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1.  Physical and mental health perspectives of first year undergraduate rural university students 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:848.
University students are often perceived to have a privileged position in society and considered immune to ill-health and disability. There is growing evidence that a sizeable proportion experience poor physical health, and that the prevalence of psychological disorders is higher in university students than their community peers. This study examined the physical and mental health issues for first year Australian rural university students and their perception of access to available health and support services.
Cross-sectional study design using an online survey form based on the Adolescent Screening Questionnaire modeled on the internationally recognised HEADSS survey tool. The target audience was all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in an on-campus degree program. The response rate was 41% comprising 355 students (244 females, 111 males). Data was analysed using standard statistical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics; and thematic analysis of the open-ended responses.
The mean age of the respondents was 20.2 years (SD 4.8). The majority of the students lived in on-campus residential college style accommodation, and a third combined part-time paid work with full-time study. Most students reported being in good physical health. However, on average two health conditions were reported over the past six months, with the most common being fatigue (56%), frequent headaches (26%) and allergies (24%). Mental health problems included anxiety (25%), coping difficulties (19.7%) and diagnosed depression (8%). Most respondents reported adequate access to medical doctors and support services for themselves (82%) and friends (78%). However the qualitative comments highlighted concerns about stigma, privacy and anonymity in seeking counselling.
The present study adds to the limited literature of physical and mental health issues as well as barriers to service utilization by rural university students. It provides useful baseline data for the development of customised support programs at rural campuses. Future research using a longitudinal research design and multi-site studies are recommended to facilitate a deeper understanding of health issues affecting rural university students.
PMCID: PMC3847612  PMID: 24034822
Physical health; Mental health; Well-being; University students; Adolescents; Young adults
2.  A 5-Year Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Journal Article Publications of Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To evaluate scholarship, as represented by peer-reviewed journal articles, among US pharmacy practice faculty members; contribute evidence that may better inform benchmarking by academic pharmacy practice departments; and examine factors that may be related to publication rates.
Methods. Journal articles published by all pharmacy practice faculty members between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified. College and school publication rates were compared based on public vs. private status, being part of a health science campus, having a graduate program, and having doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) faculty members funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members published 6,101 articles during the 5-year study period, and a pharmacy practice faculty member was the primary author on 2,698 of the articles. Pharmacy practice faculty members published an average of 0.51 articles per year. Pharmacy colleges and schools affiliated with health science campuses, at public institutions, with NIH-funded PharmD faculty members, and with graduate programs had significantly higher total publication rates compared with those that did not have these characteristics (p<0.006).
Conclusion. Pharmacy practice faculty members contributed nearly 6,000 unique publications over the 5-year period studied. However, this reflects a rate of less than 1 publication per faculty member per year, suggesting that a limited number of faculty members produced the majority of publications.
PMCID: PMC3448465  PMID: 23049099
academia; pharmacy practice; faculty; publications; scholarship
3.  Professional Organizations for Pharmacy Students on Satellite Campuses 
Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses.
Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses.
Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel.
Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication.
PMCID: PMC4937973  PMID: 27402981
student organizations; professionalism; satellite campuses; leadership
4.  Establishing and Maintaining a Satellite Campus Connected by Synchronous Video Conferencing 
Pharmacy education has experienced substantial growth in the number of new schools and existing schools establishing satellite campuses. Several models have previously been used to connect primary and satellite campuses. We describe the Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy's (AUHSOP's) experiences using synchronous video conferencing between the Auburn University campus in Auburn and a satellite campus in Mobile, Alabama. We focus on the technology considerations related to planning, construction, implementation, and continued use of the various resources that support our program. Students’ perceptions of their experiences related to technology also are described.
PMCID: PMC3142980  PMID: 21829265
satellite; video conference; technology; campus; distance
5.  Evaluation of an Internet-Based Alcohol Misuse Prevention Course for College Freshmen Findings of a Randomized Multi-Campus Trial 
Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention programs are now used by many universities. One popular 2- to 3-hour online course known as AlcoholEdu for College is typically required for all incoming freshmen and thus constitutes a campus-level strategy to reduce student alcohol misuse.
This is the first multi-campus study to evaluate the effectiveness of an Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention course.
RCT with 30 universities: 21 entered the study in Fall 2007, nine in Fall 2008. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive the online course and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. The course was implemented by intervention schools during the late summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university, beginning prior to the intervention in Spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in Fall 2008/09 and Spring 2009/2010.
Public and private universities of varying sizes across the U.S. Random samples of 200 freshmen per campus were invited to participate in online surveys for the evaluation. Overall survey response rates ranged from 44% to 48% (M ≈ 90 participants per campus).
The online course includes five modules; the first four (Part I) are typically offered in the late summer before matriculation, and the fifth (Part II) in early fall. Course content includes defining a standard drink, physiologic effects of alcohol, the need to monitor blood alcohol level, social influences on alcohol use, alcohol laws, personalized normative feedback, and alcohol harm-reduction strategies. Students must pass an exam after Part I to advance to Part II.
Main outcome measures
Past-30-day alcohol use, average number of drinks per occasion, and binge drinking.
Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the frequency of past-30-day alcohol use (beta = –0.64, p<0.05) and binge drinking (beta = –0.26, p<0.05) during the fall semester immediately after completion of the course. However, these effects did not persist when assessed in the spring semester. Post-hoc comparisons suggested stronger course effects on these outcomes at colleges with higher rates of student course completion. No course effects were observed for average number of drinks per occasion or prevalence of binge drinking, regardless of the campus course completion rate.
This study provides initial evidence that the Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention course has beneficial short-term effects on hazardous drinking behavior among first-year college students, which should be reinforced through effective environmental prevention strategies.
PMCID: PMC3173258  PMID: 21855745
6.  The influence of regional basic science campuses on medical students' choice of specialty and practice location: a historical cohort study 
Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) employs eight regional basic science campuses, where half of the students complete their first two years of medical school. The other half complete all four years at the main campus in Indianapolis. The authors tested the hypothesis that training at regional campuses influences IUSM students to pursue primary care careers near the regional campuses they attended.
Medical school records for 2,487 graduates (classes of 1988–1997) were matched to the 2003 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile to identify the medical specialty and practice location of each graduate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of regional campus attendance on students' choice of medical specialty and practice location, while simultaneously adjusting for several covariates thought to affect these career outcomes.
Compared to Indianapolis students, those who attended a regional campus were somewhat more likely to be white, have parents with middle class occupations, and score slightly lower on the Medical College Admission Test. Any such differences were adjusted for in the regression models, which predicted that four of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than Indianapolis to produce family practitioners, and that five of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than the others to have former students practicing in the region. When analyzed collectively, attendance at any regional campus was a significant predictor of a primary care practice located outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area.
Attending a regional campus for preclinical training appears to increase the likelihood of practicing primary care medicine in local communities.
PMCID: PMC2700105  PMID: 19500392
7.  Attributes of Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States 
To compare the attributes of US colleges and schools of pharmacy and describe the extent of change to the pharmacy education enterprise associated with the addition of new schools.
Attributes analyzed included whether the college or school of pharmacy was old or new, public or private, secular or faith-based, and on or not on an academic health center (AHC) campus; had 3- or 4- year programs; and had PhD students enrolled. PharmD student enrollment-to-faculty ratios and junior-to-senior faculty ratios also were examined.
Of the new colleges/schools, 76% were private and 79% were not located on a campus with an AHC; 6% had PhD enrollment compared with 80% of old colleges/schools. Faculty ratios were related to several college/school attributes, including the presence or absence of PhD students and whether the college/school was public or private.
Attributes of new colleges and schools of pharmacy have changed the overall profile of all colleges and schools of pharmacy. For example, smaller percentages of all colleges and schools of pharmacy are public and have PhD enrollees.
PMCID: PMC2739081  PMID: 19777110
pharmacy education; faculty-to-student ratio; college/school attributes
8.  Team-Based Learning in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To characterize the use of team-based learning (TBL) in US colleges and schools of pharmacy, including factors that may affect implementation and perceptions of faculty members regarding the impact of TBL on educational outcomes.
Methods. Respondents identified factors that inhibit or enable TBL use and its impact on student learning. Results were stratified by type of institution (public/private), class size, and TBL experience.
Results. Sixty-nine of 100 faculty members (69%) representing 43 (86%) institutions responded. Major factors considered to enable TBL implementation included a single campus and student and administration buy-in. Inhibiting factors included distant campuses, faculty resistance, and lack of training. Compared with traditional lectures, TBL is perceived to enhance student engagement, improve students’ preparation for class, and promote achievement of course outcomes. In addition, TBL is perceived to be more effective than lectures at fostering learning in all 6 domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Conclusions. Despite potential implementation challenges, faculty members perceive that TBL improves student engagement and learning.
PMCID: PMC3748296  PMID: 23966718
Team-based learning; active learning; pharmacy; education
9.  Concurrent Use of an Audience Response System at a Multi-Campus College of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess the impact of an audience response system (ARS) on student engagement at a multi-campus college of pharmacy.
Methods. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to measure the impact of an ARS on student engagement, distance education, projected use, and satisfaction among pharmacy students for a course delivered across 3 sites via synchronous video transmission.
Results. Students reported that use of the ARS made it easier to participate (85.3%) and helped them to focus (75.7%) in classes when the lecturer was physically at a different site. They also valued that the ARS allowed them to respond anonymously (93.2%). A minority of students indicated that use of the ARS was distracting (11.8%).
Conclusions. Implementation of an ARS was associated with positive student perceptions of engagement and may improve feelings of connectedness among students at schools with multiple sites. Use of ARSs could also represent a cognitive intercession strategy to help reduce communication apprehension.
PMCID: PMC3298404  PMID: 22412205
audience response system; clicker; distance education; student engagement
10.  Assessment of a University Campus Food Environment, California, 2015 
University campuses offer an opportunity to study the extent to which modifying the food environment influences eating, but in-depth characterizations of campus food environments are needed to identify potential targets for intervention. The objective of this project was to describe the availability, accessibility, and quality of healthful food choices in dining venues and food stores at or near a public, 4-year university in California.
Trained assessors used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for campus dining (NEMS-CD) to evaluate all 18 campus dining venues, and NEMS for stores (NEMS-S) to evaluate 2 on-campus and 37 off-campus food stores. We calculated prevalence of healthful and unhealthful constructs (eg, availability of selected food items, presence of signage encouraging healthful eating, pricing options that encourage healthful eating), based on the NEMS and compared scores across different types of venues.
NEMS-CD scores ranged from 4 to 47 (mean [SD], 26.0 [14.4]) out of a possible maximum score of 97; 12% of entrées and 36% of main dish salads served in these venues were classified as healthful. NEMS-S score for the 2 on-campus food stores (24 for both) was intermediate between off-campus convenience stores (mean [SD], 12.0 [5.3]) and grocery/supermarket stores (mean [SD], 31.1 [10.0]), with a possible maximum score of 54.
Standardized environmental evaluation provides insights into both positive and negative aspects of campus community food venues. Environmental assessment identifies potential targets for modification and baseline data for designing and implementing action-oriented research aimed at improving the campus food environment’s support of healthful food choices for college students.
PMCID: PMC4747435  PMID: 26851337
11.  Video Teleconferencing in the Compounding Laboratory Component of a Dual-Campus Doctor of Pharmacy Program 
Objectives. To design, implement, and assess the effectiveness of using a live video teleconferencing system to connect the main campus and a satellite campus during laboratory compounding exercises in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program.
Design. A new laboratory facility with identical equipment and supplies to the main campus was built at the satellite campus and teleconferencing equipment was set up. Students on both campuses prepared 20 compounded formulations over a 5-course pharmaceutical care laboratory sequence. Live video teleconferencing was used for students to ask questions and for the lead faculty instructor to observe the students’ technique. Faculty and staff members and teaching assistants facilitated the laboratory sessions on both campuses.
Assessment. The performance of students on assayed products at the main campus was compared with that of students at the satellite campus to ensure program integrity with the compounding laboratory component. The use of video teleconferencing for teaching compounding was successful and no difference in overall student pass rates was seen. The few observed differences in student performance between the 2 campuses were believed to be a result of variations in instructor communication with distant students.
Conclusion. Video teleconferencing can be used successfully to deliver curriculum in laboratory compounding to pharmacy students.
PMCID: PMC3230342  PMID: 22171109
videoconference; distance education; compounding; teleconference
12.  A smoke-free medical campus in Jerusalem: data for action 
Establishing smoke-free environments is a major component of tobacco control policy. The introduction of a smoke-free policy in medical campuses may serve as a role model for other educational and health institutions but little has been published about their prevalence or impact. In 2012, the Faculty of Medicine at Hebrew University–Hadassah in Jerusalem, Israel launched a smoke-free Medical Campus initiative. This study examined smoking behaviours, cigarette smoke exposure and attitudes towards the smoke-free campus policy among students and employees.
Using a self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from medical, dental and pharmacy students, as well as employees of the school of pharmacy. We approached the entire target population in 2013 (N = 449), with a response rate of 72.5 % (N = 313).
The rate of smoking was 8.3 % (95 % CI 5.5–11.9 %). Most participants reported daily exposure or exposure several times a week to cigarette smoke (65.8 %). Overall, 98.0 % had reported seeing people smoke in open campus areas and 27.2 % indoors. Most participants supported the smoking ban inside buildings (94.2 %) but fewer supported (40.8 %) a complete ban of smoking throughout the campus, including outside areas. Only 18.4 % agreed that a policy prohibiting smoking was unfair to smokers. A multivariable analysis showed that support for a complete ban on smoking on campus was higher among non-smokers than for smokers (OR = 9.5, 95 % CI 2.2–31.5, p = 0.02).
The smoke-free policy does not have total compliance, despite the strong support among both students and employees for a smoke-free medical campus. The data collected will assist policy makers move towards a total smoke-free medical campus and will aid tobacco control efforts in Israel and other countries.
PMCID: PMC4895807  PMID: 27274394
Smoke-free campus; Smoking policy; Tobacco control; Students; Medical education; Health professionals
13.  Alcohol Risk Management in College Settings 
Potentially effective environmental strategies have been recommended to reduce heavy alcohol use among college students. However, studies to date on environmental prevention strategies are few in number and have been limited by their non-experimental designs, inadequate sample sizes, and lack of attention to settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur.
To determine whether environmental prevention strategies targeting off-campus settings would reduce the likelihood and incidence of student intoxication at those settings.
The Safer California Universities study involved 14 large public universities, half of which were randomly assigned to the Safer intervention condition after baseline data collection in 2003. Environmental interventions took place in 2005 and 2006 after 1 year of planning with 7 Safer intervention universities. Random cross-sectional samples of undergraduates completed online surveys in four consecutive fall semesters (2003–2006).
Campuses and communities surrounding 8 campuses of the University of California and 6 in the California State University system were utilized. The study used random samples of undergraduates (~500–1,000 per campus per year) attending the 14 public California universities.
Safer environmental interventions included nuisance party enforcement operations, minor decoy operations, DUI checkpoints, social host ordinances, and use of campus and local media to increase the visibility of environmental strategies.
Main outcome measures
Proportion of drinking occasions in which students drank to intoxication at six different settings during the fall semester (residence hall party, campus event, fraternity or sorority party, party at off-campus apartment or house, bar/restaurant, outdoor setting), any intoxication at each setting during the semester, and whether students drank to intoxication the last time they went to each setting.
Significant reductions in the incidence and likelihood of intoxication at off-campus parties and bars/restaurants were observed for Safer intervention universities compared to controls. A lower likelihood of intoxication was also observed for Safer intervention universities the last time students drank at an off-campus party (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68, 0.97), a bar or restaurant (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.62, 0.94), or any setting (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.65, 0.97). No increase in intoxication (e.g., displacement) appeared in other settings. Furthermore, stronger intervention effects were achieved at Safer universities with the highest level of implementation.
Environmental prevention strategies targeting settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur appear to be effective in reducing the incidence and likelihood of intoxication among college students.
PMCID: PMC3085398  PMID: 21084068
14.  ‘Cool! and creepy’: engaging with college student stakeholders in Michigan’s biobank 
Journal of Community Genetics  2014;5(4):349-362.
Large population biobanks, important resources for genomic research, also present ethical challenges. The Michigan BioTrust for Health makes dried bloodspots (DBS) leftover from newborn screening, including ~4.5 million collected before 2010 without written consent, available for health research. Absent prospectively gathered consent and/or current engagement with 18- to 29-year olds, little is known about opinions and beliefs from this age group about use of the bloodspots for research. We engaged 2,101 students—BioTrust participants and their peers—at information booths at 20 college campuses across the state to educate youth about the BioTrust and gather information about consent preferences and about hopes and concerns about this public health program. We surveyed student stakeholder DBS research consent preferences and fielded a “postengagement” survey to gauge the attitudes of participants and to evaluate the campus engagement. The most prevalent themes in open-ended comments were support for biobank research and concern that Michiganders are not aware of their participation. While 78 % of students said they would, if asked, opt in to the BioTrust, half of these preferred to be contacted each time a researcher sought to use their DBS. Students reported great interest in the topic and strong likelihood to share what they had learned. BioTrust participants are interested in learning about their role in an initiative whose goals they widely support. Public engagement is particularly important to biobank participants who, absent traditional consent practices, are unaware of their participation. Health-fair style engagements were effective for targeting college-aged stakeholders, communicating complex messages, and likely increasing knowledge. Retrospective biobanks and biobanks that collect proxy consent need policies to respect those who would opt out and will need resources to educate participants and conduct community outreach that is a safeguard to public trust.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12687-014-0190-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4159476  PMID: 24916145
Biobank; Public health; Informed consent; Newborn screening; Public attitudes; Community engagement; Public health education
15.  Using Performance-based Assessments to Evaluate Parity Between a Campus and Distance Education Pathway 
To compare the performance of campus-based students with that of distance students during the first 2 years of a doctor of pharmacy program to evaluate parity between the pathways.
Twelve cases were created for each year of the program along with performance criteria. The cases were converted into computer-based simulations for programmatic assessment at the end of the 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 school years. All first-professional year (P1) and second-professional year (P2) students participated in the assessments. Overall class means were calculated and used to compare student performances between campus and distance education pathways.
Overall scores for the 2003 P1 class were 56.4% for the campus-based students and 62.4% for the distance students, (p = 0.002); overall scores for the 2003 P2 class were 48.8% and 55.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The 2004 overall scores for P1 campus and distance students were 59.0% and 65.7%, respectively, (p = 0.001); and for 2004 P2 scores the results were51.8% and 56.5%, respectively (p = 0.049).
Students receiving their pharmacy education via a distance pathway scored higher on performance-based assessments compared with students receiving their pharmacy education via the traditional campus-based pathway. This indicates that distance students are receiving at least an equivalent curricular experience in the P1 and P2 years compared to that received by campus-based students.
PMCID: PMC1636977  PMID: 17136209
performance-based assessment; distance education; abilities-based curriculum
16.  Student Evaluation of Online Pharmaceutical Compounding Videos 
Objective. To describe pharmacy students’ views on the effectiveness of an expansion of the compounding laboratory website at the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy.
Methods. Originally, there were 39 videos and three animations available. In 2011, an additional 59 videos and two animations were added. Concurrently, all of the interactive questions were updated to fully integrate with the expanded video library. Students were surveyed about the expanded video library regarding accessibility, functionality, and usefulness, and how using the library impacted their learning of compounding. Surveys were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Means and SDs were calculated for the rating scale questions; independent t tests and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to find differences between professional classes and campuses. Analytical results were evaluated with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), z test, and a homogeneity of variance (Levene’s) test.
Results. The response rate to the survey was 85%. Compounding videos were used by 386/391 students. Thirty-four percent of students used the videos an average of 30 minutes or less per week; 56% used the videos 1–2 hours per week. Approximately 80% of students were satisfied with the functionality and accessibility of the videos. All students, regardless of professional year or campus affiliation, put their confidence/competence at about 70% of the rating scale.
Conclusions. As no standardized compounding curriculum was found in US schools of pharmacy and students reported being satisfied with the website, it could be an accessible, functional, and useful resource for pharmaceutical compounding in schools of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC4827581  PMID: 27073283
compounding; video education; pharmlabs
17.  Students' opinion of tobacco control policies recommended for US colleges: a national survey 
Tobacco Control  2003;12(3):251-256.
Objective: Comprehensive tobacco control policies for US colleges and universities have been proposed by several groups in order to counter the rising use of tobacco by students enrolled in these institutions. Student opinion of these policies is not known, and concern about student opposition is one barrier that deters administrators from adopting the policies. This study measured student support for recommended college tobacco control policies.
Design: Mailed survey of US college students (2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study).
Setting: 119 nationally representative, four-year colleges and universities in the USA.
Participants: 10 904 randomly selected undergraduate students enrolled at participating schools.
Main outcome measures: Students' opinion of 7 proposed tobacco control policies.
Results: A majority of students supported each policy. Over three quarters of students favoured smoke-free policies for all college buildings, residences, and dining areas, while 71% supported prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship of campus social events, 59% favoured prohibiting tobacco sales on campus, and 51% supported smoke-free campus bars. All policies had more support among non-smokers than smokers (p < 0.001). Among smokers, support for policies was inversely related to intention to quit and intensity of tobacco consumption. Because college students' tobacco consumption is low, a majority of smokers favoured banning smoking in college buildings and dining areas and prohibiting tobacco marketing on campus.
Conclusions: Student support for proposed campus tobacco control policies is strong, even among smokers, and broadly based across demographic subgroups. These findings should provide reassurance to college administrators who are considering adopting these policies.
PMCID: PMC1747763  PMID: 12958381
18.  Acceptance of HIV testing among African-American college students at a historically black university in the south. 
PURPOSE: Routine HIV testing on college campuses has the potential to increase students' awareness of their HIV status. Testing targeted only at persons reporting HIV risk behaviors will not identify infected persons who may deny or be unaware of their risk. Thus, this study sought to investigate the acceptability of rapid HIV testing among African-American college students in a nontraditional setting on a historically black college/university (HBCU) campus. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on risk behaviors, barriers to testing, and HIV testing history was administered to 161 African-American college students at an HBCU. All approached students (both those participating and not) were offered free HIV rapid testing. RESULTS: Eighty-one African-American college students consented to be tested for HIV and all tested negative. Results of the questionnaire indicated that African-American college students engage in risky sexual behaviors (such as unprotected sex) yet perceive themselves as at little or no risk. College students who reported past HIV testing often did so in conjunction with routine exams, such as annual pap smears, rather than specifically seeking HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: Routine HIV testing on college campuses may be an important public health initiative in reducing the spread of HIV. Specifically, this strategy may provide a model for student access to HIV testing, particularly males and other students who may be less likely to seek HIV testing at traditional medical settings. These data supports expansion of routine testing programs directed at African-American college students.
PMCID: PMC2569688  PMID: 17225833
19.  Perceptions and Use of iPad Technology by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative.
Methods. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot.
Results. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members.
Conclusion. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns.
PMCID: PMC3996384  PMID: 24761013
instructional technology; pharmacy faculty; health care; iPad
20.  Lessons Learned From a Student-Led Breastfeeding Support Initiative at a US Urban Public University 
Despite US laws requiring most workplaces to provide “reasonable” unpaid break time and a private space for female employees to express breast milk, much of the statutory language is vague and open to interpretation, potentially leading to suboptimal implementation. College and university campuses in the US represent a particular concern, as students are typically not employed by their school and thus not protected by state and federal labor laws. This article describes the work of 2 graduate students to successfully establish a dedicated space at their US urban public university for the purpose of expressing breast milk. A 3-pronged strategy was implemented to create a dedicated lactation space: (1) collecting data to support the establishment of the room, (2) raising awareness of legislation related to protection of breastfeeding, and (3) community organizing and advocacy. After nearly 18 months of advocacy and planning, the campus’s dedicated lactation room was opened for use in March 2012. Two years later, the room remains a valuable resource and is used, on average, 8.4 times per weekday during a typical school week. Several lessons learned are described, and the strategies employed can be tested and applied in other US academic settings to assist in advocating for more supports for breastfeeding mothers. However, it is also imperative that US legislation be amended to include language that explicitly protects students so that women do not need to make the choice between continuing their education and continuing to breastfeed.
PMCID: PMC4506721  PMID: 25673358
breastfeeding; breastfeeding support; pumping; workplace
21.  A safety app to respond to dating violence for college women and their friends: the MyPlan study randomized controlled trial protocol 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:871.
Research demonstrates high rates of physical and sexual victimization of women by intimate partners on college campuses (Black et al. 2001). College women in abusive relationships must weigh complex factors (health, academics, economics, and social stigma) during critical decision-making regarding the relationship. Rather than access formal support systems (e.g., campus security, administrators, counselors), research indicates abused college women most often turn to informal networks; specifically friends (Perspect Psychiatr Care 41:162–171, 2005), who often lack the knowledge or resources to provide effective support (Nurs Res 54(4):235–242, 2005). Decision aids have been shown to assist with health-related decisions by improving knowledge, creating realistic expectations, and resolving decisional conflict (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:1–332, 2014).
This study is a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an interactive safety decision aid web-based and smartphone application (App) for abused college women and their friends. Three hundred female college students experiencing abuse and three hundred friends of female college students experiencing abuse will be recruited in Maryland and Oregon and randomized to either the intervention safety decision aid, accessible by website or smartphone App, or a usual safety planning control website/App. The intervention App allows users to enter information on: a) relationship health; b) safety priorities; and c) severity of violence/danger in relationship. The App uses this information to provide personalized safety planning information and resources. Self-reported outcome measures for abused college women on safety seeking behaviors, decisional conflict, IPV exposure and mental health will be collected at baseline, six, and 12-months post-baseline via the study App/website. Outcomes measured for friends are IPV awareness, confidence to intervene, supportive behaviors and decisional conflict. Protocols for safely recruiting, retaining and collecting data from abused women via web/App are discussed.
This trial may provide important information on the impact of an App and web-based safety planning tool on college women’s decisional conflict and safety behavior use when making difficult safety decisions. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to test an intervention that engages friends of abused college women. The trial may also inform researchers on the feasibility of safely conducting research with abused women using online recruitment and enrollment methods and collecting data via an App or website.
Trial registration ID: NCT02236663
PMCID: PMC4563945  PMID: 26350482
22.  Evaluating Syndromic surveillance systems at institutions of higher education (IHEs): A retrospective analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic at two universities 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:591.
Syndromic surveillance has been widely adopted as a real-time monitoring tool for timely response to disease outbreaks. During the second wave of the pH1N1 pandemic in Fall 2009, two major universities in Washington, DC collected data that were potentially indicative of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in students and staff. In this study, our objectives were three-fold. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the impact of pH1N1 on the campuses as clearly as possible given the data available and their likely biases. In addition, we sought to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the data series themselves, in order to inform these two universities and other institutions of higher education (IHEs) about real-time surveillance systems that are likely to provide the most utility in future outbreaks (at least to the extent that it is possible to generalize from this analysis).
We collected a wide variety of data that covered both student ILI cases reported to medical and non-medical staff, employee absenteeism, and hygiene supply distribution records (from University A only). Communication data were retrieved from university broadcasts, university preparedness websites, and H1N1-related on campus media reports. Regional data based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (CDC ILINet) surveillance network, American College Health Association (ACHA) pandemic influenza surveillance data, and local Google Flu Trends were used as external data sets. We employed a "triangulation" approach for data analysis in which multiple contemporary data sources are compared to identify time patterns that are likely to reflect biases as well as those that are more likely to be indicative of actual infection rates.
Medical personnel observed an early peak at both universities immediately after school began in early September and a second peak in early November; only the second peak corresponded to patterns in the community at large. Self-reported illness to university deans' offices was also relatively increased during mid-term exam weeks. The overall volume of pH1N1-related communication messages similarly peaked twice, corresponding to the two peaks of student ILI cases.
During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, both University A and B experienced a peak number of ILI cases at the beginning of the Fall term. This pattern, seen in surveillance systems at these universities and to a lesser extent in data from other IHEs, most likely resulted from students bringing the virus back to campus from their home states coupled with a sudden increase in population density in dormitories and lecture halls. Through comparison of data from different syndromic surveillance data streams, paying attention to the likely biases in each over time, we have determined, at least in the case of the pH1N1 pandemic, that student health center data more accurately depicted disease transmission on campus at both universities during the Fall 2009 pandemic than other available data sources.
PMCID: PMC3151236  PMID: 21791092
23.  Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions 
Open Veterinary Journal  2015;5(1):71-84.
Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4-year universities.
PMCID: PMC4629565  PMID: 26623370
Admissions criteria; Community college coursework; Online coursework; Veterinary admissions
24.  Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs.
Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared.
Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size.
Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking.
PMCID: PMC4064491  PMID: 24954931
experiential education; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; acute care; general medicine; ambulatory care; community pharmacy; health systems; qualitative research
25.  OnCampus: a mobile platform towards a smart campus 
SpringerPlus  2016;5(1):974.
An increasing number of researchers and practitioners are working to develop smart cities. Considerable attention has been paid to the college campus as it is an important component of smart cities. Consequently, the question of how to construct a smart campus has become a topical one. Here, we propose a scheme that can facilitate the construction of a smart and friendly campus. We primarily focus on three aspects of smart campuses. These are: the formation of social circles based on interests mining, the provision of educational guidance based on emotion analysis of information posted on a platform, and development of a secondary trading platform aimed at optimizing the allocation of campus resources. Based on these objectives, we designed and implemented a mobile platform called OnCampus as the first step towards the development of a smart campus that has been introduced in some colleges. We found that OnCampus could successfully accomplish the three above mentioned functions of a smart campus.
PMCID: PMC4931999  PMID: 27429884
Smart city; Smart campus; Mobile application

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