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1.  Position paper: management of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis 
Over the last three decades, emergency surgery for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis has evolved dramatically but remains controversial. Diverticulitis is categorized as uncomplicated (amenable to outpatient treatment) versus complicated (requiring hospitalization). Patients with complicated diverticulitis undergo computerized tomography (CT) scanning and the CT findings are used categorize the severity of disease. Treatment of stage I (phlegmon with or without small abscess) and stage II (phlegmon with large abscess) diverticulitis (which includes bowel rest, intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (PCD) of the larger abscesses) has not changed much over last two decades. On the other hand, treatment of stage III (purulent peritonitis) and stage IV (feculent peritonitis) diverticulitis has evolved dramatically and remains morbid. In the 1980s a two stage procedure (1st - segmental sigmoid resection with end colostomy and 2nd - colostomy closure after three to six months) was standard of care for most general surgeons. However, it was recognized that half of these patients never had their colostomy reversed and that colostomy closure was a morbid procedure. As a result starting in the 1990s colorectal surgical specialists increasing performed a one stage primary resection anastomosis (PRA) and demonstrated similar outcomes to the two stage procedure. In the mid 2000s, the colorectal surgeons promoted this as standard of care. But unfortunately despite advances in perioperative care and their excellent surgical skills, PRA for stage III/IV diverticulitis continued to have a high mortality (10-15%). The survivors require prolonged hospital stays and often do not fully recover. Recent case series indicate that a substantial portion of the patients who previously were subjected to emergency sigmoid colectomy can be successfully treated with less invasive nonoperative management with salvage PCD and/or laparoscopic lavage and drainage. These patients experience a surprisingly lower mortality and more rapid recovery. They are also spared the need for a colostomy and do not appear to benefit from a delayed elective sigmoid colectomy. While we await the final results ongoing prospective randomized clinical trials testing these less invasive alternatives, we have proposed (based primarily on case series and our expert opinions) what we believe safe and rationale management strategy.
PMCID: PMC3877957  PMID: 24369826
Complicated diverticulitis; Hartmann’s procedure; Primary resection anastomosis; Laparoscopic lavage and drainage; Percutaneous drainage
2.  Treatment of acute diverticulitis laparoscopic lavage vs. resection (DILALA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Trials  2011;12:186.
Perforated diverticulitis is a condition associated with substantial morbidity. Recently published reports suggest that laparoscopic lavage has fewer complications and shorter hospital stay. So far no randomised study has published any results.
DILALA is a Scandinavian, randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL) to the traditional Hartmann's Procedure (HP). Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL), re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients are included when surgery is required. A laparoscopy is performed and if Hinchey grade III is diagnosed the patient is included and randomised 1:1, to either LL or HP. Patients undergoing LL receive > 3L of saline intraperitoneally, placement of pelvic drain and continued antibiotics. Follow-up is scheduled 6-12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A QoL-form is filled out on discharge, 6- and 12 months. Inclusion is set to 80 patients (40+40).
HP is associated with a high rate of complication. Not only does the primary operation entail complications, but also subsequent surgery is associated with a high morbidity. Thus the combined risk of treatment for the patient is high. The aim of the DILALA trial is to evaluate if laparoscopic lavage is a safe, minimally invasive method for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey grade III, resulting in fewer re-operations, decreased morbidity, mortality, costs and increased quality of life.
Trial registration
British registry (ISRCTN) for clinical trials ISRCTN82208287
PMCID: PMC3173351  PMID: 21806795
3.  Emergency Management of Diverticulitis 
The most common indications for emergency operative intervention in the treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis are peritonitis and failure of medical therapy. Primary resection and diversion (Hartmann's procedure) followed by delayed colostomy closure is the current standard of emergency surgical care. Guidelines for best operative strategy, however, remain controversial and continue to evolve based on recent comparative reviews of surgical outcomes. Primary resection and anastomosis with or without proximal diversion and laparoscopic lavage are alternatives to Hartmann's procedure that may provide an improved outcome in properly selected patients. Ongoing changes in the historical paradigm of the surgical approach to this disease mandate the need for large multicentered prospective randomized trials to determine the best surgical strategy under emergent conditions for the treatment of diverticulitis. The current literature is reviewed with suggestions for a management algorithm.
PMCID: PMC2780262  PMID: 20676259
Diverticular peritonitis; diverticulitis; peritonitis; Hartmann's procedure; primary resection; anastomosis; laparoscopic lavage
4.  The Best Choice of Treatment for Acute Colonic Diverticulitis with Purulent Peritonitis Is Uncertain 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:380607.
Severe stages of acute, colonic diverticulitis can progress into intestinal perforations with peritonitis. In such cases, urgent treatment is needed, and Hartmann's procedure is the standard treatment for cases with fecal peritonitis. Peritoneal lavage may be an alternative to resection for acute diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis, but ongoing randomized trials are awaited to clarify this.
PMCID: PMC4065711  PMID: 24995290
5.  Subclinical peritonitis due to perforated sigmoid diverticulitis 14 years after heart-lung transplantation 
Acute complicated diverticulitis, particularly with colon perforation, is a rare but serious condition in transplant recipients with high morbidity and mortality. Neither acute diverticulitis nor colon perforation has been reported in young heart-lung grafted patients. A case of subclinical peritonitis due to perforated acute sigmoid diverticulitis 14 years after heart-lung transplantation is reported. A 26-year-old woman, who received heart-lung transplantation 14 years ago, presented with vague abdominal pain. Physical examination was normal. Blood tests revealed leukocytosis. Abdominal X-ray showed air-fluid levels while CT demonstrated peritonitis due to perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Sigmoidectomy and end-colostomy (Hartmann’s procedure) were performed. Histopathology confirmed perforated acute sigmoid diverticulitis. The patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day after an uneventful postoperative course. This is the first report of acute diverticulitis resulting in colon perforation in a young heart-lung transplanted patient. Clinical presentation, even in peritonitis, may be atypical due to the masking effects of immunosuppression. A high index of suspicion, urgent aggressive diagnostic investigation of even vague abdominal symptoms, adjustment of immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and immediate surgical treatment are critical. Moreover, strategies to reduce the risk of this complication should be implemented. Pretransplantation colon screening, prophylactic pretransplantation sigmoid resection in patients with diverticulosis, and elective surgical intervention in patients with nonoperatively treated acute diverticulitis after transplantation deserve consideration and further studies.
PMCID: PMC2716625  PMID: 18567091
Heart-lung transplantation; Acute diverticulitis; Colon perforation; Subclinical peritonitis
6.  DIRECT trial. Diverticulitis recurrences or continuing symptoms: Operative versus conservative Treatment. A MULTICENTER RANDOMISED CLINICAL TRIAL 
BMC Surgery  2010;10:25.
Persisting abdominal complaints are common after an episode of diverticulitis treated conservatively. Furthermore, some patients develop frequent recurrences. These two groups of patients suffer greatly from their disease, as shown by impaired health related quality of life and increased costs due to multiple specialist consultations, pain medication and productivity losses.
Both conservative and operative management of patients with persisting abdominal complaints after an episode of diverticulitis and/or frequently recurring diverticulitis are applied. However, direct comparison by a randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which is superior in relieving symptoms, optimising health related quality of life, minimising costs and preventing diverticulitis recurrences against acceptable morbidity and mortality associated with surgery or the occurrence of a complicated recurrence after conservative management.
We, therefore, constructed a randomised clinical trial comparing these two treatment strategies.
The DIRECT trial is a multicenter randomised clinical trial. Patients (18-75 years) presenting themselves with persisting abdominal complaints after an episode of diverticulitis and/or three or more recurrences within 2 years will be included and randomised. Patients randomised for conservative treatment are treated according to the current daily practice (antibiotics, analgetics and/or expectant management). Patients randomised for elective resection will undergo an elective resection of the affected colon segment. Preferably, a laparoscopic approach is used.
The primary outcome is health related quality of life measured by the Gastro-intestinal Quality of Life Index, Short-Form 36, EQ-5D and a visual analogue scale for pain quantification. Secondary endpoints are morbidity, mortality and total costs. The total follow-up will be three years.
Considering the high incidence and the multicenter design of this study, it may be assumed that the number of patients needed for this study (n = 214), may be gathered within one and a half year.
Depending on the expertise and available equipment, we prefer to perform a laparoscopic resection on patients randomised for elective surgery. Should this be impossible, an open technique may be used as this also reflects the current situation.
Trial Registration
(Trial register number: NTR1478)
PMCID: PMC2928179  PMID: 20691040
7.  The Sigma-trial protocol: a prospective double-blind multi-centre comparison of laparoscopic versus open elective sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis 
BMC Surgery  2007;7:16.
Diverticulosis is a common disease in the western society with an incidence of 33–66%. 10–25% of these patients will develop diverticulitis. In order to prevent a high-risk acute operation it is advised to perform elective sigmoid resection after two episodes of diverticulitis in the elderly patient or after one episode in the younger (< 50 years) patient. Open sigmoid resection is still the gold standard, but laparoscopic colon resections seem to have certain advantages over open procedures. On the other hand, a double blind investigation has never been performed. The Sigma-trial is designed to evaluate the presumed advantages of laparoscopic over open sigmoid resections in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis.
Indication for elective resection is one episode of diverticulitis in patients < 50 years and two episodes in patient > 50 years or in case of progressive abdominal complaints due to strictures caused by a previous episode of diverticulits. The diagnosis is confirmed by CT-scan, barium enema and/or coloscopy.
It is required that the participating surgeons have performed at least 15 laparoscopic and open sigmoid resections. Open resection is performed by median laparotomy, laparoscopic resection is approached by 4 or 5 cannula. Sigmoid and colon which contain serosal changes or induration are removed and a tension free anastomosis is created. After completion of either surgical procedure an opaque dressing will be used, covering from 10 cm above the umbilicus to the pubic bone. Surgery details will be kept separate from the patient's notes.
Primary endpoints are the postoperative morbidity and mortality. We divided morbidity in minor (e.g. wound infection), major (e.g. anastomotic leakage) and late (e.g. incisional hernias) complications, data will be collected during hospital stay and after six weeks and six months postoperative. Secondary endpoints are the operative and the postoperative recovery data. Operative data include duration of the operation, blood loss and conversion to laparotomy. Post operative recovery consists of return to normal diet, pain, analgesics, general health (SF-36 questionnaire) and duration of hospital stay.
The Sigma-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized study to define the role of laparoscopic sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis.
PMCID: PMC1955435  PMID: 17683563
8.  Perforated midgut diverticulitis: Revisited 
AIM: To study and provide data on the evolution of medical procedures and outcomes of patients suffering from perforated midgut diverticulitis.
METHODS: Three data sources were used: the Medline and Google search engines were searched for case reports on one or more patients treated for perforated midgut diverticulitis (Meckel’s diverticulitis excluded) that were published after 1995. The inclusion criterion was sufficient individual patient data in the article. Both indexed and non-indexed journals were used. Patients treated for perforated midgut diverticulitis at Vestfold Hospital were included in this group. Data on symptoms, laboratory and radiology results, treatment modalities, surgical access, procedures, complications and outcomes were collected. The Norwegian patient registry was searched to find patients operated upon for midgut diverticulitis from 1999 to 2007. The data collected were age, sex, mode of access, surgical procedure performed and number of patients per year. Historical controls were retrieved from an article published in 1995 containing pertinent individual patient data. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software.
RESULTS: Group I: 106 patients (48 men) were found. Mean age was 72.2 ± 13.1 years (mean ± SD). Age or sex had no impact on outcomes (P = 0.057 and P = 0.771, respectively). Preoperative assessment was plain radiography in 53.3% or computed tomography (CT) in 76.1%. Correct diagnosis was made in 77.1% with CT, 5.6% without (P = 0.001). Duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 3.6 d (range: 1-35 d), but longer duration was not associated with poor outcome (P = 0.748). Eighty-six point eight percent of patients underwent surgery, 92.4% of these through open access where 90.1% had bowel resection. Complications occurred in 19.2% of patients and 16.3% underwent reoperation. Distance from perforation to Treitz ligament was 41.7 ± 28.1 cm. At surgery, no peritonitis was found in 29.7% of patients, local peritonitis in 47.5%, and diffuse peritonitis in 22.8%. Peritonitis grade correlated with the reoperation rate (r = 0.43). Conservatively treated patients had similar hospital length of stay as operated patients (10.6 ± 8.3 d vs 10.7 ± 7.9 d, respectively). Age correlated with hospital stay (r = 0.46). No difference in outcomes for operated or nonoperated patients was found (P = 0.814). Group II: 113 patients (57 men). Mean age 67.6 ± 16.4 years (range: 21-96 years). Mean age for men was 61.3 ± 16.2 years, and 74.7 ± 12.5 years for women (P = 0.001). Number of procedures per year was 11.2 ± 0.9, and bowel resection was performed in 82.3% of patients. Group III: 47 patients (21 men). Patient age was 65.4 ± 14.4 years. Mean age for men was 61.5 ± 17.3 years and 65.3 ± 14.4 years for women. Duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 6.9 d (range: 1-180 d). No patients had a preoperative diagnosis, 97.9% of patients underwent surgery, and 78.3% had multiple diverticula. Bowel resection was performed in 67.4% of patients, and suture closure in 32.6%. Mortality was 23.4%. There was no difference in length of history or its impact on survival between Groups I and III (P = 0.241 and P = 0.198, respectively). Resection was more often performed in Group I (P = 0.01). Mortality was higher in Group III (P = 0.002).
CONCLUSION: In cases with contained perforation, conservative treatment gives satisfactory results, laparoscopy with lavage and drainage can be attempted and continued with a conservative course.
PMCID: PMC3442209  PMID: 23002340
Intestinal; Small bowel; Jejunum; Ileum; Perforation; Diverticulitis; Conservative treatment
9.  Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy for Diverticulitis: a Prospective Study 
Results of this study suggest that laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is a safe, feasible, and effective management strategy.
Surgical treatment of complicated colonic diverticular disease is still debatable. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy in patients with diverticulitis. Patients offered laparoscopic surgery presented with acute complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey type I, II, III), chronically recurrent diverticulitis, bleeding, or sigmoid stenosis caused by chronic diverticulitis.
All patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy within a 12-year period were prospectively entered into a database registry. One-stage laparoscopic resection and primary anastomosis constituted the planned procedure. A 4-trocar approach with suprapubic minilaparotomy was performed. Main data recorded were age, sex, postoperative pain, return of bowel function, operation time, duration of hospital stay, and early and late complications.
During the study period, 260 sigmoid colectomies were performed for diverticulitis. The cohort included 104 male and 156 female patients; M to F ratio was 4:6. Postoperative pain was controlled by NSAIDs or weak opioid analgesia. Fifteen patients (5.7%) required conversion from laparoscopic to open colectomy. The most common reasons for conversion were directly related to the inflammatory process, abscess, and peritonitis. Mean operative time was 130±54. Average postoperative hospital stay was 10±3 days. A longer hospital stay was recorded for Hinchey type IIb patients. Complications were recorded in 30 patients (11.5%). The most common complications that required reoperation were hemorrhage in 2 patients (0.76) and anastomotic leak in 5 patients (only 3 of them required reoperation). The mortality among them was 2 patients (0.76%).
Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is safe, feasible, and effective. Therefore, laparoscopic colectomy has replaced open resection as standard surgery for recurrent and complicated diverticulitis at our institution.
PMCID: PMC3083034  PMID: 21605507
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Laparoscopic surgery; Hinchey classification; Colectomy
10.  New and emerging treatments for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis 
Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common benign condition which carries significant morbidity and socioeconomic burden. This article describes the management of sigmoid diverticulitis with a focus on indications for surgical intervention. The mainstay of management of uncomplicated diverticulitis is broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. The old surgical dictum that two episodes of sigmoid diverticulitis warranted surgical intervention has been challenged by recently published data. Surgery for diverticulitis thus needs to be tailored to suit individual presentation; patients presenting with recurrent diverticulitis, severe symptoms or debilitating disease impacting patient’s quality of life mandate surgical intervention. Complicated diverticular disease typically prompts intervention to resect a diseased, strictured sigmoid colon, fistulizing disease, or a life-threatening colonic perforation. Laterally, minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the management of this disease and recent data suggests that localized colonic perforation may be managed by laparoscopic peritoneal lavage, without resection. This review focuses discussion on available evidence for contemporary surgical and nonoperative management of diverticulitis.
PMCID: PMC3190288  PMID: 22016581
sigmoid diverticulitis; colon; laparoscopic peritoneal lavage; surgical intervention
11.  Evaluation of current surgical management of acute inflammatory diverticular disease. 
During the period 1980 to 1987, 127 patients were admitted with acute complications of diverticular disease; clinically diagnosed as acute diverticulitis in 86, peritonitis in 33 and colonic obstruction in eight. In those patients diagnosed as acute diverticulitis, conservative treatment was effective in 73 (85%), the other 13 requiring surgery. Of 31 patients, with a clinical diagnosis of peritonitis who underwent operation, 19 (61%) had free purulent or faecal fluid at laparotomy and the remainder had a localised phlegmonous mass. Sigmoid resection was performed in 34 patients and nonexcisional surgery in 18. In the earlier period of the study, there was a preference for the former procedure in patients with peritonitis rather than those with phlegmonous diverticulitis (63% vs 28%), and in the later period of the study, resection was the preferred treatment in both groups (91% vs 93%). The increase in resectional surgery significantly reduced mortality, at completion of treatment, in patients with peritonitis (P less than 0.05) but not in those with phlegmonous diverticulitis. There was an additional benefit of resection in the lower number of procedures per patient (1.5 vs 2.1), a lower median total hospital stay (32 days vs 50.5, P less than 0.01) and a lower wound infection rate (16% vs 32%, P less than 0.01) at the end of treatment. The optimum surgical approach at laparotomy for acutely complicated diverticular disease would therefore appear to be a resectional procedure. Of the patients operated on for 'peritonitis', 39% were found to have a localised diverticular mass/phlegmon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC2499490  PMID: 1929127
12.  Avoiding or Reversing Hartmann’s Procedure Provides Improved Quality of Life After Perforated Diverticulitis 
The existing literature regarding acute perforated diverticulitis only reports about short-term outcome; long-term following outcomes have not been assessed before. The aim of this study was to assess long-term quality of life (QOL) after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis.
Patients and Methods
Validated QOL questionnaires (EQ-VAS, EQ-5D index, QLQ-C30, and QLQ-CR38) were sent to all eligible patients who had undergone emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis in five teaching hospitals between 1990 and 2005. Differences were compared between patients that had undergone Hartmann’s procedure (HP) or resection with primary anastomosis (PA) and also compared to a sex- and age-matched sample of healthy subjects.
Of a total of 340 patients, only 150 patients (44%) were found still alive in July 2007 (median follow-up 71 months). The response rate was 87%. In patients with PA, QOL was similar to the general population, whereas QOL after HP was significantly lower. The presence of a stoma was found to be an independent factor related to worse QOL. The deterioration in QOL was mainly due to problems in physical function and body image.
Survivors after perforated diverticulitis had a worse QOL than the general population, which was mainly due to the presence of an end colostomy. QOL may improve if these stomas are reversed or not be performed in the first place.
PMCID: PMC2836251  PMID: 20127201
Perforated diverticulitis; Quality of life; Hartmann’s procedure; Primary anastomosis
13.  Primary Anastomosis Without Colonic Lavage for the Obstructed Left Colon 
Resection, on-table lavage (OTL) and primary anastomosis is the treatment of choice for the obstructed left colon. OTL is time-consuming, requires considerable mobilisation/bowel handling, an enterotomy and potentially exposes the patient to mesenteric vascular injury, faecal contamination and a prolonged ileus. We have assessed outcome following primary resection and anastomosis without prior lavage.
Twenty-four consecutive, obstructed patients underwent splenic flexure mobilisation and high anterior resection (concomitant small bowel resection in 2) with primary side-to-side colorectal anastomosis without either prior lavage or covering stoma. Outcome was audited.
Twenty-four patients, 17 female aged 48–92 years (median. 76 years) presented with left-sided obstruction due to carcinoma (Dukes' B [3], C [6], D [1]) or chronic diverticulitis (14). Median operative time was 85 min (range, 40–105 min). Colonic ileus resolved on day 2 (29%) and day 3 (58%). Median hospital stay was 7 days (range, 6–72 days); 92% discharged by day 10. There were no deaths or re-admissions. A return to theatre followed a reactionary haemorrhage in one. This latter patient's anastomosis leaked on day 4 (no faecal contamination) and was converted to an end stoma. Urinary and wound infections were seen in two. Late complications comprised two anastomotic strictures; both responded to balloon dilatation at 5 months.
Resection and primary anastomosis without on-table lavage is an easy, practical, predictable and safe treatment option for left-sided colonic obstruction with minimal complications.
PMCID: PMC2647191  PMID: 18492393
Obstructed colon; Primary anastomosis; On-table lavage
14.  First report of Kocuria marina spontaneous peritonitis in a child 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):719.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a rare affection in the pediatric population. It usually occurs when concurrent conditions are present, such as nephrotic syndrome, peritoneal dialysis or liver disease. We report a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Kocuria marina in a 2-year-old child with no underlying risk factor. This is both the first description of an infection caused by this rare pathogen in a child and the first reported case of primary peritonitis caused by K. marina in a patient with no predisposing condition.
Case presentation
A 2 year-old boy presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with clinical signs of peritonitis. Laparoscopic surgical exploration confirmed purulent, generalized peritonitis without perforation. Culture of the peritoneal fluid revealed the presence of Kocuria marina, a Gram-positive coccoid environmental bacteria. After peritoneal lavage and appropriate antibiotic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged without sequel.
The present report illustrates the first clinical presentation of Kocuria marina SBP in a child with no underlying risk factor. Although never previously described in healthy patients, this pathogen may therefore be considered as a possible cause of SBP in a child. This unusual finding extends the spectrum of infectious diseases caused by Kocuria marina beyond the scope of the previously described susceptible population.
PMCID: PMC4297396  PMID: 25547004
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Primary peritonitis; Pediatrics; Kocuria; Kocuria marina
15.  Survival after acute colon diverticulitis treated in hospital 
The aim of this study was to determine the short- and long-term relative survival as well as the causes of death in patients treated in hospital for acute colonic diverticulitis.
Materials and methods
The study included all patients treated at Levanger Hospital for acute colonic diverticulitis between 1988 and 2012. Vital statistics were complete. The median observation time was 6.95 years (range 0.28–24.66) or until death.
In total, 650 different patients were hospitalized with acute colonic diverticulitis. Among these patients, there were 851 admissions for the same disease during the 25 years. The admissions had the following diagnoses: simple diverticulitis, 738; abscess formation , 44; perforation and purulent peritonitis, 47; perforation and fecal peritonitis, 9; and intestinal obstruction, 13. During the observation time, 219 were dead and 431 were still alive. After the first admission, the 100 day relative survival in patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis was 97 % (CI 95 to 99), with abscess formation 79 % (62 to 89), with purulent peritonitis 84 % (69 to 92), with fecal peritonitis 44 % (10 to 74), and with intestinal obstruction 80 % (38 to 96). After surviving the first 100 days, the estimated 5-year relative survival in the remaining 609 patients was 96 % (CI 92 to 100) and 10-year survival was 91 % (CI 84 to 97). In patients who survived the first 100 days, the different subtypes of diverticulitis yielded no significant differences in long-term relative survival. All patients who had been admitted with ASA score 4 were dead after 2 years.
PMCID: PMC4197364  PMID: 24986140
Acute colonic diverticulitis; Short-term survival; Long-term survival
16.  Audit on complicated diverticular disease. 
Seventy-three patients were seen between 1970 and 1983 with complicated diverticular disease. There were only six hospital deaths (8%). Two out of 7 patients with faecal peritonitis died, 2 of 27 patients with purulent peritonitis died and there was one death each associated with an inflammatory mass and a peridiverticular abscess. Five of the six hospital deaths were from cardiorespiratory disease and only one was from sepsis. Three of the early deaths were in patients who were receiving steroid therapy. There were three late deaths: one from uncontrolled sepsis, one an anaesthetic death from coronary occlusion during revision of a Hartmann operation and the third was an incidental myocardial infarction. A very conservative surgical policy was adopted, primary resection only being used for an inflammatory mass and selectively for fistula and local purulent disease. Despite our apparent low hospital mortality there was a high incidence of complication; wound sepsis 29%, fistula after colostomy closure 12% and anastomotic dehiscence after primary or secondary reconstruction 12%. These findings indicate the need for a prospective audit which is now in progress.
PMCID: PMC2498162  PMID: 3947025
17.  Open versus laparoscopic left lateral hepatic sectionectomy within an enhanced recovery ERAS® programme (ORANGE II – Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:54.
The use of lLaparoscopic liver resection in terms of time to functional recovery, length of hospital stay (LOS), long-term abdominal wall hernias, costs and quality of life (QOL) has never been studied in a randomised controlled trial. Therefore, this is the subject of the international multicentre randomised controlled ORANGE II trial.
Patients eligible for left lateral sectionectomy (LLS) of the liver will be recruited and randomised at the outpatient clinic. All randomised patients will undergo surgery in the setting of an ERAS programme. The experimental design produces two randomised arms (open and laparoscopic LLS) and a prospective registry. The prospective registry will be based on patients that cannot be randomised because of the explicit treatment preference of the patient or surgeon, or because of ineligibility (not meeting the in- and exclusion criteria) for randomisation in this trial. Therefore, all non-randomised patients undergoing LLS will be approached to participate in the prospective registry, thereby allowing acquisition of an uninterrupted prospective series of patients. The primary endpoint of the ORANGE II trial is time to functional recovery. Secondary endpoints are postoperative LOS, percentage readmission, (liver-specific) morbidity, QOL, body image and cosmetic result, hospital and societal costs over 1 year, and long-term incidence of incisional hernias. It will be assumed that in patients undergoing laparoscopic LLS, length of hospital stay can be reduced by two days. A sample size of 55 patients in each randomisation arm has been calculated to detect a 2-day reduction in LOS (90% power and α = 0.05 (two-tailed)).
The ORANGE II trial is a multicenter randomised controlled trial that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic surgery in patients undergoing LLS within an enhanced recovery ERAS programme.
Trial registration NCT00874224.
PMCID: PMC3409025  PMID: 22559239
Laparoscopy; Open liver resection; Hepatectomy; ERAS; Left lateral sectionectomy; RCT
18.  Laparoscopic Colectomy: the Absolute Need for a Standard Operative Technique 
The aim of this study is to review our experience performing laparoscopic colon surgery and to present the operative technique as used and standardized by us.
From April 1992 to December 1996, 158 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic colon surgery. There were 92 females and 66 males, whose average age was 66.7 years (range 31 - 92); 134 patients (84.9%) were operated on for carcinoma, and the remaining 24 (14.1%) for benign disease.
There were 117 procedures completed laparoscopically out of 158 patients (74%); 103 colon resections (18 for benign disease and 95 for malignant disease), 7 Hartmann procedures, 3 for reversal of Hartmann's procedures, 1 rectopexy, and 3 ileotrasversostomies. Conversions were required in 41 out of 158 cases (25.9%); 19 of these cases, however, were converted to a laparoscopic-facilitated procedure. The most common causes for conversion were the presence of bulky tumors and/or tumors that contaminated adjacent structures (16/158), adhesions due to previous operations (8/158) or patient obesity (5/158). There were 31 complications (19.6%), 9 of which required re-operation. There was only one recurrence (0.9%) that manifested 15 months after the procedure, at both trocar and drainage sites, and with peritoneal carcinomatosis. This occurred in a patient with rectal neoplasia who suffered a perforation of the rectum during dis-section, with bowel spillage. The average number of lymph nodes harvested in resected specimens was 12.8 (range 1-41), whereas the mean distance of the tumor from the proximal margin of resection was 11.5 cm (range 5-35), and from the distal margin 7.5 cm (range 1-25). The average operative time was 165 minutes (range 40-360), and the mean hospital stay was 9.2 days (range 6-40). There were three mortalities out of 158 patients (1.9%).
Laparoscopic colon resection for malignant lesions, performed with the highest respect for oncologic principles, has demonstrated that it is difficult to develop a barrier to wall and intraluminal recurrence. Recurrence, in our opinion, is caused by improper surgical technique. Therefore, neoplastic colon laparoscopic surgery must be the prerogative of selected and specialized centers.
PMCID: PMC3016731  PMID: 9876674
Laparoscopy; Colorectal tumors; Wall recurrence; Surgical technique of colon resections
19.  Clinical considerations and therapeutic strategy for sigmoid volvulus in the elderly: A study of 33 cases 
AIM: To evaluate different types of treatment for sigmoid volvulus and clarify the role of endoscopic intervention versus surgery.
METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical presentation and imaging characteristics of 33 sigmoid volvulus patients was presented, as well as their diagnosis and treatment, in combination with a literature review.
RESULTS: In 26 patients endoscopic detorsion was achieved after the first attempt and one patient died because of uncontrollable sepsis despite prompt operative treatment. Seven patients had unsuccessful endoscopic derotation and were operated on. On two patients with gangrenous sigmoid, Hartmann’s procedure was performed. In five patients with viable colon, a sigmoid resection and primary anastomosis was carried out. Three patients had a lavage “on table” prior to anastomosis, while in the remaining 2 patients a diverting stoma was performed according to the procedure of the first author. Ten patients were operated on during their first hospital stay (3 to 8 d after the deflation). All patients had viable colon; 7 patients had a sigmoid resection and primary anastomosis, 2 patients had sigmoidopexy and one patient underwent a near-total colectomy. Two patients (sigmoidectomy-sigmoidopexy) had recurrences of volvulus 43 and 28 mo after the initial surgery. Among 15 patients who were discharged from the hospital after non-operative deflation, 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 12 patients, 5 had a recurrence of volvulus at a time in between 23 d and 14 mo. All the five patients had been operated on and in four a gangrenous sigmoid was found. Three patients died during the 30 d postoperative course. The remaining seven patients were admitted to our department for elective surgery. In these patients, 2 subtotal colectomies, 3 sigmoid resections and 2 sigmoidopexies were carried out. One patient with subtotal colectomy died. Taken together of the results, it is evident that after 17 elective operations we had only one death (5.9%), whereas after 15 emergency operations 6 patients died, which means a mortality rate of 40%.
CONCLUSION: Although sigmoid volvulus causing intestinal obstruction is frequently successfully encountered by endoscopic decompression, however, the principal therapy of this condition is surgery. Only occasionally in patients with advanced age, lack of bowel symptoms and multiple co-morbidities might surgical repair not be considered.
PMCID: PMC4065930  PMID: 17352024
Volvulus; Celiotomy; Large bowel obstruction; Decompression; Sigmoidectomy
20.  The influence of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery for diverticulitis 
Techniques in Coloproctology  2012;16(4):309-314.
Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) has been shown to have no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage in overall colorectal surgery. The role of MBP in elective surgery in combination with an inflammatory component such as diverticulitis is yet unclear. This study evaluates the effects of MBP on anastomotic leakage and other septic complications in 190 patients who underwent elective surgery for colonic diverticulitis.
A subgroup analysis was performed in a prior multicenter (13 hospitals) randomized trial comparing clinical outcome of MBP versus no MBP in elective colorectal surgery. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of anastomotic leakage in patients operated on for diverticulitis, and secondary endpoints were septic complications and mortality.
Out of a total of 1,354 patients, 190 underwent elective colorectal surgery (resection with primary anastomosis) for (recurrent or stenotic) diverticulitis. One hundred and three patients underwent MBP prior to surgery and 87 did not. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 7.8 % of patients treated with MBP and in 5.7 % of patients not treated with MBP (p = 0.79). There were no significant differences between the groups in septic complications and mortality.
Mechanical bowel preparation has no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage, or other septic complications, and may be safely omitted in case of elective colorectal surgery for diverticulitis.
PMCID: PMC3398249  PMID: 22706733
Colonic diverticulitis; Mechanical bowel preparation; Anastomotic leak; Surgical site infection
21.  Management of patients with stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon: Report of five cases 
To our knowledge, stercoral perforation of the colon is rarely seen with fewer than 90 cases reported in the literature till date. We explored the principles of management to prevent impending mortality in five patients with this condition. Five patients, two males and three females, whose median age was 64 years, had sustained stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon. Chronic constipation was the common symptom among these patients. Three patients underwent a Hartmann’s procedure and another two were treated with segmental colectomy with anastomosis and diverting colostomy. There was one surgical mortality and the other patients had an uneventful hospital stay. Timely intervention to prevent and/or treat any associated sepsis along with extensive peritoneal lavage and surgical intervention to remove diseased colonic tissue at the primary stercoral ulceration site coupled with aggressive therapy for peritonitis are key treatment modalities in salvaging patients presenting with stercoral perforation of the colon.
PMCID: PMC4066079  PMID: 16489660
Stercoral perforation; Colon; Management
22.  Complicated Jejunal Diverticulitis: A Challenging Diagnosis and Difficult Therapy 
In contrast to diverticulosis of the colon, jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity that often becomes clinically relevant only after exacerbations occur. The variety of symptoms and low incidence make this disease a difficult differential diagnosis.
Patients and Methods:
Data from all patients who were treated in our surgical department for complicated jejunal diverticulitis, that is, gastrointestinal hemorrhage or a diverticula perforation were collected prospectively over a 6-year period (January 2004 to January 2010) and analyzed retrospectively.
The median age among the 9 patients was 82 years (range: 54–87). Except for 2 cases (elective operation for a status postjejunal peridiverticulitis and a re-perforation of a diverticula in a patient s/p segment resection with free perforation), the diagnosis could only be confirmed with an exploratory laparotomy. Perforation was observed in 5 patients, one of which was a retroperitoneal perforation. The retroperitoneal perforation was associated with transanal hemorrhage. Hemodynamically relevant transanal hemorrhage requiring transfusion were the reason for an exploratory laparotomy in 2 further cases. In one patient, the hemorrhage was the result of a systemic vasculitis with resultant gastrointestinal involvement. A singular jejunal diverticulum caused an adhesive ileus in one patient. The extent of jejunal diverticulosis varied between a singular diverticulum to complete jejunal involvement. A tangential, transverse excision of the diverticulum was carried out in 3 patients. The indication for segment resection was made in the case of a perforation with associated peritonitis (n=4) as well as the presence of 5 or more diverticula (n=2). Histological analysis revealed chronic pandiverticulitis in all patients. Median operating time amounted to 142 minutes (range: 65–210) and the median in-hospital stay was 12 days (range: 5–45). Lethality was 0%. Major complications included secondary wound closure after s/p repeated lavage and bilateral pleural effusions in one case. Signs of malabsorption as the result of a short bowel syndrome were not observed. Minor complications included protracted intestinal atony in 2 cases and pneumonia in one case. Median follow-up was 6 months (range: 1–18).
Complicated jejunal diverticulitis often remains elusive preoperatively due to its unspecific clinical presentation. A definitive diagnosis can often only be made intraoperatively. The resection of all diverticula and/or the complete diverticula-laden segment is the goal in chronic cases. The operative approach chosen (tangential, transverse excision vs segment resection) should be based on the extent of the jejunal diverticulosis as well as the intraoperative findings.
PMCID: PMC3326973  PMID: 22421718
Diverticulosis; jejunum; surgery
23.  Traditional invasive vs. minimally invasive esophagectomy: a multi-center, randomized trial (TIME-trial) 
BMC Surgery  2011;11:2.
There is a rise in incidence of esophageal carcinoma due to increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma. Probably the only curative option to date is the use of neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgical resection. Traditional open esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Furthermore, this approach involves long intensive care unit stay, in-hospital stay and long recovery period. Minimally invasive esophagectomy could reduce the morbidity and accelerate the post-operative recovery.
Comparison between traditional open and minimally invasive esophagectomy in a multi-center, randomized trial. Patients with a resectable intrathoracic esophageal carcinoma, including the gastro-esophageal junction tumors (Siewert I) are eligible for inclusion. Prior thoracic surgery and cervical esophageal carcinoma are indications for exclusion. The surgical technique involves a right thoracotomy with lung blockade and laparotomy either with a cervical or thoracic anastomosis for the traditional group. The minimally invasive procedure involves a right thoracoscopy in prone position with a single lumen tube and laparoscopy either with a cervical or thoracic anastomosis. All patients in both groups will undergo identical pre-operative and post-operative protocol. Primary endpoint of this study are post-operative respiratory complications within the first two post-operative weeks confirmed by clinical, radiological and sputum culture data. Secondary endpoints are the operative data, the post-operative data and oncological data such as quality of the specimen and survival. Operative data include duration of the operation, blood loss and conversion to open procedure. Post-operative data include morbidity (major and minor), quality of life tests and hospital stay.
Based on current literature and the experience of all participating centers, an incidence of pulmonary complications for 57% in the traditional arm and 29% in the minimally invasive arm, it is estimated that per arm 48 patients are needed. This is based on a two-sided significance level (alpha) of 0.05 and a power of 0.80. Knowing that approximately 20% of the patients will be excluded, we will randomize 60 patients per arm.
The TIME-trial is a prospective, multi-center, randomized study to define the role of minimally invasive esophageal resection in patients with resectable intrathoracic and junction esophageal cancer.
Trial registration (Netherlands Trial Register)
PMCID: PMC3031195  PMID: 21226918
24.  Acute ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis: Case report of an uncommon entity 
Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Its reported incidence varies from 0.05% to 6%. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life threatening and require early surgical treatment. We report a case of an 88-year-old man investigated for acute abdominal pain with a high biological inflammatory syndrome. Inflammation of multiple giant jejunal diverticulum was discovered at abdominal computed tomography (CT). As a result of the clinical and biological signs of early peritonitis, an emergency surgical exploration was performed. The first jejunal loop showed clear signs of jejunal diverticulitis. Primary segmental jejunum resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology report confirmed an ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis with imminent perforation and acute local peritonitis. The patient made an excellent rapid postoperative recovery. Jejunal diverticulum is rare but may cause serious complications. It should be considered a possible etiology of acute abdomen, especially in elderly patients with unusual symptomatology. Abdominal CT is the diagnostic tool of choice. The best treatment is emergency surgical management.
PMCID: PMC2761593  PMID: 18985822
Jejunal diverticulum; Diverticulitis; Surgery; Tomography
25.  Laparoscopic Resection of Chronic Sigmoid Diverticulitis with Fistula 
This study indicates that patients with sigmoid diverticulitis and fistula may be successfully treated by laparoscopic excision with outcomes similar to patients without fistula.
Background and Objectives:
A growing number of operations for sigmoid diverticulitis are being done laparoscopically. There is a paucity of data on the outcome of laparoscopy for sigmoid diverticulitis complicated by colonic fistula. The aim of this study was to compare the results of laparoscopic resection of sigmoid diverticulitis with and without colonic fistula.
A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of sigmoid diverticulitis complicated by fistula at a single tertiary care institution over a 7-year period. Comparison was made with a group of patients who underwent resection for diverticulitis without fistula during the same study period.
Forty-two patients were analyzed (group 1: diverticular fistula, group 2: no fistula). The median age was similar (49 vs. 50 years, P = .68). A chronic abscess was present in 24% of patients in group 1 and 10% in group 2 (P = .40). Fistula types were colovesical (71%), colovaginal (19%), and colocutaneous (10%). Operation types were sigmoidectomy (57% vs. 81%) and anterior resection (43% vs. 19%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = .18). Ureteral catheters were used more frequently in group 1 (67% vs. 33% [P = .06]). No difference was noted in operative time, blood loss, conversion rate, length of stay, overall complications, wound infection rate, readmission rate, reoperation rate, and mortality. All patients healed without fistula recurrence.
Patients with sigmoid diverticulitis with fistula can be successfully treated with laparoscopic excision, with similar outcomes for patients without fistula.
PMCID: PMC3866070  PMID: 24398208
Laparoscopic resection; Sigmoid diverticulitis; Colonic fistula

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