Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor.
Blood-banks; Blood-storage centres; Blood transfusion; Emergency obstetric care; India
Recent advances in the understanding of the maternal and paternal heritage of south and southwest Asian populations have highlighted their role in the colonization of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. Further understanding requires a deeper insight into the topology of the branches of the Indian mtDNA phylogenetic tree, which should be contextualized within the phylogeography of the neighboring regional mtDNA variation. Accordingly, we have analyzed mtDNA control and coding region variation in 796 Indian (including both tribal and caste populations from different parts of India) and 436 Iranian mtDNAs. The results were integrated and analyzed together with published data from South, Southeast Asia and West Eurasia.
Four new Indian-specific haplogroup M sub-clades were defined. These, in combination with two previously described haplogroups, encompass approximately one third of the haplogroup M mtDNAs in India. Their phylogeography and spread among different linguistic phyla and social strata was investigated in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of the Iranian mtDNA pool revealed patterns of limited reciprocal gene flow between Iran and the Indian sub-continent and allowed the identification of different assemblies of shared mtDNA sub-clades.
Since the initial peopling of South and West Asia by anatomically modern humans, when this region may well have provided the initial settlers who colonized much of the rest of Eurasia, the gene flow in and out of India of the maternally transmitted mtDNA has been surprisingly limited. Specifically, our analysis of the mtDNA haplogroups, which are shared between Indian and Iranian populations and exhibit coalescence ages corresponding to around the early Upper Paleolithic, indicates that they are present in India largely as Indian-specific sub-lineages. In contrast, other ancient Indian-specific variants of M and R are very rare outside the sub-continent.
Linguistic and genetic studies on Roma populations inhabited in Europe have unequivocally traced these populations to the Indian subcontinent. However, the exact parental population group and time of the out-of-India dispersal have remained disputed. In the absence of archaeological records and with only scanty historical documentation of the Roma, comparative linguistic studies were the first to identify their Indian origin. Recently, molecular studies on the basis of disease-causing mutations and haploid DNA markers (i.e. mtDNA and Y-chromosome) supported the linguistic view. The presence of Indian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup H1a1a-M82 and mtDNA haplogroups M5a1, M18 and M35b among Roma has corroborated that their South Asian origins and later admixture with Near Eastern and European populations. However, previous studies have left unanswered questions about the exact parental population groups in South Asia. Here we present a detailed phylogeographical study of Y-chromosomal haplogroup H1a1a-M82 in a data set of more than 10,000 global samples to discern a more precise ancestral source of European Romani populations. The phylogeographical patterns and diversity estimates indicate an early origin of this haplogroup in the Indian subcontinent and its further expansion to other regions. Tellingly, the short tandem repeat (STR) based network of H1a1a-M82 lineages displayed the closest connection of Romani haplotypes with the traditional scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population groups of northwestern India.
The study was carried out to record adverse pregnancy outcomes and to obtain information about sex ratio at birth in rural especially tribal areas in the State of Maharashtra, India. Although the tribal population is considered vulnerable to innumerable adversities, regretfully information about pregnancy wastage among them is not available. About 10% population of the state is tribal. The study of sex ratio at birth was planned as the overall sex ratio and child sex ratio had declined in the state.
The cohort of antenatal cases registered in rural areas of Maharashtra in the calendar year 2008 was followed up to study the pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective study was carried out from October 2009 to August 2010. The outcomes of all the registered antenatal cases were recorded by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives. The summary sheets were obtained by Block Medical Officers. The data was entered at the block level by trained data entry operators in specially designed web-based software. Adverse pregnancy outcome was categorized in two groups abortions and stillbirths.
About 1.1 million registered pregnancies were followed up. In the state 5.34% registered pregnancies ended in abortions. In tribal PHCs the relative risk of spontaneous abortion and induced abortion was 0.91and 0.38 respectively. It was also revealed that about 1.55% pregnancies culminated in stillbirth. The relative risk of stillbirths in tribal PHCs was 1.33. The sex ratio at birth in the state was 850. The ratio was 883 in the tribal PHCs. Correlation was observed between sex ratio at birth and induced abortion rate.
The study indicates that women from tribal PHCs are exposed to higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in the form of stillbirths. In non-tribal areas high induced abortion rate and poor sex ratio at birth is observed. These two indicators are correlated. The correlation may be explained by the unscrupulous practice of sex selective abortion.
Relative risk; Abortion; Stillbirth; Sex ratio at birth; Tribal areas
Northeast India, the only region which currently forms a land bridge between the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, has been proposed as an important corridor for the initial peopling of East Asia. Given that the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family is considered to be the oldest and spoken by certain tribes in India, Northeast India and entire Southeast Asia, we expect that populations of this family from Northeast India should provide the signatures of genetic link between Indian and Southeast Asian populations. In order to test this hypothesis, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-Chromosome SNP and STR data of the eight groups of the Austro-Asiatic Khasi from Northeast India and the neighboring Garo and compared with that of other relevant Asian populations. The results suggest that the Austro-Asiatic Khasi tribes of Northeast India represent a genetic continuity between the populations of South and Southeast Asia, thereby advocating that northeast India could have been a major corridor for the movement of populations from India to East/Southeast Asia.
The Roma people, living throughout Europe and West Asia, are a diverse population linked by the Romani language and culture. Previous linguistic and genetic studies have suggested that the Roma migrated into Europe from South Asia about 1,000–1,500 years ago. Genetic inferences about Roma history have mostly focused on the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. To explore what additional information can be learned from genome-wide data, we analyzed data from six Roma groups that we genotyped at hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimate that the Roma harbor about 80% West Eurasian ancestry–derived from a combination of European and South Asian sources–and that the date of admixture of South Asian and European ancestry was about 850 years before present. We provide evidence for Eastern Europe being a major source of European ancestry, and North-west India being a major source of the South Asian ancestry in the Roma. By computing allele sharing as a measure of linkage disequilibrium, we estimate that the migration of Roma out of the Indian subcontinent was accompanied by a severe founder event, which appears to have been followed by a major demographic expansion after the arrival in Europe.
The Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao, and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), our results indicated that, in general, the Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) with the local populations in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the Cham people.
Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India.
Genetic counselling; haemoglobinopathies; neonatal screening programme; sickle cell disease; tribals
East Asia is one of the most important regions for studying evolution and genetic diversity of human populations. Recognizing the relevance of characterizing the genetic diversity and structure of East Asian populations for understanding their genetic history and designing and interpreting genetic studies of human diseases, in recent years researchers in China have made substantial efforts to collect samples and generate data especially for markers on Y chromosomes and mtDNA. The hallmark of these efforts is the discovery and confirmation of consistent distinction between northern and southern East Asian populations at genetic markers across the genome. With the confirmation of an African origin for East Asian populations and the observation of a dominating impact of the gene flow entering East Asia from the south in early human settlement, interpretation of the north–south division in this context poses the challenge to the field. Other areas of interest that have been studied include the gene flow between East Asia and its neighbouring regions (i.e. Central Asia, the Sub-continent, America and the Pacific Islands), the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations and expansion of the Chinese.
East Asian populations; genetic structure; origin of modern humans; migrations; gene flow; admixture
Genetic relationships between human groups were first studied by comparisons of relative allele frequency at multiple loci. Geographical study of detailed, highly resolved trees of single, non-recombining uniparental loci (mitochondrial DNA: mtDNA and Y chromosome/non-recombining Y: NRY), following specific lineages rather than populations, then revolutionized knowledge of the peopling of the world, although, curiously, the use of geographically highly specific mutations that protect against malaria, found on individual autosomal globin genes, were first in single-locus phylogeography. mtDNA, with its high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation rates and relative ease of dating, led the way and gave stronger proof of the recent near replacement of all human species by anatomically modern humans (AMH). AMH left Africa via a single southern exit about 70 000 years ago and rapidly spread around the Indian Ocean towards the Antipodes, long before a small branch left a South Asian colony, earlier on the trail, to populate Europe. The worldwide skeleton phylogeny of mtDNA is fully resolved, but a regional analysis will continue to illuminate subsequent migrations. NRY with a lower SNP mutation rate still has a dating problem relating to use the of single tandem repeats (STRs), but has validated mtDNA results and with more geographical specificity and genomic size, as with the autosomal human genome, has much more detail to offer for the future.
Out-of-Africa; migration; genetic phylogeography; climate; chronology; mitochondrial DNA
Sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were obtained from 353 individuals representing nine groups and four major linguistic families (Indo-European, Altaic and North and South Caucasian) of the Caucasus region. The diversity within and between Caucasus populations exceeded the diversity within Europe, but was less than that in the Near East. Caucasus populations occupy an intermediate position between European and Near Eastern populations in tree and principal coordinate analyses, suggesting that they are either ancestral to European populations or derived via admixture from European and Near Eastern populations. The genetic relationships among Caucasus populations reflect geographical rather than linguistic relationships. In particular, the Indo-European-speaking Armenians and Altaic-speaking Azerbaijanians are most closely related to their nearest geographical neighbours in the Caucasus, not their linguistic neighbours (i.e. other Indo-European or Altaic populations). The mtDNA evidence thus suggests that the Armenian and Azerbaijanian languages represent instances of language replacement that had little impact on the mtDNA gene pool.
A number of studies based on linguistic, dental and genetic data have proposed that the colonization of the New World took place in three separate waves of migration from North-East Asia. Recently, other studies have suggested that only one major migration occurred. It is the aim of this study to assess these opposing migration hypotheses using molecular-typed HLA class II alleles to compare the relationships between linguistic and genetic data in contemporary Native American populations. Our results suggest that gene flow and genetic drift have been important factors in shaping the genetic landscape of Native American populations. We report significant correlations between genetic and geographical distances in Native American and East Asian populations. In contrast, a less clear-cut relationship seems to exist between genetic distances and linguistic affiliation. In particular, the close genetic relationship of the neighbouring Na-Dene Athabaskans and Amerindian Salishans suggests that geography is the more important factor. Overall, our results are most congruent with the single migration model.
The elimination of leprosy continues to be a challenge, with the disease remaining endemic in several countries. India accounts for the highest number of cases, and the identification of child cases indicates recent transmission. Genetic markers, like variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have been identified to track transmission of the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. They were used to describe M. leprae strains detected in 48 skin biopsy specimens from leprosy patients in the state of Maharashtra in western India in rural and urban areas near Mumbai. Ninety-three percent of strains across both settings belonged to the SNP type 1D, with three of SNP type 1B being identified in patients living within 3 km of each other. The VNTR profiles of the Maharashtra strains clustered with those from Southern India reported previously and a few other Asian strains, indicating that the Indian strains are genotypically conserved at the level of many VNTR loci. Taken together, SNP and VNTR markers are sufficiently reliable and suitable for both localized and broad geographical genotype associations. VNTR profiles of additional cases may aid in distinguishing the SNP type 1B and 1D strains.
Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations.
The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P < 0.01). Except for one Y short tandem repeat lineage (Y-STR), seen in two unrelated Yami families, no other Y-STR lineages were shared between villages, whereas mtDNA haplotypes were indiscriminately distributed throughout Orchid Island.
The genetic affinity seen between Yami and Taiwanese aborigines or between Ivatan and the Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage.
The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them.
Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP.
In the last two decades, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) have been extensively used in order to measure the maternally and paternally inherited genetic structure of human populations, and to infer sex-specific demography and history. Most studies converge towards the notion that among populations, women are genetically less structured than men. This has been mainly explained by a higher migration rate of women, due to patrilocality, a tendency for men to stay in their birthplace while women move to their husband's house. Yet, since population differentiation depends upon the product of the effective number of individuals within each deme and the migration rate among demes, differences in male and female effective numbers and sex-biased dispersal have confounding effects on the comparison of genetic structure as measured by uniparentally inherited markers. In this study, we develop a new multi-locus approach to analyze jointly autosomal and X-linked markers in order to aid the understanding of sex-specific contributions to population differentiation. We show that in patrilineal herder groups of Central Asia, in contrast to bilineal agriculturalists, the effective number of women is higher than that of men. We interpret this result, which could not be obtained by the analysis of mtDNA and NRY alone, as the consequence of the social organization of patrilineal populations, in which genetically related men (but not women) tend to cluster together. This study suggests that differences in sex-specific migration rates may not be the only cause of contrasting male and female differentiation in humans, and that differences in effective numbers do matter.
Human evolutionary history has been investigated mainly through the prism of genetic variation of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. These two uniparentally inherited markers reflect the demographic history of males and females, respectively. Their contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation reveal that women are more mobile than men among populations, which might be due to specific marriage rules. However, these two markers provide only a limited understanding of the underlying demographic processes. To obtain an independent picture of sex-specific demography, we developed a new multi-locus approach based on the analysis of markers from the autosomal and X-chromosomal compartments. We applied our method to 21 human populations sampled in Central Asia, with contrasting social organizations and lifestyles. We found that, in patrilineal populations, not only the migration rate but also the number of reproductive individuals is likely to be higher for women. This result does not hold for bilineal populations, for which both the migration rate and the number of reproductive individuals can be equal for both sexes. The social organization of patrilineal populations is the likely cause of this pattern. This study suggests that differences in sex-specific migration rates may not be the only cause of contrasting male and female differentiation in humans, and that differences in effective numbers do matter.
The Koreans are generally considered a northeast Asian group because of their geographical location. However, recent findings from Y chromosome studies showed that the Korean population contains lineages from both southern and northern parts of East Asia. To understand the genetic history and relationships of Korea more fully, additional data and analyses are necessary.
Methodology and Results
We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation in the hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and HVS-II) and haplogroup-specific mutations in coding regions in 445 individuals from seven east Asian populations (Korean, Korean-Chinese, Mongolian, Manchurian, Han (Beijing), Vietnamese and Thais). In addition, published mtDNA haplogroup data (N = 3307), mtDNA HVS-I sequences (N = 2313), Y chromosome haplogroup data (N = 1697) and Y chromosome STR data (N = 2713) were analyzed to elucidate the genetic structure of East Asian populations. All the mtDNA profiles studied here were classified into subsets of haplogroups common in East Asia, with just two exceptions. In general, the Korean mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to other northeastern Asian populations through analysis of individual haplogroup distributions, genetic distances between populations or an analysis of molecular variance, although a minor southern contribution was also suggested. Reanalysis of Y-chromosomal data confirmed both the overall similarity to other northeastern populations, and also a larger paternal contribution from southeastern populations.
The present work provides evidence that peopling of Korea can be seen as a complex process, interpreted as an early northern Asian settlement with at least one subsequent male-biased southern-to-northern migration, possibly associated with the spread of rice agriculture.
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is considered to be rare among individuals from the Indian subcontinent. Furthermore, affected individuals are reported to experience a more severe clinical course.
Aims: It was hypothesised that CF is under diagnosed in people of South Asian origin and therefore the prevalence may be higher than previously estimated.
Methods: The prevalence of CF in the South Asian and in the general population living in the same geographic region (Metropolitan Toronto) were compared between 1996 and 2001. Population data were obtained from the Canadian census survey. CF phenotype and genotype data were obtained from the Toronto CF database.
Results: Among 381 patients with CF, 15 were of South Asian descent. The age related prevalence of CF among the South Asian and general populations was: 0–14 years, 1:9200 versus 1:6600; 15–24 years, 1:13 200 versus 1:7600; older than 25 years, 1:56 600 versus 1:12 400. Age at diagnosis, duration and severity of symptoms at diagnosis, current nutritional status, and FEV1 were similar in the two groups. While not significant, FEV1 tended to be lower (48% versus 57% predicted) among adult South Asians, compared to the general CF population. Also, the percentage with pancreatic sufficiency was higher (27% versus 16%) and the frequency of ΔF508 allele was lower (50% versus 65.1%).
Conclusions: These data suggest that the prevalence and natural history of CF in South Asians is similar to that among individuals of European origin. The relatively lower prevalence among older South Asians may reflect an improving recognition of CF in this ethnic subgroup.
Population genetic structure has important consequences in evolutionary processes and conservation genetics in animals. Fine-scale population genetic structure depends on the pattern of landscape, the permanent movement of individuals, and the dispersal of their genes during temporary mating events. The lesser flat-headed bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) is a nonmigratory Asian bat species that roosts in small groups within the internodes of bamboo stems and the habitats are fragmented. Our previous parentage analyses revealed considerable extra-group mating in this species. To assess the spatial limits and sex-biased nature of gene flow in the same population, we used 20 microsatellite loci and mtDNA sequencing of the ND2 gene to quantify genetic structure among 54 groups of adult flat-headed bats, at nine localities in South China. AMOVA and FST estimates revealed significant genetic differentiation among localities. Alternatively, the pairwise FST values among roosting groups appeared to be related to the incidence of associated extra-group breeding, suggesting the impact of mating events on fine-scale genetic structure. Global spatial autocorrelation analyses showed positive genetic correlation for up to 3 km, indicating the role of fragmented habitat and the specialized social organization as a barrier in the movement of individuals among bamboo forests. The male-biased dispersal pattern resulted in weaker spatial genetic structure between localities among males than among females, and fine-scale analyses supported that relatedness levels within internodes were higher among females than among males. Finally, only females were more related to their same sex roost mates than to individuals from neighbouring roosts, suggestive of natal philopatry in females.
The Bhils are inhabitants of Dhar, Jhabua, Khargone and Ratlam distrcits of Madhya Pradesh. A large number of Bhils live in the neighbouring States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. They constitute the third largest tribe of India; the first two being Gonds and Santhals. They utilize a large number of plant species occurring wild in the district as herbal remedies in various diseases and ailments. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was conducted in the tribal blocks. Viz. Kathiware, Alirajpur and Sodhwa blocks of Jhabua district, M. P. The authors have gathered first-hand information on seventy – five plant species and their mode of therapeutic uses from the tribal medicine men ‘Badwa’ and other experienced tribals. The present study has brought of light some interesting data on potential medicinal plants which will be screened for determining their therapeutic and pharmacodynamic properties.
Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals.
The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively.
While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times.
The phylogeny of the indigenous Indian-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been determined and refined in previous reports. Similar to mtDNA superhaplogroups M and N, a profusion of reports are also available for superhaplogroup R. However, there is a dearth of information on South Asian subhaplogroups in particular, including R8. Therefore, we ought to access the genealogy and pre-historic expansion of haplogroup R8 which is considered one of the autochthonous lineages of South Asia.
Upon screening the mtDNA of 5,836 individuals belonging to 104 distinct ethnic populations of the Indian subcontinent, we found 54 individuals with the HVS-I motif that defines the R8 haplogroup. Complete mtDNA sequencing of these 54 individuals revealed two deep-rooted subclades: R8a and R8b. Furthermore, these subclades split into several fine subclades. An isofrequency contour map detected the highest frequency of R8 in the state of Orissa. Spearman's rank correlation analysis suggests significant correlation of R8 occurrence with geography.
The coalescent age of newly-characterized subclades of R8, R8a (15.4±7.2 Kya) and R8b (25.7±10.2 Kya) indicates that the initial maternal colonization of this haplogroup occurred during the middle and upper Paleolithic period, roughly around 40 to 45 Kya. These results signify that the southern part of Orissa currently inhabited by Munda speakers is likely the origin of these autochthonous maternal deep-rooted haplogroups. Our high-resolution study on the genesis of R8 haplogroup provides ample evidence of its deep-rooted ancestry among the Orissa (Austro-Asiatic) tribes.
This paper deals with the wild medicinal plants used by rural population of south-western part of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra State. The authors gathered data on 34 species of locally available wild plants used in curing common human ailments. The plants are arranged according to the type of ailment. Vernacular name of each species followed by its botanical name, relevant plant family and known use of the plant in local medicine are given.
In the present study, we employed microsatellite DNA markers to analyze the genetic diversity and differentiation between and within cultured stocks and wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia. Compared to wild populations, genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity and significant differentiation have taken place in cultured grouper stocks, as shown by allele richness and heterozygosity studies, pairwise Fst, structure, molecular variance analysis, as well as multidimensional scaling analysis. Although two geographically adjacent orange-spotted grouper populations in China showed negligible genetic divergence, significant population differentiation was observed in wild grouper populations distributed in a wide geographical area from China, through Malaysia to Indonesia. However, the Mantel test rejected the isolation-by-distance model of genetic structure, which indicated the genetic differentiation among the populations could result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment, ocean currents, river flows and island blocks. Our results demonstrated that microsatellite markers could be suitable not only for genetic monitoring cultured stocks but also for revealing the population structuring of wild orange-spotted grouper populations. Meanwhile, our study provided important information for breeding programs, management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper.
the orange-spotted grouper; genetic diversity; differentiation; microsatellite; Epinephelus coioides
Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries) is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY) coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR) were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations.
All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8). Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin). Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal), female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola).
The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.
Population history can be reflected in group genetic ancestry, where genomic variation captured by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) can separate female- and male-specific admixture processes. Genetic ancestry may influence genetic association studies due to differences in individual admixture within recently admixed populations like African Americans.
We evaluated the genetic ancestry of Senegalese as well as European Americans and African Americans from Philadelphia. Senegalese mtDNA consisted of ∼12% U haplotypes (U6 and U5b1b haplotypes, common in North Africa) while the NRY haplotypes belonged solely to haplogroup E. In Philadelphia, we observed varying degrees of admixture. While African Americans have 9–10% mtDNAs and ∼31% NRYs of European origin, these results are not mirrored in the mtDNA/NRY pools of European Americans: they have less than 7% mtDNAs and less than 2% NRYs from non-European sources. Additionally, there is <2% Native American contribution to Philadelphian African American ancestry and the admixture from combined mtDNA/NRY estimates is consistent with the admixture derived from autosomal genetic data. To further dissect these estimates, we have analyzed our samples in the context of different demographic groups in the Americas.
We found that sex-biased admixture in African-derived populations is present throughout the Americas, with continual influence of European males, while Native American females contribute mainly to populations of the Caribbean and South America. The high non-European female contribution to the pool of European-derived populations is consistently characteristic of Iberian colonization. These data suggest that genomic data correlate well with historical records of colonization in the Americas.