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1.  Pulmonary effects of short term selenium deficiency. 
Thorax  1996;51(5):479-483.
BACKGROUND: Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydrogen peroxides in both normal and pathological states. Chronic dietary deficiency of selenium results in a gradual decrease in GPx and altered response to environmental stress. However, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isozymes may increase and compensate for chronic GPx deficiency. The pattern of antioxidant enzyme activity and immunolocalisation of various enzymes in rat lung has not been described in short term (< 3 weeks) acute selenium deficiency. METHODS: The time course of GPx depletion from rat lung (measured every five days in subgroups of rats) during acute dietary selenium deficiency was evaluated. After 20 days of depletion, enzyme activity of lung GPx, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphodiesterase (G-6-PD), and GST were determined. Immunohistochemical localisation of GPx and SOD was also performed. The response to lethal hyperoxia (> 95%) in control and selenium deficient rats was then established. RESULTS: At 20 days, lung GPx activity in the rats fed a selenium deficient diet was one third less than in control animals who received a normal diet, while changes in blood enzymes between control and deficient animals were similar. Other lung enzyme activities remained normal with the exception of cyanide inhibited SOD activity measured in selenium deficient rat lungs which declined to approximately 50% of normal. Immunohistochemical localisation of GPx showed a generalised loss of the enzyme throughout the lung parenchyma with some possible sparing of activity in epithelial cells of the bronchioles. When exposed to lethal hyperoxia, selenium deficient animals were more susceptible than control rats. CONCLUSIONS: This is the earliest time at which dietary selenium deficiency has been shown to produce moderate loss of GPx activity. This change in activity was associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary oxidant stress. However, the role of decreased SOD activity (presumed to represent copper, zinc SOD), although unexpected, may have been a major contributor to increased damage from hyperoxia. These results emphasise the complex potential interaction of elemental deficiency with the natural antioxidant response to lethal hyperoxia.
PMCID: PMC473591  PMID: 8711674
2.  Dietary fish oil promotes colonic apoptosis and mitochondrial proton leak in oxidatively stressed mice 
An alteration of mitochondrial function can result in disruption of redox homeostasis, and is associated with abnormal cancer cell growth. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) are two of the most important antioxidant defense enzymes that protect cells against oxidative stress. We have previously shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promote colonocyte apoptosis, a marker of colon cancer risk, in part by enhancing phospholipid oxidation. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vivo, we fed heterozygous SOD2Het, Gpx4Het and transgenic Gpx4TG mice diets containing either 15% corn oil by weight (CO, enriched in n-6 PUFA) or 3.5% CO + 11.5% fish oil (FO, enriched in n-3 PUFA) for 4 wk. Our data show that (i) genetic pre-deposition to oxidative stress facilitates apoptosis in the mouse colon (Gpx4Het > SOD2Het > Wt > Gpx4Tg), (ii) dietary n-3 PUFA have an additive effect on the induction of apoptosis in Gpx4Het and SOD2Het mice; and (iii) dietary n-3 PUFA reverse the phenotype in oxidatively protected Gpx4Tg mice by elevating apoptosis to a level observed in wild type (control) animals. Complimentary experiments examining colonic mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles indicate that FO fed mice exhibit a significantly (p<0.05) increased respiration-induced proton leak relative to control CO treatment. This finding is consistent with a loss of membrane potential in response to chronic oxidative stress, and supports the contention that n-3 PUFA alter mitochondrial metabolic activity, thereby enhancing apoptosis and reducing colon cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC3137683  PMID: 21490130
apoptosis; n-3 PUFA; oxidation; colon; mitochondria
3.  Role of the Endogenous Antioxidant System in the Protection of Schistosoma mansoni Primary Sporocysts against Exogenous Oxidative Stress 
Antioxidants produced by the parasite Schistosoma mansoni are believed to be involved in the maintenance of cellular redox balance, thus contributing to larval survival in their intermediate snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata. Here, we focused on specific antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione-S-transferases 26 and 28 (GST26 and 28), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxiredoxin 1 and 2 (Prx1 and 2) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), known to be involved in cellular redox reactions, in an attempt to evaluate their endogenous antioxidant function in the early-developing primary sporocyst stage of S. mansoni. Previously we demonstrated a specific and consistent RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of GST26 and 28, Prx1 and 2, and GPx transcripts, and an unexpected elevation of SOD transcripts in sporocysts treated with gene-specific double-stranded (ds)RNA. In the present followup study, in vitro transforming sporocysts were exposed to dsRNAs for GST26 and 28, combined Prx1/2, GPx, SOD or green-fluorescent protein (GFP, control) for 7 days in culture, followed by assessment of the effects of specific dsRNA treatments on protein levels using semi-quantitative Western blot analysis (GST26, Prx1/2 only), and larval susceptibility to exogenous oxidative stress in in vitro killing assays. Significant decreases (80% and 50%) in immunoreactive GST26 and Prx1/2, respectively, were observed in sporocysts treated with specific dsRNA, compared to control larvae treated with GFP dsRNA. Sporocysts cultured with dsRNAs for GST26, GST28, Prx1/2 and GPx, but not SOD dsRNA, were significantly increased in their susceptibility to H2O2 oxidative stress (60–80% mortalities at 48 hr) compared to GFP dsRNA controls (∼18% mortality). H2O2-mediated killing was abrogated by bovine catalase, further supporting a protective role for endogenous sporocyst antioxidants. Finally, in vitro killing of S. mansoni sporocysts by hemocytes of susceptible NMRI B. glabrata snails was increased in larvae treated with Prx1/2, GST26 and GST28 dsRNA, compared to those treated with GFP or SOD dsRNAs. Results of these experiments strongly support the hypothesis that endogenous expression and regulation of larval antioxidant enzymes serve a direct role in protection against external oxidative stress, including immune-mediated cytotoxic reactions. Moreover, these findings illustrate the efficacy of a RNAi-type approach in investigating gene function in larval schistosomes.
Author Summary
Species of the human blood fluke Schistosoma are estimated to infect approximately 200 million people worldwide, resulting in loss of health, vitality and productivity mainly among the world's poorest inhabitants. Since snail intermediate hosts represent an essential part of the flukes' life cycle, an understanding of the strategies used by the intramolluscan schistosome larvae to survive within this host may provide novel approaches for disrupting larval development and thus transmission to humans. Anti-oxidant enzymes produced by the parasite Schistosoma mansoni are believed to play a critical role in the maintenance of cellular redox balance, contributing to larval survival in their snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata. In this study, we have incorporated a RNA interference approach attempting to knock down specific anti-oxidant enzymes, including gluthatione-S-transferases 26 and 28 (GST26 and 28), gluthatione peroxidase (GPx), peroxiredoxins 1 and 2 (Prx1/2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and to evaluate their endogenous anti-oxidant function in the sporocyst stage of S. mansoni. Results clearly demonstrated a significantly higher susceptibility of antioxidant double-stranded (ds)RNA-treated larvae to in vitro H2O2 treatment or hemocytic encapsulation compared to GFP dsRNA controls. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that endogenous expression and regulation of larval antioxidant enzymes serve a direct role in protection against external oxidative stress, including immune-mediated cytotoxic reactions.
PMCID: PMC2771906  PMID: 19924224
4.  Increased Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 Strongly Protects Retina from Oxidative Damage 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2009;11(4):715-724.
Oxidative damage contributes to cone cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and death of rods, cones, and retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells in age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we explored the strategy of overexpressing components of the endogenous antioxidant defense system to combat oxidative damage in RPE cells and retina. In transfected cultured RPE cells with increased expression of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) or SOD2, there was increased constitutive and stress-induced oxidative damage measured by the level of carbonyl adducts on proteins. In contrast, RPE cells with increased expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) or Gpx4 did not show an increase in constitutive oxidative damage. An increase in Gpx4, and to a lesser extent Gpx1, reduced oxidative stress-induced RPE cell damage. Co-expression of Gpx4 with SOD1 or 2 partially reversed the deleterious effects of the SODs. Transgenic mice with inducible expression of Gpx4 in photoreceptors were generated, and in three models of oxidative damage-induced retinal degeneration, increased expression of Gpx4 provided strong protection of retinal structure and function. These data suggest that gene therapy approaches to augment the activity of Gpx4 in the retina and RPE should be considered in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 715–724.
PMCID: PMC2787833  PMID: 18823256
5.  Increased Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 Strongly Protects Retina from Oxidative Damage 
Antioxidants & redox signaling  2009;11(4):715-724.
Oxidative damage contributes to cone cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and death of rods, cones, and retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells in age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we explored the strategy of over-expressing components of the endogenous antioxidant defense system to combat oxidative damage in RPE cells and retina. In transfected cultured RPE cells with increased expression of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) or SOD2 there was increased constitutive and stress-induced oxidative damage measured by the level of carbonyl adducts on proteins. In contrast, RPE cells with increased expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) or Gpx4 did not show an increase in constitutive oxidative damage. An increase in Gpx4, and to a lesser extent Gpx1, reduced oxidative stress-induced RPE cell damage. Co-expression of Gpx4 with SOD1 or 2 partially reversed the deleterious effects of the SODs. Transgenic mice with inducible expression of Gpx4 in photoreceptors were generated and in 3 models of oxidative damage-induced retinal degeneration, increased expression of Gpx4 provided strong protection of retinal structure and function. These data suggest that gene therapy approaches to augment the activity of Gpx4 in the retina and RPE should be considered in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration.
PMCID: PMC2787833  PMID: 18823256
neuronal degeneration; age-related macular degeneration; retinitis pigmentosa; endogenous antioxidants; gene therapy; apoptosis
6.  Glutathione Peroxidase-1 in Health and Disease: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2011;15(7):1957-1997.
Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are generated in all cells by mitochondrial and enzymatic sources. Left unchecked, these reactive species can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that enzymatically reduces hydrogen peroxide to water to limit its harmful effects. Certain reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also essential for growth factor-mediated signal transduction, mitochondrial function, and maintenance of normal thiol redox-balance. Thus, by limiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation, GPx-1 also modulates these processes. This review explores the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression and function of GPx-1, with an emphasis on the role of GPx-1 in modulating cellular oxidant stress and redox-mediated responses. As a selenocysteine-containing enzyme, GPx-1 expression is subject to unique forms of regulation involving the trace mineral selenium and selenocysteine incorporation during translation. In addition, GPx-1 has been implicated in the development and prevention of many common and complex diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. This review discusses the role of GPx-1 in these diseases and speculates on potential future therapies to harness the beneficial effects of this ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1957–1997.
I. Introduction
II. GPx‐1 Activity
A. Enzymatic mechanisms of GPx
B. Structure and function: analysis of the active site
C. Inhibitors of GPx
D. Comparison among mammalian GPxs 1–4
III. Regulation of GPx‐1 Expression and Activity
A. Transcriptional regulation
B. Post‐transcriptional and translational regulation
1. Basic mechanisms of Sec incorporation
2. Selenium, nonsense‐mediated decay of GPx‐1 mRNA, and translational repression
3. Post‐transcriptional upregulation of GPx‐1
4. Inhibition of GPx‐1 translation
C. Post‐translational regulation
1. Sec oxidation
2. Stimulation by signal transduction and/or protein–protein interactions
IV. GPx‐1 and Oxidant‐Dependent Cellular Processes
A. Oxidative damage and cell death, apoptosis, and injury
1. Role of oxidants in cell death and apoptosis
2. Role of GPx‐1 in cell death and apoptosis
3. GPx‐1 and response to in vivo ROS
B. Redox‐dependent cell signaling, growth, and survival
V. GPx‐1 and Cancer
A. GPx‐1 and the mechanisms of cancer susceptibility
B. GPx‐1 and genetic polymorphisms
C. GPx‐1: genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk
1. Breast cancer
2. Lung cancer
3. Prostate cancer
4. Bladder cancer
5. Other cancers
VI. GPx‐1, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease
A. GPx‐1 and the mechanisms of susceptibility to diabetes and cardiovascular disease
1. Diabetes mellitus
2. Cardiac dysfunction and toxicity
3. Ischemia/reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and EPC function
4. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular tone
5. Inflammation and atherogenesis
B. Epidemiologic and genetic studies of GPx‐1 and cardiovascular disease
VII. GPx‐1 and Future Directions for Therapeutic Applications
PMCID: PMC3159114  PMID: 21087145
7.  Genetic and pharmacologic manipulation of oxidative stress after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia 
Oxidative stress is a critical component of the injury response after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain, and this response is unique and at times paradoxical to that seen in the mature brain. Previously, we showed that copper-zinc superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) over-expression is not beneficial to the neonatal mouse brain with HI injury, unlike the adult brain with ischemic injury. However, glutathione peroxidase1 (GPx1) over-expression is protective to the neonatal mouse brain with HI injury. To further test the hypothesis that an adequate supply of GPx is critical to protection from HI injury, we crossed SOD1 over-expressing mice (hSOD-tg) with GPx1 over-expressing mice (hGPx-tg). Resulting litters contained wild-type (wt), hGPx-tg, hSOD-tg and hybrid hGPx-tg/hSOD-tg pups, which were subjected to HI at P7. Confirming previous results, the hGPx-tg mice had reduced injury compared to both Wt and hSOD-tg littermates. Neonatal mice over-expressing both GPx1 and SOD1 also had less injury compared to wt or hSOD-tg alone. A result of oxidative stress after neonatal HI is a decrease in the concentration of reduced (i.e. antioxidant-active) glutathione (GSH). In this study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of alpha-lipoic acid on levels of GSH in the cortex after HI. Although GSH levels were restored by 24h after HI, injury was not reduced compared to vehicle-treated mice. We also tested two other pharmacological approaches to reducing oxidative stress in hSOD-tg and wild-type littermates. Both the specific inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, 7-nitroindazole (7NI), and the spin-trapping agent alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN) did not reduce HI injury, however. Taken together, these results imply that H2O2 is a critical component of neonatal HI injury, and GPx1 plays an important role in the defense against this H2O2 and is thereby neuroprotective.
PMCID: PMC2703481  PMID: 17935927
oxidative stress; stroke; reactive oxygen species; nitric oxide; hydrogen peroxide; brain; mouse
8.  Overexpression of SOD in Retina; Need for Increase in H202-Detoxifying Enzyme in Same Cellular Compartment 
Free radical biology & medicine  2011;51(7):1347-1354.
In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), various mutations cause rod photoreceptor cell death leading to increased oxygen levels in the outer retina, progressive oxidative damage to cones, and gradual loss of cone cell function. We have been exploring the potential of overexpressing components of the endogenous antioxidant defense system to preserve cone cell function in rd10+/+ mice, a model of RP. Rd10+/+ mice deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) showed increased levels of superoxide radicals and carbonyl adducts (a marker of oxidative damage) in the retina, and more rapid loss of cone function than rd10+/+ mice with normal levels of SOD1. This suggests that SOD1 is an important component of the antioxidant defense system of cones, but increased expression of SOD1 in rd10+/+ mice increased oxidative damage and accelerated the loss of cone function. Co-expression of SOD1 with glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), which like SOD1 is localized in the cytoplasm, but not with catalase targeted to the mitochondria, reduced oxidative damage in the retina and significantly slowed the loss of cone cell function in rd10+/+ mice. Gene transfer resulting in increased expression of SOD2, but not co-expression of SOD2 and mitochondrial Gpx4, resulted in high levels of H2O2 in the retina. These data suggest that in order to provide benefit in RP, over-expression of a SOD must be combined with expression of a peroxide detoxifying enzyme in the same cellular compartment.
PMCID: PMC3163708  PMID: 21736939
catalase; glutathione peroxidase; photoreceptors; reactive oxygen species; retina; retinitis pigmentosa
9.  Lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic oxidative injury is not potentiated by knockout of GPX1 and SOD1 in mice 
Knockout of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and (or) cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) has been reported to have dual impacts on coping with free radical-induced oxidative injury. Because bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers inflammatory responses involving the release of cytokines, nitric oxide and superoxide in targeted organs such as liver, in this study we used SOD1 knockout (SOD1-/-), GPX1 knockout (GPX1-/-), GPX1 and SOD1 double-knockout (DKO) and their wild-type (WT) mice to investigate the role of these two antioxidant enzymes in LPS-induced oxidative injury in liver. Mice of the four genotypes (2-month old) were killed at 0, 3, 6 or 12 h after an ip injection of saline or 5 mg LPS/kg body weight. The LPS injection caused similar increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase among the four genotypes. Hepatic total glutathione (GSH) was decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the initial values by the LPS injection at all time points in the WT mice, but only at 6 and 12 h in the other three genotypes. The GSH level in the DKO mice was higher (P < 0.05) than in the WT at 6 h. Although the LPS injection resulted in substantial increases in plasma NO in a time-dependent manner in all genotypes, the NO level in the DKO mice was lower (P < 0.05) at 3, 6, and 12 h than in the WT. The level in the GPX1-/- and SOD1-/- mice was also lower (P < 0.05) than in the WT at 3 h. The LPS-mediated hepatic protein nitration was detected in the WT and GPX1-/- mice at 3, 6 or 12 h, but not in the SOD1-/-. In conclusion, knockout of SOD1 and (or) GPX1 did not potentiate the LPS-induced liver injury, but delayed the induced hepatic GSH depletion and plasma NO production.
PMCID: PMC3018559  PMID: 21145306
Lipopolysaccharide; oxidative injury; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase
10.  The in vivo Gene Expression Signature of Oxidative Stress 
Physiological genomics  2008;34(1):112-126.
How higher organisms respond to elevated oxidative stress in vivo is poorly understood. Therefore, we measured oxidative stress parameters and gene expression alterations (Affymetrix arrays) in the liver caused by elevated reactive oxygen species induced in vivo by diquat or by genetic ablation of the major antioxidant enzymes, CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase (Sod1) and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 (Gpx1).
Diquat (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within 3 to 6 hours in wild type mice without any lethality. In contrast, treating Sod1−/− or Gpx1−/− mice with a similar concentration of diquat resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within an hour of treatment and was lethal, i.e., these mice are extremely sensitive to the oxidative stress generated by diquat. The expression response to elevated oxidative stress in vivo does not involve an upregulation of classical antioxidant genes, though long-term oxidative stress in the Sod1−/− mice leads to a significant upregulation of thiol antioxidants (e.g., Mt1, Srxn1, Gclc, Txnrd1), which appears to be mediated by the redox-sensitive transcription factor, Nrf2. The main finding of our study is that the common response to elevated oxidative stress, with diquat treatment in wild type, Gpx1−/−, Sod1−/− mice and in untreated Sod1−/− mice, is an upregulation of p53 target genes (p21, Gdf15, Plk3, Atf3, Trp53inp1, Ddit4, Gadd45a, Btg2, Ndrg1). A retrospective comparison with previous studies shows that induction of these p53-target genes is a conserved expression response to oxidative stress, in vivo and in vitro, in different species and different cells/organs.
PMCID: PMC2532791  PMID: 18445702
Oxidative Stress; Gene Expression; p53-target genes; Sod1; Gpx1
11.  Oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in drug-naive schizophrenics 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2014;56(4):344-349.
Schizophrenia is a chronic illness having varied etiology which affects cognition, emotion, perception, and other aspects of behavior. There are data which show possible role of oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant mechanisms in various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty drug-naive schizophrenic patients, who attended psychiatry outpatient department/inpatient department for the 1st time, were selected and compared with 50 age-sex matched healthy controls. The erythrocyte level of malondialdehyde (MDA) - a lipid peroxidation product and marker of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was estimated. We also correlated the sociodemographic parameters and severity of illness (positive and negative syndrome scale score) with oxidative stress (MDA) and level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX).
The level of oxidative stress (MDA) was increased, and the levels of antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) were decreased in schizophrenic patients as compared to normal healthy controls and the difference was statistically significant. No significant relationships of age, sex, educational status, marital status, and PANNS score with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found; but there was significant relationship of locality with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found. Urban population have a higher level of MDA, GPX, and SOD than the rural population.
Our findings put great emphasis on the weak pro/antioxidant defense mechanisms and its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We can make recommendations of dietary nutritional supplementation and adjunct antioxidants therapy with antipsychotics to treat schizophrenics.
PMCID: PMC4279291  PMID: 25568474
Antioxidative enzymes; drug naive; oxidative stress; schizophrenia
12.  Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species 
Age  2010;32(2):255-270.
The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by ∼50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein’s phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005–1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9131-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2861745  PMID: 20431992
Antioxidant enzyme; Life span; MLSP; Mammals; Birds; MnSOD; CuZnSOD; Catalase; Glutathione peroxidise; Glutathione reductase
13.  The Mn-superoxide dismutase single nucleotide polymorphism rs4880 and the glutathione peroxidase 1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1050450 are associated with aging and longevity in the oldest old 
The free radical theory of aging states that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in age-related accumulation of cellular damage, and consequently influence aging and longevity. Therefore, variation in genes encoding proteins protecting against ROS could be expected to influence variation in aging and life span. The rs4880 and rs1050450 SNPs in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) genes, respectively, are associated with age-related diseases and appear to affect the activities of the encoded variant proteins.
In this study we genotyped these SNPs in 1650 individuals from the Danish 1905 cohort (follow-up time: 1998–2008, age at intake: 92–93 years, number of deaths: 1589 (96.3%)) and investigated the association with aging and longevity. We found decreased mortality of individuals holding either the MnSOD rs4880 C or the GPX1 rs1050450 T alleles (HR (MnSOD(CC/CT)) = 0.91, p = 0.002), HR (GPX1(TT/TC)) = 0.93, p = 0.008)). Furthermore, a synergetic effect of the alleles was observed (HR = 0.76, p = 0.001). Finally, moderate positive associations with good self rated health, decreased disability and increased cognitive capacity were observed. Our results thus indicate that genetic variation in MnSOD and GPX1 may be associated with aging and longevity.
PMCID: PMC2720516  PMID: 19428448
Longevity; aging; single nucleotide polymorphisms; Mn-superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase 1
14.  Oxidative stress and damage induced by abnormal free radical reactions and IgA nephropathy 
Objective: To estimate the oxidative stress and oxidative damage induced by abnormal free radical reactions in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients’ bodies. Methods: Seventy-two IgA N patients (IgANP) and 72 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in a random control study design, in which the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma, lipoperoxide (LPO) in plasma and in erythrocytes, and vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and β-carotene (β-CAR) in plasma as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in erythrocytes were determined with spectrophotometric mothods. Results: Compared with the HAV group, the averages of NO in plasma, and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes in the IgANP group were significantly increased (P<0.0001), while those of VC, VE and β-CAR in plasma as well as those of SOD, CAT and GPX in erythrocytes in the IgANP group were significantly decreased (P<0.0001). Linear correlation analysis showed that with the increase of the values of NO, and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, and with the decrease of those of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT and GPX in the IgAN patients, the degree of histological damage of tubulointerstitial regions was increased gradually (P<0.0001); and that with the prolongation of the duration of disease the values of NO, and LPO in plasma and erythrocytes were increased gradually, while those of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT and GPX were decreased gradually (P<0.005). The discriminatory correct rates of the above biochemical parameters reflecting oxidative damage of the IgAN patients were 73.8%–92.5%, and the correct rates for the HAV were 70.0%–91.3% when independent discriminant analysis was used; and the correct rate for the IgAN patients was increased to 98.8%, the correct rate for the HAV was increased to 100% when stepwise discriminant analysis was used. The above biochemical parameters’ reliability coefficient (alpha) were used to estimate the oxidative damage of the IgAN patients as 0.8145, the standardized item alpha=0.9730, F=53273.5681, P<0.0001. Conclusions: A series of free radical chain reactions caused serious pathological aggravation in the IgANP’ bodies, thus resulting in oxidative damage in their bodies. In treating IgANP, therefore, it is necessary that suitable dose antioxidants should be supplemented to them so as to alleviate the oxidative damage in their bodies.
PMCID: PMC1390762  PMID: 15593395
Chronic glomerulonephritis; Free radicals; Oxidation; Lipoperoxidation; Nitric oxide; Lipoperoxide; Antioxidant; Antioxidase; Oxidative stress; Oxidative damage
15.  Gene polymorphisms against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in leukocytes of healthy humans through comet assay: a quasi-experimental study 
Environmental Health  2010;9:21.
Normal cellular metabolism is well established as the source of endogenous reactive oxygen species which account for the background levels of oxidative DNA damage detected in normal tissue. Hydrogen peroxide imposes an oxidative stress condition on cells that can result in DNA damage, leading to mutagenesis and cell death. Several potentially significant genetic variants related to oxidative stress have already been identified, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been reported as possible antioxidant agents that can reduce vascular oxidative stress in cardiovascular events.
We investigate the influences of haptoglobin, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD Val9Ala), catalase (CAT -21A/T), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1 Pro198Leu), ACE (I/D) and gluthatione S-transferases GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms against DNA damage and oxidative stress. These were induced by exposing leukocytes from peripheral blood of healthy humans (N = 135) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the effects were tested by comet assay. Blood samples were submitted to genotyping and comet assay (before and after treatment with H2O2 at 250 μM and 1 mM).
After treatment with H2O2 at 250 μM, the GPx-1 polymorphism significantly influenced results of comet assay and a possible association of the Pro/Leu genotype with higher DNA damage was found. The highest or lowest DNA damage also depended on interaction between GPX-1/ACE and Hp/GSTM1T1 polymorphisms when hydrogen peroxide treatment increased oxidative stress.
The GPx-1 polymorphism and the interactions between GPX-1/ACE and Hp/GSTM1T1 can be determining factors for DNA oxidation provoked by hydrogen peroxide, and thus for higher susceptibility to or protection against oxidative stress suffered by healthy individuals.
PMCID: PMC2881052  PMID: 20444272
16.  Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves health span in mice 
Life expectancy at birth in the first world has increased from 35 years at the beginning of the 20th century to more than 80 years now. The increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase in age-related diseases and larger numbers of frail and dependent people. The aim of our study was to determine whether life-long spontaneous aerobic exercise affects lifespan and healthspan in mice.
Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 72) or spontaneous wheel-runners (n = 72). We evaluated longevity and several health parameters including grip strength, motor coordination, exercise capacity (VO2max) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We also measured the cortical levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin associated with brain plasticity. In addition, we measured systemic oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl plasma levels) and the expression and activity of two genes involved in antioxidant defense in the liver (that is, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)). Genes that encode antioxidant enzymes are considered longevity genes because their over-expression may modulate lifespan. Aging was associated with an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, GPx and Mn-SOD, in the liver in mice. Life-long spontaneous exercise did not prolong longevity but prevented several signs of frailty (that is, decrease in strength, endurance and motor coordination). This improvement was accompanied by a significant increase in the mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and in the cortical BDNF levels.
Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves healthspan in mice. Exercise is an intervention that delays age-associated frailty, enhances function and can be translated into the clinic.
PMCID: PMC3922914  PMID: 24472376
Longevity; Sarcopenia; BDNF; Successful aging; Mitochondria; Frailty
17.  Generation and characterization of a novel kidney-specific manganese superoxide dismutase knockout mouse 
Free radical biology & medicine  2011;51(2):406-416.
Inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a mitochondrial antioxidant, has been associated with renal disorders and often results in detrimental downstream events that are mechanistically not clear. Development of an animal model that exhibits kidney-specific deficiency of MnSOD would be extremely beneficial in exploring the downstream events that occur following MnSOD inactivation. Using Cre-Lox recombination technology, kidney-specific MnSOD deficient mice (both 100% and 50%) were generated that exhibited low expression of MnSOD in discrete renal cell types and reduced enzymatic activity within the kidney. These kidney-specific 100% KO mice possessed a normal life-span, although it was interesting that the mice were smaller. Consistent with the important role in scavenging superoxide radicals, the kidney-specific KO mice showed a significant increase in oxidative stress (tyrosine nitration) in a gene-dose dependent manner. In addition, loss of MnSOD resulted in mild renal damage (tubular dilation and cell swelling). Hence, this novel mouse model will aid in determining the specific role (local and/or systemic) governed by MnSOD within certain kidney cells. Moreover, these mice will serve as a powerful tool to explore molecular mechanisms that occur downstream of MnSOD inactivation in renal disorders or possibly in other pathologies that rely on normal renal function.
PMCID: PMC3118857  PMID: 21571061
Cre-Lox technology; Kidney; MnSOD; Cre recombinase; Superoxide; Nitrotyrosine
18.  Longevity of insulin receptor substrate1 null mice is not associated with increased basal antioxidant protection or reduced oxidative damage 
Age  2012;35(3):647-658.
Insulin receptor substrate-1 null (Irs1−/−) mice are long lived and importantly they also demonstrate increased resistance to several age-related pathologies compared to wild type (WT) controls. Currently, the molecular mechanisms that underlie lifespan extension in long-lived mice are unclear although protection against oxidative damage may be important. Here, we determined both the activities of several intracellular antioxidants and levels of oxidative damage in brain, skeletal muscle, and liver of Irs1−/− and WT mice at 80, 450, and 700 days of age, predicting that long-lived Irs1−/− mice would be protected against oxidative damage. We measured activities of both intracellular superoxide dismutases (SOD); cytosolic (CuZnSOD) and mitochondrial (MnSOD), glutathione peroxide (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GHS). Of these, only hepatic CAT was significantly altered (increased) in Irs1−/− mice. In addition, the levels of protein oxidation (protein carbonyl content) and lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal) were unaltered in Irs1−/− mice, although the hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio, indicating an oxidized environment, was significantly lower in long-lived Irs1−/− mice. Overall, our results do not support the premise that lifespan extension in Irs1−/− mice is associated with greater tissue antioxidant protection or reduced oxidative damage.
PMCID: PMC3636410  PMID: 22371226
Insulin receptor substrate-1; Irs1; Lifespan; Antioxidant enzymes; Oxidative damage; Ageing
19.  Copper deficiency: A potential model for determining the role of mitochondria in cardiac aging 
Heart mitochondria experience age-related declines in cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to loss of cardiac function and the development of disease that occur with advancing age. In a manner similar to aging, copper deficiency also suppresses heart CCO activity and has cardiovascular consequences related to increased peroxidation. Food restriction is often used as a tool to study oxidative mechanisms of aging and the present study examines the potential of copper deficiency to model the role of mitochondria in cardiac aging by determining if the effect of food restriction on CCO activity and oxidative stress in heart mitochondria parallels its effect on cardiac mitochondria during aging. Overall, copper deficiency severely inhibited CCO activity and increased both Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in isolated heart mitochondria. However, a 20% reduction in food intake by copper-deficient rats increased CCO activity by 65% and decreased MnSOD activity by 25% but had no effect in rats fed adequate copper. Copper deficiency also reduced the carbonyl content of 80–100 kDa mitochondrial proteins, but the reduction in carbonyl content was unaffected by food restriction. Food restriction did, however, completely prevent the enlargement of cardiac mitochondria in copper-deficient rats. Together, these findings indicate that copper deficiency induces mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and hypertrophy in cardiac tissue in response to reduced CCO activity and that food restriction may counteract these changes by reducing oxidative stress. Because the action of food restriction on CCO activity and mitochondrially generated oxidative stress are similar in copper deficiency and aging, copper deficiency may serve as a short-term model for studying the potential roles of mitochondria in cardiac aging.
PMCID: PMC3456815  PMID: 23604915
20.  Time course study of oxidative and nitrosative stress and antioxidant enzymes in K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity 
BMC Nephrology  2005;6:4.
Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this study we investigated the relation between the time course of the oxidative and nitrosative stress with kidney damage and alterations in the following antioxidant enzymes: Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT).
Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by a single injection of K2Cr2O7. Groups of animals were sacrificed on days 1,2,3,4,6,8,10, and 12. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated by histological studies and by measuring creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and total protein. Oxidative and nitrosative stress were measured by immunohistochemical localization of protein carbonyls and 3-nitrotyrosine, respectively. Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and CAT were studied by immunohistochemical localization. The activity of total SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR was also measured as well as serum and kidney content of chromium and urinary excretion of NO2 -/NO3-. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test.
Serum and kidney chromium content increased reaching the highest value on day 1. Nephrotoxicity was made evident by the decrease in creatinine clearance (days 1–4) and by the increase in serum creatinine (days 1–4), BUN (days 1–6), urinary excretion of NAG (days 1–4), and total protein (day 1–6) and by the structural damage to the proximal tubules (days 1–6). Oxidative and nitrosative stress were clearly evident on days 1–8. Urinary excretion of NO2-/NO3- decreased on days 2–6. Mn-SOD and Cu, Zn-SOD, estimated by immunohistochemistry, and total SOD activity remained unchanged. Activity of GPx decreased on days 3–12 and those of GR and CAT on days 2–10. Similar findings were observed by immunohistochemistry of CAT.
These data show the association between oxidative and nitrosative stress with functional and structural renal damage induced by K2Cr2O7. Renal antioxidant enzymes were regulated differentially and were not closely associated with oxidative or nitrosative stress or with kidney damage. In addition, the decrease in the urinary excretion of NO2-/NO3- was associated with the renal nitrosative stress suggesting that nitric oxide was derived to the formation of reactive nitrogen species involved in protein nitration.
PMCID: PMC1142323  PMID: 15854231
21.  Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2009;41(2):64-67.
Increased levels of oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions. Protective antioxidant action imparted by many plant extracts and plant products make them promising therapeutic drugs for free radical induced pathologies. In this study we assessed the antioxidant potential of Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae).
Materials and Methods:
Experimental rats were divided into two groups: Control and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) treated. Treated rats received P. amarus aqueous extract (PAAEt) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt/day for 8 weeks. After the treatment period of 8 weeks lipid peroxidation (LPO), vitamin C, uric acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in plasma and antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also assayed. Genotoxicity of PAAEt was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) of lymphocytes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The protective role of PAAEt against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), streptozotocin (STZ) and nitric oxide generating system induced lymphocyte DNA damage was also assessed by SCGE.
PAAEt treated rats showed a significant decrease in plasma LPO and a significant increase in plasma vitamin C, uric acid, GSH levels and GPx, CAT and SOD activities. SCGE experiment reveals that PAAEt was devoid of genotoxicity and had a significant protective effect against H2O2, STZ and nitric oxide (NO) induced lymphocyte DNA damage.
The results suggest the non-toxic nature of PAAEt and consumption of PAAEt can be linked to improved antioxidant status and reduction in the risk of oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC2841234  PMID: 20336219
Antioxidants; lymphocytes; Phyllanthus amarus; single cell gel electrophoresis SCGE
22.  Innate Immune Responses and Antioxidant/Oxidant Imbalance Are Major Determinants of Human Chagas Disease 
We investigated the pathological and diagnostic role of selected markers of inflammation, oxidant/antioxidant status, and cellular injury in human Chagas disease.
Seropositive/chagasic subjects characterized as clinically-symptomatic or clinically-asymptomatic (n = 116), seronegative/cardiac subjects (n = 102), and seronegative/healthy subjects (n = 45) were analyzed for peripheral blood biomarkers.
Seropositive/chagasic subjects exhibited an increase in sera or plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO, 2.8-fold), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, 56%), nitrite (5.7-fold), lipid peroxides (LPO, 12–17-fold) and malondialdehyde (MDA, 4–6-fold); and a decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD, 52%) and glutathione (GSH, 75%) contents. Correlation analysis identified a significant (p<0.001) linear relationship between inflammatory markers (AOPP/nitrite: r = 0.877), inflammation and antioxidant/oxidant status (AOPP/glutathione peroxidase (GPX): r = 0.902, AOPP/GSH: r = 0.806, Nitrite/GPX: 0.773, Nitrite/LPO: 0.805, MDA/MPO: 0.718), and antioxidant/oxidant levels (GPX/MDA: r = 0.768) in chagasic subjects. Of these, MPO, LPO and nitrite biomarkers were highly specific and sensitive for distinguishing seropositive/chagasic subjects from seronegative/healthy controls (p<0.001, training and fitting AUC/ROC >0.95). The MPO (r = 0.664) and LPO (r = 0.841) levels were also correlated with clinical disease state in chagasic subjects (p<0.001). Seronegative/cardiac subjects exhibited up to 77% decline in SOD, 3–5-fold increase in LPO and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels, and statistically insignificant change in MPO, AOPP, MDA, GPX, GSH, and creatine kinase (CK) levels.
The interlinked effects of innate immune responses and antioxidant/oxidant imbalance are major determinants of human Chagas disease. The MPO, LPO and nitrite are excellent biomarkers for diagnosing seropositive/chagasic subjects, and MPO and LPO levels have potential utility in identifying clinical severity of Chagas disease.
Author Summary
Chagas disease is a chronic disease of the heart, and caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In this study, we have monitored the biomarkers of inflammation caused by innate immune cells, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in seropositive/chagasic, seronegative/cardiac disease, and seronegative/healthy subjects. Our goal was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of selected biomarkers, and determine if any of the biomarkers are good indicators of clinical severity of Chagas disease. We also determined whether sera or plasma serve as a better source, and if sample storage affects the estimation of the selected biomarkers. Our data suggest that innate immune responses and antioxidant/oxidant imbalance are inter-linked pathological events in Chagas disease. We have identified peripheral blood markers (myeloperoxidase, lipid hydroperoxides and nitrite) that strongly distinguish seropositive/chagasic subjects from controls. Further, we found that myeloperoxidase and lipid hydroperoxide levels have potential utility in identifying seropositive subjects at risk of developing clinically symptomatic disease.
PMCID: PMC3738450  PMID: 23951383
23.  Decreased glutathione accelerates neurological deficit and mitochondrial pathology in familial ALS-linked hSOD1G93A mice model 
Neurobiology of disease  2011;43(3):543-551.
Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. To investigate the role of antioxidant defenses in ALS we used knockout mice for the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-/-), which have a 70-80% reduction in total glutathione. Although GCLM(-/-) mice are viable and fertile, the life span of GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1G93A mice decreased in 55% when compared to GCLM(+/+)/hSOD1G93A mice. Decreased life span in GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1G93A mice was associated to increased oxidative stress, aggravated mitochondrial pathology and increased association of hSOD1 with the mitochondria. Interestingly, when the GCLM(-/-) animals were mated with a different ALS-model which overexpress the experimental mutation hSOD1H46R/H48Q, no effect was observed in survival of GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1H46R/H48Q mice; and little or no mitochondrial pathology was observed. Since a specific disease modifier, such as glutathione deficiency, may affect only certain hSOD1 mutants, these findings contribute to our understanding of the potential difference in the molecular pathways by which different hSOD1 mutants generate disease.
PMCID: PMC3139005  PMID: 21600285
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; glutathione; GCLM; mitochondria
24.  Increased life span from overexpression of superoxide dismutase in Caenorhabditis elegans is not caused by decreased oxidative damage 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine  2011;51(8):1575-1582.
The superoxide free radical (O2•−) has been viewed as a likely major contributor to aging. If this is correct, then superoxide dismutase (SOD), which removes O2•−, should contribute to longevity assurance. In Caenorhabditis elegans, overexpression (OE) of the major cytosolic Cu/Zn-SOD, sod-1, increases life span. But is this increase caused by enhanced antioxidant defense? sod-1 OE did not reduce measures of lipid oxidation or glycation and actually increased levels of protein oxidation. The effect of sod-1 OE on life span was dependent on the DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor (TF) and, partially, on the heat shock TF HSF-1. Similarly, overexpression of sod-2 (major mitochondrial Mn-SOD) resulted in life-span extension that was daf-16 dependent. sod-1 OE increased steady-state hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in vivo. However, co-overexpression of catalase did not suppress the life-span extension, arguing against H2O2 as a cause of longevity. sod-1 OE increased hsp-4 expression, suggesting increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, longevity was partially suppressed by inactivation of ire-1 and xbp-1, mediators of the ER stress response. This suggests that high levels of SOD-1 protein may challenge protein-folding homeostasis, triggering a daf-16- and hsf-1-dependent stress response that extends life span. These findings imply that SOD overexpression increases C. elegans life span, not by removal of O2•−, but instead by activating longevity-promoting transcription factors.
► sod-1 over-expression increases levels of cellular ROS and of molecular damage. ► sod-1 over-expression effects on lifespan are dependent on DAF-16 (FoxO) and HSF-1. ► Increased lifespan is partially suppressed by inactivation of ER stress mediators. ► sod-2 (MnSOD) over-expression effects on lifespan are dependent on DAF-16.
PMCID: PMC3202636  PMID: 21839827
HNE, 4-hydroxynonenal; AMPK, AMP-dependent kinase; CML, carboxymethyllysine; co-OE, co-overexpression; HSF-1, heat shock factor-1; IIS, insulin/IGF-1 signaling; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; OE, overexpression; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RNAi, RNA-mediated interference; O2•−, superoxide anion; SOD, superoxide dismutase; Aging; Caenorhabditis elegans; daf-16/FoxO; ER stress; Oxidative damage; Superoxide dismutase; Free radicals
25.  Targeting NADPH Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis 
The journal of sexual medicine  2012;9(8):1980-1987.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown.
We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis.
SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes.
Main Outcome Measures
Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis.
Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox, 4-HNE-modified proteins, induced eNOS uncoupling, and reduced Gpx1 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of p47phox, gp91phox (but not p67phox) and 4-HNE, but only slightly (P > 0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters.
NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a potential target for improving vascular function in the SCD mouse penis.
PMCID: PMC3435474  PMID: 22620981
eNOS Uncoupling; Antioxidants; Priapism

Results 1-25 (1038409)