Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases affecting photoreceptors and causing blindness. Many human cases are caused by mutations in the rhodopsin gene. An important question regarding RP pathology is whether different genetic defects trigger the same or different cell death mechanisms. To answer this question, we analysed photoreceptor degeneration in P23H and S334ter transgenic rats carrying rhodopsin mutations that affect protein folding and sorting respectively. We found strong activation of calpain and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in both mutants, concomitant with calpastatin down-regulation, increased oxidative DNA damage and accumulation of PAR polymers. These parameters were strictly correlated with the temporal progression of photoreceptor degeneration, mirroring earlier findings in the phosphodiesterase-6 mutant rd1 mouse, and suggesting execution of non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms. Interestingly, activation of caspases-3 and -9 and cytochrome c leakage—key events in apoptotic cell death—were observed only in the S334ter mutant, which also showed increased expression of PARP-1. The identification of the same metabolic markers triggered by different mutations in two different species suggests the existence of common cell death mechanisms, which is a major consideration for any mutation independent treatment.
Inherited retinal degenerations, collectively termed retinitis pigmentosa (RP), constitute one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. RP is at present untreatable and the underlying neurodegenerative mechanisms are unknown, even though the genetic causes are often established. Acetylation and deacetylation of histones, carried out by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively, affects cellular division, differentiation, death and survival. We found acetylation of histones and probably other proteins to be dramatically reduced in degenerating photoreceptors in the rd1 human homologous mouse model for RP. Using a custom developed in situ HDAC activity assay, we show that overactivation of HDAC classes I/II temporally precedes photoreceptor degeneration. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of HDACs I/II activity in rd1 organotypic retinal explants decreased activity of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase and strongly reduced photoreceptor cell death. These findings highlight the importance of protein acetylation for photoreceptor cell death and survival and propose certain HDAC classes as novel targets for the pharmacological intervention in RP.
epigenetic; neuroprotection; trichostatin A; retina; sirtuin; retinitis pigmentosa
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a retinal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by apoptosis of photoreceptor cells, is caused by mutations in many different genes. We analyzed the RP gene ceramide kinase-like (CERKL) to determine CERKL function and contribution to pathogenesis.
RT–PCR was performed to characterize CERKL expression in many human adult and fetal tissues, including retina. We analyzed the protein subcellular localization by confocal microscopy and further verified it by sucrose gradients. We performed lipid kinase activity assays. And finally, we studied the effects on cell apoptosis after CERKL overexpression in transiently transfected cultured cells by propidium iodide staining and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) caspase-dependent cleavage.
CERKL transcripts underwent alternative splicing. In the human retina, four different CERKL isoforms of 532, 558, 419, and 463 amino acids were expressed. CERKL proteins were mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments, but they also shifted localization to nuclei and nucleoli. We also found that CERKL prevented cells from entering apoptosis induced by oxidative-stress conditions.
CERKL remains a unique orphan lipid kinase in that no candidate substrate has been identified after intense research. The dynamic localization of CERKL suggests multiple sites of action. Remarkably, CERKL (but not the RP R257X mutant) exerts a protective role in cells against oxidative stress, consistent with RP mutations impairing the normal protein function in photoreceptors and thus tilting the balance toward apoptosis. These results provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms causing retinal degeneration.
The PARP family member poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 3 (PARP3) is structurally related to the well characterized PARP1 that orchestrates cellular responses to DNA strand breaks and cell death by the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose). In contrast to PARP1 and PARP2, the functions of PARP3 are undefined. Here, we reveal critical functions for PARP3 during vertebrate development.
We have used several in vitro and in vivo approaches to examine the possible functions of PARP3 as a transcriptional regulator, a function suggested from its previously reported association with several Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. We demonstrate that PARP3 gene occupancy in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH occurs preferentially with developmental genes regulating cell fate specification, tissue patterning, craniofacial development and neurogenesis. Addressing the significance of this association during zebrafish development, we show that morpholino oligonucleotide-directed inhibition of parp3 expression in zebrafish impairs the expression of the neural crest cell specifier sox9a and of dlx3b/dlx4b, the formation of cranial sensory placodes, inner ears and pectoral fins. It delays pigmentation and severely impedes the development of the median fin fold and tail bud.
Our findings demonstrate that Parp3 is crucial in the early stages of zebrafish development, possibly by exerting its transcriptional regulatory functions as early as during the specification of the neural plate border.
Post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has diverse essential functions in the cellular response to DNA damage as it contributes to avid DNA damage detection and assembly of the cellular repair machinery but extensive modification eventually also induces cell death. While there are 17 human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) genes, there is only one poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) gene encoding several PARG isoforms located in different subcellular compartments. To investigate the recruitment of PARG isoforms to DNA repair sites we locally introduced DNA damage by laser microirradiation. All PARG isoforms were recruited to DNA damage sites except for a mitochondrial localized PARG fragment. Using PARP knock out cells and PARP inhibitors, we showed that PARG recruitment was only partially dependent on PARP-1 and PAR synthesis, indicating a second, PAR-independent recruitment mechanism. We found that PARG interacts with PCNA, mapped a PCNA binding site and showed that binding to PCNA contributes to PARG recruitment to DNA damage sites. This dual recruitment mode of the only nuclear PARG via the versatile loading platform PCNA and by a PAR dependent mechanism likely contributes to the dynamic regulation of this posttranslational modification and ensures the tight control of the switch between efficient DNA repair and cell death.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an element of the DNA damage surveillance network evolved by eukaryotic cells to cope with numerous environmental and endogenous genotoxic agents. PARP has been found to be involved in vivo in both cell proliferation and base excision repair of DNA. In this study the interaction between PARP and the DNA polymerase alpha-primase tetramer has been examined. We provide evidence that in proliferating cells: (i) PARP is physically associated with the catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase tetramer, an association confirmed by confocal microscopy, demonstrating that both enzymes are co-localized at the nuclear periphery of HeLa cells; (ii) this interaction requires the integrity of the second zinc finger of PARP and is maximal during the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle; (iii) PARP-deficient cells derived from PARP knock-out mice exhibited reduced DNA polymerase activity, compared with the parental cells, a reduction accentuated following exposure to sublethal doses of methylmethanesulfonate. Altogether, the present results strongly suggest that PARP participates in a DNA damage survey mechanism implying its nick-sensor function as part of the control of replication fork progression when breaks are present in the template.
Poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is activated by DNA damage and has been implicated in the repair of single-strand breaks (SSBs). Involvement of PARP-1 in other DNA damage responses remains controversial. In this study, we show that PARP-1 is required for replication fork slowing on damaged DNA. Fork progression in PARP-1−/− DT40 cells is not slowed down even in the presence of DNA damage induced by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT). Mammalian cells treated with a PARP inhibitor or PARP-1–specific small interfering RNAs show similar results. The expression of human PARP-1 restores fork slowing in PARP-1−/− DT40 cells. PARP-1 affects SSB repair, homologous recombination (HR), and nonhomologous end joining; therefore, we analyzed the effect of CPT on DT40 clones deficient in these pathways. We find that fork slowing is correlated with the proficiency of HR-mediated repair. Our data support the presence of a novel checkpoint pathway in which the initiation of HR but not DNA damage delays the fork progression.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple adenine diphosphate ribose (ADP-ribose) units from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to substrate proteins. There are seventeen PARPs in humans. Several PARPs, such as PARP-1 and Tankyrase-1, are known to play important roles in DNA repair, transcription, mitosis, and telomere length maintenance. To better understand the functions of PARPs at a molecular level, it is necessary to know what substrate proteins PARPs modify. Here we report clickable NAD analogs that can be used to label PARP substrate proteins. The clickable NAD analogs have a terminal alkyne group which allows the conjugation of fluorescent or affinity tags to the substrate proteins. Using this method, PARP-1 and tankyrase-1 substrate proteins were labeled by a fluorescent tag and visualized on SDS-PAGE gel. Using a biotin affinity tag, we were able to isolate and identify a total of 79 proteins were identified as potential PARP-1 substrates. These include known PARP-1 substrate proteins, including histones and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. About 40% of the proteins were also identified in recent proteomic studies as potential PARP-1 substrates. Among the identified potential substrates, we further demonstrated that tubulin and three mitochondrial proteins, TRAP1 (TNF receptor-associated protein 1), citrate synthase, and GDH (glutamate dehydrogenase 1), are substrates of PARP-1 in vitro. These results demonstrate that the clickable NAD analog is useful for labeling, in-gel detection, isolation, and identification of the substrate proteins of PARPs and will help to understand the biological functions of PARPs.
Single-strand breaks are the commonest lesions arising in cells, and defects in their repair are implicated in neurodegenerative disease. One of the earliest events during single-strand break repair (SSBR) is the rapid synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), followed by its rapid degradation by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). While the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) is important for rapid rates of chromosomal SSBR, the relative importance of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and PARP-2 and of the subsequent degradation of PAR by PARG is unclear. Here we have quantified SSBR rates in human A549 cells depleted of PARP-1, PARP-2, and PARG, both separately and in combination. We report that whereas PARP-1 is critical for rapid global rates of SSBR in human A549 cells, depletion of PARP-2 has only a minor impact, even in the presence of depleted levels of PARP-1. Moreover, we identify PARG as a novel and critical component of SSBR that accelerates this process in concert with PARP-1.
Tubby-like proteins (TULPs) are a family of four proteins, two of which have been linked to neurosensory disease phenotypes. TULP1 is a photoreceptor-specific protein that is mutated in retinitis pigmentosa, an inherited retinal disease characterized by the degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. To investigate the function of TULP1 in maintaining the health of photoreceptors, the authors sought the identification of interacting proteins.
Immunoprecipitation from retinal lysates, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and in vitro binding assays, were used to identify TULP1 binding partners. RT-PCR was performed on total RNA from wild-type mouse retina to identify the Dynamin-1 isoform expressed in the retina. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine the localization of TULP1 and Dynamin-1 in photoreceptor cells. Electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy were used to phenotype tulp1–/– mice at a young age.
Immunoprecipitation from retinal lysate identified Dynamin-1 as a possible TULP1 binding partner. GST pull-down assays further supported an interaction between TULP1 and Dynamin-1. In photoreceptor cells, Dynamin-1 and TULP1 colocalized primarily to the outer plexiform layer, where photoreceptor terminals synapse on second-order neurons and, to a lesser extent, to the inner segments, where polarized protein translocation occurs. ERG analyses in young tulp1–/– mice indicated a decreased b-wave at ages when the retina retained a full complement of photoreceptor cells.
These data indicated that TULP1 interacts with Dynamin-1 and suggested that TULP1 is involved in the vesicular trafficking of photoreceptor proteins, both at the nerve terminal during synaptic transmission and at the inner segment during protein translocation to the outer segment. These results also raised the possibility that normal synaptic function requires TULP1, and they motivate a closer look at synaptic architecture in the developing tulp1–/– retina.
Seven-week-old male Lewis rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) (100, 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg), and retinal damage was evaluated 7 days after the treatment. Sequential morphological features of the retina and retinal DNA damage, as determined by a TUNEL assay and phospho-histone H2A.X (γ-H2AX), were analyzed 3, 6, 12, 24 and 72 hr, 7 days, and/or 30 days after 400 mg/kg ENU treatment. Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was analyzed immunohistochemically by poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) expression in response to DNA damage of the retina. All rats that received ≥ 400 mg/kg of ENU developed retinal degeneration characterized by the loss of photoreceptor cells in both the central and peripheral retina within 7 days. In the 400 mg/kg ENU-treated rats, TUNEL-positive signals were only located in the photoreceptor cells and peaked 24 hr after ENU treatment. The γ-H2AX signals in inner retinal cells appeared at 24 hr and peaked at 72 hr after ENU treatment, and the PAR signals selectively located in the photoreceptor cell nuclei appeared at 12 hr and peaked at 24 hr after ENU treatment. However, degeneration was restricted to photoreceptor cells, and no degenerative changes in inner retinal cells were seen at any time points. Retinal thickness and the photoreceptor cell ratio in the central and peripheral retina were significantly decreased, and the retinal damage ratio was significantly increased 7 days after ENU treatment. In conclusion, ENU induced retinal degeneration in adult rats that was characterized by photoreceptor cell apoptosis through PARP activity.
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea; γ-H2A.X; PAR; PARP; photoreceptor cell; retinal degeneration; rat
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) knockout mice are resistant
to murine models of human diseases such as cerebral and myocardial
ischemia, traumatic brain injury, diabetes, Parkinsonism, endotoxic shock
and arthritis, implicating PARP in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
Potent selective PARP inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as
novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of these diseases. Inhibition
or depletion of PARP, however, increases genomic instability in
cells exposed to genotoxic agents. We recently demonstrated the
presence of a genomically unstable tetraploid population in PARP–/– fibroblasts
and its loss after stable transfection with PARP cDNA. To elucidate
whether the genomic instability is attributable to PARP deficiency
or lack of PARP activity, we investigated the effects of PARP inhibition
on development of tetraploidy. Immortalized wild-type and PARP–/– fibroblasts
were exposed for 3 weeks to 20 µM GPI
6150 (1,11b-dihydro-[2H]benzopyrano[4,3,2-de]isoquinolin-3-one), a novel small molecule specific competitive inhibitor of PARP (Ki = 60
nM) and one of the most potent PARP inhibitors to date (IC50 = 0.15 µM). Although GPI 6150 initially decreased cell growth in wild-type cells, there was no effect on cell growth
or viability after 24 h. GPI 6150 inhibited endogenous PARP activity
in wild-type cells by ∼91%,
to about the residual levels in PARP–/– cells.
Flow cytometric analysis of unsynchronized wild-type cells exposed
for 3 weeks to GPI 6150 did not induce the development of tetraploidy, suggesting
that, aside from its catalytic function, PARP may play other essential
roles in the maintenance of genomic stability.
To investigate the expression of harmonin in the mouse retina, test for ultrastructural and physiological mutant phenotypes in the retina of an Ush1c mutant mouse, and define in detail the retinal phenotype in human USH1C.
Antibodies were generated against harmonin. Harmonin isoform distribution was examined by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Retinas of deaf circler (dfcr) mice, which possess mutant Ush1c, were analyzed by microscopy and electroretinography (ERG). Two siblings with homozygous 238_239insC (R80fs) USH1C mutations were studied with ERG, perimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Harmonin isoforms a and c, but not b are expressed in the retina. Harmonin is concentrated in the photoreceptor synapse where the majority is postsynaptic. Dfcr mice do not undergo retinal degeneration and have normal synaptic ultrastructure and ERGs. USH1C patients had abnormal rod and cone ERGs. Rod- and cone-mediated sensitivities and retinal laminar architecture were normal across 50°–60° of visual field. A transition zone to severely abnormal function and structure was present at greater eccentricities.
The largest harmonin isoforms are not expressed in the retina. A major retinal concentration of harmonin is in the photoreceptor synapses, both pre- and post-synaptically. The dfcr mouse retina is unaffected by its mutant Ush1c. Patients with USH1C retained regions of normal central retina surrounded by degeneration. Perhaps the human disease is simply more aggressive than that in the mouse. Alternatively, the dfcr mouse may be a model for nonsyndromic deafness, due to the nonpathologic effect of its mutation on the retinal isoforms.
PARP-1 (polyADP-ribose polymerase-1) is known to be activated in response to DNA damage, and activated PARP-1 promotes DNA repair. However, a recently disclosed alternative mechanism of PARP-1 activation by phosphorylated externally regulated kinase (ERK) implicates PARP-1 in a vast number of signal-transduction networks in the cell. Here, PARP-1 activation was examined for its possible effects on cell proliferation in both normal and malignant cells.
In vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (xenotransplants) experiments were performed.
Phenanthridine-derived PARP inhibitors interfered with cell proliferation by causing G2/M arrest in both normal (human epithelial cells MCF10A and mouse embryonic fibroblasts) and human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA231. However, whereas the normal cells were only transiently arrested, G2/M arrest in the malignant breast cancer cells was permanent and was accompanied by a massive cell death. In accordance, treatment with a phenanthridine-derived PARP inhibitor prevented the development of MCF-7 and MDA231 xenotransplants in female nude mice. Quiescent cells (neurons and cardiomyocytes) are not impaired by these PARP inhibitors.
These results outline a new therapeutic approach for a selective eradication of abundant nonhereditary human breast cancers.
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for most familial breast carcinomas. Recent reports carried out in non-cancerous mouse BRCA1- or BRCA2-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells, and hamster BRCA2-deficient cells have demonstrated that the targeted inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) kills BRCA mutant cells with high specificity. Although these studies bring hope for BRCA mutation carriers, the effectiveness of PARP-1 inhibitors for breast cancer remains elusive. Here we present the first in vivo demonstration of PARP-1 activity in BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors and describe the effects of PARP-1 inhibitors (AG14361, NU1025, and 3-aminobenzamide) on BRCA1-deficient ES cells, mouse and human breast cancer cells. AG14361 was highly selective for BRCA1-/- ES cells; however, NU1025 and 3-aminobenzamide were relatively non-selective. In allografts of naïve ES BRCA1-/- cells there was either partial or complete remission of tumors. However, in allografts of mouse, BRCA1-/- mammary tumors, there was no tumor regression or remission although a partial inhibition of tumor growth was observed in both the BRCA1-/- and BRCA1+/+ allografts. In human tumor cells, PARP-1 inhibitors showed no difference in vitro in limiting the growth of mammary tumors irrespective of their BRCA1 status. These results suggest that PARP-1 inhibitors may non-specifically inhibit the growth of mammary tumors.
PARP inhibitors; BRCA1; breast cancer; therapeutic treatment; tamoxifen
ETS gene fusions, which result in overexpression of an ETS transcription factor, are considered driving mutations in approximately half of all prostate cancers. Dysregulation of ETS transcription factors is also known to exist in Ewing's sarcoma, breast cancer, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We previously discovered that ERG, the predominant ETS family member in prostate cancer, interacts with the DNA damage response protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in human prostate cancer specimens. Therefore, we hypothesized that the ERG-PARP1 interaction may confer radiation resistance by increasing DNA repair efficiency and that this radio-resistance could be reversed through PARP1 inhibition. Using lentiviral approaches, we established isogenic models of ERG overexpression in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. In both cell lines, ERG overexpression increased clonogenic survival following radiation by 1.25 (±0.07) fold (mean ± SEM) and also resulted in increased PARP1 activity. PARP1 inhibition with olaparib preferentially radiosensitized ERG-positive cells by a factor of 1.52 (±0.03) relative to ERG-negative cells (P < .05). Neutral and alkaline COMET assays and immunofluorescence microscopy assessing γ-H2AX foci showed increased short- and long-term efficiencies of DNA repair, respectively, following radiation that was preferentially reversed by PARP1 inhibition. These findings were verified in an in vivo xenograft model. Our findings demonstrate that ERG overexpression confers radiation resistance through increased efficiency of DNA repair following radiation that can be reversed through inhibition of PARP1. These results motivate the use of PARP1 inhibitors as radiosensitizers in patients with localized ETS fusion-positive cancers.
Recently, the nuclear protein known as Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) was shown to play a key role in regulating transcription of a number of genes and controlling the nuclear sub-organelle nucleolus. PARP1 enzyme is known to catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose to a variety of nuclear proteins. At present, however, while we do know that the main acceptor for pADPr in vivo is PARP1 protein itself, by PARP1 automodification, the significance of PARP1 automodification for in vivo processes is not clear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of PARP1 auto ADP-ribosylation in dynamic nuclear processes during development. Specifically, we discovered that PARP1 automodification is required for shuttling key proteins into Cajal body (CB) by protein non-covalent interaction with pADPr in vivo. We hypothesize that PARP1 protein shuttling follows a chain of events whereby, first, most unmodified PARP1 protein molecules bind to chromatin and accumulate in nucleoli, but then, second, upon automodification with poly(ADP-ribose), PARP1 interacts non-covalently with a number of nuclear proteins such that the resulting protein-pADPr complex dissociates from chromatin into CB.
Previous studies revealed vital roles for the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) protein in developmental program regulation, as well as in chromatin loosening and transcriptional activation. The main gap in our understanding of PARP protein roles during development involves integrating the biological activities of PARP protein into a general network of nuclear protein dynamics and gene expression. Here, we report the functional association of PARP protein activity with proteins trafficking through Cajal bodies. Cajal bodies (CBs) are nuclear organelles that regulate the biogenesis of RNA-protein complexes involved in transcription and splicing. We demonstrate that (1) PARP is present in CBs, (2) its loss leads to CB disassembly, (3) an increase in PARP levels leads to formation of CBs, and, finally, (4) PARP localization is ecdysone sensitive. We further propose a model in which PARP controls protein trafficking through the CB and contributes to CB formation.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair, and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. Using multiple models, data demonstrate that PARP-1 elicits pro-tumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) cells, both in the presence and absence of genotoxic insult. Mechanistically, PARP-1 is recruited to sites of AR function, therein promoting AR occupancy and AR function. It was further confirmed in genetically-defined systems that PARP-1 supports AR transcriptional function, and that in models of advanced PCa, PARP-1 enzymatic activity is enhanced, further linking PARP-1 to AR activity and disease progression. In vivo analyses demonstrate that PARP-1 activity is required for AR function in xenograft tumors, as well as tumor cell growth in vivo and generation and maintenance of castration-resistance. Finally, in a novel explant system of primary human tumors, targeting PARP-1 potently suppresses tumor cell proliferation. Collectively, these studies identify novel functions of PARP-1 in promoting disease progression, and ultimately suggest that the dual functions of PARP-1 can be targeted in human PCa to suppress tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance.
prostate cancer; androgen receptor; PARP-1; PARP inhibitor; DNA damage
The DNA-breaking and -joining steps initiating retroviral integration are well understood, but the later steps, thought to be carried out by cellular DNA repair enzymes, have not been fully characterized. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) has been proposed to play a role late during retroviral integration, because infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based vectors was reported to be strongly inhibited in PARP-1-deficient fibroblasts. PARP-1, a nuclear enzyme, binds tightly to nicked DNA and synthesizes poly(ADP-ribose) as an early response to DNA damage. To investigate the role of PARP-1 in retroviral integration, we infected wild-type and PARP-1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) separately with two HIV type 1-derived, vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped lentivirus vectors. Surprisingly, infection of both wild-type and PARP-1-deficient cells was observed with both vectors. Marker gene transduction and provirus formation by one vector was reduced by 45 to 75% compared to the wild type, but the other vector was unaffected by the PARP-1 mutant. In addition, PARP-1-deficient MEFs infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus showed no decrease in virus output after infection compared to the wild type. We conclude that PARP-1 cannot be strictly required for retroviral infection because replication steps, including integration, can proceed efficiently in its absence.
The goal of the current studies was to elucidate the role of the principal poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase isoform, PARP1 in the regulation of cellular energetics in endothelial cells under resting conditions and during oxidative stress.
We utilized bEnd.3 endothelial cells and A549 human transformed epithelial cells. PARP1 was inhibited either by pharmacological inhibitors or by siRNA silencing. The Seahorse XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer was used to measure indices of mitochondrial respiration (oxygen consumption rate) and of glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate). Cell viability, cellular and mitochondrial NAD+ levels and mitochondrial biogenesis were also measured.
Silencing of PARP1 increased basal cellular parameters of oxidative phosphorylation, providing direct evidence that PARP1 is a regulator of mitochondrial function in resting cells. Pharmacological inhibitors of PARP1 and siRNA silencing of PARP1 protected against the development of mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated the respiratory reserve capacity in endothelial cells exposed to oxidative stress. The observed effects were unrelated to an effect on mitochondrial biogenesis. Isolated mitochondria of A549 human transformed epithelial cells exhibited an improved resting bioenergetic status after stable lentiviral silencing of PARP1; these effects were associated with elevated resting mitochondrial NAD+ levels in PARP1 silenced cells.
PARP1 is a regulator of basal cellular energetics in resting endothelial and epithelial cells. Furthermore, endothelial cells respond with a decrease in their mitochondrial reserve capacity during low-level oxidative stress, an effect, which is attenuated by PARP1 inhibition. While PARP1 is a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation in resting and oxidatively stressed cells, it only exerts a minor effect on glycolysis.
Oxidative stress; poly(ADP)ribose polymerase; mitochondrial bioenergetics; oxidative phosphorylation; intracellular NAD+ content; respiratory reserve capacity
Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25–35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25–35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25–35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25–35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25–35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25–35
via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and SIRT1 deacetylase are two NAD-dependent enzymes which play major roles in the decision of a cell to live or to die in a stress situation. Because of the dependence of both enzymes on NAD, cross talk between them has been suggested. Here, we show that PARP1 is acetylated after stress of cardiomyocytes, resulting in the activation of PARP1, which is independent of DNA damage. SIRT1 physically binds to and deacetylates PARP1. Increased acetylation of PARP1 was also detected in hearts of SIRT1−/− mice, compared to that detected in the hearts of SIRT1+/+ mice, confirming a role of SIRT1 in regulating the PARP1 acetylation in vivo. SIRT1-dependent deacetylation blocks PARP1 activity, and it protects cells from PARP1-mediated cell death. We also show that SIRT1 negatively regulates the activity of the PARP1 gene promoter, thus suggesting that the deacetylase controls the PARP1 activity at the transcriptional level as well. These data demonstrate that the activity of PARP1 is under the control of SIRT1, which is necessary for survival of cells under stress conditions.
Background: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) modulates chromatin structure and is activated upon DNA damage.
Results: PARP-1 differentiates between nucleosomes and DNA in its binding affinity and is activated to different degrees.
Conclusion: PARP-1 engages different DNA-binding modules with nucleosomes and DNA.
Significance: The role of PARP-1 as a chromatin architectural protein and responder in DNA repair is reflected in different binding modes.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear protein that binds chromatin and catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose groups to itself and to numerous target proteins upon interacting with damaged DNA. The molecular basis for the dual role of PARP-1 as a chromatin architectural protein and a first responder in DNA repair pathways remains unclear. Here, we quantified the interactions of full-length PARP-1 and its N-terminal half with different types of DNA damage and with defined nucleosome substrates. We found that full-length PARP-1 prefers nucleosomes with two linker DNA extensions over any other substrate (including several free DNA models) and that the C-terminal half of PARP-1 is necessary for this selectivity. We also measured the ability of various substrates to activate PARP-1 activity and found that the most important feature for activation is one free DNA end rather than tight interaction with the activating nucleic acid. Our data provide insight into the different modes of interaction of this multidomain protein with nucleosomes and free DNA.
DNA Repair; DNA/Protein Interaction; Enzymes; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET); Nucleosome; PARP-1
•We examine the sumoylation of PARP-1 in response to different DNA ligands.•We characterise the dynamics of the PARP-1 SUMO conjugate by NMR.•Sumoylation of PARP-1 is stimulated by binding to intact, but not to damaged DNA.•Sumoylation does not interfere with PARP-1's DNA binding or catalytic activity.•PARP-1 sumoylation and catalytic activation follow independent regulatory mechanisms.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) plays an important role in DNA repair, but also contributes to other aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, such as transcriptional regulation. Modification of PARP-1 with the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) affects its function as a transcriptional co-activator of hypoxia-responsive genes and promotes induction of the heat shock-induced HSP70.1 promoter. We now report that PARP-1 sumoylation is strongly influenced by DNA. Consistent with a function in transcription, we show that sumoylation in vitro is enhanced by binding to intact, but not to damaged DNA, in a manner clearly distinct from the mechanism by which DNA damage stimulates PARP-1's catalytic activity. An enhanced affinity of PARP-1 for the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 upon binding to DNA is likely responsible for this effect. Sumoylation does not interfere with the catalytic or DNA-binding properties of PARP-1, and structural analysis reveals no significant impact of SUMO on the conformation of PARP-1's DNA-binding domain. In vivo, sumoylated PARP-1 is associated with chromatin, but the modification is not responsive to DNA damage and is not affected by PARP-1 catalytic activity. Our results suggest that PARP-1's alternative modes of DNA recognition serve as a means to differentiate between distinct aspects of the enzyme's function.
PARP-1; SUMO; Posttranslational modification; DNA binding; DNA repair; Transcription
Poly(ADP-ribosylation) is a post-translational covalent modification of proteins catalyzed by a family of enzymes termed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). In the human genome, 17 different genes have been identified that encode members of the PARP superfamily. Poly (ADP-ribose) metabolism plays a role in a wide range of biological processes. In Trypanosoma cruzi, PARP enzyme appears to play a role in DNA repair mechanisms and may also be involved in controlling the different phases of cell growth. Here we describe the identification of potent inhibitors for T. cruzi PARP with a fluorescence-based activity assay. The inhibitors were also tested on T. cruzi epimastigotes, showing that they reduced ADP-ribose polymer formation in vivo. Notably, the identified inhibitors are able to reduce the growth rate of T. cruzi epimastigotes. The best inhibitor, Olaparib, is effective at nanomolar concentrations, making it an efficient chemical tool for chacterization of ADP-ribose metabolism in T. cruzi. PARP inhibition also decreases drastically the amount of amastigotes but interestingly has no effect on the amount of trypomastigotes in the cell culture. Knocking down human PARP-1 decreases both the amount of amastigotes and trypomastigotes in cell culture, indicating that the effect would be mainly due to inhibition of human PARP-1. The result suggests that the inhibition of PARP could be a potential way to interfere with T. cruzi infection.