the inclusion of bevacizumab for the treatment of macular diseases in its pharmaceutical benefit package. The findings of a systematic review and meta-analysis in this paper indicate that the intravitreal administration of bevacizumab is superior to nonpharmaceutical treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME), but inconclusive for retinal vein occlusion, given the limited evidence. The study also failed to distinguish among the differences in terms of visual acuity improvement, reduction of central macular thickness, and response to treatment between AMD and DME patients treated with bevacizumab and those treated with ranibizumab. Although bevacizumab was not licensed for AMD and DME, the committee decided to include bevacizumab in the National List of Essential Medicines. It is expected that many patients who are in need of treatment but who are unable to afford the expensive alternative drug, ranibizumab, will be able to receive this effective treatment instead and be prevented from suffering irreversible loss of vision. At the same time, this policy will help generate evidence about the real-life effectiveness and safety profiles of the drug for future policy development in Thailand and other settings.
bevacizumab; macular degeneration; diabetic macular edema; retinal vein occlusion; comparative effectiveness research
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, degenerative and progressive eye disease that usually does not lead to complete blindness, but can result in severe loss of central vision. Risk factors for AMD include age, genetics, diet, smoking, oxidative stress and many cardiovascular-associated risk factors. Autophagy is a cellular housekeeping process that removes damaged organelles and protein aggregates, whereas heterophagy, in the case of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is the phagocytosis of exogenous photoreceptor outer segments. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both autophagy and heterophagy are highly active in the RPE. To date, there is increasing evidence that constant oxidative stress impairs autophagy and heterophagy, as well as increases protein aggregation and causes inflammasome activation leading to the pathological phenotype of AMD. This review ties together these crucial pathological topics and reflects upon autophagy as a potential therapeutic target in AMD.
AMD; autophagy; heterophagy; inflammasome; lysosome; oxidative stress; phagocytosis; proteasome; RPE
This study identified copy number variations (CNVs) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) genes but did not find strong evidence for a link between CNVs and neovascular AMD.
The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is strongly influenced by genetic factors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms have been consistently linked to AMD. Copy number variation (CNV), or variation in the number of copies of a particular segment of DNA, may also contribute to AMD pathogenesis. This study evaluated CNVs in candidate genes that have been reported to be linked to AMD.
Study participants were 131 patients with neovascular AMD and 103 elderly persons without AMD who were evaluated by retinal specialists at the National Eye Institute. DNA was collected from peripheral whole blood, and duplex RT-PCR based copy number (CN) assays were performed for the genes CCR3, CFH, CX3CR1, ERCC6, HTRA1, and VEGF. Quantitative CNs (CN = 0, 1, 2, or 3+) were determined.
Novel CNVs were discovered in CCR3, CX3CR1, and ERCC6. The unadjusted data suggested that CN = 3+ for CX3CR1 might be mildly protective against AMD, but this trend did not persist after adjustment for age. AMD patients appeared to have an elevated mean CFH CN relative to controls (2.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.05–2.21] vs. 2.01 [95% CI, 1.92–2.09 copies]; P = 0.05). No significant associations between CNV and AMD were observed for the remaining genes.
The methods described are suitable for quantitative characterization of CNV in candidate genes. The authors identified CNVs in AMD-associated genes but did not find strong evidence for a link with neovascular AMD.
Background: Age related macular degeneration (AMD) causing visual impairment is common in older people. Previous studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for AMD. However, there is limited information for the older population in Britain.
Methods: Population based cross sectional analytical study based in 49 practices selected to be representative of the population of Britain. Cases were people aged 75 years and above who were visually impaired (binocular acuity <6/18) as a result of AMD. Controls were people with normal vision (6/6 or better). Smoking history was ascertained using an interviewer administered questionnaire.
Results: After controlling for potentially confounding factors, current smokers were twice as likely to have AMD compared to non-smokers (odds ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.26). Ex-smokers were at intermediate risk (odds ratio 1.13, 0.86 to 1.47). People who stopped smoking more than 20 years previously were not at increased risk of AMD causing visual loss. Approximately 28 000 cases of AMD in older people in the United Kingdom may be attributable to smoking.
Conclusion: This is the largest study of the association of smoking and AMD in the British population. Smoking is associated with a twofold increased risk of developing AMD. An increased risk of AMD, which is the most commonly occurring cause of blindness in the United Kingdom, is yet another reason for people to stop smoking and governments to develop public health campaigns against this hazard.
age related macular degeneration; smoking; United Kingdom
Based on published data, this ecological correlation study showed evidence to support the hypothesis that variation in the risk allele frequency of the Y402H polymorphism across ethnicities explains variation in prevalence of late AMD when data on people of African ancestry are excluded.
To investigate whether variation in the distribution of the risk allele frequency of the Y402H single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) across various ethnicities and geographic regions reflects differences in the prevalence of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in those ethnicities.
Published data were obtained via a systematic search. Study samples were grouped into clusters by ethnicity and geographic location and the Spearman correlation coefficient of the prevalence of late AMD and risk allele frequencies was calculated across clusters.
Across all ethnicities, AMD prevalence was seen to increase with age. Populations of European descent had both higher risk allele frequencies and prevalence of late AMD than did Japanese, Chinese, and Hispanic descendants. Results for African descendants were anomalous: although allele frequency was similar to that in European populations, the age-specific prevalence of late AMD was considerably lower. The correlation coefficient for the association between allele frequency and AMD prevalence was 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.36 to 0.84, P = 0.28) in all populations combined and 0.71 (95% CI = 0.02–0.94, P = 0.04) when people of African descent were excluded.
Evidence was found at the population level to support a positive association between the Y204H risk allele and the prevalence of AMD after exclusion of studies undertaken on persons of African ancestry. Data in African, Middle Eastern, and South American populations are needed to provide a better understanding of the association of late AMD genetic risk across ethnicities.
Background and Purpose
We examined the relationship of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with incident stroke, including stroke subtypes of cerebral infarction and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH).
We included 12,216 participants with retinal photographs taken at the third examination visit (1993–1995) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), a population-based cohort study in middle-aged persons. Images were evaluated for AMD signs according to a standardized protocol. Incident events of stroke and its subtypes were identified and validated via case record review over time.
AMD was diagnosed in 591 participants, of whom 576 had early and 15 late AMD. After a mean follow-up of 13.0 years (standard deviation: 3.3), 619 persons developed an incident stroke, including 548 cerebral infarction and 57 ICH. Participants with any AMD were at an increased risk of stroke (multi-variable adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–2.06), with a stronger association for ICH (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.18–5.87) than cerebral infarction (HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99).
Persons with AMD are at an increased risk of both cerebral infarction and ICH. These data provide further insights into common pathophysiological processes between AMD and stroke subtypes.
retinal imaging; age-related macular degeneration; cerebral infarction; intra-cerebral hemorrhage
Impaired inhibition of the alternative complement pathway by complement factor H (CFH) is linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on the strong association between CFH variant and AMD. Chlamydia pneumoniae (C pneumoniae) infection can trigger the alternative pathway, but the evidence for an association between C pneumoniae and AMD is contradictory. This study investigated whether C pneumoniae infection is associated with AMD and whether the presence of C pneumonia modulates AMD risk conferred by CFH variants.
Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood of 148 advanced AMD patients and 162 controls was subjected to Taqman and PCR-RFLP for the CFH polymorphism and PCR for the C pneumoniae gene. Genomic DNA was also examined from microdissected macular cells from 59 AMD and 16 age-matched non-AMD archived slides. χ2 testing was performed for case-control analysis.
C pneumoniae infection was associated with increased risk of AMD (OR = 2.17, p<0.017). A CFH variant was also linked to increased risk of AMD (OR = 1.98, p<0.0001). However, no relationship was found between risk-conferring CFH variant and C pneumoniae (OR = 1.81, p = 0.08).
There is a possible association between AMD and C pneumoniae infection, although CFH may not be directly involved in the pathogenesis of C pneumoniae infection-mediated AMD.
Background Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case–control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking.
Methods To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, ‘Y402H’) with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26 494 individuals, including 14 174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene–smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry.
Results In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–2.45; P = 1.1 x 10−161]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies.
Conclusion The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD); Complement factor H gene; meta-ananlysis
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the commonest cause of blindness in Western populations. Risk is influenced by age, genetic and environmental factors. Complement activation appears to be important in the pathogenesis and associations have been found between AMD and genetic variations in complement regulators such as complement factor H. We therefore investigated other complement regulators for association with AMD.
We carried out a case–control study to test for association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the genes encoding complement factor P (CFP, properdin), CD46 (membrane cofactor protein, MCP), CD55 (decay accelerating factor, DAF) and CD59 (protectin). All cases and controls were examined by an ophthalmologist and had independent grading of fundus photographs to confirm their disease status.
20 SNPs were genotyped in 446 cases and 262 controls. For two SNPs with p-values approaching significance additional subjects were genotyped to increase the numbers to 622 cases and 359 controls. There was no evidence of association between AMD and any of the SNPs typed in CFP, CD46, CD55 or CD59.
In a case–control sample that has shown the well established associations between AMD and variants in CFH, CFB and C3 there was absence of association with SNPs in CFP, CD46, CD55 and CD59. This suggests that these are not important susceptibility genes for AMD.
AMD, age-related macular degeneration; ARM, age-related maculopathy; CFB, complement factor B; CFH, complement factor H; CI, confidence interval; CPI, complement factor I; CFP, complement factor P; CNV, choroidal neovascularisation; DAF, decay accelerating factor; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; GA, geographic atrophy; HWE, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium; MAC, membrane attack complex; MAF, minor allele frequency; MCP, membrane cofactor protein; OR, odds ratio; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; Age-related macular degeneration; Complement; Complement regulators; Genetic association; Genetic variation; Single nucleotide polymorphism
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the developed world. We conducted a genome-wide association study in a series of families enriched for AMD and completed a meta-analysis of this new data with results from reanalysis of an existing study of a late-stage case/control cohort. We tested the top findings for replication in 1 896 cases and 1 866 controls and identified two novel genetic protective factors for AMD. In addition to the CFH (p=2.3×10−64) and ARMS2 (p=1.2×10−60) loci, we observed a protective effect at rs429608, an intronic SNP in SKIV2L (p=5.3×10−15), a gene near the C2/BF locus, that indicates the protective effect may be mediated by variants other than the C2/BF variants previously studied. Haplotype analysis at this locus identified three protective haplotypes defined by the rs429608 protective allele. We also identified a new potentially protective effect at rs2679798 in MYRIP (p=2.9×10−4), a gene involved in retinal pigment epithelium melanosome trafficking. Interestingly, MYRIP was initially identified in the family-based scan and was confirmed in the case-control set. From these efforts, we report the identification of two novel protective factors for AMD and confirm the previously known associations at CFH, ARMS2 and C3.
macular degeneration; association testing; melanosome trafficking
Genetic association studies are identifying genetic risks for common complex ocular traits such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The subjects used for discovery of these loci have been largely from clinic-based, case-control studies. Typically, only the primary phenotype (e.g., AMD) being studied is systematically documented and other complex traits (e.g., affecting the eye) are largely ignored. The purpose of this study was to characterize these other or secondary complex ocular traits present in the cases and controls of clinic-based studies being used for genetic study of AMD. The records of 100 consecutive new patients (of any diagnosis) age 60 or older for which all traits affecting the eye had been recorded systematically were reviewed. The average patient had 3.5 distinct diagnoses. A subset of 10 complex traits was selected for further study because they were common and could be reliably diagnosed. The density of these 10 complex ocular traits increased by 0.017 log-traits/year (P = 0.03), ranging from a predicted 2.74 at age 60 to 4.45 at age 90. Trait-trait association was observed only between AMD and primary vitreomacular traction (P = 0.0009). Only 1% of subjects age 60 or older had no common complex traits affecting the eye. Extrapolations suggested that a study of 2000 similar subjects would have sufficient power to detect genetic association with an odds ratio of 2.0 or less for 4 of these 10 traits. In conclusion, the high prevalence of complex traits affecting the aging eye and the inherent biases in referral patterns leads to the potential for confounding by undocumented secondary traits within case-control studies. In addition to the primary trait, other common ocular phenotypes should be systematically documented in genetic association studies so that adjustments for potential trait-trait associations and other bias can be made and genetic risk variants identified in secondary analyses.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the United States and developed countries. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain unknown, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. The incidence and progression of all of the features of AMD are known to increase significantly with age. The tendency for familial aggregation and the findings of gene variation association studies implicate a significant genetic component in the development of AMD. This review summarizes in detail the AMD-related genes identified by studies on genetically engineered and spontaneously gene-mutated (naturally mutated) animals, AMD chromosomal loci identified by linkage studies, AMD-related genes identified through studies of monogenic degenerative retinal diseases, and AMD-related gene variation identified by association studies.
To determine the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and indentify its risk factors in an Oklahoma Indian population.
Cross sectional study design
A total of 1019 Oklahoma Indians who participated in baseline and second examinations of the Oklahoma Strong Heart Study were enrolled in Vision Keepers.
Retinal photographs of at least one eye were taken and graded for AMD by the University of Wisconsin Ocular Epidemiology Reading Center using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Retinal photographs of 986 participants were considered gradable and included in the study.
Main Outcome Measures
Age-related macular degeneration (early & late).
The overall prevalence of any AMD in the Vision Keepers study was 35.2% including a prevalence of 0.81% for late AMD. The prevalence of early AMD increased from 30.6% in those aged 48–59 years to 46.1% in age group 70–82 years. When potential risk factor was considered individually in the univariate analyses, men with hypertension had significantly higher prevalence of AMD (p=0.02) than those without hypertension. In women high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and sun exposure were positively associated with the prevalence of AMD (p=0.01) while a history of using multivitamins was associated with lower AMD prevalence (p= 0.005). When multiple risk factors were considered simultaneously in the logistic regression analyses, only age showed significant association with AMD in both men (p=0.02) and women (p <0.0001) and was the only significant risk factor in men. In women, multivitamin use and total cholesterol had significant inverse association with AMD while sun exposure and high density lipoprotein cholesterol had positive association. When men and women are combined, age and high density lipoproteincholesterol had significant positive association while total cholesterol and multivitamin use and current alcohol use showed a significant inverse association with AMD.
This study was the first to report detailed prevalence of AMD in Oklahoma Indians and its risk factors. The prevalence appeared to be relatively high as compared to other ethnic groups. Some of the modifiable risk factors identified confirmed previous findings and can be used to design preventive programs to reduce the burden of AMD, though longitudinal data are still needed.
To investigate the genetic associations of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the genetic difference between PCV and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the genotype-phenotype correlation of PCV.
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Published articles about genetic associations of PCV identified from a literature search were reviewed. The following data from individual studies were extracted and analyzed: 1) comparison of genetic polymorphisms between PCV and controls; 2) comparison of genetic polymorphisms between PCV and AMD; and 3) comparison of phenotypes between different genotype groups.
A total of 33 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. With meta-analyses, variants in four genes were found to be significantly associated with PCV: LOC387715 rs10490924 (n=9, allelic odds ratio [OR]=2.27, p<0.00001), HTRA1 rs11200638 (n=4, OR=2.72, p<0.00001), CFH rs1061170 (n=4, OR=1.72, p<0.00001), CFH rs800292 (n=5, OR=2.10, p<0.00001), and C2 rs547154 (n=3, OR=0.56, p=0.01). LOC387715 rs10490924 was the only variant showing a significant difference between PCV and wet AMD (n=5, OR=0.66, p<0.00001). The risk genotypes of rs10490924 were associated with larger lesion size, greater chance of vitreous hemorrhage, and worse therapeutic response in PCV.
LOC387715 rs10490924 was associated with PCV and its clinical manifestations, and showed a discrepant distribution between PCV and AMD. Variants in HTRA1, CFH, and C2 were also associated with PCV.
The findings of this study provide the first evidence suggesting that ARMS2 interacts with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to modulate AMD risk and are consistent with previous reports demonstrating a protective relationship between exogenous estrogen use and neovascular AMD. These results highlight the genetic and environmental complexity of the etiologic architecture of AMD.
To investigate whether female reproductive history and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or birth control pills (BCPs) influence risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and whether genetic factors interact with HRT to modulate AMD risk.
Related and unrelated female participants (n = 799) were examined and data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations with adjustment for age and smoking. Individuals with AMD grades 1 to 2 were considered to be unaffected (n = 239) and those with grades 3 to 5 were considered affected (n = 560).
When comparing all cases with controls, significant inverse associations were observed for HRT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65, 95% CI 0.48–0.90, P = 0.008) and BCPs (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–0.10, P = 0.048). When analyses were stratified by AMD severity (early versus geographic atrophy versus neovascular), the inverse association remained significant (HRT OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.30–0.66, P < 0.0001; BCP OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.96, P = 0.036) only when comparing neovascular AMD with the control. All pair-wise HRT-genotype and BCP-genotype interactions were examined, to determine whether HRT or BCP modifies the effect of established genetic risk factors. The strongest interactions were observed for HRT x ARMS2 coding SNP (R73H) rs10490923 (P = 0.007) and HRT x ARMS2 intronic SNP rs17623531 (P = 0.019).
These findings provide the first evidence suggesting that ARMS2 interacts with HRT to modulate AMD risk and are consistent with previous reports demonstrating a protective relationship between exogenous estrogen use and neovascular AMD. These results highlight the genetic and environmental complexity of the etiologic architecture of AMD; however, further replication is necessary to validate them.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among the elderly in Western countries. Genetic factors, age, cigarette smoking, nutrition, and exposure to light have been identified as AMD risk factors. In this study, we investigated the association between ApoE C112R/R158C single nucleotide polymorphisms (which determine the E2, E3, and E4 isoforms) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the mechanism underlying the association. Genomic DNA was extracted from 133 clinically screened controls, 94 volunteers with a younger mean age, 120 patients with advanced AMD, and 40 archived ocular AMD slides for single nucleotide polymorphism typing. The effects of recombinant ApoE isoforms on CCL2 (a chemokine), CX3CR1 (a chemokine receptor), and VEGF (a cytokine) expression in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were tested and serum cholesterol profiles of the clinically screened subjects were analyzed. ApoE112R (E4) distribution differed significantly between AMD patients and controls. ApoE112R allele frequency was 10.9% in the AMD group when compared with 16.5% in the younger controls and 18.8% in the clinically screened controls. The pathologically diagnosed archived AMD cases had the lowest allele frequency of 5%. No significant differences in ApoE158C (E2) distribution were observed among the groups. A meta-analysis of 8 cohorts including 4,289 subjects showed a strong association between AMD and 112R, but not 158C. In vitro studies found that recombinant ApoE suppresses CCL2 and VEGF expression in RPE cells. However, the E4 isoform showed more suppression than E3 in both cases. These results further confirm the association between ApoE112R and a decreased risk of AMD development. The underlying mechanisms may involve differential regulation of both CCL2 and VEGF by the ApoE isoforms.
age-related macular degeneration; apolipoprotein E, single nucleotide polymorphism; genetic susceptibility; cytokines