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1.  Creating a transatlantic research enterprise for preventing Alzheimer's disease 
In recognition of the global problem posed by Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, an international think-tank meeting was convened by Biocat, the Pasqual Maragall Foundation, and the Lou Ruvo Brain Institute in February 2009. The meeting initiated the planning of a European Union-North American collaborative research enterprise to expedite the delay and ultimate prevention of dementing disorders. The key aim is to build parallel and complementary research infrastructure that will support international standardization and inter-operability among researchers in both continents. The meeting identified major challenges, opportunities for research resources and support, integration with ongoing efforts, and identification of key domains to influence the design and administration of the enterprise.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2009.05.158
PMCID: PMC3295837  PMID: 19560106
2.  Transatlantic Consensus Group on active surveillance and focal therapy for prostate cancer 
BJU international  2011;109(11):1636-1647.
OBJECTIVE
To reach consensus on key issues for clinical practice and future research in active surveillance and focal therapy in managing localized prostate cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A group of expert urologists, oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and computer scientists from North America and Europe met to discuss issues in patient population, interventions, comparators and outcome measures to use in both tissue-preserving strategies of active surveillance and focal therapy.
Break-out sessions were formed to provide agreement or highlight areas of disagreement on individual topics which were then collated by a writing group into statements that formed the basis of this report and agreed upon by the whole Transatlantic Consensus Group.
RESULTS
The Transatlantic group propose that emerging diagnostic tools such as precision imaging and transperineal prostate mapping biopsy can improve prostate cancer care. These tools should be integrated into prostate cancer management and research so that better risk stratification and more effective treatment allocation can be applied.
The group envisaged a process of care in which active surveillance, focal therapy, and radical treatments lie on a continuum of complementary therapies for men with a range of disease grades and burdens, rather than being applied in the mutually exclusive and competitive way they are now.
CONCLUSION
The changing landscape of prostate cancer epidemiology requires the medical community to re-evaluate the entire prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment pathway in order to minimize harms resulting from over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Precise risk stratification at every point in this pathway is required alongside paradigm shifts in our thinking about what constitutes cancer in the prostate.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10633.x
PMCID: PMC3682487  PMID: 22077593
focal therapy; active surveillance; multi-parametric MRI; template prostate mapping biopsies; risk stratification; trial design
3.  General Didactics and Instructional Design: eyes like twins A transatlantic dialogue about similarities and differences, about the past and the future of two sciences of learning and teaching 
SpringerPlus  2012;1:15.
Although General Didactics (GD) and Instructional Design (ID) have not shown many points of contact in the past, there are some obvious parellels from the perspective of their historical development. This will be examined in detail in this article. More specifically, we speak about model building, which has characterized General Didactics and Instructional Design for some decades. However, the models of General Didactics and Instructional Design are not problem-free with regard to the continuity and advancement of both disciplines. First, we will describe the historical roots of both disciplines and examine which elements of theory are of central importance. Second, we will try to answer the question of which kind of model building could be considered as predominant and what problems result from this predominance. In order to do this, we will describe empirical studies on the use of instructional models and discuss these studies from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Third, we will draw inferences for future processes of model building in order to prevent the same problems that happened in the past from happening again. Finally, we will discuss the issue of what General Didactics can learn from Instructional Design and vice versa.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-1-15
PMCID: PMC3725874  PMID: 23961346
General Didactics; Instructional design; Model building; Teaching and learning; Comparative education
4.  Finding of male-killing Spiroplasma infecting Drosophila melanogaster in Africa implies transatlantic migration of this endosymbiont 
Heredity  2006;97(1):27-32.
We report the identification of male-killing Spiroplasma in a wild-caught female Drosophila melanogaster from Uganda, the first such infection to be found in this species outside of South America. Among 38 female flies collected from Namulonge, Uganda in April, 2005, one produced a total of 41 female offspring but no males. PCR testing of subsequent generations revealed that females retaining Spiroplasma infection continued to produce a large excess of female progeny, while females that had lost Spiroplasma produced offspring with normal sex ratios. Consistent with earlier work, we find that male-killing and transmission efficiency appear to increase with female age, and we note that males born in sex ratio broods display much lower survivorship than their female siblings. DNA sequence comparisons at three loci suggest that this Spiroplasma strain is closely related to the male-killing strain previously found to infect D. melanogaster in Brazil, though part of one locus appears to show a recombinant history. Implications for the origin and history of male-killing Spiroplasma in D. melanogaster are discussed.
doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800830
PMCID: PMC2650382  PMID: 16685282
Spiroplasma; male-killing; Drosophila melanogaster; Africa; migration
5.  Local Progression among Men with Conservatively Treated Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the Transatlantic Prostate Group 
European urology  2007;53(2):347-354.
Objectives
Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer treated without curative intent are at risk of complications from local tumor growth. We investigated rates of local progression and need for local therapy among such men.
Methods
Men diagnosed with prostate cancer during 1990–1996 were identified from cancer registries throughout the United Kingdom. Inclusion criteria were age ≤76 yr at diagnosis, PSA level ≤100 ng/ml, and, within 6 mo after diagnosis, no radiation therapy, radical prostatectomy, evidence of metastatic disease, or death. Local progression was defined as increase in clinical stage from T1/2 to T3/T4 disease, T3 to T4 disease, and/or need for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to relieve symptoms >6 mo after cancer diagnosis.
Results
The study included 2333 men with median follow-up of 85 mo (range: 6–174). Diagnosis was by TURP in 1255 men (54%), needle biopsy in 1039 (45%), and unspecified in 39 (2%). Only 29% were treated with hormonal therapy within 6 mo of diagnosis. Local progression occurred in 335 men, including 212 undergoing TURP. Factors most predictive of local progression on multivariable analysis were PSA at diagnosis and Gleason score of the diagnostic tissue (detrimental), and early hormonal therapy (protective). We present a nomogram that predicts the likelihood of local progression within 120 mo after diagnosis.
Conclusions
Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer managed without curative intent have an approximately 15% risk for local progression within 10 yr of diagnosis. Among those with progression, the need for treatment is common, even among men diagnosed by TURP. When counseling men who are candidates for management without curative intent, the likelihood of symptoms from local progression must be considered.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2007.05.015
PMCID: PMC2646888  PMID: 17544572
Cancer progression; Conservative management; Nomograms; Prostate cancer; Retrospective study; Risk factors; Transurethral resection of the prostate; Treatment outcome; Watchful waiting
10.  Transatlantic similarities and differences in major natural history endpoints of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction: a propensity-matched study of the EPHESUS trial 
International journal of cardiology  2009;143(3):309-316.
Background
Transatlantic differences in outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have not been examined in propensity-matched studies.
Methods
In the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS), there were significant imbalances in baseline characteristics between patients from North America (n=858) and Europe (n=4646). Propensity scores for North America were calculated for each patient based on 64 baseline characteristics, and were then used to assemble 298 pairs of propensity-matched patients who were well-balanced on all measured baseline covariates. Matched Cox regression models were used to estimate transatlantic differences in outcomes during a mean follow-up of 16 months.
Results
There was no transatlantic difference in all-cause mortality (matched hazard ratio {HR}, 1.00; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.64–1.57; P=1.000). All-cause hospitalization occurred in 175 (rate, 8974/10,000 person-years) and 137 (rate, 5249/10,000 person-years) patients respectively from North America and Europe (matched HR when North America was compared with Europe, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.41–2.52; P<0.0001). Matched HRs (95% CIs) for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular hospitalization for North America were respectively 1.35 (0.92–1.97; P=0.125) and 1.89 (1.31–2.72; P<0.0001). Among 5504 pre-match patients, unadjusted, multivariable-adjusted, and propensity-adjusted HRs for all-cause hospitalization for North America were 1.52 (95% CI, 1.38–1.68; P<0.0001), 1.16 (95% CI, 1.02–1.31; P=0.020), 1.41 (95% CI, 1.17–1.70; P<0.0001).
Conclusion
Despite major transatlantic differences in baseline characteristics, there was no difference in post-AMI mortality. The increased non-cardiovascular hospitalization in North America may in part be due to transatlantic differences in patient preferences and access to care.
doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.03.036
PMCID: PMC2945887  PMID: 19371959
Transatlantic variations; propensity score; post-AMI; mortality; hospitalization
12.  The OptIPuter microscopy demonstrator: enabling science through a transatlantic lightpath 
The OptIPuter microscopy demonstrator project has been designed to enable concurrent and remote usage of world-class electron microscopes located in Oxford and San Diego. The project has constructed a network consisting of microscopes and computational and data resources that are all connected by a dedicated network infrastructure using the UK Lightpath and US Starlight systems. Key science drivers include examples from both materials and biological science. The resulting system is now a permanent link between the Oxford and San Diego microscopy centres. This will form the basis of further projects between the sites and expansion of the types of systems that can be remotely controlled, including optical, as well as electron, microscopy. Other improvements will include the updating of the Microsoft cluster software to the high performance computing (HPC) server 2008, which includes the HPC basic profile implementation that will enable the development of interoperable clients.
doi:10.1098/rsta.2009.0058
PMCID: PMC3268213  PMID: 19487201
remote instrumentation; lightpath networking; electron microscopy
13.  Assessing the Risks of West Nile Virus–Infected Mosquitoes from Transatlantic Aircraft: Implications for Disease Emergence in the United Kingdom 
Abstract
The number of West Nile virus (WNV)–infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft from the United States that arrive in the United Kingdom each summer was determined using a quantitative risk assessment. In the worst-case scenario, when WNV levels in mosquitoes are high (at epidemic levels) the probability of at least one WNV-infected mosquito being introduced into the United Kingdom was predicted to be 0.99. During these periods, a mean of 5.2 infected mosquitoes were estimated to be aboard flights from the United States to the United Kingdom during May to October, with 90% certainty that the exact value lies between one and ten mosquitoes. Heathrow airport was predicted to receive the majority of the infected mosquitoes (72.1%). Spatial analysis revealed the region surrounding Heathrow satisfies the criteria for potential WNV exposure as both WNV-competent mosquitoes and susceptible wild bird species are present. This region is, therefore, recommended for targeted, risk-based surveillance of WNV-infected mosquitoes in addition to an increased awareness of the risks to horses, birds and humans.
doi:10.1089/vbz.2010.0176
PMCID: PMC3319934  PMID: 22217181
Arbovirus(es); GIS; Mosquito(es); Risk analysis; West Nile virus
14.  Transatlantic reflections: reaching out to tackle global health inequalities 
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2010.100196
PMCID: PMC2895527  PMID: 20595527
15.  Image Quality in Real-Time Teleultrasound of Infant Hip Exam Over Low-Bandwidth Internet Links: a Transatlantic Feasibility Study 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2012;26(2):209-216.
Evolution of communication systems, especially internet-based technologies, has probably affected Radiology more than any other medical specialty. Tremendous increase in internet bandwidth has enabled a true revolution in image transmission and easy remote viewing of the static images and real-time video stream. Previous reports of real-time telesonography, such as the ones developed for emergency situations and humanitarian work, rely on high compressions of images utilized by remote sonologist to guide and supervise the unexperienced examiner. We believe that remote sonology could be also utilized in teleultrasound exam of infant hip. We tested feasibility of a low-cost teleultrasound system for infant hip and performed data analysis on the transmitted and original images. Transmission of data was accomplished with Remote Ultrasound (RU), a software package specifically designed for teleultrasound transmission through limited internet bandwidth. While image analysis of image pairs revealed statistically significant loss of information, panel evaluation failed to recognize any clinical difference between the original saved and transmitted still images.
doi:10.1007/s10278-012-9512-4
PMCID: PMC3597954  PMID: 22847913
Telemedicine; Image quality analysis; Ultrasound; Teleradiology
25.  Cardiology: a transatlantic view (2). 
British Heart Journal  1987;58(6):556-558.
PMCID: PMC1277305  PMID: 3426892

Results 1-25 (213910)