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1.  Physical and mental health perspectives of first year undergraduate rural university students 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:848.
Background
University students are often perceived to have a privileged position in society and considered immune to ill-health and disability. There is growing evidence that a sizeable proportion experience poor physical health, and that the prevalence of psychological disorders is higher in university students than their community peers. This study examined the physical and mental health issues for first year Australian rural university students and their perception of access to available health and support services.
Methods
Cross-sectional study design using an online survey form based on the Adolescent Screening Questionnaire modeled on the internationally recognised HEADSS survey tool. The target audience was all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in an on-campus degree program. The response rate was 41% comprising 355 students (244 females, 111 males). Data was analysed using standard statistical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics; and thematic analysis of the open-ended responses.
Results
The mean age of the respondents was 20.2 years (SD 4.8). The majority of the students lived in on-campus residential college style accommodation, and a third combined part-time paid work with full-time study. Most students reported being in good physical health. However, on average two health conditions were reported over the past six months, with the most common being fatigue (56%), frequent headaches (26%) and allergies (24%). Mental health problems included anxiety (25%), coping difficulties (19.7%) and diagnosed depression (8%). Most respondents reported adequate access to medical doctors and support services for themselves (82%) and friends (78%). However the qualitative comments highlighted concerns about stigma, privacy and anonymity in seeking counselling.
Conclusions
The present study adds to the limited literature of physical and mental health issues as well as barriers to service utilization by rural university students. It provides useful baseline data for the development of customised support programs at rural campuses. Future research using a longitudinal research design and multi-site studies are recommended to facilitate a deeper understanding of health issues affecting rural university students.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-848
PMCID: PMC3847612  PMID: 24034822
Physical health; Mental health; Well-being; University students; Adolescents; Young adults
2.  A 5-Year Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Journal Article Publications of Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To evaluate scholarship, as represented by peer-reviewed journal articles, among US pharmacy practice faculty members; contribute evidence that may better inform benchmarking by academic pharmacy practice departments; and examine factors that may be related to publication rates.
Methods. Journal articles published by all pharmacy practice faculty members between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified. College and school publication rates were compared based on public vs. private status, being part of a health science campus, having a graduate program, and having doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) faculty members funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members published 6,101 articles during the 5-year study period, and a pharmacy practice faculty member was the primary author on 2,698 of the articles. Pharmacy practice faculty members published an average of 0.51 articles per year. Pharmacy colleges and schools affiliated with health science campuses, at public institutions, with NIH-funded PharmD faculty members, and with graduate programs had significantly higher total publication rates compared with those that did not have these characteristics (p<0.006).
Conclusion. Pharmacy practice faculty members contributed nearly 6,000 unique publications over the 5-year period studied. However, this reflects a rate of less than 1 publication per faculty member per year, suggesting that a limited number of faculty members produced the majority of publications.
doi:10.5688/ajpe767127
PMCID: PMC3448465  PMID: 23049099
academia; pharmacy practice; faculty; publications; scholarship
3.  Establishing and Maintaining a Satellite Campus Connected by Synchronous Video Conferencing 
Pharmacy education has experienced substantial growth in the number of new schools and existing schools establishing satellite campuses. Several models have previously been used to connect primary and satellite campuses. We describe the Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy's (AUHSOP's) experiences using synchronous video conferencing between the Auburn University campus in Auburn and a satellite campus in Mobile, Alabama. We focus on the technology considerations related to planning, construction, implementation, and continued use of the various resources that support our program. Students’ perceptions of their experiences related to technology also are described.
doi:10.5688/ajpe75591
PMCID: PMC3142980  PMID: 21829265
satellite; video conference; technology; campus; distance
4.  Evaluation of an Internet-Based Alcohol Misuse Prevention Course for College Freshmen Findings of a Randomized Multi-Campus Trial 
Background
Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention programs are now used by many universities. One popular 2- to 3-hour online course known as AlcoholEdu for College is typically required for all incoming freshmen and thus constitutes a campus-level strategy to reduce student alcohol misuse.
Purpose
This is the first multi-campus study to evaluate the effectiveness of an Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention course.
Design
RCT with 30 universities: 21 entered the study in Fall 2007, nine in Fall 2008. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive the online course and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. The course was implemented by intervention schools during the late summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university, beginning prior to the intervention in Spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in Fall 2008/09 and Spring 2009/2010.
Setting/participants
Public and private universities of varying sizes across the U.S. Random samples of 200 freshmen per campus were invited to participate in online surveys for the evaluation. Overall survey response rates ranged from 44% to 48% (M ≈ 90 participants per campus).
Intervention
The online course includes five modules; the first four (Part I) are typically offered in the late summer before matriculation, and the fifth (Part II) in early fall. Course content includes defining a standard drink, physiologic effects of alcohol, the need to monitor blood alcohol level, social influences on alcohol use, alcohol laws, personalized normative feedback, and alcohol harm-reduction strategies. Students must pass an exam after Part I to advance to Part II.
Main outcome measures
Past-30-day alcohol use, average number of drinks per occasion, and binge drinking.
Results
Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the frequency of past-30-day alcohol use (beta = –0.64, p<0.05) and binge drinking (beta = –0.26, p<0.05) during the fall semester immediately after completion of the course. However, these effects did not persist when assessed in the spring semester. Post-hoc comparisons suggested stronger course effects on these outcomes at colleges with higher rates of student course completion. No course effects were observed for average number of drinks per occasion or prevalence of binge drinking, regardless of the campus course completion rate.
Conclusions
This study provides initial evidence that the Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention course has beneficial short-term effects on hazardous drinking behavior among first-year college students, which should be reinforced through effective environmental prevention strategies.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.03.021
PMCID: PMC3173258  PMID: 21855745
5.  The influence of regional basic science campuses on medical students' choice of specialty and practice location: a historical cohort study 
Background
Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) employs eight regional basic science campuses, where half of the students complete their first two years of medical school. The other half complete all four years at the main campus in Indianapolis. The authors tested the hypothesis that training at regional campuses influences IUSM students to pursue primary care careers near the regional campuses they attended.
Methods
Medical school records for 2,487 graduates (classes of 1988–1997) were matched to the 2003 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile to identify the medical specialty and practice location of each graduate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of regional campus attendance on students' choice of medical specialty and practice location, while simultaneously adjusting for several covariates thought to affect these career outcomes.
Results
Compared to Indianapolis students, those who attended a regional campus were somewhat more likely to be white, have parents with middle class occupations, and score slightly lower on the Medical College Admission Test. Any such differences were adjusted for in the regression models, which predicted that four of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than Indianapolis to produce family practitioners, and that five of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than the others to have former students practicing in the region. When analyzed collectively, attendance at any regional campus was a significant predictor of a primary care practice located outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area.
Conclusion
Attending a regional campus for preclinical training appears to increase the likelihood of practicing primary care medicine in local communities.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-29
PMCID: PMC2700105  PMID: 19500392
6.  Attributes of Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States 
Objectives
To compare the attributes of US colleges and schools of pharmacy and describe the extent of change to the pharmacy education enterprise associated with the addition of new schools.
Methods
Attributes analyzed included whether the college or school of pharmacy was old or new, public or private, secular or faith-based, and on or not on an academic health center (AHC) campus; had 3- or 4- year programs; and had PhD students enrolled. PharmD student enrollment-to-faculty ratios and junior-to-senior faculty ratios also were examined.
Results
Of the new colleges/schools, 76% were private and 79% were not located on a campus with an AHC; 6% had PhD enrollment compared with 80% of old colleges/schools. Faculty ratios were related to several college/school attributes, including the presence or absence of PhD students and whether the college/school was public or private.
Conclusions
Attributes of new colleges and schools of pharmacy have changed the overall profile of all colleges and schools of pharmacy. For example, smaller percentages of all colleges and schools of pharmacy are public and have PhD enrollees.
PMCID: PMC2739081  PMID: 19777110
pharmacy education; faculty-to-student ratio; college/school attributes
7.  Team-Based Learning in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To characterize the use of team-based learning (TBL) in US colleges and schools of pharmacy, including factors that may affect implementation and perceptions of faculty members regarding the impact of TBL on educational outcomes.
Methods. Respondents identified factors that inhibit or enable TBL use and its impact on student learning. Results were stratified by type of institution (public/private), class size, and TBL experience.
Results. Sixty-nine of 100 faculty members (69%) representing 43 (86%) institutions responded. Major factors considered to enable TBL implementation included a single campus and student and administration buy-in. Inhibiting factors included distant campuses, faculty resistance, and lack of training. Compared with traditional lectures, TBL is perceived to enhance student engagement, improve students’ preparation for class, and promote achievement of course outcomes. In addition, TBL is perceived to be more effective than lectures at fostering learning in all 6 domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Conclusions. Despite potential implementation challenges, faculty members perceive that TBL improves student engagement and learning.
doi:10.5688/ajpe776115
PMCID: PMC3748296  PMID: 23966718
Team-based learning; active learning; pharmacy; education
8.  Concurrent Use of an Audience Response System at a Multi-Campus College of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess the impact of an audience response system (ARS) on student engagement at a multi-campus college of pharmacy.
Methods. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to measure the impact of an ARS on student engagement, distance education, projected use, and satisfaction among pharmacy students for a course delivered across 3 sites via synchronous video transmission.
Results. Students reported that use of the ARS made it easier to participate (85.3%) and helped them to focus (75.7%) in classes when the lecturer was physically at a different site. They also valued that the ARS allowed them to respond anonymously (93.2%). A minority of students indicated that use of the ARS was distracting (11.8%).
Conclusions. Implementation of an ARS was associated with positive student perceptions of engagement and may improve feelings of connectedness among students at schools with multiple sites. Use of ARSs could also represent a cognitive intercession strategy to help reduce communication apprehension.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7616
PMCID: PMC3298404  PMID: 22412205
audience response system; clicker; distance education; student engagement
9.  Video Teleconferencing in the Compounding Laboratory Component of a Dual-Campus Doctor of Pharmacy Program 
Objectives. To design, implement, and assess the effectiveness of using a live video teleconferencing system to connect the main campus and a satellite campus during laboratory compounding exercises in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program.
Design. A new laboratory facility with identical equipment and supplies to the main campus was built at the satellite campus and teleconferencing equipment was set up. Students on both campuses prepared 20 compounded formulations over a 5-course pharmaceutical care laboratory sequence. Live video teleconferencing was used for students to ask questions and for the lead faculty instructor to observe the students’ technique. Faculty and staff members and teaching assistants facilitated the laboratory sessions on both campuses.
Assessment. The performance of students on assayed products at the main campus was compared with that of students at the satellite campus to ensure program integrity with the compounding laboratory component. The use of video teleconferencing for teaching compounding was successful and no difference in overall student pass rates was seen. The few observed differences in student performance between the 2 campuses were believed to be a result of variations in instructor communication with distant students.
Conclusion. Video teleconferencing can be used successfully to deliver curriculum in laboratory compounding to pharmacy students.
doi:10.5688/ajpe759181
PMCID: PMC3230342  PMID: 22171109
videoconference; distance education; compounding; teleconference
10.  Alcohol Risk Management in College Settings 
Context
Potentially effective environmental strategies have been recommended to reduce heavy alcohol use among college students. However, studies to date on environmental prevention strategies are few in number and have been limited by their non-experimental designs, inadequate sample sizes, and lack of attention to settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur.
Purpose
To determine whether environmental prevention strategies targeting off-campus settings would reduce the likelihood and incidence of student intoxication at those settings.
Design
The Safer California Universities study involved 14 large public universities, half of which were randomly assigned to the Safer intervention condition after baseline data collection in 2003. Environmental interventions took place in 2005 and 2006 after 1 year of planning with 7 Safer intervention universities. Random cross-sectional samples of undergraduates completed online surveys in four consecutive fall semesters (2003–2006).
Setting/participants
Campuses and communities surrounding 8 campuses of the University of California and 6 in the California State University system were utilized. The study used random samples of undergraduates (~500–1,000 per campus per year) attending the 14 public California universities.
Intervention
Safer environmental interventions included nuisance party enforcement operations, minor decoy operations, DUI checkpoints, social host ordinances, and use of campus and local media to increase the visibility of environmental strategies.
Main outcome measures
Proportion of drinking occasions in which students drank to intoxication at six different settings during the fall semester (residence hall party, campus event, fraternity or sorority party, party at off-campus apartment or house, bar/restaurant, outdoor setting), any intoxication at each setting during the semester, and whether students drank to intoxication the last time they went to each setting.
Results
Significant reductions in the incidence and likelihood of intoxication at off-campus parties and bars/restaurants were observed for Safer intervention universities compared to controls. A lower likelihood of intoxication was also observed for Safer intervention universities the last time students drank at an off-campus party (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68, 0.97), a bar or restaurant (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.62, 0.94), or any setting (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.65, 0.97). No increase in intoxication (e.g., displacement) appeared in other settings. Furthermore, stronger intervention effects were achieved at Safer universities with the highest level of implementation.
Conclusions
Environmental prevention strategies targeting settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur appear to be effective in reducing the incidence and likelihood of intoxication among college students.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.08.020
PMCID: PMC3085398  PMID: 21084068
11.  Using Performance-based Assessments to Evaluate Parity Between a Campus and Distance Education Pathway 
Objectives
To compare the performance of campus-based students with that of distance students during the first 2 years of a doctor of pharmacy program to evaluate parity between the pathways.
Methods
Twelve cases were created for each year of the program along with performance criteria. The cases were converted into computer-based simulations for programmatic assessment at the end of the 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 school years. All first-professional year (P1) and second-professional year (P2) students participated in the assessments. Overall class means were calculated and used to compare student performances between campus and distance education pathways.
Results
Overall scores for the 2003 P1 class were 56.4% for the campus-based students and 62.4% for the distance students, (p = 0.002); overall scores for the 2003 P2 class were 48.8% and 55.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The 2004 overall scores for P1 campus and distance students were 59.0% and 65.7%, respectively, (p = 0.001); and for 2004 P2 scores the results were51.8% and 56.5%, respectively (p = 0.049).
Conclusions
Students receiving their pharmacy education via a distance pathway scored higher on performance-based assessments compared with students receiving their pharmacy education via the traditional campus-based pathway. This indicates that distance students are receiving at least an equivalent curricular experience in the P1 and P2 years compared to that received by campus-based students.
PMCID: PMC1636977  PMID: 17136209
performance-based assessment; distance education; abilities-based curriculum
12.  Students' opinion of tobacco control policies recommended for US colleges: a national survey 
Tobacco Control  2003;12(3):251-256.
Objective: Comprehensive tobacco control policies for US colleges and universities have been proposed by several groups in order to counter the rising use of tobacco by students enrolled in these institutions. Student opinion of these policies is not known, and concern about student opposition is one barrier that deters administrators from adopting the policies. This study measured student support for recommended college tobacco control policies.
Design: Mailed survey of US college students (2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study).
Setting: 119 nationally representative, four-year colleges and universities in the USA.
Participants: 10 904 randomly selected undergraduate students enrolled at participating schools.
Main outcome measures: Students' opinion of 7 proposed tobacco control policies.
Results: A majority of students supported each policy. Over three quarters of students favoured smoke-free policies for all college buildings, residences, and dining areas, while 71% supported prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship of campus social events, 59% favoured prohibiting tobacco sales on campus, and 51% supported smoke-free campus bars. All policies had more support among non-smokers than smokers (p < 0.001). Among smokers, support for policies was inversely related to intention to quit and intensity of tobacco consumption. Because college students' tobacco consumption is low, a majority of smokers favoured banning smoking in college buildings and dining areas and prohibiting tobacco marketing on campus.
Conclusions: Student support for proposed campus tobacco control policies is strong, even among smokers, and broadly based across demographic subgroups. These findings should provide reassurance to college administrators who are considering adopting these policies.
doi:10.1136/tc.12.3.251
PMCID: PMC1747763  PMID: 12958381
13.  Acceptance of HIV testing among African-American college students at a historically black university in the south. 
PURPOSE: Routine HIV testing on college campuses has the potential to increase students' awareness of their HIV status. Testing targeted only at persons reporting HIV risk behaviors will not identify infected persons who may deny or be unaware of their risk. Thus, this study sought to investigate the acceptability of rapid HIV testing among African-American college students in a nontraditional setting on a historically black college/university (HBCU) campus. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on risk behaviors, barriers to testing, and HIV testing history was administered to 161 African-American college students at an HBCU. All approached students (both those participating and not) were offered free HIV rapid testing. RESULTS: Eighty-one African-American college students consented to be tested for HIV and all tested negative. Results of the questionnaire indicated that African-American college students engage in risky sexual behaviors (such as unprotected sex) yet perceive themselves as at little or no risk. College students who reported past HIV testing often did so in conjunction with routine exams, such as annual pap smears, rather than specifically seeking HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: Routine HIV testing on college campuses may be an important public health initiative in reducing the spread of HIV. Specifically, this strategy may provide a model for student access to HIV testing, particularly males and other students who may be less likely to seek HIV testing at traditional medical settings. These data supports expansion of routine testing programs directed at African-American college students.
PMCID: PMC2569688  PMID: 17225833
14.  Perceptions and Use of iPad Technology by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative.
Methods. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot.
Results. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members.
Conclusion. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78352
PMCID: PMC3996384  PMID: 24761013
instructional technology; pharmacy faculty; health care; iPad
15.  Evaluating Syndromic surveillance systems at institutions of higher education (IHEs): A retrospective analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic at two universities 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:591.
Background
Syndromic surveillance has been widely adopted as a real-time monitoring tool for timely response to disease outbreaks. During the second wave of the pH1N1 pandemic in Fall 2009, two major universities in Washington, DC collected data that were potentially indicative of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in students and staff. In this study, our objectives were three-fold. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the impact of pH1N1 on the campuses as clearly as possible given the data available and their likely biases. In addition, we sought to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the data series themselves, in order to inform these two universities and other institutions of higher education (IHEs) about real-time surveillance systems that are likely to provide the most utility in future outbreaks (at least to the extent that it is possible to generalize from this analysis).
Methods
We collected a wide variety of data that covered both student ILI cases reported to medical and non-medical staff, employee absenteeism, and hygiene supply distribution records (from University A only). Communication data were retrieved from university broadcasts, university preparedness websites, and H1N1-related on campus media reports. Regional data based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (CDC ILINet) surveillance network, American College Health Association (ACHA) pandemic influenza surveillance data, and local Google Flu Trends were used as external data sets. We employed a "triangulation" approach for data analysis in which multiple contemporary data sources are compared to identify time patterns that are likely to reflect biases as well as those that are more likely to be indicative of actual infection rates.
Results
Medical personnel observed an early peak at both universities immediately after school began in early September and a second peak in early November; only the second peak corresponded to patterns in the community at large. Self-reported illness to university deans' offices was also relatively increased during mid-term exam weeks. The overall volume of pH1N1-related communication messages similarly peaked twice, corresponding to the two peaks of student ILI cases.
Conclusions
During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, both University A and B experienced a peak number of ILI cases at the beginning of the Fall term. This pattern, seen in surveillance systems at these universities and to a lesser extent in data from other IHEs, most likely resulted from students bringing the virus back to campus from their home states coupled with a sudden increase in population density in dormitories and lecture halls. Through comparison of data from different syndromic surveillance data streams, paying attention to the likely biases in each over time, we have determined, at least in the case of the pH1N1 pandemic, that student health center data more accurately depicted disease transmission on campus at both universities during the Fall 2009 pandemic than other available data sources.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-591
PMCID: PMC3151236  PMID: 21791092
16.  Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs.
Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared.
Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size.
Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78591
PMCID: PMC4064491  PMID: 24954931
experiential education; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; acute care; general medicine; ambulatory care; community pharmacy; health systems; qualitative research
17.  “Preventing sexual violence instead of just responding to it”: Students’ Perceptions of Sexual Violence Resources on Campus 
Journal of Forensic Nursing  2011;8(2):61-71.
Rates of sexual assault of college students are higher than the national rates. Colleges are uniquely positioned to offer preventive education and support services to a high-risk group. This qualitative study examines students’ perceptions of sexual violence resources and services. Seventy-eight female and male students, between 18–24 years old, belonging to various demographic groups participated in one-to-one, walking interviews on five diverse Midwest 2- and 4-year postsecondary campuses. Findings suggest that students are concerned with safety, students want more education regarding sexual violence, and they value services that offer protection from incidents of sexual violence on campus. Participants expressed mixed reactions to prevention education that combined sexual violence prevention with alcohol and drug use. Students shared positive views of the security measures on campus. They emphasized the importance of using varied mechanisms for sexual violence-related resource messaging and advised moving away from the pamphlet towards posters and online resources. Recommendations are offered to strengthen existing resources, such as prevention education and post-assault interventions including Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) services, and to minimize barriers to access of sexual violence resources.
doi:10.1111/j.1939-3938.2011.01130.x
PMCID: PMC3368349  PMID: 22621664
sexual violence; prevention; college-age; young adult; interview; go-along
18.  Characteristics of Experiential Education Web Sites of US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To evaluate the characteristics of experiential education Web sites of colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States.
Methods. The experiential education Web pages of 124 US colleges and schools of pharmacy were reviewed for office or program name, practice experience management software, experiential education newsletter, practice experience manual, preceptor development programs, new preceptor application processes, and interactive Web site interfaces.
Results. The term “office of experiential education” was used by 27.4% of colleges and schools. Fifty percent of the colleges and schools used E-value as their practice experience management software. Only a minority of colleges and schools made experiential manual(s) available online, offered newsletters targeted to preceptors, and/or provided Web site interactive interfaces for preceptor communication. The Preceptors Training and Resource Network was the preceptor development program most frequently promoted.
Conclusions. The majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy have official Web sites for their experiential education program; however, few offer resources online or use interactive or social media to their advantage.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77596
PMCID: PMC3687129  PMID: 23788807
experiential education; Internet; Web site; preceptor
19.  Impact of a Randomized Campus/Community Trial to Prevent High-Risk Drinking among College Students 
Background
High-risk drinking by college students continues to pose a significant threat to public health. Despite increasing evidence of the contribution of community-level and campus-level environmental factors to high risk drinking, there have been few rigorous tests of interventions that focus on changing these interlinked environments. The Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC) assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive intervention using a community organizing approach to implement environmental strategies in and around college campuses. The goal of SPARC was to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related consequences among college students.
Methods
Ten universities in North Carolina were randomized to an Intervention or Comparison condition. Each Intervention school was assigned a campus/community organizer. The organizer worked to form a campus-community coalition, which developed and implemented a strategic plan to use environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking and its consequences. The intervention was implemented over a period of 3 years. Primary outcome measures were assessed using a web-based survey of students. Measures of high-risk drinking included number of days alcohol was consumed, number of days of binge drinking, and greatest number of drinks consumed (all in the past 30 days); and number of days one gets drunk in a typical week. Measures of alcohol-related consequences included indices of moderate consequences due to one’s own drinking, severe consequences due to one’s own drinking, interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking, and community consequences due to others’ drinking (all using a past 30-day timeframe). Measure of alcohol-related injuries included (1) experiencing alcohol-related injuries and (2) alcohol-related injuries caused to others.
Results
We found significant decreases in the Intervention group compared to the Comparison group in severe consequences due to students’ own drinking and alcohol-related injuries caused to others. In secondary analyses, higher levels of implementation of the intervention were associated with reductions in interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking and alcohol-related injuries caused to others.
Conclusions
A community organizing approach promoting implementation of environmental interventions can significantly affect high-risk drinking and its consequences among college students.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01786.x
PMCID: PMC3752385  PMID: 22823091
20.  Creation of Medicinal Chemistry Learning Communities Through Enhanced Technology and Interdisciplinary Collaboration 
Objectives. To build an integrated medicinal chemistry learning community of campus and distance pharmacy students though the use of innovative technology and interdisciplinary teaching.
Design. Mechanisms were implemented to bring distance students into campus-based medicinal chemistry classrooms in real time, stimulate interaction between instructors and various student cohorts, and promote group work during class. Also, pharmacy clinician colleagues were recruited to contribute to the teaching of the 3 medicinal chemistry courses.
Assessment. Student perceptions on the value of technology to build community and advance learning were gleaned from course evaluations, in class feedback, and conversations with class officers and student groups. Responses on a survey of second-year students confirmed the benefits of interdisciplinary content integration on engagement and awareness of the connection between drug chemistry and pharmacy practice. A survey of clinician colleagues who contributed to teaching the 3 medicinal chemistry courses found their views were similar to those of students.
Conclusions. The purposeful use of technology united learners, fostered communication, and advanced content comprehension in 3 medicinal chemistry courses taught to campus and distance students. Teaching collaboration with pharmacy clinicians enhanced learner interest in course content and provided insight into the integrated nature of the profession of pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe768158
PMCID: PMC3475787  PMID: 23129857
interdisciplinary; technology; medicinal chemistry; learning communities
21.  Impact of Hybrid Delivery of Education on Student Academic Performance and the Student Experience 
Objectives
To compare student academic performance and the student experience in the first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program between the main and newly opened satellite campuses of the University of Maryland.
Methods
Student performance indicators including graded assessments, course averages, cumulative first-year grade point average (GPA), and introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) evaluations were analyzed retrospectively. Student experience indicators were obtained via an online survey instrument and included involvement in student organizations; time-budgeting practices; and stress levels and their perceived effect on performance.
Results
Graded assessments, course averages, GPA, and IPPE evaluations were indistinguishable between campuses. Students' time allocation was not different between campuses, except for time spent attending class and watching lecture videos. There was no difference between students' stress levels at each campus.
Conclusions
The implementation of a satellite campus to expand pharmacy education yielded academic performance and student engagement comparable to those from traditional delivery methods.
PMCID: PMC2779633  PMID: 19960080
satellite campus; technology; assessment; distance learning
22.  Alcohol Use Behaviors Among Pharmacy Students 
Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students.
Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar.
Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use.
Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78230
PMCID: PMC3965138  PMID: 24672063
pharmacy students; alcohol abuse; drinking; substance abuse
23.  A Case-Based Clinician Training Program for Treating Tobacco Use in College Students 
Public Health Reports  2006;121(5):557-562.
SYNOPSIS
Tobacco use rates are high among college students, and while many of them try to quit every year, only a small percentage are successful at maintaining abstinence. Most colleges have campus health centers that offer treatment for tobacco cessation, but few students access these resources. Little is known about how to motivate young adult college students to seek treatment or assist them in their attempts to quit smoking.
In the context of a comprehensive, group-randomized intervention study to decrease smoking among college students, a case-based tobacco cessation training program for campus health center providers and staff was developed and conducted at 14 intervention colleges during the 2003–2004 academic year. Six case studies were created for this training, using responses from 39 student elicitation interviews conducted at 12 colleges in Spring 2002. Common themes relating to smoking, quitting, and relapse experiences reported by students in the elicitation interviews were woven into the cases and integrated into the training program.
PMCID: PMC1564444  PMID: 16972509
24.  Comparing Self-reported Burnout of Pharmacy Students on the Founding Campus With Those at Distance Campuses 
Objectives
To compare burnout among students: (1) assigned to the founding campus and those assigned to distance campuses and (2) in different academic years of the curriculum. The third objective was to determine the relative ability of each factor to predict burnout among pharmacy students.
Methods
Students in Gainesville (founding campus) and the Jacksonville, Orlando, and St. Petersburg distance campuses were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Internet-based survey methods were used to evaluate the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization domains. Students responded using a Likert-type scale (1 = do not feel this way to 7 = feel this extremely strongly).
Results
Among 18 items, 8 significant differences were revealed. Within the emotional exhaustion domain, Gainesville students responded that they were more likely to “feel fatigued in the morning” (p < 0.001), “burned out” (p = 0.001), “used up” (p = 0.02), “frustrated” (p = 0.02), and “emotionally drained” (p < 0.02) compared to the distance students. Gainesville students had the highest average score on the item “I feel as though I treat my student colleagues impersonally” (p = 0.02). Academic year was the best predictor of burnout. Campus assignment was significant for emotional exhaustion, with the highest levels occurring on the founding campus.
Conclusions
With few exceptions, students at the founding campus in Gainesville reported more emotional burnout than students attending classes at the distance campuses.
PMCID: PMC1637004  PMID: 17149443
25.  Benefits of off-campus education for students in the health sciences: a text-mining analysis 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:84.
Background
In Japan, few community-based approaches have been adopted in health-care professional education, and the appropriate content for such approaches has not been clarified. In establishing community-based education for health-care professionals, clarification of its learning effects is required. A community-based educational program was started in 2009 in the health sciences course at Gunma University, and one of the main elements in this program is conducting classes outside school. The purpose of this study was to investigate using text-analysis methods how the off-campus program affects students.
Methods
In all, 116 self-assessment worksheets submitted by students after participating in the off-campus classes were decomposed into words. The extracted words were carefully selected from the perspective of contained meaning or content. With the selected terms, the relations to each word were analyzed by means of cluster analysis.
Results
Cluster analysis was used to select and divide 32 extracted words into four clusters: cluster 1—“actually/direct,” “learn/watch/hear,” “how,” “experience/participation,” “local residents,” “atmosphere in community-based clinical care settings,” “favorable,” “communication/conversation,” and “study”; cluster 2—“work of staff member” and “role”; cluster 3—“interaction/communication,” “understanding,” “feel,” “significant/important/necessity,” and “think”; and cluster 4—“community,” “confusing,” “enjoyable,” “proactive,” “knowledge,” “academic knowledge,” and “class.”
Conclusions
The students who participated in the program achieved different types of learning through the off-campus classes. They also had a positive impression of the community-based experience and interaction with the local residents, which is considered a favorable outcome. Off-campus programs could be a useful educational approach for students in health sciences.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-84
PMCID: PMC3479041  PMID: 22928985
Community-based education; School of health sciences; Early exposure; Role model; Text-mining methods

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