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1.  Increased Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 Strongly Protects Retina from Oxidative Damage 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2009;11(4):715-724.
Oxidative damage contributes to cone cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and death of rods, cones, and retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells in age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we explored the strategy of overexpressing components of the endogenous antioxidant defense system to combat oxidative damage in RPE cells and retina. In transfected cultured RPE cells with increased expression of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) or SOD2, there was increased constitutive and stress-induced oxidative damage measured by the level of carbonyl adducts on proteins. In contrast, RPE cells with increased expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) or Gpx4 did not show an increase in constitutive oxidative damage. An increase in Gpx4, and to a lesser extent Gpx1, reduced oxidative stress-induced RPE cell damage. Co-expression of Gpx4 with SOD1 or 2 partially reversed the deleterious effects of the SODs. Transgenic mice with inducible expression of Gpx4 in photoreceptors were generated, and in three models of oxidative damage-induced retinal degeneration, increased expression of Gpx4 provided strong protection of retinal structure and function. These data suggest that gene therapy approaches to augment the activity of Gpx4 in the retina and RPE should be considered in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 715–724.
PMCID: PMC2787833  PMID: 18823256
2.  Increased Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 Strongly Protects Retina from Oxidative Damage 
Antioxidants & redox signaling  2009;11(4):715-724.
Oxidative damage contributes to cone cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and death of rods, cones, and retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells in age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we explored the strategy of over-expressing components of the endogenous antioxidant defense system to combat oxidative damage in RPE cells and retina. In transfected cultured RPE cells with increased expression of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) or SOD2 there was increased constitutive and stress-induced oxidative damage measured by the level of carbonyl adducts on proteins. In contrast, RPE cells with increased expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) or Gpx4 did not show an increase in constitutive oxidative damage. An increase in Gpx4, and to a lesser extent Gpx1, reduced oxidative stress-induced RPE cell damage. Co-expression of Gpx4 with SOD1 or 2 partially reversed the deleterious effects of the SODs. Transgenic mice with inducible expression of Gpx4 in photoreceptors were generated and in 3 models of oxidative damage-induced retinal degeneration, increased expression of Gpx4 provided strong protection of retinal structure and function. These data suggest that gene therapy approaches to augment the activity of Gpx4 in the retina and RPE should be considered in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration.
PMCID: PMC2787833  PMID: 18823256
neuronal degeneration; age-related macular degeneration; retinitis pigmentosa; endogenous antioxidants; gene therapy; apoptosis
3.  The in vivo Gene Expression Signature of Oxidative Stress 
Physiological genomics  2008;34(1):112-126.
How higher organisms respond to elevated oxidative stress in vivo is poorly understood. Therefore, we measured oxidative stress parameters and gene expression alterations (Affymetrix arrays) in the liver caused by elevated reactive oxygen species induced in vivo by diquat or by genetic ablation of the major antioxidant enzymes, CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase (Sod1) and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 (Gpx1).
Diquat (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within 3 to 6 hours in wild type mice without any lethality. In contrast, treating Sod1−/− or Gpx1−/− mice with a similar concentration of diquat resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within an hour of treatment and was lethal, i.e., these mice are extremely sensitive to the oxidative stress generated by diquat. The expression response to elevated oxidative stress in vivo does not involve an upregulation of classical antioxidant genes, though long-term oxidative stress in the Sod1−/− mice leads to a significant upregulation of thiol antioxidants (e.g., Mt1, Srxn1, Gclc, Txnrd1), which appears to be mediated by the redox-sensitive transcription factor, Nrf2. The main finding of our study is that the common response to elevated oxidative stress, with diquat treatment in wild type, Gpx1−/−, Sod1−/− mice and in untreated Sod1−/− mice, is an upregulation of p53 target genes (p21, Gdf15, Plk3, Atf3, Trp53inp1, Ddit4, Gadd45a, Btg2, Ndrg1). A retrospective comparison with previous studies shows that induction of these p53-target genes is a conserved expression response to oxidative stress, in vivo and in vitro, in different species and different cells/organs.
PMCID: PMC2532791  PMID: 18445702
Oxidative Stress; Gene Expression; p53-target genes; Sod1; Gpx1
4.  Birds sacrifice oxidative protection for reproduction. 
Oxidative metabolism has reactive oxygen species (ROS) as unavoidable by-products, and the damage ROS inflicts on DNA, proteins and lipids is considered to be a major agent of senescence. Increasing reproductive effort accelerates senescence, but whether reproductive effort is increased at the expense of protection against oxidative damage has not yet been tested. We manipulated reproductive effort in zebra finches through brood size manipulation and measured the activity of two major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the pectoral muscle after 19-20 days of brood rearing. Oxidative stress is reflected by the balance between oxidative protection and ROS exposure, and we therefore scaled SOD and GPx activity to daily energy expenditure (DEE) as an index of ROS production. SOD and GPx activity decreased with increasing brood size by 28% and 24%, respectively. This effect was identical in the two sexes, but arose in different ways: males did not change their DEE, but had lower absolute enzyme activity, and females increased their DEE, but did not change absolute enzyme activity. This result suggests that senescence acceleration by increased reproductive effort is at least in part mediated by oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC1810045  PMID: 15504018
5.  Overexpression of Mn Superoxide Dismutase Does Not Increase Life Span in Mice 
Genetic manipulations of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), SOD2 expression have demonstrated that altering the level of MnSOD activity is critical for cellular function and life span in invertebrates. In mammals, Sod2 homozygous knockout mice die shortly after birth, and alterations of MnSOD levels are correlated with changes in oxidative damage and in the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. In this study, we directly tested the effects of overexpressing MnSOD in young (4–6 months) and old (26–28 months) mice on mitochondrial function, levels of oxidative damage or stress, life span, and end-of-life pathology. Our data show that an approximately twofold overexpression of MnSOD throughout life in mice resulted in decreased lipid peroxidation, increased resistance against paraquat-induced oxidative stress, and decreased age-related decline in mitochondrial ATP production. However, this change in MnSOD expression did not alter either life span or age-related pathology.
PMCID: PMC2759571  PMID: 19633237
Oxidative damage; Mn superoxide dismutase; Pathology; Aging
6.  Pulmonary effects of short term selenium deficiency. 
Thorax  1996;51(5):479-483.
BACKGROUND: Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydrogen peroxides in both normal and pathological states. Chronic dietary deficiency of selenium results in a gradual decrease in GPx and altered response to environmental stress. However, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isozymes may increase and compensate for chronic GPx deficiency. The pattern of antioxidant enzyme activity and immunolocalisation of various enzymes in rat lung has not been described in short term (< 3 weeks) acute selenium deficiency. METHODS: The time course of GPx depletion from rat lung (measured every five days in subgroups of rats) during acute dietary selenium deficiency was evaluated. After 20 days of depletion, enzyme activity of lung GPx, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphodiesterase (G-6-PD), and GST were determined. Immunohistochemical localisation of GPx and SOD was also performed. The response to lethal hyperoxia (> 95%) in control and selenium deficient rats was then established. RESULTS: At 20 days, lung GPx activity in the rats fed a selenium deficient diet was one third less than in control animals who received a normal diet, while changes in blood enzymes between control and deficient animals were similar. Other lung enzyme activities remained normal with the exception of cyanide inhibited SOD activity measured in selenium deficient rat lungs which declined to approximately 50% of normal. Immunohistochemical localisation of GPx showed a generalised loss of the enzyme throughout the lung parenchyma with some possible sparing of activity in epithelial cells of the bronchioles. When exposed to lethal hyperoxia, selenium deficient animals were more susceptible than control rats. CONCLUSIONS: This is the earliest time at which dietary selenium deficiency has been shown to produce moderate loss of GPx activity. This change in activity was associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary oxidant stress. However, the role of decreased SOD activity (presumed to represent copper, zinc SOD), although unexpected, may have been a major contributor to increased damage from hyperoxia. These results emphasise the complex potential interaction of elemental deficiency with the natural antioxidant response to lethal hyperoxia.
PMCID: PMC473591  PMID: 8711674
7.  Dietary fish oil promotes colonic apoptosis and mitochondrial proton leak in oxidatively stressed mice 
An alteration of mitochondrial function can result in disruption of redox homeostasis, and is associated with abnormal cancer cell growth. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) are two of the most important antioxidant defense enzymes that protect cells against oxidative stress. We have previously shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promote colonocyte apoptosis, a marker of colon cancer risk, in part by enhancing phospholipid oxidation. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vivo, we fed heterozygous SOD2Het, Gpx4Het and transgenic Gpx4TG mice diets containing either 15% corn oil by weight (CO, enriched in n-6 PUFA) or 3.5% CO + 11.5% fish oil (FO, enriched in n-3 PUFA) for 4 wk. Our data show that (i) genetic pre-deposition to oxidative stress facilitates apoptosis in the mouse colon (Gpx4Het > SOD2Het > Wt > Gpx4Tg), (ii) dietary n-3 PUFA have an additive effect on the induction of apoptosis in Gpx4Het and SOD2Het mice; and (iii) dietary n-3 PUFA reverse the phenotype in oxidatively protected Gpx4Tg mice by elevating apoptosis to a level observed in wild type (control) animals. Complimentary experiments examining colonic mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles indicate that FO fed mice exhibit a significantly (p<0.05) increased respiration-induced proton leak relative to control CO treatment. This finding is consistent with a loss of membrane potential in response to chronic oxidative stress, and supports the contention that n-3 PUFA alter mitochondrial metabolic activity, thereby enhancing apoptosis and reducing colon cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC3137683  PMID: 21490130
apoptosis; n-3 PUFA; oxidation; colon; mitochondria
8.  Delineating the Role of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Protecting Cells Against Lipid Hydroperoxide Damage and in Alzheimer's Disease 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2010;12(7):819-827.
Numerous studies characterizing the function of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) have demonstrated that this selenoenzyme is protective against oxidative stress. Herein, we characterized the function of this protein by targeting GPx4 downregulation using RNA interference. Partial knockdown of GPx4 levels resulted in growth retardation and morphological changes. Surprisingly, GPx4 knockdown cells showed virtually unchanged levels of intracellular ROS, yet highly increased levels of oxidized lipid by-products. GPx1, another glutathione peroxidase and a major cellular peroxide scavenging enzyme, did not rescue GPx4-deficient cells and did not reduce lipid peroxide levels. The data established an essential role of GPx4 in protecting cells against lipid hydroperoxide damage, yet a limited role as a general antioxidant enzyme. As oxidized lipid hydroperoxides are a characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, we analyzed brain tissues of mice suffering from a model of Alzheimer's disease and found that oxidized lipid by-products were enriched, and expression of both GPx4 and guanine-rich sequence-binding factor, which is known to control GPx4 synthesis, was downregulated. Brain tissue from an Alzheimer's diseased human also manifested enhanced levels of one of the oxidized lipid by-products, 4-hydroxynonenal. These data suggest a role of GPx4 in neurodegenerative diseases through its function in removal of lipid hydroperoxides. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 819–827.
PMCID: PMC2861544  PMID: 19769463
9.  Exercise training combined with angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces oxidative stress after myocardial infarction in rats 
Experimental physiology  2010;95(10):1008-1015.
Increased oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant enzymes have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, treadmill exercise training and losartan treatment began 1 week post-MI and lasted 8 weeks. We evaluated the changes in the mRNA and protein expressions for the enzymatic antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase after exercise and losartan treatment in post-MI rats. Our results demonstrated that GPx and catalase mRNA levels were comparable among all the groups, while the mRNA level for manganese SOD (MnSOD) was significantly increased in exercise training with/without losartan treatment as compared to the sedentary MI group. Moreover, the mRNA level for gp91phox was dramatically decreased by a combination of exercise and losartan treatment. The protein levels for MnSOD were significantly elevated by exercise training in combination with losartan treatment. The protein levels for catalase were significantly increased in response to exercise, and it was further augmented by exercise together with losartan treatment. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in plasma were significantly increased in the MI rats, but were decreased by exercise or losartan treatment, indicating that both exercise and losartan may reduce lipid oxidative damage. In addition, catalase and SOD enzymatic activities were significantly enhanced by exercise combined with losartan treatment. Our results suggest that exercise training improves catalase and MnSOD expression and attenuates oxidative stress. These effects are potentiated when combining exercise with angiotensin II receptor blockade.
PMCID: PMC2941526  PMID: 20660022
oxidative stress; losartan; myocardial infarction; free radicals; exercise
Free radical biology & medicine  2000;28(5):754-766.
Oxidative stress resulting from mitochondrially derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been hypothesized to damage mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and to be a factor in aging and degenerative disease. If this hypothesis is correct, then genetically inactivating potential mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1; EC should increase mitochondrial ROS production and decrease OXPHOS function. To determine the expression pattern of Gpx1, isoform-specific antibodies were generated and mutant mice were prepared in which the Gpx1 protein was substituted for by β-galactosidase, driven by the Gpx1 promoter. These experiments revealed that Gpx1 is highly expressed in both the mitochondria and the cytosol of the liver and kidney, but poorly expressed in heart and muscle. To determine the physiological importance of Gpx1, mice lacking Gpx1 were generated by targeted mutagenesis in mouse ES cells. Homozygous mutant Gpx1tm1Mgr mice have 20% less body weight than normal animals and increased levels of lipid peroxides in the liver. Moreover, the liver mitochondria were found to release markedly increased hydrogen peroxide, a Gpx1 substrate, and have decreased mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and power output index. Hence, genetic inactivation of Gpx1 resulted in growth retardation, presumably due in part to reduced mitochondrial energy production as a product of increased oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC3049813  PMID: 10754271
Mitochondria; Hydrogen peroxide; Glutathione peroxidase; Oxidative phosphorylation; Oxidative stress; Knockout mice; Free radicals
11.  Glutathione Peroxidase 4 Differentially Regulates the Release of Apoptogenic Proteins from Mitochondria 
Free radical biology & medicine  2009;47(3):312-320.
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a unique antioxidant enzyme that repairs oxidative damage to biomembranes. In the present study, we examined the effect of Gpx4 on the release of various apoptogenic proteins from mitochondria using transgenic mice overexpressing Gpx4 [Tg(GPX4+/0)] and mice deficient in Gpx4 (Gpx4+/− mice). Diquat exposure triggered apoptosis that occurred through intrinsic pathway and resulted in the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (cyt. c), Smac/DIABLO, and Omi/HtrA2 in the liver of wild-type (Wt) mice. Liver apoptosis and cyt. c release were suppressed in Tg(GPX4+/0) mice but exacerbated in Gpx4+/− mice; however, neither the Tg(GPX4+/0) nor the Gpx4+/− mice showed any alterations in the levels of Smac/DIABLO or Omi/HtrA2 released from mitochondria. Submitochondrial fractionation data showed that Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2 existed primarily in the intermembrane space and matrix, while cyt. c and Gpx4 were both associated with inner membrane. In addition, diquat exposure induced cardiolipin peroxidation in the liver of Wt mice; the levels of cardiolipin peroxidation were reduced in Tg(GPX4+/0) mice but elevated in Gpx4+/− mice. These data suggest that Gpx4 differentially regulates apoptogenic protein release due to its inner membrane location in mitochondria and its ability to repair cardiolipin peroxidation.
PMCID: PMC2773016  PMID: 19447173
Gpx4; Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase 4; Apoptosis; Cardiolipin; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress
12.  Gene polymorphisms against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in leukocytes of healthy humans through comet assay: a quasi-experimental study 
Environmental Health  2010;9:21.
Normal cellular metabolism is well established as the source of endogenous reactive oxygen species which account for the background levels of oxidative DNA damage detected in normal tissue. Hydrogen peroxide imposes an oxidative stress condition on cells that can result in DNA damage, leading to mutagenesis and cell death. Several potentially significant genetic variants related to oxidative stress have already been identified, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been reported as possible antioxidant agents that can reduce vascular oxidative stress in cardiovascular events.
We investigate the influences of haptoglobin, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD Val9Ala), catalase (CAT -21A/T), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1 Pro198Leu), ACE (I/D) and gluthatione S-transferases GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms against DNA damage and oxidative stress. These were induced by exposing leukocytes from peripheral blood of healthy humans (N = 135) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the effects were tested by comet assay. Blood samples were submitted to genotyping and comet assay (before and after treatment with H2O2 at 250 μM and 1 mM).
After treatment with H2O2 at 250 μM, the GPx-1 polymorphism significantly influenced results of comet assay and a possible association of the Pro/Leu genotype with higher DNA damage was found. The highest or lowest DNA damage also depended on interaction between GPX-1/ACE and Hp/GSTM1T1 polymorphisms when hydrogen peroxide treatment increased oxidative stress.
The GPx-1 polymorphism and the interactions between GPX-1/ACE and Hp/GSTM1T1 can be determining factors for DNA oxidation provoked by hydrogen peroxide, and thus for higher susceptibility to or protection against oxidative stress suffered by healthy individuals.
PMCID: PMC2881052  PMID: 20444272
13.  Genetic and pharmacologic manipulation of oxidative stress after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia 
Oxidative stress is a critical component of the injury response after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain, and this response is unique and at times paradoxical to that seen in the mature brain. Previously, we showed that copper-zinc superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) over-expression is not beneficial to the neonatal mouse brain with HI injury, unlike the adult brain with ischemic injury. However, glutathione peroxidase1 (GPx1) over-expression is protective to the neonatal mouse brain with HI injury. To further test the hypothesis that an adequate supply of GPx is critical to protection from HI injury, we crossed SOD1 over-expressing mice (hSOD-tg) with GPx1 over-expressing mice (hGPx-tg). Resulting litters contained wild-type (wt), hGPx-tg, hSOD-tg and hybrid hGPx-tg/hSOD-tg pups, which were subjected to HI at P7. Confirming previous results, the hGPx-tg mice had reduced injury compared to both Wt and hSOD-tg littermates. Neonatal mice over-expressing both GPx1 and SOD1 also had less injury compared to wt or hSOD-tg alone. A result of oxidative stress after neonatal HI is a decrease in the concentration of reduced (i.e. antioxidant-active) glutathione (GSH). In this study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of alpha-lipoic acid on levels of GSH in the cortex after HI. Although GSH levels were restored by 24h after HI, injury was not reduced compared to vehicle-treated mice. We also tested two other pharmacological approaches to reducing oxidative stress in hSOD-tg and wild-type littermates. Both the specific inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, 7-nitroindazole (7NI), and the spin-trapping agent alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN) did not reduce HI injury, however. Taken together, these results imply that H2O2 is a critical component of neonatal HI injury, and GPx1 plays an important role in the defense against this H2O2 and is thereby neuroprotective.
PMCID: PMC2703481  PMID: 17935927
oxidative stress; stroke; reactive oxygen species; nitric oxide; hydrogen peroxide; brain; mouse
14.  Lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic oxidative injury is not potentiated by knockout of GPX1 and SOD1 in mice 
Knockout of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and (or) cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) has been reported to have dual impacts on coping with free radical-induced oxidative injury. Because bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers inflammatory responses involving the release of cytokines, nitric oxide and superoxide in targeted organs such as liver, in this study we used SOD1 knockout (SOD1-/-), GPX1 knockout (GPX1-/-), GPX1 and SOD1 double-knockout (DKO) and their wild-type (WT) mice to investigate the role of these two antioxidant enzymes in LPS-induced oxidative injury in liver. Mice of the four genotypes (2-month old) were killed at 0, 3, 6 or 12 h after an ip injection of saline or 5 mg LPS/kg body weight. The LPS injection caused similar increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase among the four genotypes. Hepatic total glutathione (GSH) was decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the initial values by the LPS injection at all time points in the WT mice, but only at 6 and 12 h in the other three genotypes. The GSH level in the DKO mice was higher (P < 0.05) than in the WT at 6 h. Although the LPS injection resulted in substantial increases in plasma NO in a time-dependent manner in all genotypes, the NO level in the DKO mice was lower (P < 0.05) at 3, 6, and 12 h than in the WT. The level in the GPX1-/- and SOD1-/- mice was also lower (P < 0.05) than in the WT at 3 h. The LPS-mediated hepatic protein nitration was detected in the WT and GPX1-/- mice at 3, 6 or 12 h, but not in the SOD1-/-. In conclusion, knockout of SOD1 and (or) GPX1 did not potentiate the LPS-induced liver injury, but delayed the induced hepatic GSH depletion and plasma NO production.
PMCID: PMC3018559  PMID: 21145306
Lipopolysaccharide; oxidative injury; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase
15.  Evidence for oxidative stress in osteoarthritis 
Evidence of increased oxidative stress in patients of osteoarthritis in comparison with healthy control subjects was investigated by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), vitamin C, reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes. It was observed that osteoarthritis patients were more susceptible to oxidative damage than controls as evident from increased TBARS and decreased ascorbic acid, GSH, catalase and GPx in erythrocytes. Significant increase in SOD activity found in patients might be an adaptive response. With the understanding of the role of antioxidants in arthritis, it is becoming increasingly clear that these agents seem to be beneficial in osteoarthritis.
PMCID: PMC3454164  PMID: 23105509
Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; Osteoarthritis
16.  MnSODtg Mice Control Myocardial Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress and Remodeling Responses Elicited in Chronic Chagas Disease 
We utilized genetically modified mice equipped with a variable capacity to scavenge mitochondrial and cellular reactive oxygen species to investigate the pathological significance of oxidative stress in Chagas disease.
Methods and Results
C57BL/6 mice (wild type, MnSODtg, MnSOD+/−, GPx1−/−) were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and harvested during the chronic disease phase. Chronically infected mice exhibited a substantial increase in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase), lactate dehydrogenase, and myocardial levels of inflammatory infiltrate and oxidative adducts (malondialdehyde, carbonyls, 3‐nitrotyrosine) in the order of wild type=MnSOD+/−>GPx1−/−>MnSODtg. Myocardial mitochondrial damage was pronounced and associated with a >50% decline in mitochondrial DNA content in chronically infected wild‐type and GPx1−/− mice. Imaging of intact heart for cardiomyocytes and collagen by the nonlinear optical microscopy techniques of multiphoton fluorescence/second harmonic generation showed a significant increase in collagen (>10‐fold) in chronically infected wild‐type mice, whereas GPx1−/− mice exhibited a basal increase in collagen that did not change during the chronic phase. Chronically infected MnSODtg mice exhibited a marginal decline in mitochondrial DNA content and no changes in collagen signal in the myocardium. P47phox−/− mice lacking phagocyte‐generated reactive oxygen species sustained a low level of myocardial oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage in response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Yet chronically infected p47phox−/− mice exhibited increase in myocardial inflammatory and remodeling responses, similar to that noted in chronically infected wild‐type mice.
Inhibition of oxidative burst of phagocytes was not sufficient to prevent pathological cardiac remodeling in Chagas disease. Instead, enhancing the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity was beneficial in controlling the inflammatory and oxidative pathology and the cardiac remodeling responses that are hallmarks of chronic Chagas disease.
PMCID: PMC3835234  PMID: 24136392
cardiac remodeling; Chagas disease; mice (MnSODtg, GPx1−/−, P47phox−/−); multiphoton microscopy; oxidative stress; second harmonic generation microscopy; Trypanosoma cruzi
17.  Decreased glutathione accelerates neurological deficit and mitochondrial pathology in familial ALS-linked hSOD1G93A mice model 
Neurobiology of disease  2011;43(3):543-551.
Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. To investigate the role of antioxidant defenses in ALS we used knockout mice for the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-/-), which have a 70-80% reduction in total glutathione. Although GCLM(-/-) mice are viable and fertile, the life span of GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1G93A mice decreased in 55% when compared to GCLM(+/+)/hSOD1G93A mice. Decreased life span in GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1G93A mice was associated to increased oxidative stress, aggravated mitochondrial pathology and increased association of hSOD1 with the mitochondria. Interestingly, when the GCLM(-/-) animals were mated with a different ALS-model which overexpress the experimental mutation hSOD1H46R/H48Q, no effect was observed in survival of GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1H46R/H48Q mice; and little or no mitochondrial pathology was observed. Since a specific disease modifier, such as glutathione deficiency, may affect only certain hSOD1 mutants, these findings contribute to our understanding of the potential difference in the molecular pathways by which different hSOD1 mutants generate disease.
PMCID: PMC3139005  PMID: 21600285
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; glutathione; GCLM; mitochondria
18.  In vitro effects of selenium deficiency on West Nile virus replication and cytopathogenicity 
Virology Journal  2008;5:66.
Selenium (Se) deficiency plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. To understand the effects of Se deficiency on West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we analyzed cytopathogenicity, apoptosis and viral replication kinetics, using a newly developed Se-deficient cell culture system.
Both Vero and SK-N-SH cells grown in Se-deficient media exhibited a gradual loss of glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity without any significant effect on cell growth and viability. In SK-N-SH cells, Se deficiency had no effect on the expression of key antioxidant enzymes, including manganese- and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and CuZnSOD), catalase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, whereas Vero cells demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of MnSOD and an overall increase in oxidative stress (OS) at day 7 post-induction of Se deficiency. At 2 days after infection with WNV, CPE and cell death were significantly higher in WNV-infected Se-deficient Vero cells, compared to WNV-infected control cells. Furthermore, WNV-induced apoptosis was significantly heightened in Se-deficient cells and was contributed by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased caspase activity. However, no significant difference was found in WNV copy numbers between control, Se-adequate and Se-deficient cell cultures.
Overall results demonstrate that the in vitro Se-deficient model can be used to study responses of WNV to this essential nutrient. Although Se deficiency has no in vitro effect on WNV replication kinetics, adequate Se is presumably critical to protect WNV-infected cells against virus-induced cell death.
PMCID: PMC2453119  PMID: 18513435
19.  Oxidative stress and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats under hyperbaric oxygen exposure 
Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes not only hyperglycemia but oxidative stress, resulting mainly enhanced production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments are applied various diseases including diabetic patients with unhealing foot ulcers, however, and also increases the formation of ROS. Recently, it has been reported that oxidative stress worsens many pathological conditions including DM and obesity suggesting possible changes in regulation of genes associated with the oxidative stress, however, effects of HBO which could induce ROS on the gene expressions of oxidative stress parameters in DM animals are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO exposure on the gene expression of three important antioxidant enzymes, cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), and catalase (CAT) in DM rats, respectively. We used streptozotocin-induced DM model rats and examined both mRNA expressions and the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The mRNA expressions of Cu-Zn SOD and CAT decreased significantly (p < 0.001), and GPx increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all the studied organs of DM rats under HBO exposure compared to those from DM-induced rats not exposed to HBO. Similarly, activities of these three enzymes changed in accordance with the mRNA levels. These results suggested that DM induction and HBO exposure might synergistically affect antioxidant enzymes, resulting increase of oxidative stress state. Thus, HBO exposure seems to be an excellent model system for investigating oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC2809998  PMID: 20126586
Diabetes mellitus; hyperbaric oxygen; oxidative stress; superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase; catalase
20.  Glutathione Peroxidase-1 in Health and Disease: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2011;15(7):1957-1997.
Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are generated in all cells by mitochondrial and enzymatic sources. Left unchecked, these reactive species can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that enzymatically reduces hydrogen peroxide to water to limit its harmful effects. Certain reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also essential for growth factor-mediated signal transduction, mitochondrial function, and maintenance of normal thiol redox-balance. Thus, by limiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation, GPx-1 also modulates these processes. This review explores the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression and function of GPx-1, with an emphasis on the role of GPx-1 in modulating cellular oxidant stress and redox-mediated responses. As a selenocysteine-containing enzyme, GPx-1 expression is subject to unique forms of regulation involving the trace mineral selenium and selenocysteine incorporation during translation. In addition, GPx-1 has been implicated in the development and prevention of many common and complex diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. This review discusses the role of GPx-1 in these diseases and speculates on potential future therapies to harness the beneficial effects of this ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1957–1997.
I. Introduction
II. GPx‐1 Activity
A. Enzymatic mechanisms of GPx
B. Structure and function: analysis of the active site
C. Inhibitors of GPx
D. Comparison among mammalian GPxs 1–4
III. Regulation of GPx‐1 Expression and Activity
A. Transcriptional regulation
B. Post‐transcriptional and translational regulation
1. Basic mechanisms of Sec incorporation
2. Selenium, nonsense‐mediated decay of GPx‐1 mRNA, and translational repression
3. Post‐transcriptional upregulation of GPx‐1
4. Inhibition of GPx‐1 translation
C. Post‐translational regulation
1. Sec oxidation
2. Stimulation by signal transduction and/or protein–protein interactions
IV. GPx‐1 and Oxidant‐Dependent Cellular Processes
A. Oxidative damage and cell death, apoptosis, and injury
1. Role of oxidants in cell death and apoptosis
2. Role of GPx‐1 in cell death and apoptosis
3. GPx‐1 and response to in vivo ROS
B. Redox‐dependent cell signaling, growth, and survival
V. GPx‐1 and Cancer
A. GPx‐1 and the mechanisms of cancer susceptibility
B. GPx‐1 and genetic polymorphisms
C. GPx‐1: genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk
1. Breast cancer
2. Lung cancer
3. Prostate cancer
4. Bladder cancer
5. Other cancers
VI. GPx‐1, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease
A. GPx‐1 and the mechanisms of susceptibility to diabetes and cardiovascular disease
1. Diabetes mellitus
2. Cardiac dysfunction and toxicity
3. Ischemia/reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and EPC function
4. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular tone
5. Inflammation and atherogenesis
B. Epidemiologic and genetic studies of GPx‐1 and cardiovascular disease
VII. GPx‐1 and Future Directions for Therapeutic Applications
PMCID: PMC3159114  PMID: 21087145
21.  Regulation of antioxidant enzymes in lung after oxidant injury. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1994;102(Suppl 2):79-87.
Studies have implicated active oxygen species (AOS) in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases. Many chemical and physical agents in the environment are potent generators of AOS, including ozone, hyperoxia, mineral dusts, paraquat, etc. These agents produce AOS by different mechanisms, but frequently the lung is the primary target of toxicity, and exposure results in damage to lung tissue to varying degrees. The lung has developed defenses to AOS-mediated damage, which include antioxidant enzymes, the superoxide dismutases [copper-zinc (CuZnSOD) and manganese-containing (MnSOD)], catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). In this review, antioxidant defenses to environmental stresses in the lung as well as in isolated pulmonary cells following exposure to a number of different oxidants, are summarized. Each oxidant appears to induce a different pattern of antioxidant enzyme response in the lung, although some common trends, i.e., induction of MnSOD following oxidants inducing inflammation or pulmonary fibrosis, in responses to oxidants occur. Responses may vary between the different cell types in the lung as a function of cell-cycle or other factors. Increases in MnSOD mRNA or immunoreactive protein in response to certain oxidants may serve as a biomarker of AOS-mediated damage in the lung.
PMCID: PMC1567078  PMID: 7523104
22.  Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats 
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system.
Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug.
A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage.
Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.
PMCID: PMC533881  PMID: 15522116
23.  Transgenic mice with expression of elevated levels of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in the lungs are resistant to pulmonary oxygen toxicity. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;87(6):2162-2168.
To test the hypothesis that increases in lung superoxide dismutase can cause tolerance to pulmonary oxygen toxicity, we studied transgenic mice which constitutively express elevated levels of the human copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD). Upon exposure to hyperoxia (greater than 99% O2, 630 torr) the transgenic CuZnSOD mice showed increased survival, decreased morphologic evidence of lung damage such as edema and hyaline membrane formation, and reduction in the number of lung neutrophils. During continuous exposure to oxygen, both control and transgenic animals who successfully adapted to hyperoxia showed increased activity of lung antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), whereas superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged. The results show that expression of elevated levels of CuZnSOD decreases pulmonary oxygen toxicity and associated histologic damage and mortality.
PMCID: PMC296975  PMID: 2040698
24.  Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men 
Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.
PMCID: PMC3248656  PMID: 22211112
Oxidative damage; Antioxidant enzymes; Semen quality; Male infertility; Sperm abnormalities; lipid per-oxidation.
25.  Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
The changes in the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation products (MDA), levels of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (non enzymatic antioxidant parameters) and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione - S - transferase (GST) activity were estimated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This work was undertaken to assess oxidative stress and anti oxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It was observed that there was a significant increase in erythrocyte MDA levels, activities of SOD, GPX, plasma GST and a significant decrease in erythrocyte GSH, ascorbic acid, plasma vitamin E levels and catalse activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis when compared to controls. The results of our study suggests higher oxygen free radical production, evidenced by increased MDA and decreased GSH, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and Catalase activity, support to the oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes may be a compensatory regulation in response to increased oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC3453665  PMID: 23105718
Malondialdehyde; Glutathione; Ascorbic acid; Vitamin E; Superoxide dismutase; Catalase; Glutathione peroxidase; Glutathione -S - transferase; Rheumatoid arthritis

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