The literature concerning ethical issues associated with nanotechnologies has become prolific. However, it has been claimed that ethical problems are only at stake with rather sophisticated nanotechnologies such as active nanostructures, integrated nanosystems and heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, whereas more basic nanotechnologies such as passive nanostructures mainly pose technical difficulties. In this paper I argue that fundamental ethical issues are already at stake with this more basic kind of nanotechnologies and that ethics impacts every kind of nanotechnologies, already from the simplest kind of engineered nanoproducts. These ethical issues are mainly associated with the social desirability of nanotechnologies, with the difficulties to define nanotechnologies properly, with the important uncertainties surrounding nanotechnologies, with the threat of ‘nano-divide’, and with nanotechnology as ‘dual-use technology’.
Ethics; Equity; Dual-use technology; Generations of nanotechnologies; Informed consent; Nano-divide; Nanotechnologies; Precautionary principle; Risk; Social desirability; Uncertainty; Philosophy; Ethics; Philosophy of Science; Philosophy of Technology; Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.
soft nanotechnology; supramolecular chemistry; hybrid materials; synthetic biology; self-assembly; nanoparticle; nanomedicine; nanofluidics; nanoelectronics; lab-on-a-chip
Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.
conducting polymers; nanowires; nanotubes; polyaniline; polypyrrole; template synthesis
With the rapid progress of nanotechnology, nanostructures with different morphologies have been realized, which may be very promising to enhance the performance of semiconductor devices. In this study, SiGe nanostructures with several kinds of configurations have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition process. By controlling growth conditions, different SiGe nanostructures can be easily tuned. Structures and compositions of the nanostructures were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of various SiGe nanostructures revealed some dependence with their morphologies, which may be suitable for solar cell applications. The control of the SiGe morphology on nanoscale provides a convenient route to produce diverse SiGe nanostructures and creates new opportunities to realize the integration of future devices.
SiGe; reflectance; nanowire; core-shell; transformation
In this article, we review gas sensor application of one-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures with major emphases on the types of device structure and issues for realizing practical sensors. One of the most important steps in fabricating 1D-nanostructure devices is manipulation and making electrical contacts of the nanostructures. Gas sensors based on individual 1D nanostructure, which were usually fabricated using electron-beam lithography, have been a platform technology for fundamental research. Recently, gas sensors with practical applicability were proposed, which were fabricated with an array of 1D nanostructures using scalable micro-fabrication tools. In the second part of the paper, some critical issues are pointed out including long-term stability, gas selectivity, and room-temperature operation of 1D-nanostructure-based metal-oxide gas sensors.
1-dimensional nanostructures; gas sensors; long-term stability; gas selectivity; electronic-nose; room-temperature operation
Living systems have evolved a variety of nanostructures to control the molecular interactions that mediate many functions including the recognition of targets by receptors, the binding of enzymes to substrates, and the regulation of enzymatic activity. Mimicking these structures outside of the cell requires methods that offer nanoscale control over the organization of individual network components. Advances in DNA nanotechnology have enabled the design and fabrication of sophisticated one-, two- and three-dimensional (1D, 2D and 3D) nanostructures that utilize spontaneous and sequence specific DNA hybridization. Compared to other self-assembling biopolymers, DNA nanostructures offer predictable and programmable interactions, and surface features to which other nanoparticles and bio-molecules can be precisely positioned.
The ability to control the spatial arrangement of the components while constructing highly-organized networks will lead to various applications of these systems. For example, DNA nanoarrays with surface displays of molecular probes can sense noncovalent hybridization interactions with DNA, RNA, and proteins and covalent chemical reactions. DNA nanostructures can also align external molecules into well-defined arrays, which may improve the resolution of many structural determination methods, such as X-ray diffraction, cryo-EM, NMR, and super-resolution fluorescence. Moreover, by constraining target entities to specific conformations, self-assembled DNA nanostructures can serve as molecular rulers to evaluate conformation-dependent activities.
This Account describes the most recent advances in the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of biomolecular networks and explores the possibility of applying this technology to other fields of study. Recently, several reports have demonstrated the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of spatially-interactive biomolecular networks. For example, researchers have constructed synthetic multi-enzyme cascades by organizing the position of the components using DNA nanoscaffolds in vitro, or by utilizing RNA matrices in vivo. These structures display enhanced efficiency compared to the corresponding unstructured enzyme mixtures. Such systems are designed to mimic cellular function, where substrate diffusion between enzymes is facilitated and reactions are catalyzed with high efficiency and specificity. In addition, researchers have assembled multiple choromophores into arrays using a DNA nanoscaffold that optimizes the relative distance between the dyes and their spatial organization. The resulting artificial light harvesting system exhibits efficient cascading energy transfers. Finally, DNA nanostructures have been used as assembly templates to construct nanodevices that execute rationally-designed behaviors, including cargo loading, transportation and route control.
Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have great potential for large area low-cost photovoltaics. However, light utilization remains low mainly due to the tradeoff between small carrier transport lengths and longer infrared photon absorption lengths. Here, we demonstrate a bottom-illuminated periodic nanostructured CQD solar cell that enhances broadband absorption without compromising charge extraction efficiency of the device. We use finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to study the nanostructure for implementation in a realistic device and then build proof-of-concept nanostructured solar cells, which exhibit a broadband absorption enhancement over the wavelength range of λ = 600 to 1100 nm, leading to a 31% improvement in overall short-circuit current density compared to a planar device containing an approximately equal volume of active material. Remarkably, the improved current density is achieved using a light-absorber volume less than half that typically used in the best planar devices.
DNA nanotechnology provides a versatile foundation for the chemical assembly of nanostructures. Plasmonic nanoparticle assemblies are of particular interest because they can be tailored to exhibit a broad range of electromagnetic phenomena. In this Letter, we report the assembly of DNA-functionalized nanoparticles into pentamer clusters, which consist of a smaller gold sphere surrounded by a ring of four larger spheres. Magnetic and Fano-like resonances are observed in individual clusters. The DNA plays a dual role: it selectively assembles the clusters in solution and functions as an insulating spacer between the conductive nanoparticles. These particle assemblies can be generalized to a new class of DNA-enabled plasmonic heterostructures that comprise various active and passive materials and other forms of DNA scaffolding.
Plasmonics; DNA; colloidal self-assembly; nanoshell; magnetic dipole; Fano resonance
In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.
surface acoustic waves; zinc oxide; nanostructures; electrospun; acoustoelectric effect
One-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures are ideal systems for exploring a large number of novel phenomena at the nanoscale and investigating size and dimensionality dependence of nanostructure properties for potential applications. The construction and integration of photodetectors or optical switches based on such nanostructures with tailored geometries have rapidly advanced in recent years. Active 1D nanostructure photodetector elements can be configured either as resistors whose conductions are altered by a charge-transfer process or as field-effect transistors (FET) whose properties can be controlled by applying appropriate potentials onto the gates. Functionalizing the structure surfaces offers another avenue for expanding the sensor capabilities. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the photodetector field. It mainly focuses on the metal oxide 1D nanostructures such as ZnO, SnO2, Cu2O, Ga2O3, Fe2O3, In2O3, CdO, CeO2, and their photoresponses. The review begins with a survey of quasi 1D metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures and the photodetector principle, then shows the recent progresses on several kinds of important metal-oxide nanostructures and their photoresponses and briefly presents some additional prospective metal-oxide 1D nanomaterials. Finally, the review is concluded with some perspectives and outlook on the future developments in this area.
metal oxide semiconductor; one-dimensional nanostructures; sensor; photodetector; transistor
Nanotechnology has opened new and exhilarating opportunities for exploring glucose biosensing applications of the newly prepared nanostructured materials. Nanostructured metal-oxides have been extensively explored to develop biosensors with high sensitivity, fast response times, and stability for the determination of glucose by electrochemical oxidation. This article concentrates mainly on the development of different nanostructured metal-oxide [such as ZnO, Cu(I)/(II) oxides, MnO2, TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, ZrO2, and other metal-oxides] based glucose biosensors. Additionally, we devote our attention to the operating principles (i.e., potentiometric, amperometric, impedimetric and conductometric) of these nanostructured metal-oxide based glucose sensors. Finally, this review concludes with a personal prospective and some challenges of these nanoscaled sensors.
nanostructured metal-oxides; glucose biosensor; electrochemical principles; enzymatic sensor; nonenzymatic sensor
Conventional methane gas sensors based on catalytic combustion have the drawbacks of high working temperature, low thermal stability and small measurement range. To improve their performance, cerium, which possesses high oxygen storage and release ability, was introduced via nanotechnology to prepare Ce-contained nanostructure elements. Three kinds of elements with different carriers: Al2O3, n-Al2O3 and n-Ce-Al2O3 were prepared and separately fabricated (Pt-Pd/Al, Pt-Pd/n-Al, Pt-Pd/n-Ce-Al). The performances of Wheatstone Bridges with three different catalytic elements were tested and compared. The results indicated that the cerium-containing element exhibited better performance than other elements regarding activity, anti-sulfur ability and thermal stability. Moreover, a constant temperature circuit was also applied in this system. The measurement range was extended from 4% to 10% by automatically decreasing the working current in a reasonable range. The maximum error for 0%–10% CH4 was controlled below 5%, which fully meets the measurement requirements.
methane gas sensor; catalytic combustion; cerium; nanostructure elements
Cobalt ferrite magnetic nanostructures were synthesized via a high temperature solution phase method. Spherical nanostructures of various sizes were synthesized with the help of seed mediated growth of the nanostructures in organic phase, while faceted irregular (FI) cobalt ferrite nanostructures were synthesized via the same method but in the presence of a magnetic field. Magnetic properties were characterized by SQUID magnetometry, relaxivity measurements and thermal activation under RF field, as a function of size and shape. The results show that the saturation magnetization of the nanostructures increases with an increase in size, and the FI nanostructures exhibit lower saturation magnetization than their spherical counterparts. The relaxivity coefficient of cobalt ferrite nanostructures increases with increase in size; while FI nanostructures show a higher relaxivity coefficient than spherical nanostructures with respect to their saturation magnetization. In the case of RF thermal activation, the specific absorption rate (SAR) of nanostructures increases with increase in the size. The contribution sheds light on the role of size and shape on important magnetic properties of the nanostructures in relation to their biomedical applications.
Cobalt ferrite; shape; size; thermal activation; MRI contrast agent
DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly developing research area in nanoscience. It includes the development of DNA machines, tailoring of DNA nanostructures, application of DNA nanostructures for computing, and more. Different DNA machines were reported in the past and DNA-guided assembly of nanoparticles represents an active research effort in DNA nanotechnology. Several DNA-dictated nanoparticle structures were reported, including a tetrahedron, a triangle or linear nanoengineered nanoparticle structures; however, the programmed, dynamic reversible switching of nanoparticle structures and, particularly, the dictated switchable functions emerging from the nanostructures, are missing elements in DNA nanotechnology. Here we introduce DNA catenane systems (interlocked DNA rings) as molecular DNA machines for the programmed, reversible and switchable arrangement of different-sized gold nanoparticles. We further demonstrate that the machine-powered gold nanoparticle structures reveal unique emerging switchable spectroscopic features, such as plasmonic coupling or surface-enhanced fluorescence.
DNA nanotechnology, including DNA machines and devices for computing, is a rapidly expanding field of research. Here, the authors fabricate DNA catenane machines for the programmable arrangement of gold nanoparticle cargoes, and study their switchable spectroscopic features.
Palladium (Pd) has received attention as an ideal hydrogen sensor material due to its properties such as high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen gas, fast response, and operability at room temperature. Interestingly, various Pd nanostructures that have been realized by recent developments in nanotechnologies are known to show better performance than bulk Pd. This review highlights the characteristic properties, issues, and their possible solutions of hydrogen sensors based on the low-dimensional Pd nanostructures with more emphasis on Pd thin films and Pd nanowires. The finite size effects, relative strengths and weaknesses of the respective Pd nanostructures are discussed in terms of performance, manufacturability, and practical applicability.
Pd nanostructures; hydrogen sensors
ZnO nanostructures with different
morphologies (nanowires, nanodisks,
and nanostars) were synthesized hydrothermally. Gas sensing properties
of the as-grown nanostructures were investigated under thermal and
UV activation. The performance of the ZnO nanodisk gas sensor was
found to be superior to that of other nanostructures (Sg ∼ 3700% to 300 ppm ethanol and response time
and recovery time of 8 and 13 s). The enhancement in sensitivity is
attributed to the surface polarities of the different structures on
the nanoscale. Furthermore, the selectivity of the gas sensors can
be achieved by controlling the UV intensity used to activate these
sensors. The highest sensitivity value for ethanol, isopropanol, acetone,
and toluene are recorded at the optimal UV intensity of 1.6, 2.4,
3.2, and 4 mW/cm2, respectively. Finally, the UV activation
mechanism for metal oxide gas sensors is compared with the thermal
activation process. The UV activation of analytes based on solution
processed ZnO structures pave the way for better quality gas sensors.
Engineered nanomaterials are commonly defined as materials with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. Such materials typically possess nanostructure-dependent properties (e.g., chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic, biological), which make them desiderable for commercial or medical application. However, these same properties may potentially lead to nanostructure-dependent biological activity that differs from and is not directly predicted by the bulk properties of the constitutive chemicals and compounds. Nanoparticles and nanomaterials can be on the same scale of living cells components, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and cellular organelles. When considering nanoparticles it must be asked how man-made nanostructures can interact with or influence biological systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an example of carbon-based nanomaterial, which has won a huge spreading in nanotechnology. The incorporation of CNTs in living systems has raised many concerns because of their hydrophobicity and tendency to aggregate and accumulate into cells, organs, and tissues with dangerous effects.
Applications of toxicogenomics to both investigative and predictive toxicology will contribute to the in-depth investigation of molecular mechanisms or the mode of nanomaterials action that is achieved by using conventional toxicological approaches. Parallel toxicogenomic technologies will promote a valuable platform for the development of biomarkers, in order to predict possible nanomaterial’s toxicity. The potential of characteristic gene expression profiles (“fingerprint”) of exposure or toxicological response to nanoparticles will be discussed in the review to enhance comprehension of the molecular mechanism of in vivo and in vitro system exposed to nanomaterials.
Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells.
chemical and biological sensors; carbon nanotubes; grapheme
We recently introduced a method that allows the controlled deposition of nanoscale metallic patterns at defined locations using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a “mechano-electrochemical pen”, locally activating a passivated substrate surface for site-selective electrochemical deposition. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility of this process and study the long-term stability of the resulting metallic structures. The remarkable stability for more than 1.5 years under ambient air without any observable changes can be attributed to self-passivation. After AFM-activated electrochemical deposition of copper nanostructures on a polycrystalline gold film and subsequent AFM imaging, the copper nanostructures could be dissolved by reversing the electrochemical potential. Subsequent AFM-tip-activated deposition of different copper nanostructures at the same location where the previous structures were deleted, shows that there is no observable memory effect, i.e., no effect of the previous writing process on the subsequent writing process. Thus, the four processes required for reversible information storage, “write”, “read”, “delete” and “re-write”, were successfully demonstrated on the nanometer scale.
atomic force microscopy; electrochemical deposition; electrochemistry; nanoelectronics; nanofabrication; nanolithography; nanotechnology; MEMS and NEMS; reversible processes; scanning probe microscopy and lithography
A homothymine PNA decamer bearing four lysine residues has been synthesized as a probe for the development of amperometric sensors. On one hand, the four amino groups introduced make this derivative nine times more soluble than the corresponding homothymine PNA decamer and, on the other hand, allow the stable anchoring of this molecule on Au nanostructured surface through the terminal -NH2 moieties. In particular, XPS and electrochemical investigations performed with hexylamine, as a model molecule, indicate that the stable deposition of primary amine derivatives on such a nanostructured surface is possible and involves the free electron doublet on the nitrogen atom. This finding indicates that this PNA derivative is suitable to act as the probe molecule for the development of amperometric sensors.
Thanks to the molecular probe chosen and to the use of a nanostructured surface as the substrate for the sensor assembly, the device proposed makes possible the selective recognition of the target oligonucleotide sequence with very high sensitivity.
DNA recognition; PNA; amperometric genosensors; nanostructured surfaces; amine deposition
The novel nanostructures are fabricated by the spatial chemical modification of nanowires within the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. To make the nanowires better dispersion in the aqueous solution, the copper is first deposited to fill the dendrite structure at the bottom of template. During the process of self-assembly, the dithiol compound was used as the connector between the nanowires and nanoparticles by a self-assembly method. The nanostructures of the nano cigars and structure which is containing particles junction are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These kinds of novel nanostructure will be the building blocks for nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices.
Self-assembly; AAO template; Nanostruture; TEM; 81.15.Pq; 81.16.Dn; 82.45.Yz
The use of plasmonic nanostructures for fluorescence signal amplification is currently a very active research field. The detection of submonolayers of proteins labeled with organic dyes is a widely used technique in surface-based immunoassays and DNA hybridization. There is a strong interest in the development of new optical and chemical methods to increase the signal from ultralow concentrations of dyes on the surface of sensor substrates. Herein, we have explored the possibility of using vacuum-deposited silver nanostructures on dielectric layers and silver mirrors as potential plasmonic substrates that effectively amplify fluorescence over a broad spectral range. By optimizing deposition parameters for dielectric layers and silver nanostructures and applying thermal annealing processes, we observed large fluorescence amplifications from three different dye-strept(avidin) conjugates: about 7-fold for a UV/blue dye AF350-Av, 49-fold for a blue-green dye AF488-SA, and up to 208-fold for red-emitting AF647-SA dye. The observed amplification factors for the ensemble of fluorophores are very promising for development of surface-based bioassays. These substrates can be prepared using simple vacuum deposition in which we circumvent using the expensive nanofabrication methods. In addition, unlike most nanofabrication methods, the present approach is appropriate for large scale fabrication of substrates with microscope slide surface area suitable for sensing applications.
Nanotechnology is the design and assembly of submicroscopic devices called nanoparticles, which are 1–100 nm in diameter. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. Disease-specific receptors on the surface of cells provide useful targets for nanoparticles. Because nanoparticles can be engineered from components that (1) recognize disease at the cellular level, (2) are visible on imaging studies, and (3) deliver therapeutic compounds, nanotechnology is well suited for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases. Nanotechnology will enable earlier detection and treatment of diseases that are best treated in their initial stages, such as cancer. Advances in nanotechnology will also spur the discovery of new methods for delivery of therapeutic compounds, including genes and proteins, to diseased tissue. A myriad of nanostructured drugs with effective site-targeting can be developed by combining a diverse selection of targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic components. Incorporating immune target specificity with nanostructures introduces a new type of treatment modality, nano-immunochemotherapy, for patients with cancer. In this review, we will discuss the development and potential applications of nanoscale platforms in medical diagnosis and treatment. To impact the care of patients with neurological diseases, advances in nanotechnology will require accelerated translation to the fields of brain mapping, CNS imaging, and nanoneurosurgery. Advances in nanoplatform, nano-imaging, and nano-drug delivery will drive the future development of nanomedicine, personalized medicine, and targeted therapy. We believe that the formation of a science, technology, medicine law–healthcare policy (STML) hub/center, which encourages collaboration among universities, medical centers, US government, industry, patient advocacy groups, charitable foundations, and philanthropists, could significantly facilitate such advancements and contribute to the translation of nanotechnology across medical disciplines.
Nanoplatforms; Nanotechnology; Image-guided therapy; Nanomedicine; Nanoneurosurgery; Nanostructures; Contrast agents; Nanoparticles; Nanotechnology policy; Nano-radiology; Nano-neuroscience; Nano-neurology
Both DNA and RNA can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures. A pioneering concept proposed by Ned Seeman 30 years ago has led to an explosion of knowledge in DNA nanotechnology. RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing noncanonical base-pairing, versatile function and catalytic activity similar to proteins. However, standing in awe of the sensitivity of RNA to RNase degradation has made many scientists flinch away from RNA nanotechnology. Here we report the construction of stable RNA nanoparticles resistant to RNase digestion. The chemically modified RNA retained its property for correct folding in dimer formation, appropriate structure in procapsid binding, and biological activity in gearing phi29 nanomotor to package viral DNA and producing infectious viral particles. Our results demonstrate that it is practical to produce RNase resistant, biologically active and stable RNA for application in nanotechnology.
2’-F modification; pRNA; RNase resistant; dimer formation; phi29 DNA-packaging nanomotor
In recent years, stem cell nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field. Theoretical and experimental studies of interaction between nanomaterials or nanostructures and stem cells have made great advances. The importance of nanomaterials, nanostructures, and nanotechnology to the fundamental developments in stem cells-based therapies for injuries and degenerative diseases has been recognized. In particular, the effects of structure and properties of nanomaterials on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells have become a new interdisciplinary frontier in regeneration medicine and material science. Here we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore the application prospects, and discuss the issues, approaches and challenges, with the aim of improving application of nanotechnology in the stem cells research and development.
Nanomaterials; Nanostructure; Nanotechnology; Stem cells; Regeneration medicine