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1.  Analysis of the Black Racial Identity Attitude scale in a substance-abusing population. 
Racial attitude characteristics of African Americans may have important implications for patient-therapist matching in substance abuse treatment. The Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale (BRIAS) is a questionnaire used to measure racial identity attitudes. This study tested the stability and internal consistency of the BRIAS in an African-American substance-abusing population. This is the first known test of the BRIAS in a clinical population. African-American veterans (n = 53) were administered the BRIAS to test for stability over time and internal consistency. Initial analysis of the instrument revealed that a majority of items were not stable over time. Using the initial results, we removed 26 problematic items. Three modified scales remained, each having marginal test-retest reliability. Two of the modified scales had moderately adequate internal consistency, and the third was minimally adequate. We found that the BRIAS did not demonstrate sufficient internal consistency or stability in this population to adequately identify the constructs of the Nigrescence Racial Identity Development theory of William Cross, Jr. There is a growing recognition of the need to explore the extent of racial, ethnic, and cultural factors in substance abuse behavior and treatment; therefore, we recommend that further attention be directed toward developing an instrument to reliably and accurately measure identity constructs among African-American clinical subjects.
PMCID: PMC2594395  PMID: 12078927
2.  Assessment of a Short Diabetes Knowledge Instrument for Older and Minority Adults 
The Diabetes educator  2013;40(1):68-76.
The purpose of the study was to assess the performance of a short diabetes knowledge instrument (SDKI) in a large multi-ethnic sample of older adults with diabetes and to identify possible modifications to improve its ability to document diabetes knowledge.
Research Design and Methods
A sample of 593 African American, American Indian, and white female and male adults 60 years and older, with diabetes diagnosed at least two years prior, was recruited from eight North Carolina counties. All completed an interview that included a 16-item questionnaire to assess diabetes knowledge. A subsample of 46 completed the questionnaire a second time at a subsequent interview. Item-response analysis was used to refine the instrument to well-performing items. The instrument consisting of the remaining items was subjected to analyses to assess validity and test-retest reliability.
Three items were removed after item-response analysis. Scores for the resulting instrument were lower among minority and older participants, as well as those with lower educational attainment and income. Scores for test-retest were highly correlated.
The SDKI (13 item questionnaire) appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate knowledge about diabetes. Assessment in a multi-ethnic sample of older adults suggests that this instrument can be used to measure diabetes knowledge in diverse populations. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether or not this instrument can detect changes in knowledge resulting from diabetes education or other interventions.
PMCID: PMC3946961  PMID: 24163359
3.  The validation of a new measure quantifying the social quality of life of ethnically diverse older women: two cross-sectional studies 
BMC Geriatrics  2011;11:60.
To our knowledge, the available psychometric literature does not include an instrument for the quantification of social quality of life among older women from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To address the need for a tool of this kind, we conducted two studies to assess the initial reliability and validity of a new instrument. The latter was created specifically to quantify the contribution of a) social networks and resources (e.g., family, friends, and community) as well as b) one's perceived power and respect within family and community to subjective well-being in non-clinical, ethnically diverse populations of older women.
In Study 1, we recruited a cross-sectional sample of primarily non-European-American older women (N = 220) at a variety of community locations. Participants were administered the following: a short screener for dementia; a demographic list; an initial pool of 50 items from which the final items of the new Older Women's Social Quality of Life Inventory (OWSQLI) were to be chosen (based on a statistical criterion to apply to the factor analysis findings); the Single Item Measure of Social Support (SIMSS); and the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36). Study 2 was conducted on a second independent sample of ethnically diverse older women. The same recruitment strategies, procedures, and instruments as those of Study 1 were utilized in Study 2, whose sample was comprised of 241 older women with mostly non-European-American ethnic status.
In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the OWSQLI obtained robust findings: the total variance explained by one single factor with the final selection of 22 items was over 44%. The OWSQLI demonstrated strong internal consistency (α = .92, p < .001), adequate criterion validity with the SIMSS (r = .33; p < .01), and (as expected) moderate concurrent validity with the MOS SF-36 for both physical (r = .21; p < .01) and mental (r = .26; p < .01) quality of life. In order to confirm the validity of the 22-item OWSQLI scale that emerged from Study 1 analyses, we replicated those analyses in Study 2, although using confirmatory factor analysis. The total variance accounted for by one factor was about 42%, again quite high and indicative of a strong single-factor solution. Study 2 data analyses yielded the same strong reliability findings (i.e., α = .92, p < .001). The 22-item OWSQLI was correlated with the SIMSS (r = .27, p < .001) in the expected direction. Finally, correlations with the MOS SF- 36 demonstrated moderate concurrent validity for physical (r = .14; p < .01) and mental (r = .18; p < .01) quality of life, as expected.
The findings of these two studies highlight the potential for our new tool to provide a valid measure of older women's social quality of life, yet they require duplication in longitudinal research. Interested clinicians should consider using the OWSQLI in their assessment battery to identify older women's areas of lower versus higher social quality of life, and should establish the maximization of patients' social quality of life as an important therapeutic goal, as this variable is significantly related to both physical and mental health.
PMCID: PMC3221620  PMID: 21982161
4.  Validity and Reliability of the European Portuguese Version of Neuropsychiatric Inventory in an Institutionalized Sample 
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in dementia and have been associated with patient and caregiver distress, increased risk of institutionalization and higher costs of care. In this context, the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) is the most widely used comprehensive tool designed to measure neuropsychiatric Symptoms in geriatric patients with dementia. The aim of this study was to present the validity and reliability of the European Portuguese version of NPI.
A cross-sectional study was carried out with a convenience sample of institutionalized patients (≥ 50 years old) in three nursing homes in Portugal. All patients were also assessed with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (cognition), geriatric depression scale (GDS) (depression) and adults and older adults functional assessment inventory (IAFAI) (functionality). NPI was administered to a formal caregiver, usually from the clinical staff. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed in a subsample of 25 randomly selected subjects.
The sample included 166 elderly, with a mean age of 80.9 (standard deviation: 10.2) years. Three out of the NPI behavioral items had negative correlations with MMSE: delusions (rs = -0.177, P = 0.024), disinhibition (rs = -0.174, P = 0.026) and aberrant motor activity (rs = -0.182, P = 0.020). The NPI subsection of depression/dysphoria correlated positively with GDS total score (rs = 0.166, P = 0.038). NPI showed good internal consistency (overall α = 0.766; frequency α = 0.737; severity α = 0.734). The inter-rater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 - 1.00), as well as test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.91, 95% CI 0.80 - 0.96).
The results found for convergent validity, inter-rater and test-retest reliability, showed that this version appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in institutionalized elderly.
PMCID: PMC4217749  PMID: 25368697
Behavior disorders; Dementia; Aged; Neuropsychiatric inventory; Validation study
5.  Validation of the Spanish versions of the long (26 items) and short (12 items) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) 
Self-compassion is a key psychological construct for assessing clinical outcomes in mindfulness-based interventions. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish versions of the long (26 item) and short (12 item) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS).
The translated Spanish versions of both subscales were administered to two independent samples: Sample 1 was comprised of university students (n = 268) who were recruited to validate the long form, and Sample 2 was comprised of Aragon Health Service workers (n = 271) who were recruited to validate the short form. In addition to SCS, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory–Trait (STAI-T), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered. Construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were tested.
The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the long and short forms of the SCS confirmed the original six-factor model in both scales, showing goodness of fit. Cronbach’s α for the 26 item SCS was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.85-0.90) and ranged between 0.72 and 0.79 for the 6 subscales. Cronbach’s α for the 12-item SCS was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.81-0.88) and ranged between 0.71 and 0.77 for the 6 subscales. The long (26-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89–0.94). The Intraclass Correlation (ICC) for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.84 to 0.93. The short (12-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.87-0.93). The ICC for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The long and short forms of the SCS exhibited a significant negative correlation with the BDI, the STAI and the PSQ, and a significant positive correlation with the MAAS. The correlation between the total score of the long and short SCS form was r = 0.92.
The Spanish versions of the long (26-item) and short (12-item) forms of the SCS are valid and reliable instruments for the evaluation of self-compassion among the general population. These results substantiate the use of this scale in research and clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC3896764  PMID: 24410742
Self-compassion; Validation; Spanish; Mindfulness
6.  A disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life for use in adults with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: Its development and validation 
No validated disease-specific measures are available to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adult subjects with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Therefore, we sought to develop and validate the ITP-Patient Assessment Questionnaire (ITP-PAQ) for adult subjects with ITP.
Information from literature reviews, focus groups with subjects, and clinicians were used to develop 50 ITP-PAQ items. Factor analyses were conducted to develop the scale structure and reduce the number of items. The final 44-item ITP-PAQ, which includes ten scales [Symptoms (S), Bother-Physical Health (B), Fatigue/Sleep (FT), Activity (A), Fear (FR), Psychological Health (PH), Work (W), Social Activity (SA), Women's Reproductive Health (RH), and Overall (QoL)], was self-administered to adult ITP subjects at baseline and 7–10 days later. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, construct and known groups validity of the final ITP-PAQ were evaluated.
Seventy-three subjects with ITP completed the questionnaire twice. Test-retest reliability, as measured by the intra-class correlation, ranged from 0.52–0.90. Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated with Cronbach's alpha for all scales above the acceptable level of 0.70 (range: 0.71–0.92), except for RH (0.66). Construct validity, assessed by correlating ITP-PAQ scales with established measures (Short Form-36 v.1, SF-36 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D), was demonstrated through moderate correlations between the ITP-PAQ SA and SF-36 Social Function scales (r = 0.67), and between ITP-PAQ PH and SF-36 Mental Health Scales (r = 0.63). Moderate to strong inter-scale correlations were reported between ITP-PAQ scales and the CES-D, except for the RH scale. Known groups validity was evaluated by comparing mean scores for groups that differed clinically. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed when subjects were categorized by treatment status [S, FT, B, A, PH, and QoL, perceived effectiveness of ITP treatment [S], and time elapsed since ITP diagnosis [PH].
Results provide preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ITP-PAQ in adult subjects with ITP. Further work should be conducted to assess the responsiveness and to estimate the minimal clinical important difference of the ITP-PAQ to more fully understand the impact of ITP and its treatments on HRQoL.
PMCID: PMC1808052  PMID: 17316442
7.  Adapting the Everyday Discrimination Scale to Medical Settings: Reliability and Validity Testing in a Sample of African American Patients 
Ethnicity & disease  2011;21(4):502-509.
Despite evidence that discrimination within the health care system may play an important role in perpetuating health disparities, instruments designed to measure discrimination within the health care setting have not been adequately tested or validated. Consequently, we sought to test the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination scale, adapted for medical settings.
Cross-sectional study.
Academic medical center in Chicago.
Seventy-four African American patients.
Outcome measures
We measured factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity.
Seventy-four participants completed the baseline interviews and 66 participants (89%) completed the follow-up interviews. Eighty percent were women. The Discrimination in Medical Settings (DMS) Scale had a single factor solution (eigenvalue of 4.36), a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.89 and test-retest reliability of .58 (P<.0001). The DMS was significantly correlated with an overall measure of societal discrimination (EOD) (r=.51, P<.001) as well as two of its three subscales (unfair: r=−.04, P=.76; discrimination: r=.45, P<0.001; worry: r=−.36, P=.002). The DMS was associated with the overall African American Trust in Health Care Scale (r=.27, P=.02) as well as two key subscales (racism: r=.31, P<.001; disrespect: r=.44, P<.001). The DMS scale was inversely associated with the Social Desirability Scale (r=.18, P=.13). The DMS scale was not correlated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (r=.03, P=.80).
The Discrimination in Medical Settings Scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity among our sample of African American patients. Further testing is warranted among other racial/ethnic groups.
PMCID: PMC3350778  PMID: 22428358
Health Care Discrimination; Health Care Delivery; Health Disparities; Race/ethnicity; Survey Research
8.  The WHO-DAS II: Psychometric Properties in the Measurement of Functional Health Status in Adults With Acquired Hearing Loss 
Trends in Amplification  2005;9(3):111-126.
The World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument firmly grounded in the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF). As such, it assesses functioning for six domains: communication, mobility, self-care, interpersonal, life activities, and participation. Domain scores aggregate to a total score. Because the WHO-DAS II contains questions relevant to hearing and communication, it has good face validity for use as an outcome measure for audiologic intervention. The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II on a sample of individuals with adult-onset hearing loss, including convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest stability. Convergent validity was established by examining correlations between the WHO-DAS II (domain and total scores) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Hearing Aid Handicap for the Elderly (HHIE), two disease-specific measures, as well as with the Short Form-36 for veterans (SF-36V), a second generic measure. Data on all four measures were collected from 380 older individuals with adult-onset hearing loss who were not hearing aid users. The results of the convergent validity analysis revealed that the WHO-DAS II communication domain score was moderately and significantly correlated with scores on the APHAB and the HHIE. WHO-DAS II interpersonal and participation domain scores and the total scores were also moderately and significantly correlated with HHIE scores. These findings support the validity of using the WHO-DAS II for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions of adult-onset hearing loss. Several WHO-DAS II domain scores and the total score were also significantly and moderately-markedly correlated with scores from the SF-36V. These findings support the validity of the WHO-DAS II as a generic health-status instrument. Internal consistency reliability for all the domain scores was adequate for all but the interpersonal domain. Test-retest stability for all the domain scores was adequate. Critical difference values were calculated for use in clinical application of the WHO-DAS II. From these findings, we concluded that the WHO-DAS II communication, participation, and total scores can be used to examine the effects of adult-onset hearing loss on functional health status. Further work examining the utility of the WHO-DAS II as an outcome measure for hearing aid intervention is warranted.
PMCID: PMC4111522  PMID: 16244758
9.  Religious Participation and DSM-IV Disorders among Older African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) 
This study examined the religious correlates of psychiatric disorders.
The analysis is based on the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). The African American sample of the NSAL is a national representative sample of households with at least one African American adult 18 years or over. This study utilizes the older African American sub-sample (n=837).
Religious correlates of selected measures of lifetime DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress, major depressive disorder, dysthymia, bipolar I & II disorders, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence) were examined.
Data from 837 African Americans aged 55 years or older are used in this analysis.
The DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to assess mental disorders. Measures of functional status (i.e., mobility and self-care) were assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-Second Version (WHODAS-II). Measures of organizational, non-organizational and subjective religious involvement, number of doctor diagnosed physical health conditions, and demographic factors were assessed.
Multivariate analysis found that religious service attendance was significantly and inversely associated with the odds of having a lifetime mood disorder.
This is the first study to investigate the relationship between religious participation and serious mental disorders among a national sample of older African Americans. The inverse relationship between religious service attendance and mood disorders is discussed. Implications for mental health treatment underscore the importance of assessing religious orientations to render more culturally sensitive care.
PMCID: PMC2631206  PMID: 19038894
Church Attendance; Depression; Mood Disorder
10.  Reliability and Validity of the Perspectives of Support From God Scale 
Nursing research  2010;59(2):102-109.
Existing spiritual support scales for use with cancer survivors focus on the support believed to come from a religious community, clergy, or health care providers.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a new measure of spiritual support believed to come from God in older Christian African American cancer survivors.
The Perceived Support From God Scale was administered to 317 African American cancer survivors aged 55–89 years. Psychometric evaluation involved identifying underlying factors, conducting item analysis and estimating reliability, and obtaining evidence on the relationship to other variables or the extent to which the Perceived Support From God Scale correlates with religious involvement and depression.
The Perceived Support From God Scale consists of 15 items in two subscales (Support From God and God’s Purpose for Me). The two subscales explained 59% of the variance. Cronbach’s α coefficients were .94 and .86 for the Support From God and God’s Purpose for Me subscales, respectively. Test–retest correlations were strong, supporting the temporal stability of the instrument. Pearson’s correlations to an existing religious involvement and beliefs scale were moderate to strong. Subscale scores on Support From God were negatively correlated to depression.
Initial support for reliability and validity was demonstrated for the Perceived Support From God Scale. The scale captures a facet of spirituality not emphasized in other measures. Further research is needed to evaluate the scale with persons of other racial/ethnic groups and to explore the relationship of spirituality to other outcome measures.
PMCID: PMC2867661  PMID: 20216012
African Americans; cancer; spiritual support
11.  Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Older Adults with Depression: The Impact of Stigma and Race 
Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a significant barrier to help seeking, leading to negative attitudes about mental health treatment and deterring individuals who need services from seeking care. This study examined the impact of public stigma (negative attitudes held by the public) and internalized stigma (negative attitudes held by stigmatized individuals about themselves) on racial differences in treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors among older adults with depression.
Random digit dialing was utilized to identify a representative sample of 248 African American and White adults older adults (over the age of 60) with depression (symptoms assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Telephone based surveys were conducted to assess their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors, and the factors that impacted these behaviors.
Depressed older adult participants endorsed a high level of public stigma and were not likely to be currently engaged in, nor did they intend to seek mental health treatment. Results also suggested that African American older adults were more likely to internalize stigma and endorsed less positive attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment than their White counterparts. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma partially mediated the relationship between race and attitudes toward treatment.
Stigma associated with having a mental illness has a negative influence on attitudes and intentions toward seeking mental health services among older adults with depression, particularly African American elders. Interventions to target internalized stigma are needed to help engage this population in psychosocial mental health treatments.
PMCID: PMC2875324  PMID: 20220602
Stigma; Depression; Treatment; Aging
12.  Development of the Computer-Adaptive Version of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument 
Having psychometrically strong disability measures that minimize response burden is important in assessing of older adults.
Using the original 48 items from the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument and newly developed items, a 158-item Activity Limitation and a 62-item Participation Restriction item pool were developed. The item pools were administered to a convenience sample of 520 community-dwelling adults 60 years or older. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were employed to identify content structure, calibrate items, and build the computer-adaptive testings (CATs). We evaluated real-data simulations of 10-item CAT subscales. We collected data from 102 older adults to validate the 10-item CATs against the Veteran’s Short Form-36 and assessed test–retest reliability in a subsample of 57 subjects.
Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bifactor structure, and multi-dimensional item response theory was used to calibrate an overall Activity Limitation Scale (141 items) and an overall Participation Restriction Scale (55 items). Fit statistics were acceptable (Activity Limitation: comparative fit index = 0.95, Tucker Lewis Index = 0.95, root mean square error approximation = 0.03; Participation Restriction: comparative fit index = 0.95, Tucker Lewis Index = 0.95, root mean square error approximation = 0.05). Correlation of 10-item CATs with full item banks were substantial (Activity Limitation: r = .90; Participation Restriction: r = .95). Test–retest reliability estimates were high (Activity Limitation: r = .85; Participation Restriction r = .80). Strength and pattern of correlations with Veteran’s Short Form-36 subscales were as hypothesized. Each CAT, on average, took 3.56 minutes to administer.
The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument CATs demonstrated strong reliability, validity, accuracy, and precision. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument CAT can achieve psychometrically sound disability assessment in older persons while reducing respondent burden. Further research is needed to assess their ability to measure change in older adults.
PMCID: PMC3670156  PMID: 22546960
Function; Disability; Computer-adaptive testing; Activity; Participation
13.  Late-life Depression in Older African Americans: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological and Clinical Data 
The population of older African Americans is expected to triple by 2050, highlighting the public health importance of understanding their mental health needs. Despite evidence of the negative impact of late-life depression, less is known of how this disorder affects the lives of older African Americans. Lack of studies focusing on how depression presents in older African Americans and their subsequent treatment needs lead to a gap in epidemiologic and clinical knowledge for this population. In this review, we aim to present a concise report of prevalence, correlates, course, outcomes, symptom recognition, and treatment of depression for these individuals.
We performed a literature review of English-language articles identified from PubMed and Medline published between January 1990 and June 2012. Studies included older adults and contained the key words “geriatric depression in African Americans,” “geriatric depression in Blacks,” and geriatric depression in minorities.”
Although in most studies older African Americans had higher or equivalence prevalence of depression compared to Caucasian Americans, we also found lower rates of recognition of depression and treatment. Many studies reported worse outcomes associated for depression among older African Americans compared older Caucasians.
Serious racial and ethnic disparities persist in the management of older African Americans with depression. Understanding their unmet needs and improving depression care for these individuals is necessary to reduce these disparities.
PMCID: PMC3674152  PMID: 23225736
Late-life Depression; Race; African Americans
The Journal of urology  2008;179(4):1449-1454.
To determine incidence and predictors of incident urinary incontinence over 3 years in community-dwelling older adults.
A population-based, prospective cohort study was conducted with a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified to be 50% African American, 50% men, and 50% rural. In-home baseline assessment included standardized questionnaires and short physical performance battery. Three annual follow-up interviews were conducted by telephone. Incontinence was defined as any degree of incontinence occurring at least once a month in the past 6 months.
Participants were 490 women and 496 men, age 65 to 106 years (mean=75 years). Prevalence of incontinence at baseline was 41% in women and 27% in men. Three-year incidence of incontinence was 29% (84/290) in women and 24% (86/363) in men. There were no differences by race in prevalent or incident incontinence. In multivariable logistic regression models for women, significant independent baseline predictors of new incontinence included: stroke (OR 3.4, p=.011), incontinence < monthly (OR 3.3, p=.001), past or current post-menopausal estrogen (OR 2.3, p<.006), slower time to stand from a chair 5 times (OR 1.3, p<.045), and higher Geriatric Depression Scale Score (OR 1.2, p=.016). For men, significant independent baseline predictors of new incontinence included: incontinence < monthly (OR 4.2, p<.001) and lower score on the composite Physical Performance Score (OR 1.2, p<.001).
Prevalence of incontinence among community-dwelling older adults was high with an additional 29% of women and 24% of men reporting incident incontinence over 3 years of follow-up. Infrequent incontinence is a strong risk factor for developing at least monthly incontinence in both men and women.
PMCID: PMC2999469  PMID: 18295279
Urinary Incontinence; Epidemiology; Incidence; African Americans
15.  Psychometric Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in African-American and Black Caribbean Adults 
Issues in mental health nursing  2012;33(10):687-696.
A 12-item version of the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CESD) Scales was not validated in Black U.S. adults but demonstrated strong psychometrics in other populations. Using data from the National Survey of American Life (n=4,815), the psychometric properties of the scale were tested in African-American and Black Caribbean adults. When compared with the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthymia, most items focus on depressed mood, providing evidence for content validity. Construct validity was questionable in African-American and Black Caribbean men. The CESD scores of African-American men who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Dysthymia were not significantly different than African-American men who did not (t=1.9, p=.109). The CESD scores of Black-Caribbean men who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD were not significantly different than Black-Caribbean men who did not (t=1.6, p=.198), and none of the Black-Caribbean men met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Dysthymia. All groups had item-to-total correlations and inter-item correlations below 0.30 with the item “I felt like everything I did was an effort”. African-American and Black Caribbean men also had item-to-total correlations and inter-item correlations below 0.30 with the item “I felt that I was just as good as other people”. After eliminating these items, the alpha for the remaining 11 items was 0.80 and 0.76 in African-American and Black Caribbean women respectively. The alpha for the remaining 10 items was 0.73 in African-American and Black Caribbean men. The cut-off score was nine for the 11-item CESD and eight for the 10-item CESD.
PMCID: PMC4124820  PMID: 23017046
16.  Psychometric Properties of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) Original and Short Forms in an African American Community Sample 
Journal of affective disorders  2013;151(3):942-949.
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used as a self-report measure of affect in community and clinical contexts. However, evaluations of the psychometric properties of PANAS scores have been limited in diverse ethnic groups. Several short forms of the PANAS have also been proposed, but very little is known about the psychometric properties of these versions.
The present study investigated the psychometric properties, including the factor structure of the original PANAS and two short forms in an African American community sample (N = 239). Descriptive, internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance analyses were conducted.
All PANAS subscales from the original and short forms had adequate internal consistency. For the original PANAS, the model specifying three correlated factors (Positive Affect, Afraid, Upset) with correlated uniquenesses from redundant items provided the best fit to the data. However, the two-factor model (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) with correlated uniquenesses was also supported. For both short forms, the two-factor model with correlated uniquenesses fit the data best. Factors from all forms were generally invariant across age and gender, although there was some minor invariance at the item level.
Participants were from a limited geographic area and one ethnic group. Indicators of anxiety, depression, and cultural characteristics were not measured.
The factor structure was replicated, suggesting no immediate concerns regarding the valid interpretation of PANAS scores. The results support the reliability and validity of the PANAS and its short forms for use among African Americans.
PMCID: PMC3934411  PMID: 24051099
PANAS; short form; African American; psychometrics; confirmatory factor analysis
17.  Psychosocial predictors of depression among older African American cancer patients 
Oncology nursing forum  2013;40(4):394-402.
To determine whether psychosocial factors predict depression among older African American cancer patients.
A descriptive correlational study.
Outpatient oncology clinic of NCI designated Cancer Center in Southeastern U.S.
African American cancer patients aged 50 and over.
Fisher’s Exact and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests were used to evaluate differences between patients who were possibly depressed (Geriatric Depression Scale) or not. Multivariate linear regression statistics were used to identify the psychosocial factors that predicted higher depression scores. Education and gender were included as covariates.
Main Variables
Religiosity, emotional support, collectivism, perceived stigma and depression.
African American cancer patients (n=77) were on average a median age of 58 years (IQR = 55–65), a majority were well-educated, insured, religiously affiliated, and currently in treatment. Participants in the lowest income category, not married, and male gender had higher depression scores. The multivariable model consisting of organized religion, emotional support, collectivism, education, and gender explained 52% (adjusted R2) of the variation in depression scores. Stigma became insignificant in the multivariable model.
Psychosocial factors are important predictors of depression. For these participants, emotional support and organized religious activities may represent protective factors against depression, while collectivism may increase their risk.
Nurses need to be especially aware of the potential psychological strain for patients with collectivist values, experienced stigma, disruptions in church attendance and lack of emotional support. Further, these treatment plans for these patients should ensure that family members are knowledgeable about cancer, its treatment and side effects so they are empowered to meet the needs for support of the African American cancer patient.
PMCID: PMC3753674  PMID: 23803271
depression; stigma; religion; collectivism; social support; African American cancer patients
18.  Impact of Alzheimer’s Disease on Caregiver Questionnaire: internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of a new measure for assessing caregiver burden 
There is a lack of validated instruments to measure the level of burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on caregivers. The Impact of Alzheimer’s Disease on Caregiver Questionnaire (IADCQ) is a 12-item instrument with a seven-day recall period that measures AD caregiver’s burden across emotional, physical, social, financial, sleep, and time aspects. Primary objectives of this study were to evaluate psychometric properties of IADCQ administered on the Web and to determine most appropriate scoring algorithm.
A national sample of 200 unpaid AD caregivers participated in this study by completing the Web-based version of IADCQ and Short Form-12 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2™). The SF-12v2 was used to measure convergent validity of IADCQ scores and to provide an understanding of the overall health-related quality of life of sampled AD caregivers.
The IADCQ survey was also completed four weeks later by a randomly selected subgroup of 50 participants to assess test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was implemented to test the dimensionality of the IADCQ items. Classical item-level and scale-level psychometric analyses were conducted to estimate psychometric characteristics of the instrument. Test-retest reliability was performed to evaluate the instrument’s stability and consistency over time.
Virtually none (2%) of the respondents had either floor or ceiling effects, indicating the IADCQ covers an ideal range of burden. A single-factor model obtained appropriate goodness of fit and provided evidence that a simple sum score of the 12 items of IADCQ can be used to measure AD caregiver’s burden. Scales-level reliability was supported with a coefficient alpha of 0.93 and an intra-class correlation coefficient (for test-retest reliability) of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50–0.80). Low-moderate negative correlations were observed between the IADCQ and scales of the SF-12v2.
The study findings suggest the IADCQ has appropriate psychometric characteristics as a unidimensional, Web-based measure of AD caregiver burden and is supported by strong model fit statistics from CFA, high degree of item-level reliability, good internal consistency, moderate test-retest reliability, and moderate convergent validity. Additional validation of the IADCQ is warranted to ensure invariance between the paper-based and Web-based administration and to determine an appropriate responder definition.
PMCID: PMC4265347  PMID: 25186634
Alzheimer’s disease; Caregivers; Burden; Psychometrics; Questionnaire
19.  Self-reported antidepressant use among depressed, low-income homebound older adults: class, type, correlates, and perceived effectiveness 
Brain and Behavior  2012;2(2):178-186.
Little research has been done on the use of antidepressants among homebound older adults, especially low-income homebound older adults, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their medication. The purposes of this study were to examine self-reported use of antidepressants among depressed homebound older adults, class and type of antidepressants used, individual-level correlates of antidepressant use, and users’ perceptions of the effectiveness of antidepressants. Data on self-reported use of antidepressants were obtained as part of a feasibility study of short-term telehealth problem-solving therapy for depressed low-income homebound adults (n = 162) aged 50 or older. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) was used to assess depression severity. The findings show that about half of the study participants were taking antidepressants, with 26.6% of those on antidepressants rating their medications very effective and 21.5% rating them effective. Female gender was positively, but older age and being Black/African American were negatively associated with the likelihood of antidepressant use. Perceived effectiveness of antidepressants was negatively associated with older age and the HAMD score. The findings suggest that personalized approaches to depression management may be needed in subgroups of depressed older adults, including culturally tailored medication counseling in Black/African-American older adults.
PMCID: PMC3345360  PMID: 22574284
Antidepressant; depression; homebound adults; perceived effectiveness
20.  Are Gold Standard Depression Measures Appropriate for Use in Geriatric Cancer Patients? A Systematic Evaluation of Self-Report Depression Instruments Used With Geriatric, Cancer, and Geriatric Cancer Samples 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;28(2):348-356.
Geriatric issues in cancer are becoming prominent. Depression is a significant concern for both the elderly and patients with cancer, yet identifying depression in these patients is difficult and often leads to under-recognition. We conducted a systematic review to determine which depression instruments are appropriate for use in geriatric patients with cancer.
We identified the most commonly used self-report depression instruments. We then used the criteria established in the US Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures to determine the extent of validation evidence of these measures in geriatric cancer populations. Finally, we determined which instruments captured depressive symptoms that are common among elderly patients with cancer.
Eight measures were selected as the most commonly used instruments. These were the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale-15, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Profile of Mood States–Short Form, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Many have been validated for use with geriatric adults and patients with cancer; however, data addressing content validity and responder definition were lacking. To date, there is no validation information for geriatric patients with cancer. Furthermore, symptom profile analysis revealed that these measures do not identify many symptoms signaling depression in geriatric patients with cancer.
The validation evidence for use of common depression instruments in geriatric patients with cancer is lacking. This, and the possibility that these measures may not assess common depressive symptoms in geriatric patients with cancer, questions the adequacy of these scales in this population.
PMCID: PMC2815722  PMID: 19996030
21.  Psychometric Properties of Self-Report Concussion Scales and Checklists 
Journal of Athletic Training  2012;47(2):221-223.
Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, McCrory P. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 (suppl 1):i3–i12.
Clinical Question:
Which self-report symptom scales or checklists are psychometrically sound for clinical use to assess sport-related concussion?
Data Sources:
Articles available in full text, published from the establishment of each database through December 2008, were identified from PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and AMED. Search terms included brain concussion, signs or symptoms, and athletic injuries, in combination with the AND Boolean operator, and were limited to studies published in English. The authors also hand searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional searches of books, conference proceedings, theses, and Web sites of commercial scales were done to provide additional information about the psychometric properties and development for those scales when needed in articles meeting the inclusion criteria.
Study Selection:
Articles were included if they identified all the items on the scale and the article was either an original research report describing the use of scales in the evaluation of concussion symptoms or a review article that discussed the use or development of concussion symptom scales. Only articles published in English and available in full text were included.
Data Extraction:
From each study, the following information was extracted by the primary author using a standardized protocol: study design, publication year, participant characteristics, reliability of the scale, and details of the scale or checklist, including name, number of items, time of measurement, format, mode of report, data analysis, scoring, and psychometric properties. A quality assessment of included studies was done using 16 items from the Downs and Black checklist1 and assessed reporting, internal validity, and external validity.
Main Results:
The initial database search identified 421 articles. After 131 duplicate articles were removed, 290 articles remained and were added to 17 articles found during the hand search, for a total of 307 articles; of those, 295 were available in full text. Sixty articles met the inclusion criteria and were used in the systematic review. The quality of the included studies ranged from 9 to 15 points out of a maximum quality score of 17. The included articles were published between 1995 and 2008 and included a collective total of 5864 concussed athletes and 5032 nonconcussed controls, most of whom participated in American football. The majority of the studies were descriptive studies monitoring the resolution of concussive self-report symptoms compared with either a preseason baseline or healthy control group, with a smaller number of studies (n = 8) investigating the development of a scale.
The authors initially identified 20 scales that were used among the 60 included articles. Further review revealed that 14 scales were variations of the Pittsburgh Steelers postconcussion scale (the Post-Concussion Scale, Post-Concussion Scale: Revised, Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT, Post-Concussion Symptom Scale: Vienna, Graded Symptom Checklist [GSC], Head Injury Scale, McGill ACE Post-Concussion Symptoms Scale, and CogState Sport Symptom Checklist), narrowing down to 6 core scales, which the authors discussed further. The 6 core scales were the Pittsburgh Steelers Post-Concussion Scale (17 items), Post-Concussion Symptom Assessment Questionnaire (10 items), Concussion Resolution Index postconcussion questionnaire (15 items), Signs and Symptoms Checklist (34 items), Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) postconcussion symptom scale (25 items), and Concussion Symptom Inventory (12 items). Each of the 6 core scales includes symptoms associated with sport-related concussion; however, the number of items on each scale varied. A 7-point Likert scale was used on most scales, with a smaller number using a dichotomous (yes/no) classification.
Only 7 of the 20 scales had published psychometric properties, and only 1 scale, the Concussion Symptom Inventory, was empirically driven (Rasch analysis), with development of the scale occurring before its clinical use. Internal consistency (Cronbach α) was reported for the Post-Concussion Scale (.87), Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item (.88–.94), Head Injury Scale 9-item (.78), and Head Injury Scale 16-item (.84). Test-retest reliability has been reported only for the Post-Concussion Scale (Spearman r = .55) and the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item (Pearson r = .65). With respect to validity, the SCAT postconcussion scale has demonstrated face and content validity, the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item and Head Injury Scale 9-item have reported construct validity, and the Head Injury Scale 9-item and 16-item have published factorial validity.
Sensitivity and specificity have been reported only with the GSC (0.89 and 1.0, respectively) and the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item when combined with the neurocognitive component of ImPACT (0.819 and 0.849, respectively). Meaningful change scores were reported for the Post-Concussion Scale (14.8 points), Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item (6.8 points), and Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item (standard error of the difference = 7.17; 80% confidence interval = 9.18).
Numerous scales exist for measuring the number and severity of concussion-related symptoms, with most evolving from the neuropsychology literature pertaining to head-injured populations. However, very few of these were created in a systematic manner that follows scale development processes and have published psychometric properties. Clinicians need to understand these limitations when choosing and using a symptom scale for inclusion in a concussion assessment battery. Future authors should assess the underlying constructs and measurement properties of currently available scales and use the ever-increasing prospective data pools of concussed athlete information to develop scales following appropriate, systematic processes.
PMCID: PMC3418135  PMID: 22488289
mild traumatic brain injuries; evaluation; reliability; validity; sensitivity; specificity
22.  Ethnic differences in satisfaction and quality of life in veterans with ischemic heart disease. 
OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in self-reported health status and satisfaction between African-American and caucasian veterans with ischemic heart disease (IHD). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: African-American and caucasian patients enrolled in General Internal Medicine clinics at six Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline survey data from the Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Patients who responded to an initial health-screening questionnaire were sent follow-up surveys, which included the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), the Seattle Outpatient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SOSQ), and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 44,965 patients approached, 27,977 (62%) returned the baseline survey, of which 10,385 patients reported IHD and were sent the SAQ. Of those, 7,985 patients (84% caucasian, 16% African-American) responded. Caucasian respondents tended to be older, married, nonsmokers, with annual incomes over dollar 10,000, and had higher educational attainment than African Americans. African-American patients reported significantly fewer cardiac procedures (33% vs. 52%, p < 0.001) but were more likely to have diabetes (37% vs. 28%, p < 0.001) and hypertension (81% vs. 68%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, clinic site, and site-ethnicity interactions, SF-36 scores for physical function, role physical, bodily pain, and vitality were greater for African Americans than caucasians, while adjusted scores were significantly lower for role emotional. However, because of the site-ethnicity interaction, scores varied significantly by site. For the SAQ, overall adjusted physical function summary scores and disease stability scores were significantly greater for African Americans than caucasians. Adjusted summary satisfaction scores for provider satisfaction were not significantly lower for African Americans overall but were significant at two of six sites. Similarly, on the SAQ, adjusted treatment satisfaction scores were significantly lower for African Americans at half of the sites and minimally but not clinically significant overall. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher prevalence of cardiac risk factors, African-American patients with CAD who were treated in the VA system appeared to have a greater level of physical functioning, vitality, and angina stability. After adjustment for confounding demographic variables, however, these differences were not consistently significant at all geographic locations. This suggests that many other sociodemographic variables, in addition to ethnicity, influence apparent discrepancies in quality of life, satisfaction, and angina.
PMCID: PMC2568363  PMID: 15233490
23.  Descriptive Study of Educated African American Women Successful at Weight-Loss Maintenance Through Lifestyle Changes 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2012;27(10):1272-1279.
Interventions to address obesity and weight loss maintenance among African Americans have yielded modest results. There is limited data on African Americans who have achieved successful long-term weight loss maintenance.
To identify a large sample of African American adults who intentionally achieved clinically significant weight loss of 10 %; to describe weight-loss and maintenance efforts of African Americans through a cross-sectional survey; to determine the feasibility of establishing a registry of African American adults who have successfully lost weight.
African American volunteers from the United States ≥ 18 years of age were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey about weight, weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance or regain. Participants were invited to submit contact information to be maintained in a secure registry.
Percentage of participants who achieved long-term weight-loss maintenance reporting various dietary and physical activity strategies, motivations for and social-cognitive influences on weight loss and maintenance, current eating patterns, and self-monitoring practices compared to African Americans who lost weight but regained it. Participants also completed the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
Of 3,414 individuals screened, 1,280 were eligible and completed surveys. Ninety-percent were women. This descriptive analysis includes 1,110 women who lost weight through non-surgical means. Over 90 % of respondents had at least some college education. Twenty-eight percent of respondents were weight-loss maintainers. Maintainers lost an average of 24 % of their body weight and had maintained ≥ 10 % weight loss for an average of 5.1 years. Maintainers were more likely to limit their fat intake, eat breakfast most days of the week, avoid fast food restaurants, engage in moderate to high levels of physical activity, and use a scale to monitor their weight.
Influences and practices differ among educated African American women who maintain weight loss compared to those who regain it.
PMCID: PMC3445685  PMID: 22539067
African-American; weight-loss maintenance; weight control registry; successful weight loss
24.  Migraine and Psychiatric Comorbidities among Sub-Saharan African Adults 
Headache  2012;53(2):310-321.
Despite being a highly prevalent disorder and substantial cause of disability, migraine is understudied in Africa. Moreover, no previous study has investigated the effects of stress and unipolar psychiatric comorbidities on migraine in a sub-Saharan African cohort.
To evaluate the prevalence of migraine and its association with stress and unipolar psychiatric comorbidities among a cohort of African adults.
This was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study evaluating 2,151 employed adults in sub-Saharan Africa. A standardized questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic, headache, and lifestyle characteristics of participants. Migraine classification was based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 diagnostic criteria. Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were ascertained with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
A total of 9.8% (n=212) of study participants fulfilled criteria for migraine (9.8%; 95%CI: 8.6, 11.1) with a higher frequency among women (14.3%; 95%CI: 11.9, 16.6) than men (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.5, 8.3). Similar to predominantly Caucasian migraine cohorts, sub-Saharan African migraineurs were more likely to be younger, have a lower education and more likely to report a poor health status than non-migraineurs. However, in contrast to historical reports in predominantly Caucasian migraine cohorts, sub-Saharan African migraineurs were less likely to report smoking than non-migraineurs. Participants with moderately severe depressive symptoms had over a 3-fold increased odds of migraine (OR=3.36; 95% CI 1.30,8.70), compared with those classified as having minimal or no depressive symptoms; and the odds of migraine increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms (p-trend <0.001). Similarly those with mild, moderate and severe anxiety symptoms had increased odds of migraine (OR=2.28; 95%CI 1.24, 4.21; OR=1.77; 95%CI 0.93, 3.35, and OR=5.39; 95%CI 2.19, 13.24, respectively). Finally, those with severe stress had a 3.57-fold increased odds of migraine (OR=3.57; 95%CI 1.35, 9.46).
Although historically it has been reported that migraine prevalence is greater in Caucasians than African Americans, our study demonstrates a high migraine prevalence among urban dwelling Ethiopian adults (9.9%) that is comparable to what is typically reported in predominantly Caucasian cohorts. Further, among employed sub-Saharan African adults, and similar to predominantly Caucasian populations, migraine is strongly associated with stress and unipolar psychiatric symptoms. The high burden of migraine and its association with stress and unipolar psychiatric symptoms in our study of well-educated and urban dwelling African adults has important clinical and public health implications pending confirmation in other African populations.
PMCID: PMC3556345  PMID: 23095087
Migraine; Depression; Anxiety; Stress; Comorbidities; Sub-Saharan Africa
25.  Development and validation of a patient based measure of outcome in ocular melanoma 
BACKGROUND—Patients with uveal melanoma can be treated by a number of modalities. As none of the different treatments offer a survival advantage, a key factor in choosing among treatments is their differential impact on patients' quality of life. A short, patient based questionnaire was developed and validated for evaluating outcomes following treatment for uveal melanoma.
METHODS—The 21 item measure of outcome in ocular disease (MOOD) assesses the patient's view of outcome in terms of visual function and the impact of treatment. The reliability and validity of the three MOOD scores (total, vision, impact) were evaluated in 176 patients who had been treated for uveal melanoma (75 brachytherapy, 78 proton beam radiotherapy, 23 enucleation). Of these, 165 patients also completed the SF-36.
RESULTS—All three MOOD scales met standard criteria for acceptability, reliability, and validity. The proportion of missing data was low, and responses to all items were well distributed across response categories. Internal consistency, assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, exceeded the standard criterion of 0.70 for all three summary scores. Item total correlations ranged from 0.22 to 0.77 (mean item total correlation 0.58), indicating good homogeneity. Test-retest correlations for all three summary scores exceeded 0.85. Scaling assumptions, assessed by item convergent and discriminant validity correlations, were met for the vision and impact scores. The MOOD showed good content validity, as assessed by review by ophthalmologists and patients. Construct validity was demonstrated by high intercorrelations between the vision and impact scores and the total scale; higher scores for patients who reported being very satisfied compared with those who were not very satisfied and for those who reported persistent red eye compared with those who did not have this complication (known group differences/hypothesis testing); moderate correlations between the MOOD and the SF-36 and visual acuity (convergent validity); and low correlations between the MOOD and age and sex (discriminant validity).
CONCLUSIONS—The MOOD is a practical and scientifically sound patient based measure which can be used in research and audit to evaluate outcomes following treatment for uveal melanoma. It takes 5 minutes to complete and meets standard psychometric criteria for reliability and validity.

PMCID: PMC1723425  PMID: 10729289

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