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1.  Rectus fascia colpopexy for post-hysterectomy vault prolapse: a valid option 
Objective
Considering the great variety of techniques and disagreement about the ideal route, there is a need for a safe, simple and effective method for the management of apical prolapse.
Material and Methods
Twenty seven cases of post- hysterectomy vault prolapse (twenty four following vaginal and three after total abdominal hysterectomy) were treated surgically by anterior abdominal wall colpopexy with autogenous rectus fascia strips.
Result
Except for minor complaints like- vomiting, fever and urinary retention in 3.7% cases each (n=1), no major complications were encountered. Moreover, no recurrence, on follow-up thus far.
Conclusion
Using autogenous rectus fascia strips in anterior abdominal wall colpopexy is not only a simple, cheap and effective method of treating vault prolapse but is also devoid of any serious complications such as described with other techniques.
doi:10.5152/jtgga.2010.01
PMCID: PMC3939092  PMID: 24591901
Vault Prolapse; rectus fascia; enterocoele
2.  Genital prolapse in women 
Clinical Evidence  2012;2012:0817.
Introduction
Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy.
Key Points
Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy.
We don't know whether pelvic floor muscle exercises or vaginal oestrogen improve symptoms in women with genital prolapse, as we found few studies of adequate quality. The consensus is that vaginal pessaries are effective for relief of symptoms in women waiting for surgery, or in whom surgery is contraindicated, but we don't know this for sure.
In women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse, anterior vaginal wall repair may be more effective than Burch colposuspension at reducing recurrence, and adding mesh reinforcement to anterior colporrhaphy can reduce recurrence. Burch colposuspension may be more effective than anterior vaginal wall repair at reducing stress incontinence.
In women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse, posterior colporrhaphy is more likely to prevent recurrence compared with transanal repair of rectocoele or enterocoele. We don't know whether adding mesh reinforcement improves success rates in women having posterior colporrhaphy.
In women with upper vaginal wall prolapse, abdominal sacral colpopexy reduces the risk of recurrent prolapse, and of postoperative dyspareunia and stress incontinence compared with sacrospinous colpopexy. Posterior intravaginal slingplasty may be as effective as vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy at preventing recurrent prolapse. Vaginal hysterectomy and repair may reduce the need for re-operation and may be more effective at reducing symptoms, compared with abdominal sacrohysteropexy.
We don't know how surgical treatment compares with non-surgical treatment in women with prolapse of the upper, anterior, or posterior vaginal wall.
PMCID: PMC3635656  PMID: 22414610
3.  Genital prolapse in women 
Clinical Evidence  2009;2009:0817.
Introduction
Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy.
Key Points
Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy.
We don't know whether pelvic floor muscle exercises or vaginal oestrogen improve symptoms in women with genital prolapse, as we found no studies of adequate quality. The consensus is that vaginal pessaries are effective for relief of symptoms in women waiting for surgery, or in whom surgery is contraindicated, but we don't know this for sure.
In women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse, anterior vaginal wall repair may be more effective than Burch colposuspension, and recurrence can be further reduced by adding mesh reinforcement to anterior colporrhaphy.
In women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse, posterior colporrhaphy is more likely to prevent recurrence than transanal repair of rectocoele or enterocoele. We don't know whether adding mesh reinforcement improves success rates in women having posterior colporrhaphy.
In women with upper vaginal wall prolapse, abdominal sacral colpopexy reduces the risk of recurrent prolapse, dyspareunia, and stress incontinence compared with sacrospinous colpopexy. Posterior intravaginal slingplasty may be as effective as vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy at preventing recurrent prolapse. Vaginal hysterectomy and repair may reduce the need for re-operation and may be more effective at reducing symptoms, compared with abdominal sacrohysteropexy.
We don't know how surgical treatment compares with non-surgical treatment in women with prolapse of the upper, anterior, or posterior vaginal wall.
PMCID: PMC2907774  PMID: 21726473
4.  Mesh–free Ventral Rectopexy for Women with Complete Rectal and Uterovaginal Prolapse 
Background:
Mesh rectopexy may be associated with infective complications, erosion into the vagina or rectum, and disintegration or dislodgement. A mesh-free rectopexy will avoid these complications. Objective of the study was to perform mesh-free ventral rectopexy and assess its safety and effectiveness.
Materials and Methods:
Nine women with complete rectal and uterovaginal prolapse were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy, closure of the vaginal vault, extirpation of the pouch of Douglas and suture of anterior rectal wall to the posterior vaginal wall (ventral suture rectopexy). The ventral suture rectopexy was achieved by three pairs of interrupted silk sutures, 2.5 cm above each other, and the first pair very close to the pelvic floor. This composite structure (anterior rectal wall and posterior vaginal wall), sits astride the perineal body. Intussusception and subsequent prolapse of the sutured rectum and vaginal wall is prevented. Vaginal vault prolapse was prevented by the suture of each round ligament of the uterus to the corresponding lateral vaginal fornix. No mesh was used.
Results:
Nine multiparous women aged between 52 and 70 years had the procedure. The mean operative time was 135 minutes (range 110-220). The follow-up period was between 29 months and 7 years. Full continence was restored in all patients within eight weeks of the operation. Bowel habit returned to once daily in four patients and once every other day in the remaining five patients, within thirteen weeks of surgery. One patient had intermittent mucus discharge per rectum for six months. This stopped without a specific treatment. There has been no known recurrence in these nine patients. One patient developed wound infection as a complication. There was no mortality. All the patients are now asymptomatic.
Conclusion:
Ventral suture rectopexy is a safe and effective treatment for complete rectal prolapse in a selected group of patients.
doi:10.4103/2006-8808.110256
PMCID: PMC3673367  PMID: 23741582
Mesh-free; rectal prolapse; uterovaginal prolapse; vaginal vault prolapse; ventral rectopexy
5.  Vaginal Vault Prolapse 
Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward in future.
doi:10.1155/2009/275621
PMCID: PMC2778877  PMID: 19936123
6.  Trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using customized prolene mesh: A safe and cost-effective approach for high-grade pelvic organ prolapse 
Aims:
To assess safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair with customized prolene mesh in patients with high-grade pelvic organ prolapse.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 32 patients, who underwent trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using a customized prolene mesh from January 2007 to June 2010 for grade III and IV pelvic organ prolapse, were analyzed retrospectively. Prolapse was graded using Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system of International Continence Society. Patients were evaluated for symptoms associated with prolapse pre- and postoperatively.
Results:
Of the 32 patients, 18 were grade IV uterine prolapse, 10 were grade III uterine prolapse, and 4 were grade IV vault prolapse. Twenty-eight patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy at the time of repair. All the patients had associated anterior and posterior prolapse of varying degree. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 42 months. All patients had symptomatic relief after surgery. There were no intraoperative rectal or bladder injuries. Early complications were perineal pain (30), de novo urgency (4), vaginal discharge (3), vaginal wall hematoma (2), and failure to void (2). Two patients had vaginal erosion of mesh.
Conclusions:
Trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using a customized prolene mesh is safe and effective treatment for comprehensive repair of high-grade pelvic organ prolapse. The use of this custom-made prolene mesh makes the procedure very cost-effective and affordable. The reduction in cost is about 25-30 times with the use of this mesh when compared with commercially available variety.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.94949
PMCID: PMC3339780  PMID: 22557712
Customized prolene mesh; prolapse; trans vaginal tape
7.  Risk of Mesh Erosion With Sacral Colpopexy and Concurrent Hysterectomy 
Obstetrics and gynecology  2003;102(2):306-310.
OBJECTIVE
To examine short- and long-term mesh-related complications in women undergoing abdominal sacral colpopexy with concurrent hysterectomy, compared with women with a prior hysterectomy undergoing sacral colpopexy alone.
METHODS
Patient characteristics, hospital complications, postoperative clinical course, and long-term graft-related complications were reviewed for all women with genital prolapse who underwent abdominal sacral colopexy between 1996 and 1998. Women with concurrent hysterectomy were compared with women with vaginal prolapse after a prior hysterectomy.
RESULTS
One hundred twenty-four patients, 60 with concurrent hysterectomy and 64 with prior hysterectomy, were observed postoperatively for a median of 35.5 (0–74) months. Demographics of the two groups were similar, with a mean age of 65.1 ± 9.4 years and a mean body mass index of 25.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2. Eighty percent of colpopexies used prolene sythetic mesh and 20% allograft material. Initial operative and hospital complications were rare in both groups and included a blood transfusion of 2 U, a ureteral transection, a wound infection, heart block, and an arrhythmia. Delayed graft complications included one mesh erosion in a patient with a prior hysterectomy that was managed by office resection (0.8%).
CONCLUSION
Concurrent hysterectomy with abdominal sacral colopopexy has a low incidence of mesh complications and can be used as a first-line treatment for genital prolapse.
doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(03)00515-5
PMCID: PMC1364470  PMID: 12907104
8.  Mesh complications in female pelvic floor reconstructive surgery and their management: A systematic review 
We reviewed the incidence, predisposing factors, presentation and management of complications related to the use of synthetic mesh in the management of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse repair. Immediate complications, such as bleeding, hematoma, injury to adjacent organs during placement of mesh and complication of voiding dysfunction are not discussed in this review, since they are primarily related to technique. A PubMed search of related articles published in English was done from April 2008 to March 2011. Key words used were urinary incontinence, mesh, complications, midurethral sling, anterior prolapse, anterior vaginal repair, pelvic organ prolapse, transvaginal mesh, vault prolapse, midurethral slings, female stress urinary incontinence, mesh erosion, vaginal mesh complications, and posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Since there were very few articles dealing with the management of mesh-related complications in the period covered in the search we extended the search from January 2005 onwards. Articles were selected to fit the scope of the topic. In addition, landmark publications and Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) data (FDA website) were included on the present topic. A total of 170 articles were identified. The use of synthetic mesh in sub-urethral sling procedures is now considered the standard for the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence. Synthetic mesh is being increasingly used in the management of pelvic organ prolapse. While the incidence of extrusion and erosion with mid-urethral sling is low, the extrusion rate in prolapse repair is somewhat higher and the use in posterior compartment remains controversial. When used through the abdominal approach the extrusion and erosion rates are lower. The management of mesh complication is an individualized approach. The choice of the technique should be based on the type of mesh complication, location of the extrusion and/or erosion, its magnitude, severity and potential recurrence of pelvic floor defect.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.98453
PMCID: PMC3424888  PMID: 22919127
Anterior vaginal repair; mesh complications; mid-urethral sling; pelvic organ prolapse; stress urinary incontinence
9.  Treatment of uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher: a randomized multicenter trial comparing sacrospinous fixation with vaginal hysterectomy (SAVE U trial) 
BMC Women's Health  2011;11:4.
Background
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common health problem, affecting up to 40% of parous women over 50 years old, with significant negative influence on quality of life. Vaginal hysterectomy is currently the leading treatment method for patients with symptomatic uterine prolapse. Several studies have shown that sacrospinous fixation in case of uterine prolapse is a safe and effective alternative to vaginal hysterectomy. However, no large randomized trials with long-term follow-up have been performed to compare efficacy and quality of life between both techniques.
The SAVE U trial is designed to compare sacrospinous fixation with vaginal hysterectomy in the treatment of uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher in terms of prolapse recurrence, quality of life, complications, hospital stay, post-operative recovery and sexual functioning.
Methods/design
The SAVE U trial is a randomized controlled multi-center non-inferiority trial. The study compares sacrospinous fixation with vaginal hysterectomy in women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher. The primary outcome measure is recurrence of uterine prolapse defined as: uterine descent stage 2 or more assessed by pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination and prolapse complaints and/or redo surgery at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes are subjective improvement in quality of life measured by generic (Short Form 36 and Euroqol 5D) and disease-specific (Urogenital Distress Inventory, Defecatory Distress Inventory and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire) quality of life instruments, complications following surgery, hospital stay, post-operative recovery and sexual functioning (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire). Analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. Based on comparable recurrence rates of 3% and considering an upper-limit of 7% to be non-inferior (beta 0.2 and one sided alpha 0.025), 104 patients are needed per group.
Discussion
The SAVE U trial is a randomized multicenter trial that will provide evidence whether the efficacy of sacrospinous fixation is similar to vaginal hysterectomy in women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1866
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-11-4
PMCID: PMC3045971  PMID: 21324143
10.  Fallopian Tube Prolapse after Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76543.
Background
Prolapse of the fallopian tube into the vaginal vault is a rarely reported complication that may occur after hysterectomy. Clinicians can miss the diagnosis of this disregarded complication when dealing with post-hysterectomy vaginal bleeding.
Objectives
We performed a systematic review in order to describe the clinical presentation, therapeutic management and outcome of fallopian tube prolapse occurring after hysterectomy.
Search Strategy
A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE references from January 1980 to December 2010 was performed. We included articles that reported cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy. Data from eligible studies were independently extracted onto standardized forms by two reviewers.
Results
Twenty-eight articles including 51 cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy were included in this systematic review. Clinical presentations included abdominal pain, dyspareunia, post- coital bleeding, and/or vaginal discharge. Two cases were asymptomatic and diagnosed at routine checkup. The surgical management reported comprised partial or total salpingectomy, with vaginal repair in some cases combined with oophorectomy using different approaches (vaginal approach, combined vaginal-laparoscopic approach, laparoscopic approach, or laparotomy). Six patients were initially treated by silver nitrate application without success.
Conclusions
This systematic review provided a precise summary of the clinical characteristics and treatment of patients presenting with fallopian tube prolapse following hysterectomy published in the past 30 years. We anticipate that these results will help inform current investigations and treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076543
PMCID: PMC3792027  PMID: 24116117
11.  A systematic arrangement of laparoscopic total abdominal hysterectomy: a new technique. 
This sequential, prospective, observational clinical trial evaluated a systematic arrangement of laparoscopic total abdominal hysterectomy and prophylactic, retroperitoneal posterior culdoplasty with vaginal vault suspension surgical techniques by suturing method. The uterus was extirpated laparoscopically in 25 consecutive patients using an extra- and intra-corporeal two-turn flat square knot method. Upon completion of uterine excision, a new prophylactic laparoscopic technique of retroperitoneal posterior culdoplasty and vaginal vault suspension were initiated to prevent pelvic relaxation. Retroperitoneal culdoplasty was performed using the anterior rectal fascia, the posterior uterovaginal fascia, and the deep layer retroperitoneal of the uterosacral ligaments. Vaginal vault suspension was performed using posteriorly the deep layer of the uterosacral ligaments; from a lateroposterior aspect, the vaginal vault was suspended to the cardinal ligaments bilaterally, and anteriorly, the vesicouterine fascia provided support for the vaginal apex. A systematic arrangement of surgical steps was evaluated. All predetermined samples of laparoscopic total abdominal hysterectomy with posterior retroperitoneal culdoplasty and vaginal vault suspension were accomplished in a prearranged systematic order. Neither technical failure nor conversion to laparotomy or transvaginal approach was encountered. This technique expedites uterine extirpation and prophylactic pelvic reconstruction with a low complication rate, can be executed with no transvaginal approach, and eliminates the morbidity and mortality associated with laparotomy itself.
PMCID: PMC2608474  PMID: 10643213
12.  Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy With Transcervical Morcellation and Sacrocervicopexy: Initial Experience With a Novel Surgical Approach to Uterovaginal Prolapse 
The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a new laparoscopic technique for the treatment of uterovaginal prolapse using a transcervical access port to minimize the laparoscopic incision. From February 2008 through August 2010, symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in 43 patients was evaluated and surgically treated using this novel procedure. Preoperative assessment included pelvic examination, the pelvic organ prolapse quantification scoring system (POP-Q), and complex urodynamic testing with prolapse reduction to evaluate for symptomatic or occult stress urinary incontinence. The surgical procedure consisted of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with transcervical morcellation and laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy with anterior and posterior mesh extension. Concomitant procedures were performed as indicated. All procedures were completed laparoscopically using only 5-mm abdominal port sites, with no intraoperative complications. Patients were followed up postoperatively for pelvic examination and POP-Q at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. The median (interquartile range) preoperative POP-Q values for point Aa was 0 (−1.0 to 1.0), and for point C was −1.0 (−3.0 to 2.0). Postoperatively, median points Aa and C were significantly improved at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months (all p < .001). One patient was found to have a mesh/suture exposure from the sacrocervicopexy, which was managed conservatively without surgery. We conclude that laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with transcervical morcellation and laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy is a safe and feasible surgical approach to treatment of uterovaginal prolapse, with excellent anatomic results at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Potential advantages of the procedure include minimizing laparoscopic port site size, decreasing the rate of mesh exposure compared with other published data, and reducing the rate of postoperative cyclic bleeding in premenopausal women by removing the cervical core. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the durability and potential long-term sequelae of the procedure.
doi:10.1016/j.jmig.2012.06.009
PMCID: PMC3693750  PMID: 23084680
Laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy; Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy; Pelvic organ prolapse; POP-Q; Transcervical morcellation
13.  Laparoscopic management of fallopian tube prolapse masquerading as adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a hysterectomized woman 
BMC Women's Health  2002;2:2.
Background
Fallopian tube prolapse as a complication of abdominal hysterectomy is a rare occurrence. A case with fallopian tube prolapse was managed by a combined vaginal and laparoscopic approach and description of the operative technique is presented.
Case presentation
A 39-year-old woman with vaginal prolapse of the fallopian tube after total abdominal hysterectomy presented with an incorrect diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the vaginal apex. The prolapsed tube and cystic ovary were removed by vaginal and laparoscopic approach. The postoperative course went well.
Conclusions
Early or late fallopian tube prolapse can occur after total abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal hysterectomy. Symptoms consist of persistent blood loss or leukorrhea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Vaginal removal of prolapsed tube with laparoscopic surgery may be a suitable treatment. The abdominal or vaginal approach used in surgical correction of prolapsed tubes must be decided in each case according to the patient's individual characteristics.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-2-2
PMCID: PMC65047  PMID: 11818035
14.  A rare case of vaginal vault evisceration and its management 
A 66 year old woman presented to A&E with per vagina bleeding and a mass protruding from the vagina. The patient was examined under anaesthesia, which revealed vaginal prolapse with evisceration of approximately 20-30 cm of bowel. The patient had received an abdominal hysterectomy 30 years ago for menorrhagia. In the last decade, the patient had experienced other recurrent episodes of prolapse (cystocoele and retrocoele). Vaginal vault evisceration is a recognised rare complication of hysterectomy and is a gynaecological emergency. This patient’s condition was rapidly recognised and surgically managed. The repair was achieved in two surgeries. Initially, the small bowel was re-inserted into the peritoneal cavity through the vaginal wall defect and the vaginal defect repaired. After sufficient time for healing, a sacrocolpopexy was performed to repair the prolapse.
doi:10.1093/jscr/2012.5.6
PMCID: PMC3649544  PMID: 24960134
15.  Robotic Sacrocolpopexy: An Observational Experience at Mayoclinic, USA 
Although there are many studies the ongoing debate on the management of posthysterectomy vault prolapse whether it should be abdominal, vaginal, or laparoscopic still continues. However there is no clear consensus. Though the incidence of vaginal vault prolapse is said to range from 0.2 to 45%, the choice of the optimal treatment depends on the surgeon's experience, suitability for surgery, age, symptoms, quality of life impairment, and prolapse grade. Abdominal sacrocopopexy (ASCP) with mesh interposition is the traditional surgical procedure for treating pelvic organ prolapse and has been shown to have one of the highest long-term success rates for vaginal vault prolapse. The laparoscopic approach offers reduced morbidity, shorter hospitalization, and decreased post operative pain. The disadvantages of the laparoscopic approach include longer operating time and need for advanced laparoscopic surgical skills including suturing. Robot-assisted laparoscopic procedure allows the performance of complex laparoscopic maneuvers with less difficulty, and thereby simplifies the complex procedure. The aim is to describe and demonstrate the use and benefit of robot-assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy in the treatment of posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse in obese patients along with mid-urethral sling application.
doi:10.4103/0974-1216.85285
PMCID: PMC3304284  PMID: 22442537
Mid-urethral sling; obese women; robotic sacrocolpopexy
16.  Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy, Hysterectomy, and Burch Colposuspension: Feasibility and Short-Term Complications of 77 Procedures 
Objective:
To report our first cases of laparoscopic sacropexy and assess the feasibility and short-term complications.
Methods:
We retrospectively studied 77 laparoscopic sacral colpopexies performed from June 1996 to May 1998. Suspension was reinforced with 2 strips of synthetic mesh. Five patients had previously undergone hysterectomy, and 4 others had experienced failure of surgery for prolapse of the uterus.
Results:
Laparoscopy was performed in 83 women with symptomatic prolapse of the uterus. Six cases required conversion to laparotomy because of technical difficulties. All of the remaining 77 patients underwent laparoscopic sacropexy that included anterior and posterior mesh reinforcement. Subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed in 60 cases, laparoscopic Burch colposuspension in 74, and levator myorrhaphy via a vaginal approach in 55. Operative time decreased from 292 to 180 minutes as experience was gained. The main operative complications were 1 rectal and 2 bladder injuries. Three patients required reoperations for hematoma or hemorrhage. One patient complained of chronic inflammation of the cervix, and another experienced rejection of the posterior mesh 6 months after the operation. Mean follow-up was 343 days. Three other patients required reoperation, 1 for a third-degree cystocele and 2 for recurrent stress incontinence.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is feasible. Operative time and postoperative complications are related to the surgeon's experience but remain comparable to those noted in laparotomy. Long-term assessment is required to confirm the results of this procedure.
PMCID: PMC3043409  PMID: 12113413
Laparoscopy; Sacrocolpopexy; Mersilene mesh; Burch colposuspension
17.  Long-term Outcomes Following Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse 
Importance
Over 225,000 surgeries are performed annually in the U.S. for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is considered the most durable POP surgery, but little is known about long-term effectiveness and adverse events.
Objective
To describe anatomic and symptomatic outcomes up to 7 years after abdominal sacrocolpopexy, and to determine whether these are affected by concomitant anti-incontinence surgery (Burch urethropexy).
Design, setting, participants
Long-term follow-up of the randomized, masked 2-year CARE trial (Colpopexy And urinary Reduction Efforts). Participants were stress continent women undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy between 2002–5 for symptomatic POP randomized to concomitant urethropexy or not. 92% (215/233) of eligible 2-year CARE trial completers enrolled into this extended study with 181 (84%) and 126 (59%) completing 5 and 7 years follow-up, respectively. Median follow-up was 7 years.
Main Outcome Measures
POP: Symptomatic failure: POP retreatment or reporting bulge on Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI); Anatomic failure: POP retreatment or Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification demonstrating descent of the vaginal apex descend below upper third of the vagina or anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse beyond the hymen.
Urinary incontinence (UI): Stress UI: more than 1 stress urinary incontinence symptom on PFDI or interval treatment; Overall UI: score ≥ 3 on Incontinence Severity Index.
Results
By year 7, the estimated probabilities of failure (POP, SUI, UI) from parametric survival modeling for the urethropexy and no urethropexy groups respectively were were 0.27 and 0.22 for anatomic POP (difference 0.050; 95% CI −0.161, 0.271), 0.29 and 0.24 for symptomatic POP (0.049; −0.060, 0.162), 0.48 and 0.34 for composite POP (0.134; −0.096, 0.322), 0.62 and 0.77 for SUI (−0.153; −0.268, 0.030) 0.75 and 0.81 for overall UI (−0.064; −0.161, 0.032). Mesh erosion probability estimated by Kaplan-Meier method was 10.5% (95% CI 6.8, 16.1) at 7 years.
Conclusion and Relevance
Over seven years, abdominal sacrocolpopexy failure rates increased in both randomized groups. Urethropexy prevented SUI longer than no urethropexy. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy effectiveness must be balanced with long-term risks of mesh and /or suture erosion.
doi:10.1001/jama.2013.4919
PMCID: PMC3747840  PMID: 23677313
18.  Laparoscopic Sacral Colpopexy: A Proposed Technique 
This case report describes a laparoscopic sacral colpopexy using Mersilene mesh in a patient with complete vaginal vault prolapse. Mersilene mesh was placed as a hammock between the vaginal apex and the anterior surface of the sacrum, using intracorporeal needles and an extracorporeal knot tying technique. Minor modifications are made from the traditional abdominal approach, because the patient had previously undergone a pelvic lymphadenectomy and vaginal cuff radiation for a stage IB grade 1 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
doi:10.1155/DTE.2.43
PMCID: PMC2362516  PMID: 18493381
19.  Efficacy of Laparoscopic Sacrocervicopexy for Apical Support of Pelvic Organ Prolapse 
Laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy appears to be an effective option for sexually active women with pelvic organ prolapse.
Background and Objectives:
To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy for apical support in sexually active patients with pelvic organ prolapse.
Methods:
One-hundred thirty-five women with symptomatic prolapse of the central compartment (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantitative [POP-Q] stage 2) underwent laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy. The operating physicians used synthetic mesh to attach the anterior endopelvic fascia to the anterior longitudinal ligament of the sacral promontory with subtotal hysterectomy. Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy was performed when necessary. The patients returned for follow-up examinations 1 month after surgery and then over subsequent years. On follow-up a physician evaluated each patient for the recurrence of genital prolapse and for recurrent or de novo development of urinary or bowel symptoms. We define “surgical failure” as any grade of recurrent prolapse of stage II or more of the POP-Q test. Patients also gave feedback about their satisfaction with the procedure.
Results:
The mean follow-up period was 33 months. The success rate was 98.4% for the central compartment, 94.2% for the anterior compartment, and 99.2% for the posterior compartment. Postoperatively, the percentage of asymptomatic patients (51.6%) increased significantly (P < .01), and we observed a statistically significant reduction (P < .05) of urinary urge incontinence, recurrent cystitis, pelvic pain, dyspareunia, and discomfort. The present study showed 70.5% of patients stated they were very satisfied with the operation and 18.8% stated high satisfaction.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy is an effective option for sexually active women with pelvic organ prolapse.
doi:10.4293/108680813X13654754535115
PMCID: PMC3771790  PMID: 23925017
Laparoscopy; Sacrocervicopexy; Pelvic organ prolapse; Colporrhaphy; Pelvic floor repair; Uterine prolapse
20.  A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:198542.
Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD), which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1 cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP) was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST), Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.
doi:10.1155/2013/198542
PMCID: PMC3583140  PMID: 23476121
21.  Outcomes of vaginal hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse: a population-based, retrospective, cross-sectional study of patient perceptions of results including sexual activity, urinary symptoms, and provided care 
BMC Women's Health  2009;9:9.
Background
Vaginal hysterectomy is often used to correct uterovaginal prolapse, however, there is little information regarding outcomes after surgery in routine clinical practice. The objective of this study was to investigate complications, sexual activity, urinary symptoms, and satisfaction with health care after vaginal hysterectomy due to prolapse.
Methods
We analyzed data from the Swedish National Register for Gynecological Surgery (SNRGS) from January 1997 to August 2005. Women participating in the SNRGS were asked to complete surveys at two and six months postoperatively. Of 941 women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse, 791 responded to questionnaires at two months and 682 at six months. Complications during surgery and hospital stay were investigated. The two-month questionnaire investigated complications after discharge, and patients' satisfaction with their health care. Sexual activity and urinary symptoms were reported and compared in preoperative and six-month postoperative questionnaires.
Results
Almost 60% of women reported normal activity of daily life (ADL) within one week of surgery, irrespective of their age. Severe complications occurred in 3% and were mainly intra-abdominal bleeding and vaginal vault hematomas. Six months postoperative, sexual activity had increased for 20% (p = 0.006) of women and urinary urgency was reduced for 50% (p = 0.001); however, 14% (n = 76) of women developed urinary incontinence, 76% (n = 58) of whom reported urinary stress incontinence. Patients were satisfied with the postoperative result in 93% of cases and 94% recommended the surgery.
Conclusion
Vaginal hysterectomy is a patient-evaluated efficient treatment for uterovaginal prolapse with swift recovery and a low rate of complication. Sexual activity and symptoms of urinary urgency were improved. However, 14% developed incontinence, mainly urinary stress incontinence (11%). Therefore efforts to disclose latent stress incontinence should be undertaken preoperatively.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-9-9
PMCID: PMC2675521  PMID: 19379514
22.  Outcome of repeat surgery for genital prolapse using prolift-mesh 
Introduction
Urogenital prolapse can have a significant impact on quality of life. The life time risk of requiring surgery for urogenital prolapse is 11%. Prolift mesh has recently been introduced to reduce repeat operation rate and for long-term benefit.
Objective
To evaluate the outcome of the treatment of urogenital prolapse with synthetic mesh.
Methods
A retrospective review of case notes of all women who underwent prolift mesh insertion for prolapse between July 2004 and June 2005, at Royal Alexandra Hospital Paisley UK. We looked at the presenting complaints, previous operation, intraoperative complications and complications at six weeks and six months follow-up.
Results
Twenty-two procedures were carried out in the twelve months period. Age of the patients ranged from 55 to 82 years (median 64 yrs). Eleven had anterior Prolift (50%), Seven had posterior Prolift 31.8% and four total Prolift 18%. There were no intraoperative complications. All the patients had previous surgery for prolapse. Eight patients had anterior repair, six patients had posterior repair, and three patients had abdominal hysterectomy. Vaginal hysterectomy was carried out with mesh insertion as a concomitant procedure in seven cases (31.25%). All patients were seen at six weeks and six months after the surgery. Complications rate included mesh erosion one patient and suture material protruding in the vagina one patient, one patient had failed prolift operation. All the twenty-one patients were cured giving 95.4% success rate.
Conclusion
The use of prolene mesh in pelvic reconstructive surgery was associated with good outcome and minimal complications in this study.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-7-3
PMCID: PMC3694470  PMID: 23497532
Prolift; Mesh; Urogenital prolapse
23.  Study of the course of inferior epigastric artery with reference to laparoscopic portal 
INTRODUCTION:
Laparoscopy has been in vogue for more than 2 decades. Making portals in the anterior abdominal wall for introducing laparoscopic instruments is done with trocar and cannula which is a blind procedure. Stab incision and trocar insertion, though safe, at times can lead to injury of blood vessels of anterior abdominal wall more so the inferior epigastric artery (IEA). Trauma to abdominal wall vessels is 0.2%-2% of laparoscopic procedures and said to be 3 per 1000 cases. Injury to IEA is one of the commonest complications seen. Purpose of the present study was to observe the course of IEA in 50 formalin preserved cadavers, by dissection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In 50 formalin fixed cadavers, IEA was exposed by opening the rectus sheath. Rectus was divided and IEA was exposed. Five reference points A, B, C, D, and E were defined. A was at pubic symphysis, while E at umbilicus. B, C, and D were marked at the distance of 3.5, 7, and 10.5 cm, respectively from pubic symphysis. Distances of the IEA from these midline points were measured with the help of sliding vernier calipers.
RESULTS:
Significant observation was variations in the length of IEA. It was seen to end at a lower level than normal (three cases on right and four on left side) by piercing rectus. In 14, cadavers artery did not reach up to umbilicus on both sides. Nearest point of entry of IEA in to rectus sheath at the level of pubic symphysis was 1.2 cm on left and 3.2 cm on right side. Farthest point from point A was 6.8 cm on right and 6.9 cm on left side. Width of strip of abdominal wall which was likely to have IEA beneath was up to 4 cm till level C and beyond which it widened up to 5cm on left side and 6 cm on right at umbilicus.
DISCUSSION:
Present study did reveal notable variations in length and termination of IEA. No uniformity in entry of IEA in to the rectus sheath was observed. Findings did concur with earlier observations but the strip of skin of arterial zone was not equidistant from midline but had moved more medially on left side. Medial limit of this safety zone found to be lesser than 2 cm on left side. However, the lateral limit of the zone was within 7.5 cm. Additional variation was strip of abdominal wall likely to have IEA beneath was up to 4 cm till level C and had diverging limits beyond C. IEA was more notorious in its course. These variations prompt for a preoperative mapping of IEA and thus a useful step in preoperative protocol.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.118826
PMCID: PMC3830133  PMID: 24250060
Inferior epigastric artery; laparoscopy injury; portal; rectus sheath
24.  Changing approaches to rectal prolapse repair in the elderly 
Gastroenterology Report  2013;1(3):198-202.
Aim: The abdominal approach to rectal prolapse is associated with lower rates of recurrence but a higher chance of complications and has been traditionally reserved for younger patients. However, longer life expectancy and wider use of laparoscopic techniques necessitates another look at the abdominal approach in older patients.
Methods: This was a retrospective review of data from patients undergoing abdominal repair of rectal prolapse between 2005 and 2011.
Results: Forty-six abdominal repairs (laparoscopic or open suture rectopexy, sigmoidectomy and rectopexy and low anterior resection) were performed during the study period. Twenty-nine repairs (63%) were performed in patients under the age of 70 (average age 51) and 17 (37%) in patients older than 70 (average age 76; range 71–89). Most of the cases performed during the initial 3 years of the study were via laparotomy. However, in the last 4 years, the laparoscopic approach was used in 83% of younger patients and 69% of older patients. Average length of stay was 2.6 days for younger and 3.8 days for older patients. Both groups had similar rates of re-admission: 20% vs 23%. The rate of wound infection was higher in the younger patients (5% vs nil). However, rates of urinary tract infection, two instances (10%) vs four (30%), urinary retention, one instance (5%) vs two (15.4%), ileus, one instance (5%) vs two (15.4%) were higher in the older group.
Conclusion: Wider use of laparoscopy has precipitated a change in the approach to rectal prolapse in older patients. Although associated with a slightly higher rate of post-operative complications, the abdominal approach to rectal prolapse is feasible, safe and effective in patients older than 70 years.
doi:10.1093/gastro/got025
PMCID: PMC3937996  PMID: 24759966
rectal prolapse; minimally invasive surgery; elderly
25.  Uterosacral Colpopexy at the Time of Vaginal Hysterectomy 
OBJECTIVE
To compare the risk of ureteral compromise and of recurrent vault prolapse following vaginal vs. laparoscopic uterosacral vault suspension at the time of vaginal hysterectomy.
STUDY DESIGN
In this retrospective, cohort study, uterosacral ligament suspension was performed using either a vaginal or laparoscopic approach. The primary outcome was intraoperative ureteral compromise; secondary outcomes were postoperative anatomic result and recurrent prolapse. The Canadian Task Force Classification was II-2.
RESULTS
One hundred eighteen patients were included: 96 patients in the vaginal group and 22 patients in the laparoscopic group. Ureteral compromise was identified intraoperatively in 4 (4.2%) cases in the vaginal group; no ureteral compromise was observed in the laparoscopic group (p = 0.33). Failure at the apex, defined as stage ≥ II for point C, was seen in 6.3% of patients in the vaginal group as compared with 0% in the laparoscopic group; this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Similarly, trends toward lower recurrent symptomatic vault prolapse (10% vs. 0%), any symptomatic prolapse recurrence (12.5% vs. 4.6%), and higher postoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C were observed in the laparoscopic group (p > 0.05 for all).
CONCLUSION
Laparoscopic uterosacral vault suspension following vaginal hysterectomy is a safe alternative to the vaginal approach.
PMCID: PMC2922954  PMID: 19517690
colpopexy; hysterectomy; laparoscopic surgery

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