OBJECTIVE—To determine current outcomes of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
DESIGN—The Scottish coronary revascularisation register provided prospectively collected data on case mix and in-hospital complications for all revascularisation procedures between April 1997 and March 1999 (4775 PTCA; 5115 CABG). Linkage to routine hospital discharge and death data provided follow up information on survival and repeat revascularisation.
RESULTS—Stents were used in 51% of PTCA procedures. CABG patients were older, had more severe coronary disease, and had greater comorbidity. PTCA was more likely to be undertaken as an urgent or emergency procedure. Perioperative death and urgent surgery followed 0.3% and 0.6% of PTCA procedures, respectively. Case fatality rates were higher following CABG, with 6.7% dead within two years compared with 3.4% following PTCA. PTCA was more often followed by readmission for ischaemic heart disease, repeat angiography, or revascularisation: 22.8% of patients had repeat revascularisation within two years, compared with 1.8% following CABG.
CONCLUSIONS—The severity of coronary heart disease was greater than in previously published registry studies and randomised trials. Despite this, overall survival figures were comparable and repeat revascularisation rates lower, particularly following PTCA. Perioperative death and urgent surgery following PTCA were also lower. These favourable outcomes may be attributable, in part, to increased use of bail out and elective stenting.
Keywords: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; coronary artery bypass grafting; survival; outcome
In the past, comparative effectiveness trials evaluating percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), using either balloon angioplasty or bare metal stent (BMS) implantation, versus coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) found similar survival rates at long-term follow-up with both revascularization strategies. Two major meta-analyses of these trials reported 5- and 6-year comparative effectiveness between PCI and CABG: one included only four trials that compared PCI with BMS implantation versus CABG whereas the largest one also included trials using balloon angioplasty. In these studies, the authors observed no survival differences between groups although a significant survival advantage was seen in diabetics treated with CABG and this benefit was also perceived in elderly patients. In both reports, number of involved vessels, presence of left anterior descending artery stenosis or poor left ventricular ejection fraction were no predictors of poor survival with PCI. Therefore, extent of the coronary artery disease (CAD) was not associated with poor outcome after PCI in the pre-drug eluting stent (DES) era. Recently, the ASCERT (Database Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategies) registry found higher mortality rate with PCI in patients ≥ 65 years old in comparison with CABG, and advantages of surgery were seen in all subgroups including those at low risk. In this registry, PCI was accomplished by implantation of the first type of DES designs in 78% of cases. The intriguing observation of high mortality rate with PCI, including for non-diabetics and patients with two-vessel CAD, meaning a lack of clinical benefit with DES implantation, had not been seen previously. The study was not randomized, although its results are largely strengthened by its sample size. In this manuscript, the authors describe other registries and randomized trials reporting similar results supporting the findings of the aforementioned study and explore the reasons for these results, while also searching for potential solutions.
Percutaneous coronary interventions; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Drug eluting stents; Coronary artery disease; Elderly patients
A 38-year-old man underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery for angina pectoris following myocardial infarction. During the following 28 years, he required two repeat coronary artery bypass graft surgical procedures, nine percutaneous coronary interventions and 17 coronary angiograms. His treatment included saphenous vein, left internal mammary artery and gastroepiploic artery grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and intragraft thrombolytic therapy, directional coronary atherectomy, cutting balloon angioplasty, intracoronary stenting with bare-metal and drug-eluting stents, treatment for instent restenosis, stenting of the left main and circumflex coronary arteries and saphenous vein graft as well as intracoronary pressure wire diagnostics. In addition to his statin therapy, antiplatelets and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, he also underwent biventricular automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation and atrioventricular node radiofrequency ablation for his impaired left ventricular function, ventricular tachycardia and rapid atrial fibrillation. The present unusual case represents almost ‘the whole nine yards’ of treatment that has become available to patients with coronary artery disease during the past 30 years of technological development.
Ablation; Angioplasty; Coronary; Defibrillator; Pacing; Stent; Surgery
The choice of optimal revascularization strategy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is becoming more challenging lately, due to recent advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). On one hand, drug–eluting stents (DES) have emerged as a solution to the problem of restenosis after balloon angioplasty or bare–metal stent implantation, which was responsible for a higher rate of events (mainly repeat revascularization) in relation to CABG. On the other hand, off–pump bypass techniques and minimally invasive grafting of the left anterior descending artery appear to be safe and efficacious alternatives to traditional, on–pump CABG. Available literature includes studies outdated by current technologies, leaving the dilemma of best revascularization strategy unanswered in the general CAD population, but also in high–risk groups, such as diabetics and patients with chronic kidney disease. A number of ongoing trials, especially designed for this purpose, are set to end the debate, providing headto– head comparisons between DES–assisted PCI and contemporary bypass surgery.
percutaneous coronary intervention; coronary artery bypass grafting; drug-eluting stents; pump bypass surgery
OBJECTIVE--To explain the reasons for geographical variation in the use of coronary revascularisation in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional ecological study. SETTING--NHS and independent hospitals performing coronary revascularisation for the 11.6 million residents of the south east Thames, East Anglian and north western health regions in England plus Greater Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Ayr and Arran health boards in Scotland were included. SUBJECTS--All residents aged > or = 25 years in 1992-93 who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in either the public or private sector were included. MAIN MEASURES--Crude and age-sex standardised intervention rates for residents of the 42 constituent districts and boards were determined. Variation was measured using the systematic component of variation. RESULTS--Considerable systematic variations in district rates of CABG and PTCA existed. These variations mostly arose from differences in supply factors. Higher rate districts were characterised by being close to a regional revascularisation centre and having a local cardiologist. Demand factors such as the level of need in the population (measured by coronary heart disease mortality) and the lack of use of alternative treatments not only failed to explain the observed variation but were inversely associated with the rate of intervention--an example of the inverse care law. The finding that the residents of more socially deprived districts experienced higher intervention rates was probably subject to confounding due to their close proximity to specialist centres. CONCLUSIONS--If greater geographical equity of use for the same level of need is to be achieved, attention must be paid to the supply factors that determine levels of utilisation. As responsibility for purchasing these procedures is decentralised, utilisation might become even more unequal.
OBJECTIVE—To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease.
DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS—Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation.
SETTING—Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG.
Results—36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION—Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely.
Keywords: geographic variations; socioeconomic deprivation; coronary revascularisation; ischaemic heart disease; epidemiology
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the appropriateness of referral following coronary angiography in Sweden.
DESIGN—Prospective survey and review of medical records.
PATIENTS—Consecutive series of 2767 patients who underwent coronary angiography in Sweden between May 1994 and January 1995 and were considered for coronary revascularisation.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Percentage of patients referred for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for indications that were judged necessary, appropriate, uncertain, and inappropriate by a multispecialty Swedish national expert panel using the RAND/University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) appropriateness method, and the percentage of patients referred for continued medical management who met necessity criteria for revascularisation.
RESULTS—Half the patients were referred for CABG, 25% for PTCA, and 25% for continued medical therapy. CABG was judged appropriate or necessary for 78% of patients, uncertain for 12% and inappropriate for 10%. For PTCA the figures were 32%, 30% and 38%, respectively. Two factors contributed to the high inappropriate rate. Many of these patients did not have "significant" coronary artery disease (although all had at least one stenosis > 50%) or they were treated with less than "optimal" medical therapy. While 96% of patients who met necessity criteria for revascularisation were appropriately referred for revascularisation, 4% were referred for continued medical therapy.
CONCLUSIONS—Using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method and the definitions agreed to by the expert panel, which may be considered conservative today, it was found that 19% of Swedish patients were referred for coronary revascularisation judged inappropriate. Since some cardiovascular procedures evolve rapidly, the proportion of patients referred for inappropriate indications today remains unknown. Nevertheless, physicians should actively identify those patients who will and will not benefit from coronary revascularisation and ensure that they are appropriately treated.
Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft surgery; angioplasty; quality of health care; health policy
Although coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the treatment of choice for certain types of coronary artery disease (CAD), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)—particularly coronary angioplasty with stenting—has become the most popular nonmedical treatment approach to CAD. Some have speculated that, with the advent of drug-eluting stents (DESs), PCI will replace CABG entirely. However, the complete disappearance of CABG is both unlikely and unwarranted, for several reasons. Published randomized trials of CABG, PCI, and medical approaches to CAD compared only highly selected subgroups of patients because of strict exclusion criteria that often favored the PCI cohorts. Therefore, their results do not constitute sufficient evidence for the superiority of PCI over CABG in all CAD patients requiring revascularization. As PCI indications broaden to include more complex lesions and more high-risk patients, outcomes will not remain as favorable. In addition, although PCI is less invasive than surgery, CABG offers more complete revascularization and better freedom from repeat revascularization. Furthermore, no long-term patency data on DESs yet exist, whereas excellent 10- and 20-year patency rates have been reported for the left internal mammary artery-to-left anterior descending artery graft used in most CABG procedures. While PCI has been changing, CABG has not been stagnant; recently, advances in many aspects of the CABG procedure have improved short- and long-term outcomes in CABG patients. Both CABG and PCI technologies will continue to advance, not necessarily exclusive of one another, but no data yet exist to suggest that DESs will render CABG obsolete any time soon.
Angioplasty, transluminal, percutaneous coronary; coronary artery bypass; stents
It has been suggested that the benefits of drug-eluting stents compared to bare metal stents (BMS) have been over-estimated in part because target lesion/vessel revascularization (TLR/TVR) rates in the BMS control group of these trials were spuriously high.
We used meta-analytic techniques to systematically compare clinical event rates among patients treated with BMS in trials where BMS were the experimental (BMSexperimental) rather than the control (BMScontrol) intervention. MEDLINE searches were performed to identify eligible randomized trials comparing either drug-eluting stents with BMScontrol, or BMSexperimental with balloon angioplasty in patients with non-acute coronary artery disease. Trial characteristics and 6 to 12 month rates for death, myocardial infarction, TLR/TVR and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were extracted and assessed.
Eligible trials yielded 50 BMS cohorts: 19 in the BMScontrol group (4 046 patients) and 31 in the BMSexperimental group (5 068 patients). Summary death and infarction rates did not differ between groups. The summary TLR/TVR rates were 16.2% (95% confidence interval, CI: 13.5, 19.3) versus 13.8% (95% CI: 12.0, 15.7) in BMScontrol versus BMSexperimental groups, respectively (p=0.15). Among 39 BMS cohorts with ≤250 patients, TLR/TVR rates were significantly higher in BMScontrol versus BMSexperimental groups (18.9% [95% CI: 16.0, 22.2] versus 13.7% [95% CI: 11.5, 16.3], p=0.01). There were no between-group differences among larger BMS cohorts (p=0.98).
While overall clinical event rates did not differ in the BMScontrol and the BMSexperimental groups, a higher rate of TVR/TLR was seen in the BMScontrol group among smaller trials.
Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) have been developed for the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease. An initial focus has been the management of in-stent restenosis (ISR) but randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been small and powered only for angiographic endpoints.
The aim of the work was to assess the clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients treated for ISR with DCB versus control (balloon angioplasty or drug-eluting stents) by a meta-analysis of RCTs.
A comprehensive search was performed of RCTs where patients with ISR were randomly assigned to either DCB or alternative coronary intervention. Outcome measurements were death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularisation (TLR), binary definition of restenosis and in-lesion late luminal loss (LLL).
Four studies were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for patients treated for ISR (n = 399). Mean follow-up duration was 14.5 months. DCBs were associated with lower rates of TLR [8.8 vs. 29.7 % OR (95 % confidence interval, CI) 0.20 (0.11–0.36), p < 0.0001], binary restenosis [10.3 vs. 41.3 % OR (95 % CI) 0.13 (0.07–0.24), p < 0.00001] and MI [0.5 vs. 3.8 %, OR (95 % CI) 0.21 (0.04–1.00), p = 0.05]. No significant heterogeneity was identified.
Drug-coated balloons appear to be effective versus control in reducing TLR and possibly MI versus balloon angioplasty or drug-eluting stents in the management of ISR.
Coronary artery disease; Angioplasty; Drug-coated balloons; Drug-eluting stents; Meta-analysis; Randomized controlled trials
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the clinical and angiographic outcome in patients with in-stent restenosis in small coronary arteries and repeat target lesion revascularisation.
DESIGN—Patients with in-stent restenosis in coronary arteries ⩽ 2.85 mm were eligible for the study and underwent target lesion revascularisation. Clinical and angiographic variables were assessed during a six month follow up period.
RESULTS—73 patients with 79 lesions were treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (47%), excimer laser angioplasty (25%), or restenting (28%). The mean (SD) reference diameter before target lesion revascularisation was 2.12 (0.5) mm. Procedural success was achieved in all cases, but 57% of the patients had restenosis after six months. The rate of further restenosis was higher with laser angioplasty (78%) than with restenting (47%) or balloon angioplasty alone (49%, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—Treatment for in-stent restenosis in small coronary arteries is feasible and safe, with a second restenosis rate comparable to large coronary artery series. The strategy of target lesion revascularisation influences further in-stent restenosis, with an increased rate with laser angioplasty compared with restenting and repeat dilatation alone.
Keywords: restenosis; coronary stent; small vessels; coronary artery disease
Percutaneous coronary intervention has undergone rapid progress both in technology and adjunct therapy. However, documentation of long-term temporal trends in relation to contemporary practice is lacking.
Methods and Results
We analyzed PCI use and outcomes in 8976 consecutive patients in the multicenter NHLBI-sponsored 1985–86 Percutaneous coronary transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and 1997–2006 Dynamic Registries waves [wave 1: 1997–98, bare metal stents; wave 2: 1999, uniform use of stents; wave 3: 2001–02, brachytherapy; waves 4 and 5: 2004–2006, drug-eluting stents]. Patients undergoing PCI in the recent waves were older and more often reported comorbidities than those in the balloon era. PCI was more often performed for acute coronary syndromes and, in spite of the greater disease burden, was more often selective. Procedural success was achieved and maintained more often in the stent era. Significant reductions were observed in in-hospital rates (%) of myocardial infarction (PTCA Registry: 4.9, wave 1: 2.7, wave 2: 2.8, wave 3: 1.9, wave 4: 2.6, wave 5: 2, Ptrend:<0.001) and emergency CABG (PTCA Registry: 3.7, wave 1: 0.4, wave 2: 0.4, wave 3: 0.3, wave 4:0.4, wave 5: 0, Ptrend:<0.001). Compared to the PTCA Registry, risk for repeat revascularization (31–365 days following index PCI) was significantly lower in the Dynamic waves (adjusted hazard ratio, wave 1: 0.72, wave 2: 0.51, wave 3: 0.51, wave 4: 0.30, wave 5: 0.36; P< 0.05 for all).
Percutaneous interventions, in the last two decades, has evolved to include more urgent, comorbid cases, yet achieving high success rates with significantly reduced need for repeat revascularization.
Percutaneous coronary intervention; temporal trend; registries
OBJECTIVE—To investigate changes in cytokine expression in the coronary circulation induced by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA).
METHODS—The study involved 32 patients with ischaemic heart disease who underwent elective PTCA for isolated stenotic lesions of the left coronary artery. Ten patients had plain old balloon angioplasty, 10 had percutaneous transluminal rotational atherectomy, and 12 had stent implantation. Blood samples were drawn from the coronary sinus before and immediately after PTCA. Plasma concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and macrophage coronary stimulating factor (M-CSF) were measured. The patients were scheduled for follow up angiography six months after PTCA. Late loss index was calculated using quantitative coronary angiography.
RESULTS—IL-6 concentrations in coronary sinus blood increased immediately after PTCA (p < 0.001), but there was no change in PDGF, MCP-1, or M-CSF. There was a positive correlation between changes in IL-6 concentrations immediately after PTCA and late loss index six months after PTCA (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). IL-6 concentrations in coronary sinus blood were higher in patients with late restenosis than in those without restenosis (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—PTCA induces IL-6 production in the coronary circulation. This may induce subsequent inflammatory responses in injured vessels and play an important role in late restenosis after PTCA.
Keywords: inflammation; cytokine; restenosis
To evaluate the relationship between the completeness of revascularisation by percutaneous coronary intervention and the one-year occurrence of adverse cardiac events in patients with multivessel disease.
Patients with stable or unstable angina pectoris, or with exercise-induced ischaemia, were enrolled in the Coronary Angioplasty versus Bypass Revascularisation Investigation (CABRI).
In CABRI, patients were randomised to coronary bypass grafting (CABG; n=513) or angioplasty (PTCA; n=541). Revascularisation in patients randomised to PTCA was defined as complete if no lesions with a diameter stenosis <50% remained post-procedure. Patients with complete revascularisation were distinguished from those with one, two, and three or more remaining lesions, respectively. Differences in baseline characteristics and in the one-year occurrence of death, myocardial infarction, (re)CABG, and (re)PTCA between these subgroups were evaluated. Comparisons were made with patients randomised to CABG.
Complete revascularisation was obtained in 148 patients randomised to PTCA (27%). In 147 (27%) cases one lesion remained, while there were 122 (23%) and 119 (22%) patients with two and three or more remaining lesions, respectively. Five (1%) patients could not be classified. The one-year rates of either death or MI were 9.5%, 5.4%, 8.2%, and 12.6% in the respective PTCA subgroups (p=0.225), and 6.2% in patients randomised to CABG (comparison with three or more remaining lesions after PTCA: p=0.017). The percentages of repeat interventions during one-year follow-up were 29.7%, 29.3%, 39.3%, and 51.3% (p<0.001), much higher than after CABG (3.5%; p<0.001).
Complete revascularisation by PTCA in multivessel coronary disease did not result in a lower death or MI rate compared with incomplete revascularisation. Overall the patient's prognosis after PTCA is similar to CABG, but patients with three or more remaining lesions after PTCA had a worse prognosis than CABG patients.
stable angina pectoris; unstable angina pectoris; multivessel coronary disease; revascularisation; follow-up
Purpose: To compare percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using stent implantation versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with multiple vessel disease with involvement of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD).
Methods: 230 patients with multiple vessel disease and severe stenosis of the proximal LAD (113 with PCI, 117 with CABG). They were a cohort of patients from the randomised ERACI (Argentine randomized trial of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass surgery in multivessel disease) II study.
Results: Both groups had similar baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in 30 day major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat procedures) between the strategies (PCI 2.7% v CABG 7.6%, p = 0.18). There were no significant differences in survival (PCI 96.4% v CABG 95%, p = 0.98) and survival with freedom from myocardial infarction (PCI 92% v CABG 89%, p = 0.94) at 41.5 (6) months’ follow up. However, freedom from new revascularisation procedures (CABG 96.6% v PCI 73%, p = 0.0002) and frequency of angina (CABG 9.4% v PCI 22%, p = 0.025) were superior in the CABG group.
Conclusion: Patients with multivessel disease and significant disease of the proximal LAD randomly assigned in the ERACI II trial to PCI or CABG had similar survival and survival with freedom from myocardial infarction at long term follow up. Repeat revascularisation procedures were higher in the PCI group.
coronary artery bypass; proximal LAD intervention; multivessel coronary stenting; multivessel revascularisation
To evaluate the association of successive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) modalities with balloon angioplasty (BA), bare-metal stent (BMS), drug-eluting stents (DES), and pharmacotherapy over the last 3 decades with outcomes among patients with diabetes in routine clinical practice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We examined outcomes in 1,846 patients with diabetes undergoing de novo PCI in the multicenter, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute–sponsored 1985–1986 Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Registry and 1997–2006 Dynamic Registry. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the adjusted risk of events (death/myocardial infarction [MI], repeat revascularization) over 1 year.
Cumulative event rates for postdischarge (31–365 days) death/MI were 8% by BA, 7% by BMS, and 7% by DES use (P = 0.76) and for repeat revascularization were 19, 13, and 9% (P < 0.001), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed a significantly lower risk of repeat revascularization with DES use when compared with the use of BA (hazard ratio [HR] 0.41 [95% CI 0.29–0.58]) and BMS (HR 0.55 [95% CI 0.39–0.76]). After further adjustment for discharge medications, the lower risk for death/MI was not statistically significant for DES when compared with BA.
In patients with diabetes undergoing PCI, the use of DES is associated with a reduced need for repeat revascularization when compared with BA or BMS use. The associated death/MI benefit observed with the DES versus the BA group may well be due to greater use of pharmacotherapy.
1996;76(4 Suppl 4):1-24.
Objective—To describe changes in the availability, utilisation, and waiting times for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) between 1987/88 and 1994/95 and to review commissioning of these services. Design—A series of cross sectional surveys and interviews with purchasers and providers. Setting—Four health regions in the United Kingdom. Patients—All residents aged 25 years or more who underwent coronary revascularisation. Results—There has been little change in the availability of consultants in cardiology in specialist centres, while the number of non-consultant cardiologists has risen significantly. The availability of consultant surgeons more than doubled in some regions, while non-consultant surgical staff increased by 40–90%. The NHS rate of use of both CABG and PTCA has increased steadily since 1987/88. In 1994/95, only two districts had CABG rates of less than 300 per million population. The additional contribution of privately funded cases varied between 14–23% for CABG and 7–30% for PTCA. Regional rates varied 1·3-fold for CABG and threefold for PTCA in 1994/95, while district rates of CABG varied 3·6-fold and PTCA 18-fold. Revascularisation rates were higher in districts with least need in 1991/92 and this persisted over the following three years. The overall waiting time for CABG (214 days) was largely unchanged from 1992/93 (234 days). The overall waiting time for PTCA (138 days) was 25% shorter than in 1992/93 (185 days). Prioritisation of patients waiting over a year had not yet adversely affected the waiting time of more urgent patients. Commissioning has faced a complex web of interconnected problems which, in general, caused more problems for purchasers than providers initially but which appear to be of increasing concern to providers. Conclusions—The 1991 NHS reforms had had no observable impact on the availability and use of coronary revascularisation by 1995. Continued monitoring is necessary to detect any delayed effect.
coronary revascularisation; trends; geographical variation; commissioning
A patient presented with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction following cocaine abuse. He was transferred for primary angioplasty. The emergent coronary angiography revealed acute left main coronary artery occlusion. Recanalization with balloon angioplasty was performed, followed by thrombectomy and stenting of the left main coronary artery with a paclitaxel-eluting stent. The patient recovered with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% at discharge. The pathophysiology of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction includes vasospasm, thrombosis and increased myocardial oxygen demand. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention allows local delivery of vasodilators and mechanical reperfusion in a timely manner. The authors argue that it is the best option for cocaine-induced ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Recent data from randomized trials comparing bare metal and drug-eluting stents for primary percutaneous coronary intervention are discussed, as is the lack of evidence supporting the use of thrombectomy devices in acute myocardial infarction. The authors believe that primary percutaneous coronary intervention should be considered early for a patient presenting with cocaine-induced ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Angiography; Angioplasty; Cocaine; Drug-eluting stent; Myocardial infarction; Stents
OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of indications for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS: A modified Delphi group judgement process with input from a panel of six interventional cardiologists and six cardiopulmonary surgeons. There was one clinician from each of the 12 tertiary referral heart centres in The Netherlands. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ratings by panel members, on a 1 to 9 scale, of indications presented as a choice between two treatments (CABG v medical treatment, PTCA v medical treatment, and CABG v PTCA) for 1182 model cases. Each case represented a unique combination of clinical features in terms of symptoms, medical history, and results of tests. Ratings were analysed with respect to degree of agreement among panelists, degree of appropriateness of indications, and panel's preference for invasive or medical treatment. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 58.6% and disagreed on 3.2% of the indications. The panel opted for invasive treatment in 48.2% and medical treatment in 22.8%, and had no clear preference for either method in 29.0% of the cases. When compared with medical treatment, CABG was more often rated appropriate than PTCA: 35.4% v 21.6% (P < 0.001). Panel scores depended on severity of anatomical disease. For instance, for 51.5% of the model cases with one-vessel disease not including the proximal left anterior descending artery, the panel preferred medical treatment to invasive treatment, while the latter was preferred in 18% of the cases. In cases with type C lesions, the panel frequently rated PTCA as inappropriate. Panel scores were also affected by nonclinical factors. Cardiologists and surgeons rated the procedure of their own specialty higher than the alternative invasive intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The panel method yields logically consistent scores of the appropriateness of indications for carrying out medical procedures. It may be an aid in formulating clinical practice guidelines.
OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of recanalisation on collateral flow in a case-control study in patients with and without chronic total coronary occlusions.
DESIGN—In 54 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (mean (SD) age 61 (6) years), coronary collateral flow was measured by intracoronary pressure or Doppler guide wires at the end of repeated balloon occlusions. Coronary collateral flow index (collateral flow relative to normal antegrade flow) during the first two balloon inflations in 27 patients with a chronic total occlusion (occlusion group) was compared with that of 27 patients matched for age, sex, and collateral flow index at the first occlusion and with a coronary artery diameter stenosis ⩽ 80% (stenosis group).
RESULTS—Following revascularisation, collateral flow index decreased in 17 of the patients in the occlusion group (63%) and in eight of the patients in the stenosis group (30%) (p = 0.03 between groups). The overall change of collateral flow index between the first and the second balloon occlusion was −0.04 (0.01) in the occlusion group (p = 0.07 for paired comparison; from 0.29 (0.17) to 0.25 (0.14)), and +0.02 (0.06) in the stenosis group (p = 0.06 for paired comparison; from 0.27 (0.13) to 0.30 (0.15)). The trend to collateral enhancement in the stenosis group differed significantly from the occlusion group (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—While repeated coronary balloon occlusions induce collateral recruitment in the majority of patients with moderate stenoses, recanalisation of chronic total coronary occlusions is more often associated with collateral flow reduction. A later decrease in collateral flow by involution of collateral channels cannot be excluded by this study but has not been reported so far.
Keywords: coronary collateral circulation; coronary occlusion; revascularisation; collateral damage
Treatment options for coronary revascularisation include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In the ‘synergy between PCI with TAXUS and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX)’ trial, PCI and CABG using state-of-the-art techniques (using paclitaxel-eluting stents and arterial grafts, respectively) were compared in the treatment of complex coronary artery disease. In Syntax, PCI was inferior to CABG at one year, entirely due to an increased repeat intervention rate. We hypothesised that the use of a superior drug-eluting stent system could reduce the need for repeat intervention. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:451–3.)
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery; Drug Eluting Stents; Coronary Artery Disease; Meta-analysis
Objective: To compare the early and late outcomes of primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with fibrinolytic treatment among diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Design: Retrospective observational study with data obtained from prospective registries.
Setting: Tertiary cardiovascular institution with 24 hour acute interventional facilities.
Patients: 202 consecutive diabetic patients with AMI receiving reperfusion treatment within six hours of symptom onset.
Interventions: Fibrinolytic treatment was administered to 99 patients, and 103 patients underwent primary PTCA. Most patients undergoing PTCA received adjunctive stenting (94.2%) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition (63.1%).
Main outcome measures: Death, non-fatal reinfarction, and target vessel revascularisation at 30 days and one year were assessed.
Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in these two treatment groups except that the proportion of patients with Killip class III or IV was considerably higher in those treated with PTCA (15.5% v 6.1%, p = 0.03) and time to treatment was significantly longer (103.7 v 68.0 minutes, p < 0.001). Among those treated with PTCA, the rates for in-hospital recurrent ischaemia (5.8% v 17.2%, p = 0.011) and target vessel revascularisation at one year (19.4% v 36.4%, p = 0.007) were lower. Death or reinfarction at one year was also reduced among those treated with PTCA (17.5% v 31.3%, p = 0.02), with an adjusted relative risk of 0.29 (95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.57) compared with fibrinolysis.
Conclusion: Among diabetic patients with AMI, primary PTCA was associated with reduced early and late adverse events compared with fibrinolytic treatment.
angioplasty; diabetes; fibrinolysis; myocardial infarction
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate trends in referrals for emergency operations after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) complications; to analyse morbidity and mortality and assess the influence of PTCA backup on elective surgery. DESIGN--A retrospective analysis of patients requiring emergency surgical revascularisation within 24 hours of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. PATIENTS--Between January 1980 and December 1990, 75 patients requiring emergency surgery within 24 hours of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. SETTING--A tertiary referral centre and postgraduate teaching hospital. RESULTS--57 patients (76%) were men, the mean age was 55 (range 29-73) years, and 30 (40%) had had a previous myocardial infarction. Before PTCA, 68 (91%) had severe angina, 59 (79%) had multivessel disease, and six (8%) had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. A mean of 2.1 grafts (range one to five) were performed; the internal mammary artery was used in only one patient. The operative mortality was 9% and inhospital mortality was 17%. There was a need for cardiac massage until bypass was established in 19 patients (25%): this was the most important outcome determinant (P = 0.0051) and was more common in those patients with multivessel disease (P = 0.0449) and in women (P = 0.0388). In 10 of the 19 cases a vacant operating theatre was unavailable, the operation being performed in the catheter laboratory or anaesthetic room. These 19 patients had an operative mortality of 32% and inhospital mortality of 47%, compared with 2% and 7% respectively for the 56 patients who awaited the next available operating theatre. Complications included myocardial infarction, 19 patients (25%); arrhythmias, 10 patients (3%); and gross neurological event, two patients (3%). The mean intensive care unit stay was 2.6 days (range 1 to 33 days) and the mean duration of hospital admission was 13 days (range 5-40 days). CONCLUSIONS--Patients undergoing emergency surgery after PTCA complications have a substantially increased inhospital mortality and morbidity. PTCA in this unit continues to require surgical cover. Delays in operating on stable patients in centres which operate a "next available theatre" backup policy may not differ from some units performing PTCA with offsite cover for PTCA complications. Particularly in the presence of multivessel disease, however, PTCA complications may be associated with the need for "crash" bypass and such patients are unlikely to survive hospital transfer. The proportion of patients requiring "crash" bypass has increased during the period reviewed because of the extent of disease in the emergency surgical group increased. These results indicate that surgery should not be denied to these patients.
The Randomised Intervention Treatment of Angina (RITA) Trial is a prospective, randomised study to compare the short term and long term effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery. During the study a register of patients undergoing coronary arteriography at the fourteen participating centres is being maintained to assess the overall context of patient recruitment. Patients with arteriographically proven coronary artery disease are considered for the trial if the participating cardiologist and surgeon agree that equivalent revascularisation could be achieved by either treatment method. Patients who satisfy the trial entry criteria are randomised to treatment by coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, with prospective stratification into groups with one, two, or three treatment vessels. Randomisation implies an intention to treat the patient by the assigned procedure and the analysis of long term results will include all randomised cases. The trial will recruit at least 1000 patients who will be followed for five years. The major trial end points include death, new myocardial infarction, and new coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass procedures. Other outcome measures include symptom and employment status, quality of life, exercise tolerance, and left ventricular function.
The development of stent has been a major advance in the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease since the introduction of balloon angioplasty. However, neointimal hyperplasia occurring within the stent leading to in-stent restenosis is a main obstacle in the long-term success of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The recent introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) contributes a major breakthrough to interventional cardiology. Many large randomized clinical trials using DES have shown a remarkable reduction in angiographic restenosis and target vessel revascularization when compared with bare metal stents. The results of these trials also appear to be supported by evidence from everyday practice and noncontrolled clinical trials. However, the expanded applications of DES, especially in treating complex lesions such as left main trunk, bifurcation, saphenous vein graft lesions, or in-stent restenosis, are still under evaluation with ongoing studies. With the availability of different types of DES in the market, the issue of cost should not be a deterrent and DES will eventually be an economically viable option for all patients. The adoption of DES in all percutaneous coronary intervention may become a reality in the near future. In this review article, we summarize the recent development and progress of DES as well as compare and update the results of clinical trials.
drug-eluting stent; percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; in-stent restenosis