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1.  In vivo comparison between the effects of chemically modified hydrophilic and anodically oxidized titanium surfaces on initial bone healing 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of physical and chemical surface factors on in vivo bone responses by comparing chemically modified hydrophilic sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (modSLA) and anodically oxidized hydrophobic implant surfaces.
Methods
Five modSLA implants and five anodized implants were inserted into the tibiae of five New Zealand white rabbits (one implant for each tibia). The characteristics of each surface were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy before the installation. The experimental animals were sacrificed after 1 week of healing and histologic slides were prepared from the implant-tibial bone blocks removed from the animals. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on the light microscopic images, and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) ratios were measured. Nonparametric comparison tests were applied to find any significant differences (P<0.05) between the modSLA and anodized surfaces.
Results
The roughness of the anodized surface was 1.22 ± 0.17 µm in Sa, which was within the optimal range of 1.0-2.0 µm for a bone response. The modSLA surface was significantly rougher at 2.53 ± 0.07 µm in Sa. However, the modSLA implant had significantly higher BIC than the anodized implant (P=0.02). Furthermore, BA ratios did not significantly differ between the two implants, although the anodized implant had a higher mean value of BA (P>0.05).
Conclusions
Within the limitations of this study, the hydrophilicity of the modSLA surface may have a stronger effect on in vivo bone healing than optimal surface roughness and surface chemistry of the anodized surface.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2015.45.3.94
PMCID: PMC4485065  PMID: 26131369
Animal experimentation; Dental implants; Histology; Osseointegration
2.  Influence of bone density on implant stability parameters and implant success: a retrospective clinical study 
BMC Oral Health  2008;8:32.
Background
The aim of the present clinical study was to determine the local bone density in dental implant recipient sites using computerized tomography (CT) and to investigate the influence of local bone density on implant stability parameters and implant success.
Methods
A total of 300 implants were placed in 111 patients between 2003 and 2005. The bone density in each implant recipient site was determined using CT. Insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis were used as implant stability parameters. The peak insertion torque values were recorded with OsseoCare machine. The resonance frequency analysis measurements were performed with Osstell instrument immediately after implant placement, 6, and 12 months later.
Results
Of 300 implants placed, 20 were lost, meaning a survival rate of %. 93.3 after three years (average 3.7 ± 0.7 years). The mean bone density, insertion torque and RFA recordings of all 300 implants were 620 ± 251 HU, 36.1 ± 8 Ncm, and 65.7 ± 9 ISQ at implant placement respectively; which indicated statistically significant correlations between bone density and insertion torque values (p < 0.001), bone density and ISQ values (p < 0.001), and insertion torque and ISQ values (p < 0.001). The mean bone density, insertion torque and RFA values were 645 ± 240 HU, 37.2 ± 7 Ncm, and 67.1 ± 7 ISQ for 280 successful implants at implant placement, while corresponding values were 267 ± 47 HU, 21.8 ± 4 Ncm, and 46.5 ± 4 ISQ for 20 failed implants; which indicated statistically significant differences for each parameter (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
CT is a useful tool to determine the bone density in the implant recipient sites, and the local bone density has a prevailing influence on primary implant stability, which is an important determinant for implant success.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-8-32
PMCID: PMC2614413  PMID: 19025637
3.  Influence of Implant Surface Topography on Primary Stability in a Standardized Osteoporosis Rabbit Model Study 
Evaluating primary stability is important to predict the prognosis of dental implant treatment. Primary stability is decreased in a low bone density site such as osteoporosis. However, it is difficult to apply in small animal and the effect of the different implant surface topography for the primary stability at low bone density site has not yet fully been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of implant surface topography on primary stability in a standardized osteoporosis animal model. Six rabbits underwent ovariectomy and administrated glucocorticoid to induce an osteoporosis model. Sham-operations were performed in additional six rabbits. Implants with machined or oxidized-surfaces were inserted into the femur epiphyses and insertion torque (IT) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) were measured. In sham model, the IT and ISQ did not differ significantly between the both implant. However, the IT value of oxidized-surface implant was significantly higher than that of the machined implant in the osteoporosis model. Meanwhile, ISQ did not significantly differ between the machined and oxidized-surfaced implants. In conclusion, the IT of implants is higher with rough than with smooth surfaces but that there are no differences in ISQ value between different surfaces in a standardized osteoporosis bone reduced rabbit model.
doi:10.3390/jfb6010143
PMCID: PMC4384105  PMID: 25794350
primary stability; osteoporosis; glucocorticoid; implant surface; rabbit model
4.  Comparion of stability in titanium implants with different surface topographies in dogs 
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
A few of studies which compared and continuously measured the stability of various surface treated implants in the same individual had been performed.
PURPOSE
We aim to find the clinical significance of surface treatments by observing the differences in the stabilization stages of implant stability.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Eight different surface topographies of dental implants were especially designed for the present study. Machined surface implants were used as a control group. 4 nano-treated surface implants (20 nm TiO2 coating surface, heat-treated 80 nm TiO2 coating surface, CaP coating surface, heat treated CaP coating surface) and 3 micro-treated surface implants [resorbable blast media (RBM) surface, sandblast and acid-etched (SAE) surface, anodized RBM surface] were used as experiment groups. All 24 implants were placed in 3 adult dogs. Periotest® & ISQ values measured for 8 weeks and all animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks after surgery. Then the histological analyses were done.
RESULTS
In PTV, all implants were stabilized except 1 failed implants. In ISQ values, The lowest stability was observed at different times for each individual. The ISQ values were showed increased tendency after 5 weeks in every groups. After 4 to 5 weeks, the values were stabilized. There was no statistical correlation between the ISQ values and PTV. In the histological findings, the bone formation was observed to be adequate in general and no differences among the 8 surface treated implants.
CONCLUSIONS
In this study, the difference in the stability of the implants was determined not by the differences in the surface treatment but by the individual specificity.
doi:10.4047/jap.2009.1.1.47
PMCID: PMC2994674  PMID: 21165255
Implant stability quotient (ISQ); Periotest value (PTV); Stability; Surface treatment; Titanium implant
5.  Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs 
Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5–25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance the osseointegration of SLA surfaces and have the potential for future use.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S73467
PMCID: PMC4298332  PMID: 25609967
surface modification; micro/nanostructure; silver; ion implantation; osseointegration
6.  Biological and biomechanical evaluation of interface reaction at conical screw-type implants 
Background
Initial stability of the implant is, in effect, one of the fundamental criteria for obtaining long-term osseointegration. Achieving implant stability depends on the implant-bone relation, the surgical technique and on the microscopic and macroscopic morphology of the implant used. A newly designed parabolic screw-type dental implant system was tested in vivo for early stages of interface reaction at the implant surface.
Methods
A total of 40 implants were placed into the cranial and caudal part of the tibia in eight male Göttinger minipigs. Resonance frequency measurements (RFM) were made on each implant at the time of fixture placement, 7 days and 28 days thereafter in all animals. Block biopsies were harvested 7 and 28 days (four animals each) following surgery. Biomechanical testing, removable torque tests (RTV), resonance frequency analysis; histological and histomorphometric analysis as well as ultrastructural investigations (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were performed.
Results
Implant stability in respect to the measured RTV and RFM-levels were found to be high after 7 days of implants osseointegration and remained at this level during the experimented course. Additionally, RFM level demonstrated no alteration towards baseline levels during the osseointegration. No significant increase or decrease in the mean RFM (6029 Hz; 6256 Hz and 5885 Hz after 0-, 7- and 28 days) were observed. The removal torque values show after 7 and 28 days no significant difference. SEM analysis demonstrated a direct bone to implant contact over the whole implant surface. The bone-to-implant contact ratio increased from 35.8 ± 7.2% to 46.3 ± 17.7% over time (p = 0,146).
Conclusion
The results of this study indicate primary stability of implants which osseointegrated with an intimate bone contact over the whole length of the implant.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-2-5
PMCID: PMC1421389  PMID: 16504052
7.  A histomorphometric study of dental implants with different surface characteristics 
PURPOSE
One of the major keys to achieve successful osseointegration of the implant is its surface properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the bone response to dental implants with different surface characteristics using the rabbit tibia model. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) coated, anodic oxidized and turned (control) surfaces were compared.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seventy two implants were placed in the tibia of eighteen rabbits. Nine rabbits were sacrificed at 3 weeks of healing and the remaining nine were sacrificed at 6 weeks of healing. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and the bone volume density (BVD) were assessed by light microscope after 3 and 6 weeks of healing.
RESULTS
Statistical analysis showed that no significant differences in the BIC and BVD were observed between the different implant surfaces and the control group at 3 weeks and 6 weeks of healing. Data also suggested that the BVD of all the surfaces showed significant difference at 3 and 6 weeks.
CONCLUSION
The present study has showed that osseointegration occurred in all investigated types of surface-treated implants. In the current study all of the threads of the implants were observed to calculate BIC and BVD values (instead of choosing some of the threads from the bone cortex for example), which didn't make BIC or BVD percentage values better than in the control group, therefore the clinical relevance of these results remains to be shown.
doi:10.4047/jap.2010.2.4.142
PMCID: PMC3024504  PMID: 21264193
Surface modification; Bone-to-implant contact; Bone volume density; Tricalcium phosphate coating; Anodic oxidation
8.  Impact of mini-implant length on stability at the initial healing period: a controlled clinical study 
Head & Face Medicine  2013;9:30.
Introduction
Aim of the study was to assess the impact of the length of mini-implants inserted in the midpalatal region on the stability at the initial healing period.
Methods
A sample of 20 consecutively treated patients (15.6 ± 7.2 years) was examined. A long mini-implant with a length of 11 mm and a diameter of 2 mm was inserted into the anterior palate of each patient. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed after insertion (T0), two weeks (T1), four weeks (T2), and six weeks (T3). Insertion depth (ID) and the maximum insertion torque (IT) were measured. RFA, ID and IT data were tested for correlations. RFA values were tested for statistical differences between the different times. Data was compared to a matched control group of patients who received short mini-implants with a length of 9 mm and a diameter of 2 mm.
Results
Mean ID was 9.5 ± 0.6 mm and mean IT was 17.9 ± 3.8 Ncm. A correlation was found between RFA and ID (r = 0.59, P < .01). From T0 to T1 the stability (33.4 ± 3.5 ISQ) decreased highly significantly by 5.3 ± 3.5 ISQ values (P < .001) and significantly from T1 and T2 (P < .05) by 3.5 ± 3.7 ISQ values. From T2 on RFA nearly remained unchanged (−1.7 ± 3.9 ISQ; P > .05). At T1 stability was significantly lower than the control group. From T2 on there were no significant differences between the groups.
Conclusions
Long mini-implants provide high stability when inserted in the midpalatal region. After initial decrease RFA values remained stable from four weeks on and did not differ from the control group.
Trial registration
ID: 2013081293 (Clinical study register, University of Düsseldorf, Germany).
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-9-30
PMCID: PMC4029568  PMID: 24382059
Skeletal anchorage; Mini-implants; Stability; Length; Healing; Resonance frequency analysis
9.  Comparison of removal torques between laser-treated and SLA-treated implant surfaces in rabbit tibiae 
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to compare removal torques and surface topography between laser treated and sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) treated implants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Laser-treated implants (experimental group) and SLA-treated implants (control group) 8 mm in length and 3.4 mm in diameter were inserted into both sides of the tibiae of 12 rabbits. Surface analysis was accomplished using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; Hitachi S-4800; Japan) under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Surface components were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Rabbits were sacrificed after a 6-week healing period. The removal torque was measured using the MGT-12 digital torque meter (Mark-10 Co., Copiague, NY, USA).
RESULTS
In the experimental group, the surface analysis showed uniform porous structures under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Pore sizes in the experimental group were 20-40 mm and consisted of numerous small pores, whereas pore sizes in the control group were 0.5-2.0 mm. EDS analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. The mean removal torque in the laser-treated and the SLA-treated implant groups were 79.4 Ncm (SD = 20.4; range 34.6-104.3 Ncm) and 52.7 Ncm (SD = 17.2; range 18.7-73.8 Ncm), respectively. The removal torque in the laser-treated surface implant group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=.004).
CONCLUSION
In this study, removal torque values were significantly higher for laser-treated surface implants than for SLA-treated surface implants.
doi:10.4047/jap.2014.6.4.302
PMCID: PMC4146731  PMID: 25177474
Sandblasted large-grit acid-etched; Laser treatment; Removal torque; Scanning electron microscope; Energy dispersive spectroscopy
10.  A comparative study on the initial stability of different implants placed above the bone level using resonance frequency analysis 
PURPOSE
This study evaluated the initial stability of different implants placed above the bone level in different types of bone.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
As described by Lekholm and Zarb, cortical layers of bovine bone specimens were trimmed to a thickness of 2 mm, 1 mm or totally removed to reproduce bone types II, III, and IV respectively. Three Implant system (Brånemark System® Mk III TiUnite™, Straumann Standard Implant SLA®, and Astra Tech Microthread™-OsseoSpeed™) were tested. Control group implants were placed in level with the bone, while test group implants were placed 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm above the bone level. Initial stability was evaluated by resonance frequency analysis. Data was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance in confidence level of 95%. The effective implant length and the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) were compared using simple linear regression analysis.
RESULTS
In the control group, there was a significant difference in the ISQ values of the 3 implants in bone types III and IV (P<.05). The ISQ values of each implant decreased with increased effective implant length in all types of bone. In type II bone, the decrease in ISQ value per 1-mm increase in effective implant length of the Brånemark and Astra implants was less than that of the Straumann implant. In bone types III and IV, this value in the Astra implant was less than that in the other 2 implants.
CONCLUSION
The initial stability was much affected by the implant design in bone types III, IV and the implant design such as the short pitch interval was beneficial to the initial stability of implants placed above the bone level.
doi:10.4047/jap.2011.3.4.190
PMCID: PMC3259444  PMID: 22259702
Effective implant length; Initial stability; Implant design; Resonance frequency analysis
11.  The effect of various thread designs on the initial stability of taper implants 
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Primary stability at the time of implant placement is related to the level of primary bone contact. The level of bone contact with implant is affected by thread design, surgical procedure and bone quality, etc.
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to compare the initial stability of the various taper implants according to the thread designs, half of which were engaged to inferior cortical wall of type IV bone (Group 1) and the rest of which were not engaged to inferior cortical wall (Group 2) by measuring the implant stability quotient (ISQ) and the removal torque value (RTV).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
In this study, 6 different implant fixtures with 10 mm length were installed. In order to simulate the sinus inferior wall of type IV bone, one side cortical bone of swine rib was removed. 6 different implants were installed in the same bone block following manufacturer's recommended procedures. Total 10 bone blocks were made for each group. The height of Group 1 bone block was 10 mm for engagement and that of group 2 was 13 mm. The initial stability was measured with ISQ value using Osstell mentor® and with removal torque using MGT50 torque gauge.
RESULTS
In this study, we found the following results. 1. In Group 1 with fixtures engaged to the inferior cortical wall, there was no significant difference in RTV and ISQ value among the 6 types of implants. 2. In Group 2 with fixtures not engaged to the inferior cortical wall, there was significant difference in RTV and ISQ value among the 6 types of implants (P < .05). 3. There was significant difference in RTV and ISQ value according to whether fixtures were engaged to the inferior cortical wall or not (P < .05). 4. Under-drilling made RTV and ISQ value increase significantly in the NT implants which had lower RTV and ISQ value in Group 2 (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS
Without being engaged to the inferior cortical wall fixtures had initial stability affected by implant types. Also in poor quality bone, under-drilling improved initial stability.
doi:10.4047/jap.2009.1.1.19
PMCID: PMC2994669  PMID: 21165250
Thread design; Taper implant; Bicortical engagement; ISQ; Removal torque value
12.  The effect of implant shape and bone preparation on primary stability 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of implant shape and bone preparation on the primary stability of the implants using resonance frequency analysis.
Methods
Sixty bovine rib blocks were used for soft and hard bone models. Each rib block received two types of dental implant fixtures; a straight-screw type and tapered-screw type. Final drilling was done at three different depths for each implant type; 1 mm under-preparation, standard preparation, and 1 mm over-preparation. Immediately after fixture insertion, the implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured for each implant.
Results
Regardless of the bone type, the ISQ values of the straight-screw type and tapered-screw type implants were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Depth of bone preparation had no significant effect on the ISQ value of straight-screw type implants (P > 0.05). For the tapered-screw type implants, under-preparation significantly increased the ISQ value (P < 0.05), whereas overpreparation significantly decreased the ISQ value (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that bone density seemed to have a prevailing effect over implant shape on primary stability. The primary stability of the tapered-screw type implants might be enhanced by delicate surgical techniques.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2010.40.5.239
PMCID: PMC2967812  PMID: 21072221
Bone density; Dental implants
13.  Early loading of hydrophilic titanium implants inserted in low-mineralized (D3 and D4) bone: one year results of a prospective clinical trial 
Head & Face Medicine  2013;9:37.
Introduction
Pure titanium is the material of choice for contemporary dental implants. However, superficial reaction of the moderately rough titanium surface with atmospheric components decreases its hydrophilicity. INICELL® represents a chemical alteration and hydrophilization of a moderately rough i. e. sand-blasted and acid-etched titanium surface. The hydrophilicity leads to a more homogenous adsorption of proteins on the implant surface in-vitro, supporting the activation of a higher number of platelets and the generation of a homogenous, complete fibrin matrix in the early phases of osseointegration. This in turn helps to reduce the healing time and enhances the predictability of osseointegration in compromised bony situations.
The objective of this case series trial was therefore to investigate if early loading (after 8 weeks) of hydrophilic INICELL implants is feasible in patients with reduced bone quality.
Methods
In 10 patients, 35 hydrophilic implants were placed in sites revealing bone quality class 3 and 4, and uncovered after 4 weeks. Eight weeks later implants were released for loading if the tactile resistance was ≥35 Ncm. Lower resistances resulted in 12 weeks initial healing period. Insertion torque, ISQ, tactile resistance and vertical bone level were evaluated at implant installation, after 4 weeks (uncovering), 8 or 12 weeks (loading), and 12 weeks and one year after loading.
Results
Mean implant insertion torque was 21 Ncm. 31 (88.6%) showed a tactile resistance of >35 Ncm after eight weeks and were released for prosthetic loading. Eight weeks after insertion, one implant (2.9%) had to be removed following a soft tissue complication. One implant had to be removed after 4 weeks due to a technical complication (fractured Osstell-abutment), it was therefore excluded from the analysis.
33 of 34 implants (97%) were loaded to occlusion and were in situ/functional one year after implantation. ISQs increased from 43 at baseline to 63 at eight weeks, and 72 at three months after loading. Then, ISQ remained constant until one year after loading.
Conclusions
Within the limitations of this prospective case series, hydrophilic implants may allow for shortening of the initial healing period even in bone with compromised density.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-9-37
PMCID: PMC3866303  PMID: 24321192
Titanium implants; Hydrophilic surface; Healing time; Bone quality; Weak bone
14.  A comparison of the implant stability among various implant systems: clinical study 
PURPOSE
To determine the change in stability of single-stage, three different design of implant systems in humans utilizing resonance frequency analysis for early healing period (24 weeks), without loading.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Twenty-five patients were included into this study. A total of 45 implants, three different design of implant systems (group A,C,R) were placed in the posterior maxilla or mandible. The specific transducer for each implant system was used. ISQ (implant stability quotient) reading were obtained for each implant at the time of surgery, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 weeks postoperatively. Data were analyzed for different implant type, bone type, healing time, anatomical locations.
RESULTS
For each implant system, a two-factor mixed-model ANOVA demonstrated that a significant effect on ISQ values (group A = 0.0022, C = 0.017, R = 0.0018). For each implant system, in a two-factor mixed model ANOVA, and two-sample t-test, the main effect of jaw position (P > .005) on ISQ values were not significant.
CONCLUSIONS
All the implant groups A, C and R, the change patterns of ISQ over time differed by bone type. Implant stability increased greatly between week 0 and week six and showed slow increase between week six and six months (plateau effect).
doi:10.4047/jap.2009.1.1.31
PMCID: PMC2994671  PMID: 21165252
Osseointegration; Implant stability; Magnetic resonance frequency analysis; Bone quality type
15.  The relationship between initial implant stability quotient values and bone-to-implant contact ratio in the rabbit tibia 
PURPOSE
Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values have been supposed to predict implant stability. However, the relationship between ISQ values and bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC%) which is one of the predictors of implant stability is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate initial ISQ values in relation to BIC% using rabbit model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Four New Zealand white rabbits received a total of 16 implants in their tibia. Immediately after implant placement ISQ values were assessed. The measurements were repeated at the time of sacrifice of the rabbits after 4 weeks. Peri-implant bone regeneration was assessed histomorphometrically by measuring BIC% and bone volume to total volume values (bone volume %). The relationships between ISQ values and the histomorphometric output were assessed, and then, the osseointegration prediction model via the initial ISQ values was processed.
RESULTS
Initial ISQ values showed significant correlation with the BIC%. The bone volume % did not show any significant association with the ISQ values.
CONCLUSION
In the limitation of this study, resonance frequency analysis is a useful clinical method to predict the BIC% values and examine the implant stability.
doi:10.4047/jap.2011.3.2.76
PMCID: PMC3141122  PMID: 21814615
Implant stability; Resonance frequency analysis; Initial ISQ values; BIC%; Rabbit tibia
16.  A Comparision of Two Types of Decalcified Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft in Treatment of Dehiscence Defects around Implants in Dogs 
Dental Research Journal  2011;8(3):132-137.
Background:
Decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) may have the potential to enhance bone formation around dental implants. Our aim in this study was the evaluation and comparison of two types of DFDBA in treatment of dehiscence defects around Euroteknika® implants in dogs.
Methods:
In this prospective clinical trial animal study, all mandibular premolars of three Iranian dogs were extracted. After 3 months of healing, fifteen SLA type Euroteknika® dental implants (Natea) with 4.1mm diameter and 10mm length were placed in osteotomy sites with dehiscence defects of 5mm length, 4 mm width, and 3mm depth. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures were performed using Cenobone and collagen membrane for six implants, the other six implants received Dembone and collagen membrane and the final three implants received only collagen membrane. All implants were submerged. After 4 months of healing, implants were uncovered and stability (Implant Stability Quotient) of all implants was measured. Then, block biopsies of each implant site were taken and processed for ground sectioning and histomorphometric analysis. The data was analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant.
Results:
All implants osseointegrated after 4 months. The mean values of bone to implant contact for histomorphometric measurements of Cenobone, Denobone, and control groups were 77.36 ± 9.96%, 78.91 ± 11.9% and 71.56 ± 5.61% respectively, with no significant differences among the various treatment groups. The correlation of Implant Stability Quotient and histomorphometric techniques was 0.692.
Conclusion:
In treating of dehiscence defects with GBR technique in this study, adding DFDBA did not significantly enhance the percentages of bone-to-implant contact measurements; and Implant Stability Quotient Resonance Frequency Analysis appeared to be a precise technique.
PMCID: PMC3177388  PMID: 22013476
Allograft; Collagen type IV; Dehiscence defects; Dental implantation; Osseointegration
17.  Histomorphometry and stability analysis of early loaded implants with two different surface conditions in beagle dogs 
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Despite an improved bone reactions of Mg-incorporated implants in the animals, little yet has been carried out by the experimental investigations in functional loading conditions.
PURPOSE
This study investigated the clinical and histologic parameters of osseointegrated Mg-incorporated implants in early loading conditions.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
A total of 36 solid screw implants (diameter 3.75 mm, length 10 mm) were placed in the mandibles of 6 beagle dogs. Test groups included 18 Mg-incorporated implants. Turned titanium implants served as control. Gold crowns were inserted 4 weeks after implant placement and the dogs were immediately put on a food diet. Implants were observed for 10 weeks after loading. Radiographic assessments and stability tests were performed at the time of fixture installation, 2nd stage surgery, 4 weeks after loading, and 10 weeks after loading. Histological observations and morphometrical measurements were also performed.
RESULTS
Of 36 implants, 33 displayed no discernible mobility, corresponding to successful clinical function. There was no statistically significant difference between test implants and controls in marginal bone levels (P = .46) and RFA values. The mean BIC% in the Mg-implants was 54.5 ± 8.4%. The mean BIC% in the turned implant was 45.3 ± 12.2%. These differences between the Mg-implant and control implant were statistically significant (P = .005).
CONCLUSIONS
The anodized, Mg-incorporated implant demonstrated significantly more bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in early loading conditions.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
The results of this study in beagle dogs suggest the possibility of achieving predictable stability of early loaded free-standing dental implants with Mg-incorporated surface.
doi:10.4047/jap.2009.1.1.10
PMCID: PMC2994668  PMID: 21165249
Oxidized implant; Histomorphometry; Early loading
18.  Effect of bone quality and implant surgical technique on implant stability quotient (ISQ) value 
PURPOSE
This study investigated the influence of bone quality and surgical technique on the implant stability quotient (ISQ) value. In addition, the influence of interfacial bone quality, directly surrounding the implant fixture, on the resonance frequency of the structure was also evaluated by the finite element analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Two different types of bone (type 1 and type 2) were extracted and trimmed from pig rib bone. In each type of bone, the same implants were installed in three different ways: (1) Compaction, (2) Self-tapping, and (3) Tapping. The ISQ value was measured and analyzed to evaluate the influence of bone quality and surgical technique on the implant primary stability. For finite element analysis, a three dimensional implant fixture-bone structure was designed and the fundamental resonance frequency of the structure was measured with three different density of interfacial bone surrounding the implant fixture.
RESULTS
In each group, the ISQ values were higher in type 1 bone than those in type 2 bone. Among three different insertion methods, the Tapping group showed the lowest ISQ value in both type 1 and type 2 bones. In both bone types, the Compaction groups showed slightly higher mean ISQ values than the Self-tapping groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. Increased interfacial bone density raised the resonance frequency value in the finite element analysis.
CONCLUSION
Both bone quality and surgical technique have influence on the implant primary stability, and resonance frequency has a positive relation with the density of implant fixture-surrounding bone.
doi:10.4047/jap.2011.3.1.10
PMCID: PMC3076567  PMID: 21503187
Compaction; Self-tapping; Tapping; Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) Resonance frequency analysis; Finite element analysis
19.  Early loading of plalatal implants (ortho-type II) a prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial 
Trials  2007;8:24.
Background
In orthodontic treatment, anchorage control is a fundamental aspect. Usually conventional mechanism for orthodontic anchorage control can be either extraoral or intraoral that is headgear or intermaxillary elastics. Their use are combined with various side effects such as tipping of occlusal plane or undesirable movements of teeth. Especially in cases, where key-teeth are missing, conventional anchorage defined as tooth-borne anchorage will meet limitations. Therefore, the use of endosseous implants for anchorage purposes are increasingly used to achieve positional stability and maximum anchorage.
Methods/Design
The intended study is designed as a prospective, multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing and contrasting the effect of early loading of palatal implant therapy versus implant loading after 12 weeks post implantation using the new ortho-implant type II anchor system device (Orthosystem Straumann, Basel, Switzerland).
124 participants, mainly adult males or females, whose diagnoses require temporary stationary implant-based anchorage treatment will be randomized 1:1 to one of two treatment groups: group 1 will receive a loading of implant standard therapy after a healing period of 12 week (gold standard), whereas group 2 will receive an early loading of orthodontic implants within 1 week after implant insertion. Participants will be at least followed for 12 months after implant placement.
The primary endpoint is to investigate the behavior of early loaded palatal implants in order to find out if shorter healing periods might be justified to accelerate active orthodontic treatment. Secondary outcomes will focus e.g. on achievement of orthodontic treatment goals and quantity of direct implant-bone interface of removed bone specimens. As tertiary objective, a histologic and microtomography evaluation of all retrieved implants will be performed to obtain data on the performance of the SLA surface in human bone evaluation of all retrieved implants. Additionally, resonance frequency analysis (RFA, Osstell™ mentor) will be used at different times for clinically monitoring the implant stability and for histological comparison in order to measure the reliability of the resonance frequency measuring device.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN97142521.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-8-24
PMCID: PMC2039736  PMID: 17883841
20.  Evaluation of the correlation between insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using a block bone test 
Purpose
Implant stability at the time of surgery is crucial for the long-term success of dental implants. Primary stability is considered of paramount importance to achieve osseointegration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using artificial bone blocks with different bone densities and compositions to mimic different circumstances that are encountered in routine daily clinical settings.
Methods
In order to validate the objectives, various sized holes were made in bone blocks with different bone densities (#10, #20, #30, #40, and #50) using a surgical drill and insertion torque together with implant stability quotient (ISQ) values that were measured using the Osstell Mentor. The experimental groups under evaluation were subdivided into 5 subgroups according to the circumstances.
Results
In group 1, the mean insertion torque and ISQ values increased as the density of the bone blocks increased. For group 2, the mean insertion torque values decreased as the final drill size expanded, but this was not the case for the ISQ values. The mean insertion torque values in group 3 increased with the thickness of the cortical bone, and the same was true for the ISQ values. For group 4, the mean insertion torque values increased as the cancellous bone density increased, but the correlation with the ISQ values was weak. Finally, in group 5, the mean insertion torque decreased as the final drill size increased, but the correlation with the ISQ value was weak.
Conclusions
Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that primary stability does not simply depend on the insertion torque, but also on the bone quality.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2013.43.1.30
PMCID: PMC3596632  PMID: 23508040
Bone density; Dental implants; Torque
21.  Effect of surface anodization on stability of orthodontic microimplant 
Objective
To determine the effect of surface anodization on the interfacial strength between an orthodontic microimplant (MI) and the rabbit tibial bone, particularly in the initial phase after placement.
Methods
A total of 36 MIs were driven into the tibias of 3 mature rabbits by using the self-drilling method and then removed after 6 weeks. Half the MIs were as-machined (n = 18; machined group), while the remaining had anodized surfaces (n = 18; anodized group). The peak insertion torque (PIT) and the peak removal torque (PRT) values were measured for the 2 groups of MIs. These values were then used to calculate the interfacial shear strength between the MI and cortical bone.
Results
There were no statistical differences in terms of PIT between the 2 groups. However, mean PRT was significantly greater for the anodized implants (3.79 ± 1.39 Ncm) than for the machined ones (2.05 ± 1.07 Ncm) (p < 0.01). The interfacial strengths, converted from PRT, were calculated at 10.6 MPa and 5.74 MPa for the anodized and machined group implants, respectively.
Conclusions
Anodization of orthodontic MIs may enhance their early-phase retention capability, thereby ensuring a more reliable source of absolute anchorage.
doi:10.4041/kjod.2012.42.1.4
PMCID: PMC3481963  PMID: 23112925
Orthodontic microimplant; Anodization; Self drilling; Interfacial shear strength
22.  Assessing Double Acid-Etched Implants Submitted to Orthodontic Forces and Used as Prosthetic Anchorages in Partially Edentulous Patients 
Abstract:
The use of implants as anchorage for orthodontic forces seems to be a good alternative in partially edentulous patients needing orthodontic treatment.
This study is aimed at assessing the performance and behavior of microtextured surface endosseous implants obtained by means of a double acid etching against orthodontic forces, as well as their adequacy to be used first as anchorage and later as fixtures for the definitive prosthesis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 93 double acid-etched surface parallel wall implants (Osseotite® Implants, Implant Innovations Inc., Palm Beach, Florida, USA) were inserted in 38 partially edentulous patients prior to orthodontic treatment This was carried out by following two-stage surgery protocols in the maxilla as well as in the mandible.
After a healing period of six months for the maxilla and four months for the mandible, the implants were used as anchorage for sliding, compression and traction orthodontic forces between 100 to 200 g by means of Ni-TI springs.
Bone level and Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) were measured before and after the introduction of the orthodontics forces.
Results:
After removal of the orthodontics appliances, all the implants remained stabile and served as support for prosthetic replacement of missing teeth. The bone level showed no variationeven when a positive difference 0.02 ± 0.38mm was noticed. The RFA scored a significant difference (p≤ 0.03) between the initial Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) values (66) and the final ones (68).
Conclusions:
These findings showed that Osseotite implants were able to support the orthodontic forces applied during this investigation, maintaining osseointegration without significant variation in bone level. Therefore, they can be used to support dental prosthesis once they have been used as orthodontic anchorage under the cited conditions.
doi:10.2174/1874210600802010030
PMCID: PMC2581540  PMID: 19088880
Osseointegrated implants; orthodontic forces; absolute anchorage
23.  Evaluation of Stability of Surface-Treated Mini-Implants in Diabetic Rabbits 
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of surface treatment of mini-implants in diabetes-induced rabbits by comparing osseointegration around mini-implants. Methods. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups (alloxan-induced diabetic group and control group). A total of 48 mini-implants were placed after four weeks of diabetic induction. 24 mini-implants were surface-treated with SLA (sandblasted with large grit, and acid etched) and the remaining 24 mini-implants had smooth surfaces. Four weeks after placement, 32 mini-implants were removed from 4 control and 4 diabetic rabbits. Insertion and removal torques were measured. The remaining 16 mini-implants from the two groups were histomorphometrically analyzed. Results. Maximum insertion torque showed no difference between diabetic and control groups, but total insertion energy was higher in control group. In surface-treated mini-implants, maximum removal torque was higher in both diabetic and control groups. Bone-implant contact (BIC) was increased in the control group when compared to the diabetic group. Surface-treated group had higher BIC than smooth surface group in both control and diabetic groups. However, there was no significantly statistical difference. Conclusions. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and surface treatment method of mini-implant affected primary stability of mini-implants. In addition, the use of orthodontic mini-implants in a diabetic patient is likely to show results similar to the healthy patient.
doi:10.1155/2014/838356
PMCID: PMC4058165  PMID: 24971093
24.  A comparison of bone bed preparation with laser and conventional drill on the relationship between implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and implant insertion variables 
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to investigate a comparison of implant bone bed preparation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser and conventional drills on the relationship between implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and implant insertion variables.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Forty implants were inserted into two different types of pig rib bone. One group was prepared with conventional drills and a total of 20 implants were inserted into type I and type II bone. The other group was prepared with a Er,Cr:YSGG laser and a total of 20 implants were inserted into type I and type II bone. ISQ, maximum insertion torque, angular momentum, and insertion torque energy values were measured.
RESULTS
The mean values for variables were significantly higher in type I bone than in type II bone (P < .01). In type I bone, the ISQ values in the drill group were significantly higher than in the laser group (P < .05). In type II bone, the ISQ values in the laser group were significantly higher than in the drill group (P < .01). In both type I and type II bone, the maximum insertion torque, total energy, and total angular momentum values between the drill and laser groups did not differ significantly (P ≥ .05). The ISQ values were correlated with maximum insertion torque (P < .01, r = .731), total energy (P < .01, r = .696), and angular momentum (P < .01, r = .696).
CONCLUSION
Within the limitations of this study, the effects of bone bed preparation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the relationship between implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and implant insertion variables were comparable to those of drilling.
doi:10.4047/jap.2010.2.4.148
PMCID: PMC3024505  PMID: 21264194
Er,Cr:YSGG laser; Titanium implant; Insertion torque resonance frequency analysis; Energy
25.  Evaluation of Osseointegration around Tibial Implants in Rats by Ibandronate-Treated Nanotubular Ti-32Nb-5Zr Alloy 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2014;22(6):563-569.
Materials with differing surfaces have been developed for clinical implant therapy in dentistry and orthopedics. This study was designed to evaluate bone response to titanium alloy containing Ti-32Nb-5Zr with nanostructure, anodic oxidation, heat treatment, and ibandronate coating. Rats were randomly assigned to two groups for implantation of titanium alloy (untreated) as the control group and titanium alloy group coated with ibandronate as the experimental group. Then, the implants were inserted in both tibiae of the rats for four weeks. After implantation, bone implant interface, trabecular microstructure, mechanical fixation was evaluated by histology, micro-computed tomography (μCT) and the push-out test, respectively. We found that the anodized, heat-treated and ibandronate-coated titanium alloy triggered pronounced bone implant integration and early bone formation. Ibandronate-coated implants showed elevated values for removal torque and a higher level of BV/TV, trabecular thickness and separation upon analysis with μCT and mechanical testing. Similarly, higher bone contact and a larger percentage bone area were observed via histology compared to untreated alloy. Furthermore, well coating of ibandronate with alloy was observed by vitro releasing experiment. Our study provided evidences that the coating of bisphosphonate onto the anodized and heat-treated nanostructure of titanium alloy had a positive effect on implant fixation.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2014.111
PMCID: PMC4256038  PMID: 25489426
Dental implants; Osseointegration; Titanium alloy; Ibandronate; Nanotubes

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