Treponema denticola is an oral spirochete that is associated with periodontal disease and detected occasionally in extraoral lesions associated with systemic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases. The effect of specific bacterial products from oral treponemes on endothelium is poorly investigated. This study analyzed the ability of components of the outer membrane of T. denticola (OMT) to induce apoptosis and heat shock proteins (HO-1 and Hsp70) in porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs), compared with results obtained with classical pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Cellular apoptosis was detected when pAECs were treated with either OMT or LPS, suggesting that OMT can damage endothelium integrity by reducing endothelial cell vitality. Stimulation with OMT, similarly to LPS response, increased HO-1 and Hsp-70 protein expression in a time-dependent manner, correlating with a rise in HO-1 and Hsp-70 mRNA. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that T. denticola alters endothelial cell function. Moreover, our in vitro experiments represent a preliminary investigation to further in vivo study using a pig model to elucidate how T. denticola leaves the initial endodontic site and participates in the development of several systemic diseases.
Treponema denticola; Endothelial cells; Hsp70; HO-1; Apoptosis
The heat shock response of Arabidopsis thaliana is dependent upon a complex regulatory network involving twenty-one known transcription factors and four heat shock protein families. It is known that heat shock proteins (Hsps) and transcription factors (Hsfs) are involved in cellular response to various forms of stress besides heat. However, the role of Hsps and Hsfs under cold and non-thermal stress conditions is not well understood, and it is unclear which types of stress interact least and most strongly with Hsp and Hsf response pathways. To address this issue, we have analyzed transcriptional response profiles of Arabidopsis Hsfs and Hsps to a range of abiotic and biotic stress treatments (heat, cold, osmotic stress, salt, drought, genotoxic stress, ultraviolet light, oxidative stress, wounding, and pathogen infection) in both above and below-ground plant tissues.
All stress treatments interact with Hsf and Hsp response pathways to varying extents, suggesting considerable cross-talk between heat and non-heat stress regulatory networks. In general, Hsf and Hsp expression was strongly induced by heat, cold, salt, and osmotic stress, while other types of stress exhibited family or tissue-specific response patterns. With respect to the Hsp20 protein family, for instance, large expression responses occurred under all types of stress, with striking similarity among expression response profiles. Several genes belonging to the Hsp20, Hsp70 and Hsp100 families were specifically upregulated twelve hours after wounding in root tissue, and exhibited a parallel expression response pattern during recovery from heat stress. Among all Hsf and Hsp families, large expression responses occurred under ultraviolet-B light stress in aerial tissue (shoots) but not subterranean tissue (roots).
Our findings show that Hsf and Hsp family member genes represent an interaction point between multiple stress response pathways, and therefore warrant functional analysis under conditions apart from heat shock treatment. In addition, our analysis revealed several family and tissue-specific heat shock gene expression patterns that have not been previously described. These results have implications regarding the molecular basis of cross-tolerance in plant species, and raise new questions to be pursued in future experimental studies of the Arabidopsis heat shock response network.
Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production.
Hsp12p is considered to be a small heat shock protein and conserved among fungal species. To investigate the expression of this heat shock protein in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans we developed an anti-CaHsp12p antibody. We show that this protein is induced during stationary phase growth and under stress conditions including heat shock, osmotic, oxidative and heavy metal stress. Furthermore, we find that CaHsp12p expression is influenced by the quorum sensing molecule farnesol, the change of CO2 concentration and pH. Notably we show that the key transcription factor Efg1p acts as a positive regulator of CaHsp12p in response to heat shock and oxidative stress and demonstrate that CaHsp12p expression is additionally modulated by Hog1p and the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. To study the function of Hsp12p in C. albicans we generated a null mutant, in which all four CaHSP12 genes have been deleted. Phenotypic analysis of the strain shows that CaHSP12 is not essential for stress resistance, morphogenesis or virulence when tested in a Drosophila model of infection. However, when overexpressed, CaHSP12 significantly enhanced cell-cell adhesion, germ tube formation and susceptibility to azole antifungal agents whilst desensitizing C. albicans to the quorum sensing molecule farnesol.
The expression of two small heat shock proteins (sHsp), Hsp 23 and Hsp27, was examined by immunological approaches in the eye of Drosophila melanogaster. Neither Hsp23 nor Hsp27 is detectable in unstressted (23°C) eyes but bothe proteins are induced by heat shock (35°C). In response to heat stress, Hsp27 is expressed in all cells of the ommatidium including the cone, pigment and photoreceptor cells. However, the heat-induced expression of Hsps23 is restricted to a single cell type of the ommatidium, the cone cells, suggesting that Hsp23 is regulated by specific mechanisms acting to inhibit the expression of this polypeptide in some ommatidial cells. The cell-specific induction of Hsp23 under stress conditions does not seem to be regulated by the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock transcriptional factor (DmHSF). In both unstressed and stressed conditions, DmHSF is detected in all the different types of ommatidial cells where it is found associated with the nucleus.
These observations suggest that factors, other than the heat shock transcriptional factor, are involved in regulating the expression of the hsp23 gene under stress conditions.
Oxidative stress, arising from an imbalance in the generation and removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a challenge faced by all aerobic organisms. In plants, different pathways sense ROS from extracellular sources or organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplast or peroxisome. In our recent paper on Plant Molecular Biology1 we have studied the Arabidopsis thaliana early response to the generation of superoxide anion in chloroplasts during active photosynthesis. Transcript profile analysis revealed that the expression level of various genes encoding heat shock proteins (Hsps), increased after a short term of oxidative stress treatment. Furthermore, there was an induction of heat shock transcription factors HsfA2 and HsfA4A that were reported to be regulators of genes involved in stress response of Arabidopsis.1,2
In this addendum, we complement the expression analysis of two Hsp genes encoding Hsp70 and a 17.6 kDa class I small heat-shock protein (sHsp), and discuss their plausible role during oxidative stress, considering our data and other recently published papers.
heat shock factor; heat shock protein; chloroplast; oxidative stress; signalling
Treponema denticola levels in the gingival crevice become elevated as periodontal disease develops. Oral treponemes may account for as much as 40% of the total bacterial population in the periodontal pocket. The stimuli that trigger enhanced growth of T. denticola and the mechanisms associated with the transmission of these signals, remain to be defined. We hypothesize that the T. denticola ORFs tde1970 (histidine kinase) and tde1969 (response regulator) constitute a functional two component regulatory system that regulates, at least in part, responses to the changing environmental conditions associated with the development of periodontal disease. The results presented demonstrate that tde1970 and tde1969 are conserved, universal among T. denticola isolates and transcribed as part of a 7 gene operon in a growth phase dependent manner. Tde1970 undergoes autophosphorylation and transfers phosphate to tde1969. Henceforth the proteins encoded by these ORFs are designated as Hpk2 and Rrp2 respectively. Hpk2 autophosphorylation kinetics were influenced by environmental conditions and by the presence or absence of a PAS domain. It can be concluded that Hpk2 and Rrp2 constitute a functional two-component system that contributes to environmental sensing.
Rapid expression of the survival gene, inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), is critical for mounting cytoprotection against severe cellular stress, like elevated temperature. Hsp70 protein chaperones the refolding of heat-denatured peptides to minimize proteolytic degradation as a part of an eukaryotically conserved phenomenon referred to as the heat shock response. The physiologic stress associated with exercise, which can include elevated temperature, mechanical damage, hypoxia, lowered pH, and reactive oxygen species generation, may promote protein unfolding, leading to hsp70 gene expression in skeletal myofibers. Although the pre-transcriptional activation of hsp70 gene expression has been thoroughly reviewed, discussion of downstream hsp70 gene regulation is less extensive. The purpose of this brief review was to examine all levels of hsp70 gene regulation in response to heat stress and exercise with a special focus on skeletal myofibers where data are available. In general, while heat stress represses bulk gene expression, hsp70 mRNA expression is enhanced. Post-transcriptionally, intronless hsp70 mRNA circumvents a host of decay pathways, as well as heat stress-repressed pre-mRNA splicing and nuclear export. Pre-translationally, hsp70 mRNA is excluded from stress granules and preferentially translated during heat stress-repressed global cap-dependent translation. Post-translationally, nascent Hsp70 protein is thermodynamically stable at elevated temperatures, allowing for the commencement of chaperoning activity early after synthesis to attenuate the heat shock response and protect against subsequent injury. This review demonstrates that hsp70 mRNA expression is closely coupled with functional protein translation.
Heat shock response; hsp70; Regulation; Skeletal muscle; Exercise; Heat stress
The regulation of heat shock protein (HSP) expression is critically important to pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dysregulation of the heat shock response results in increased immune recognition of the bacterium and reduced
survival during chronic infection. In this study we use a whole genome spotted
microarray to characterize the heat shock response of M. tuberculosis. We also begin a dissection of this important stress response by generating deletion mutants that lack
specific transcriptional regulators and examining their transcriptional profiles under
different stresses. Understanding the stimuli and mechanisms that govern heat shock
in mycobacteria will allow us to relate observed in vivo expression patterns of HSPs
to particular stresses and physiological conditions. The mechanisms controlling HSP
expression also make attractive drug targets as part of a strategy designed to enhance
immune recognition of the bacterium.
Heat shock response is a common event that occurs in many species. Despite its evolutionary conservation, comparative studies of heat shock response have been largely unexplored. In mammals, heat shock response decreases with age through unclear mechanisms. Understanding how the age-related decline in heat shock response occurs may provide information to understanding the biology of aging. We have previously shown that heat shock response similarly declines with age in zebrafish. However, signaling pathways that regulate the heat shock response in zebrafish are unknown. In mammals there is evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) of the ERK family alter Hsp70 transcription, serving as a potential regulator of the heat shock response. We explored if heat stress-induced Hsp70 expression is altered by activation of ERK in the zebrafish Pac2 fibroblast cell line as occurs in mammalian cells. Heat stress induced both Hsp70 mRNA expression and phosphorylation of both ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2) in Pac2 cells. ERK inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 blocked both heat stress-induced and plated-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and also diminished heat-induced Hsp70 expression. Pac2 cell viability was not affected by either the ERK inhibitors or heat stress. These results demonstrate that induction of Hsp70 in response to heat stress is dependent on ERK activation in Pac2 cells. This suggests that the heat shock response in zebrafish utilizes a similar signaling pathway to that of mammals and that zebrafish are a good model for comparative studies of heat shock response.
Aging; ERK; Heat shock response; Hsp70; MAPKs; Zebrafish
Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is under investigation as treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, yet many types of neurons, including motor neurons that degenerate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have a high threshold for activation of the major transcription factor mediating stress-induced Hsp upregulation, heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1). Hsf1 is tightly regulated by a series of inhibitory checkpoints that include sequestration in multichaperone complexes governed by Hsp90. This study examined the role of multichaperone complexes in governing the heat shock response in motor neurons. Hsp90 inhibitors induced expression of Hsp70 and Hsp40 and transactivation of a human inducible hsp70 promoter–green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct in motor neurons of dissociated spinal cord–dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures. On the other hand, overexpression of activator of Hsp90 adenosine triphosphatase ([ATPase 1], Aha1), which should mobilize Hsf1 by accelerating turnover of mature, adenosine triphosphate–(ATP) bound Hsp90 complexes, and death domain–associated protein (Daxx), which in cell lines has been shown to promote transcription of heat shock genes by relieving inhibition exerted by interactions between nuclear Hsp90/multichaperone complexes and trimeric Hsf1, failed to induce Hsps in the absence or presence of heat shock. These results indicate that disruption of multichaperone complexes alone is not sufficient to activate the neuronal heat shock response. Furthermore, in motor neurons, induction of Hsp70 by Hsp90-inhibiting drugs was prevented by overexpression of wild-type Hsf1, contrary to what would be expected for a classical Hsf1-mediated pathway. These results point to additional differences in regulation of hsp genes in neuronal and nonneuronal cells.
Gene encoding heat shock protein (Hsps) are induced following a thermal stress thanks to the activation of heat shock transcription factor (HSF) which interacts with heat shock elements (HSE) located within the sequence of Hsp promoters. This cellular and protective response (heat shock response (HSR)) is well known and evolutionarily conserved. Nevertheless, HSR does not function in all the cells produced during the life of a multicellular organism, e.g., early mouse embryos. Taking advantage of mouse transgenic and knockout models, we investigated the roles of trans (HSF 1 and 2) and cis (HSE) regulatory elements in the control of Hsp70.1 (Hspa1b) through several developmental steps from oocytes to blastocysts. Our studies confirm that, even in absence of any stress, HSF1 regulates Hsp70.1 in oocytes and early embryos. Our data emphasize the role of maternal and paternal HSFs in the developmentally regulated expression of Hsp70.1 observed when the zygotic genome activation occurs. Furthermore, in this unstressed developmental condition, affinity and binding to HSEs might be more permissive than in the stress response. Finally, submitting blastocyst to different stress conditions, we show that HSF2 is differentially required for Hsp expression and cell survival. Taken together, our findings indicate that the role of heat shock trans and cis regulatory elements evolve along the successive steps of early embryonic development.
Hsp; HSF; HSE; Embryos; Transgenic lines; Knockout
Oral spirochetes possess many potential virulence factors, including the capacity for tissue invasion and persistence despite a vigorous host immune response. In an attempt to identify treponemal immunoreactive components, sera derived from individuals with advanced periodontal disease were used as a reagent to isolate recombinant bacteriophage lambda clones expressing antigens of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola ATCC 35405. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a clone expressing three immunoreactive products has revealed seven T. denticola genes which appear to encode homologs of flagellar basal body constituents, FlgB, FlgC, FliE, and FliF, a flagellar switch component, FliG, and the putative flagellar export proteins, FliH and FliI, initially characterized in Salmonella typhimurium. Also identified was a gene resembling fliJ. Primer extension analysis identified a transcriptional start site 5' to the treponemal flgB gene. Appropriately spaced with respect to this start site was a sigma28 binding motif. The absence of additional identifiable sigma factor binding motifs within the treponemal sequence and the proximity of adjacent genes suggested operonic arrangement, and reverse transcriptase PCR provided evidence of cotranscription. Supporting the identification of these genes as flagellar components, heterologous expression in enteric bacteria of the putative switch basal body genes from T. denticola interfered with motility. Specifically, the presence of a plasmid expressing treponemal fliG reduced swarming motility in S. typhimurium, while in Escherichia coli, this plasmid conferred a nonmotile phenotype and a reduction in flagellar number. Thus, while spirochetal flagella are subject to unique synthetic and functional constraints, the organization of flagellar genes and the presence of sigma28-like elements are reminiscent of the flagellar systems of other bacteria, and there appears to be sufficient conservation of constituent proteins to allow interaction between T. denticola switch-basal body proteins and the flagellar machinery of gram-negative bacteria.
The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a high molecular weight protein kinase that regulates many processes in cells in response to mitogens and variations in nutrient availability. Here we have shown that mTOR in human tissue culture cells plays a key role in responses to proteotoxic stress and that reduction in mTOR levels by RNA interference leads to increase sensitivity to heat shock. This effect was accompanied by a drastic reduction in ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (HSP), including Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110. As HSP transcription is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), we examined whether mTOR could directly phosphorylate this factor. Indeed, we determined that mTOR could directly phosphorylate HSF1 on serine 326, a key residue in transcriptional activation. HSF1 was phosphorylated on S326 immediately after heat shock and was triggered by other cell stressors including proteasome inhibitors and sodium arsenite. Null mutation of S326 to alanine led to loss of ability to activate an HSF1-regulated promoter-reporter construct, indicating a direct role for mTOR and S326 in transcriptional regulation of HSP genes during stress. As mTOR is known to exist in at least two intracellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTOR2 we examined which complex might interact with HSF1. Indeed mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented HSF1-S326 phosphorylation, suggesting that this complex is involved in HSF1 regulation in stress. Our experiments therefore suggest a key role for mTORC1 in transcriptional responses to proteotoxic stress.
The heat-shock response, a fundamental defense mechanism against proteotoxic stress, is regulated by a family of heat-shock transcription factors (HSF). In humans HSF1 is considered the central regulator of heat-induced transcriptional responses. The main targets for HSF1 are specific promoter elements (HSE) located upstream of heat-shock genes encoding cytoprotective heat-shock proteins (HSP) with chaperone function. In addition to its cytoprotective function, HSF1 was recently hypothesized to play a more complex role, regulating the expression of non-HSP genes; however, the non-canonical role of HSF1 is still poorly understood. Herein we report that heat-stress promotes the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key regulator of inflammation controlling prostanoid and thromboxane synthesis, resulting in the production of high levels of prostaglandin-E2 in human cells. We show that heat-induced COX-2 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level via HSF1-mediated signaling and identify, by in-vitro reporter gene activity assay and deletion-mutant constructs analysis, the COX-2 heat-responsive promoter region and a new distal cis-acting HSE located at position −2495 from the transcription start site. As shown by ChIP analysis, HSF1 is recruited to the COX-2 promoter rapidly after heat treatment; by using shRNA-mediated HSF1 suppression and HSE-deletion from the COX-2 promoter, we demonstrate that HSF1 plays a central role in the transcriptional control of COX-2 by heat. Finally, COX-2 transcription is also induced at febrile temperatures in endothelial cells, suggesting that HSF1-dependent COX-2 expression could contribute to increasing blood prostaglandin levels during fever. The results identify COX-2 as a human non-classical heat-responsive gene, unveiling a new aspect of HSF1 function.
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) can be found in two forms, intracellular and extracellular. The intracellular Hsps are induced as a result of stress and have been found to be cytoprotective in many instances due to their chaperone functions in protein folding and in protein degradation. The origin and role of extracellular Hsps is less clear. Although they were suspected originally to be released from damaged cells (necrosis), their presence in most normal individuals rather suggests that they have regulatory functions in circulation. As immunodominant molecules, Hsps can stimulate the immune system, leading to the production of autoantibodies recognizing epitopes shared by microbial and human Hsps. Thus, extracellular Hsps can influence the inflammatory response as evidenced by the production of inflammatory cytokines. Antibodies to Hsps have been found under normal conditions but seem to be increased in certain stresses and diseases. Such antibodies could regulate the inflammatory response positively or negatively. Here, we review the literature on the findings of antibodies to Hsps in situations of environmental or occupational stress and in a number of diseases and discuss their possible significance for the diagnosis, prognosis, or pathogenesis of these diseases.
Expression of heat shock proteins is a cellular response to a variety of stressors. HSP70, the major stress-induced heat shock protein, is involved in repair and protection after the insult. However, the prolonged presence of this protein is detrimental. Consequently, Hsp70 expression must be tightly regulated. We have previously shown an increase in the degradation of Hsp70 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) paralleling the accumulation of HSP70. Incubation of cells with transcriptional and translational inhibitors after heat shock resulted in a significant reduction in Hsp70 mRNA degradation. These observations suggest that newly synthesized, stress-induced factors might be involved in the decay of Hsp70 mRNA. We found that HSP70 binds directly to Hsp70 mRNA, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. This observation was confirmed by RNA gel-shift assays. These results are evidence for a novel and likely direct interaction between HSP70 and Hsp70 mRNA in cells after stress. This interaction may be part of a self-limiting mechanism to reduce HSP70 production, thus avoiding potential toxic effects of this protein in the absence of stress.
Heat shock response in Corynebacterium glutamicum was characterized by whole-genome expression analysis using a DNA microarray. It was indicated that heat shock response of C. glutamicum included not only upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP) genes encoding molecular chaperones and ATP-dependent proteases, but it also increased and decreased expression of more than 300 genes related to disparate physiological functions. An extracytoplasmic-function sigma factor, SigH, was upregulated by heat shock. The SigH regulon was defined by gene expression profiling using sigH-disrupted and overexpressing strains in conjunction with mapping of transcription initiation sites. A total of 45 genes, including HSP genes and genes involved in oxidative stress response, were identified as the SigH regulon. Expression of some HSP genes was also upregulated by deletion of the transcriptional regulators HspR and HrcA. HspR represses expression of the clpB and dnaK operons, and HrcA represses expression of groESL1 and groEL2. SigH was shown to play an important role in regulation of heat shock response in concert with HspR and HrcA, but its role is likely restricted to only a part of the regulation of C. glutamicum heat shock response. Upregulation of 18 genes encoding transcriptional regulators by heat shock suggests a complex regulatory network of heat shock response in C. glutamicum.
Treponema denticola is considered to be an agent strongly associated with periodontal disease. The lack of an animal infection model has hampered the understanding of T. denticola pathogenesis and the host's immune response to infection. In this study, we have established an oral infection model in mice, demonstrating that infection by oral inoculation is feasible. The presence of T. denticola in the oral cavities of the animals was confirmed by PCR. Mice given T. denticola developed a specific immune response to the bacterium. The antibodies generated from the infection were mainly of the immunoglobulin G1 subclass, indicating a Th2-tilted response. The antibodies recognized 11 T. denticola proteins, of which a 62-kDa and a 53-kDa protein were deemed immunodominant. The two proteins were identified, respectively, as dentilisin and the major outer sheath protein by mass spectrometry. Splenocytes cultured from the infected mice no longer produced interleukin-10 and produced markedly reduced levels of gamma interferon relative to those produced by naïve splenocytes upon stimulation with T. denticola. Mandibles of infected mice showed significantly greater bone resorption (P < 0.01) than those of mock-infected controls.
The HSP12 gene encodes one of the two major small heat shock proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hsp12 accumulates massively in yeast cells exposed to heat shock, osmostress, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of alcohol as well as in early-stationary-phase cells. We have cloned an extended 5'-flanking region of the HSP12 gene in order to identify cis-acting elements involved in regulation of this highly expressed stress gene. A detailed analysis of the HSP12 promoter region revealed that five repeats of the stress-responsive CCCCT motif (stress-responsive element [STRE]) are essential to confer wild-type induced levels on a reporter gene upon osmostress, heat shock, and entry into stationary phase. Disruption of the HOG1 and PBS2 genes leads to a dramatic decrease of the HSP12 inducibility in osmostressed cells, whereas overproduction of Hog1 produces a fivefold increase in wild-type induced levels upon a shift to a high salt concentration. On the other hand, mutations resulting in high protein kinase A (PKA) activity reduce or abolish the accumulation of the HSP12 mRNA in stressed cells. Conversely, mutants containing defective PKA catalytic subunits exhibit high basal levels of HSP12 mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that HSP12 is a target of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response pathway under negative control of the Ras-PKA pathway. Furthermore, they confirm earlier observations that STRE-like sequences are responsive to a broad range of stresses and that the HOG and Ras-PKA pathways have antagonistic effects upon CCCCT-driven transcription.
The heat-shock response network controls the adaptation and survival of the cell against environmental stress. This network is highly conserved and is connected with many other signaling pathways. A key element of the heat-shock network is the heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF), which is transiently activated by elevated temperatures. HSF translocates to the nucleus upon elevated temperatures, forming homotrimeric complexes. The HSF homotrimers bind to the heat shock element on the DNA and control the expression of the hsp70 gene. The Hsp70 proteins protect cells from thermal stress. Thermal stress causes the unfolding of proteins, perturbing thus the pathways under their control. By binding to these proteins, Hsp70 allows them to refold and prevents their aggregation. The modulation of the activity of the hsp70-promoter by the intensity of the input stress is thus critical for cell's survival. The promoter activity starts from a basal level and rapidly increases once the stress is applied, reaches a maximum level and attenuates slowely back to the basal level. This phenomenon is the hallmark of many experimental studies and of all computational network analysis.
The molecular construct used as a measure of the response to thermal stress is a Hsp70-GFP fusion gene transfected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The time profile of the GFP protein depends on the transient activity, Transient(t), of the heat shock system. The function Transient(t) depends on hsp70 promoter activity, transcriptional regulation and the translation initiation effects elicited by the heat stress. The GFP time profile is recorded using flow cytometry measurements, a technique that allows a quantitative measurement of the fluorescence of a large number of cells (104). The GFP responses to one and two heat shocks were measured for 261 conditions of different temperatures and durations. We found that: (i) the response of the cell to two consecutive shocks (i.e., no recovery time in between shocks) depends on the order of the input shocks, that is the shocks do not commute; (ii) the responses may be classified as mild or severe, depending on the temperature level and the duration of the heat shock and (iii) the response is highly sensitive to small variations in temperature.
We propose a mathematical model that maps temperature into the transient activity using experimental data that describes the time course of the response to input thermal stress. The model is built on thermotolerance without recovery time, sharp sensitivity to small variations in temperature and the existence of mild and severe classes of stress responses. The theoretical predictions are tested against experimental data using a series of double-shock inputs. The theoretical structure is represented by a sequence of three cascade processes that transform the input stress into the transient activity. The structure of the cascade is nonlinear-linear-nonlinear (NLN). The first nonlinear system (N) from the NLN structure represents the amplification of small changes in the environmental temperature; the linear system (L) represents the thermotolerance without recovery time, whereas the last system (N) represents the transition of the cell's response from a mild to a severe shock.
Two full-length cDNAs of heat shock protein (HSP) genes (Se-hsp90 and Se-hsp70) were cloned from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and their expression was investigated in relation to cold shock, heat shock, and development. The open reading frames of Se-hsp90 and Se-hsp70 are 2,154 and 2,004 bp in length, encoding polypeptides of 717 and 667 amino acids with a molecular mass of 82.6 and 72.5 kDa, respectively. Both genes showed high similarity to their counterparts in other species. Transcriptional expression profiles revealed that both genes were significantly up-regulated under thermal stress. However, the temperature at which expression level became significantly higher than that of controls varied between genes. Intensity of response to temperature was more intense for Se-hsp70 than for Se-hsp90, regardless of temperature or developmental stage. However, intensities of response to temperature of either Se-hsp90 or Se-hsp70 varied with developmental stage. The basal expression of both genes was highest in young larvae and decreased with age. Translational expression of Se-Hsp70 was observed by using Western blot, the expression profiles of Se-Hsp70 protein were in high agreement with those of Se-hsp70 RNA under heat or cold stress in larvae and pupae. However, it does not completely accord with that of Se-hsp70 RNA expression during development without thermal stress. These results indicated that, in addition to heat shock responses, both Se-hsp90 and Se-hsp70 might be involved in development.
Spodoptera exigua; Se-Hsp90; Se-Hsp70; Expression; Thermal stress; Development
The major surface protein (Msp) of Treponema denticola has been implicated as a mediator of the interaction between the spirochete and the gingival epithelium in periodontal diseases. Previous studies showed that the Msp of T. denticola ATCC 35405 had porin activity, depolarized epithelial cell membranes, bound to extracellular matrix components of epithelial cells, and formed a regular hexagonal surface array in the treponemal outer membrane. The gene encoding Msp in ATCC 35405 was recently cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli (J. C. Fenno, K.-H. Müller, and B. C. McBride, J. Bacteriol. 178:2489-2496, 1996). In the present study, we identified genes encoding Msp-like proteins in several oral spirochetes. A prominent heat-modifiable Msp-like protein having an apparent molecular mass of between 43 and 64 kDa was present in all oral spirochete strains tested. Antibodies raised against the ATCC 35405 Msp reacted strongly with the Msp proteins of T. denticola ATCC 35404 and T. vincentii, reacted very weakly with the Msp protein of T. denticola ATCC 33520, and did not react with T. denticola OTK, T. socranskii, and T. pectinovorum. The msp loci of the T. denticola strains and T. vincentii were identified in analyses using PCR with oligonucleotide primers derived from the DNA sequence flanking msp in ATCC 35405. Southern blot analysis showed at least three groups of related msp DNA sequences. Comparison of DNA sequences of the 5' and 3' ends of the msp genes showed high sequence homology in the flanking regions and signal peptide coding regions, while the homologies between regions encoding the mature peptide were as low as 50%. The entire msp DNA sequences of T. denticola ATCC 33520 and OTK were determined, and the deduced Msp amino acid sequences were compared to the sequence of the previously reported Msp of ATCC 35405. The results show that the msp locus is conserved in oral treponemes but that there are significant differences between the mature Msp peptides of different strains. Further studies of the antigenic domains, functional domains, and physical structures of Msp proteins, based on these results, will enhance understanding of the role of Msp in the cytopathology associated with oral spirochetes.
Heat shock proteins are induced under stress conditions and they act as molecular chaperones to refold denatured polypeptides. Stress resistances including thermotolerance generally are correlated with levels of the heat shock proteins. We investigated a fruit fly gene encoding a small heat shock protein, Hsp27, to determine if it functions in stress response of Drosophila melanogaster. A knockout Hsp27 allele was generated. Flies homozygous for this allele were viable, without obvious defects, and fertile, indicating Hsp27 is not essential for development. In stress-response tests, loss of the Hsp27 gene caused no defects in resistance to heat shock or oxidative treatments. However, a significant reduction in starvation resistance was associated with the genotype without a functional Hsp27 gene. The data suggest that the Drosophila HSP27 protein acts as a chaperone to provide cellular stress resistance, although its function may be limited to a subset of the stress response such as the starvation resistance.
Proteins secreted or exported by Treponema denticola have been implicated as mediators of specific interactions between the spirochete and subgingival tissues in periodontal diseases. However, limited information is available on the ability of this peptidolytic organism to bind or transport soluble peptides present in the subgingival environment. A prominent 70-kDa protein was isolated from surface extracts of T. denticola ATCC 35405. A clone expressing a portion of the protein was identified in an Escherichia coli expression library of T. denticola DNA. DNA sequence analysis showed that the cloned gene encoded a peptide homologous to OppA, the solute binding protein of an ATP-binding cassette-type peptide transporter involved in peptide uptake and environmental signaling in a wide range of bacteria. Genes encoding OppB, -C, -D, and -F were identified directly downstream of oppA in T. denticola. OppA was present in representative strains of T. denticola and in Treponema vincentii but was not detected in Treponema pectinovorum or Treponema socranskii. Immunogold electron microscopy suggested that OppA was accessible to proteins at the surface of the spirochete. Native OppA bound soluble plasminogen and fibronectin but did not bind to immobilized substrates or epithelial cells. A T. denticola oppA mutant bound reduced amounts of soluble plasminogen, and plasminogen binding to the parent strain was inhibited by the lysine analog ɛ-aminocaproic acid. Binding of soluble host proteins by OppA may be important both for spirochete-host interactions in the subgingival environment and for uptake of peptide nutrients.