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1.  Randomized, Phase III Trial of First-Line Figitumumab in Combination With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Versus Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Alone in Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2014;32(19):2059-2066.
Figitumumab (CP-751,871), a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody, inhibits the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). Our multicenter, randomized, phase III study compared figitumumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment in patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Patients and Methods
Patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC disease with nonadenocarcinoma histology received open-label figitumumab (20 mg/kg) plus paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve, 6 mg · min/mL) or paclitaxel and carboplatin alone once every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. The primary end point was overall survival (OS).
Of 681 randomly assigned patients, 671 received treatment. The study was closed early by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Committee because of futility and an increased incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) and treatment-related deaths with figitumumab. Median OS was 8.6 months for figitumumab plus chemotherapy and 9.8 months for chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.40; P = .06); median progression-free survival was 4.7 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 5.4) and 4.6 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 5.4), respectively (HR, 1.10; P = .27); the objective response rates were 33% and 35%, respectively. The respective rates of all-causality SAEs were 66% and 51%; P < .01). Treatment-related grade 5 adverse events were also more common with figitumumab (5% v 1%; P < .01).
Adding figitumumab to standard chemotherapy failed to increase OS in patients with advanced nonadenocarcinoma NSCLC. Further clinical development of figitumumab is not being pursued.
PMCID: PMC4067944  PMID: 24888810
2.  Figitumumab combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel in treatment-naïve Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer 
Investigational New Drugs  2011;30(4):1548-1556.
Objectives The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous tumor types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Figitumumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody against IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Methods This phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study ( NCT00603538) assessed the safety and tolerability of figitumumab (6, 10 and 20 mg/kg) in combination with carboplatin (area under the curve: 6 mg·min/mL) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) in Japanese patients (N = 19) with chemotherapy-naïve, advanced NSCLC. Treatments were administered intravenously on day 1 of a 21-day cycle for four to six cycles. Pharmacokinetics, biomarkers, and antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results Figitumumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel was well tolerated at doses up to 20 mg/kg; no dose-limiting toxicities were observed at this dose level. When given in combination, figitumumab plasma exposure increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. The approximate 2-fold accumulation following repeated administration supported the 21-day regimen as appropriate for figitumumab administration. Serum total IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations increased following figitumumab dosing, but a clear dose-dependent relationship was not demonstrated. Seven of 18 evaluable patients experienced a partial response. Conclusions Figitumumab 20 mg/kg in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel was well tolerated in chemotherapy-naïve Japanese patients with NSCLC. Further analysis of biomarker data is necessary for the development of figitumumab therapy.
PMCID: PMC3388259  PMID: 21748299
Carboplatin; Figitumumab; Non-small cell lung cancer; Paclitaxel
3.  The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor inhibitor figitumumab (CP-751,871) in combination with docetaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours: results of a phase Ib dose-escalation, open-label study 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;103(3):332-339.
This phase Ib trial assessed safety, tolerability, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of figitumumab (CP-751,871), a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR), in combination with docetaxel.
Patients with advanced solid tumours were treated with escalating dose levels of figitumumab plus 75 mg m–2 docetaxel every 21 days. Safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and biomarker responses were evaluated.
In 46 patients, no dose-limiting toxicities were attributable to the treatment combination. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included neutropaenia (n=28), febrile neutropaenia (n=11), fatigue (n=10), leukopaenia (n=7), diarrhoea (n=5), hyperglycaemia, lymphopaenia, cellulitis, DVT, and pain (all n=1). The MTD was not reached. Four partial responses were observed; 12 patients had disease stabilisation of ⩾6 months. Pharmacokinetic and biomarker analyses showed a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure, and complete sIGF-IR downregulation at doses of ⩾3 mg kg–1. Pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in combination was similar to when given alone. Out of 18 castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, 10 (56%) had ⩾5 circulating tumour cells (CTCs) per 7.5 ml of blood at baseline: 6 out of 10 (60%) had a decline from ⩾5 to <5 CTCs and 9 out of 10 (90%) had a ⩾30% decline in CTCs after therapy.
Figitumumab and docetaxel in combination are well tolerated. Further evaluation is warranted.
PMCID: PMC2920021  PMID: 20628389
figitumumab (CP-751,871); insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR); chemosensitisation; monoclonal antibody; docetaxel
4.  Safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of the anti-IGF-1R antibody figitumumab (CP-751,871) in patients with sarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma: a phase 1 expansion cohort study 
The lancet oncology  2009;11(2):129-135.
Figitumumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth-factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Preclinical data suggest a dependence on insulin-like growth-factor signalling for sarcoma subtypes, including Ewing’s sarcoma, and early reports show antitumour activity of IGF-1R-targeting drugs in these diseases.
Between January, 2006, and August, 2008, patients with refractory, advanced sarcomas received figitumumab (20 mg/kg) in two single-stage expansion cohorts within a solid-tumour phase 1 trial. The first cohort (n=15) included patients with multiple sarcoma subtypes, age 18 years or older, and the second cohort (n=14) consisted of patients with refractory Ewing’s sarcoma, age 9 years or older. The primary endpoint was to assess the safety and tolerability of figitumumab. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic profiling and preliminary antitumour activity (best response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours [RECIST]) in evaluable patients who received at least one dose of medication. This study is registered with, number NCT00474760.
29 patients, 16 of whom had Ewing’s sarcoma, were enrolled and received a total of 177 cycles of treatment (median 2, mean 6·1, range 1–24). Grade 3 deep venous thrombosis, grade 3 back pain, and grade 3 vomiting were each noted once in individual patients; one patient had grade 3 increases in aspartate aminotransferase and gammaglutamyltransferase concentrations. This patient also had grade 4 increases in alanine aminotransferase concentrations. The only other grade 4 adverse event was raised concentrations of uric acid, noted in one patient. Pharmacokinetics were comparable between patients with sarcoma and those with other solid tumours. 28 patients were assessed for response; two patients, both with Ewing’s sarcoma, had objective responses (one complete response and one partial response) and eight patients had disease stabilisation (six with Ewing’s sarcoma, one with synovial sarcoma, and one with fibrosarcoma) lasting 4 months or longer.
Figitumumab is well tolerated and has antitumour activity in Ewing’s sarcoma, warranting further investigation in this disease.
Pfizer Global Research and Development.
PMCID: PMC2941877  PMID: 20036194
5.  Phase I trial of axitinib combined with platinum doublets in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and other solid tumours 
British Journal of Cancer  2012;107(8):1277-1285.
This phase I dose-finding trial evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, combined with platinum doublets in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other solid tumours.
In all, 49 patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) with paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin in 3-week cycles. Following determination of the maximum tolerated dose, a squamous cell NSCLC expansion cohort was enroled and received axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. with paclitaxel/carboplatin.
Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: febrile neutropenia (n=1) in the paclitaxel/carboplatin cohort and fatigue (n=1) in the gemcitabine/cisplatin cohort. Common nonhaematologic treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (36.7%), diarrhoea (34.7%) and fatigue (28.6%). No grade⩾3 haemoptysis occurred among 12 patients with squamous cell NSCLC. The objective response rate was 37.0% for patients receiving axitinib/paclitaxel/carboplatin (n=27) and 23.8% for patients receiving axitinib/gemcitabine/cisplatin (n=21). Pharmacokinetics of axitinib and chemotherapeutic agents were similar when administered alone or in combination.
Axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. may be combined with standard paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin regimens without evidence of overt drug–drug interactions. Both combinations demonstrated clinical efficacy and were well tolerated.
PMCID: PMC3494447  PMID: 22990652
axitinib; chemotherapy; pharmacokinetics; solid tumours; non-small cell lung cancer
6.  A phase 1 study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of veliparib (ABT-888) in combination with carboplatin/paclitaxel in Japanese subjects with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology  2015;76(5):1063-1072.
Veliparib is a potent, orally bioavailable PARP inhibitor that enhances efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. The study objectives were to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RPTD) of veliparib plus carboplatin and paclitaxel, and assess pharmacokinetics (PK), tolerability, and preliminary efficacy in Japanese patients with solid tumors.
Carboplatin (AUC 6 mg/mL min) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) were administered on day 3 of a 21-day cycle. Oral veliparib (40, 80, or 120 mg BID) was administered on days 1–7. Patients received ≤6 cycles. Adverse events (AEs) were reported using NCI-CTCAE version 4.03, PK parameters were analyzed using noncompartmental methods, and responses were measured by RECIST version 1.1.
Twelve patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated. Common treatment-emergent AEs, consistent with toxicities associated with carboplatin and paclitaxel, included leukopenia (100 %), neutropenia (100 %), anemia (83 %), thrombocytopenia (75 %), increased alanine aminotransferase (67 %), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (67 %). Grade 3/4 AEs (in ≥2 patients) included neutropenia (100 %), leukopenia (33 %), anemia (25 %), and hyponatremia (17 %). No AEs led to veliparib, carboplatin, or paclitaxel interruption; no DLTs were observed. The RPTD was determined to be 120 mg BID. Veliparib Cmax and AUC were approximately dose proportional. Six partial responses were observed.
Veliparib PK was not impacted by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The safety profile was manageable. The 120 mg BID RPTD confirmed in Japanese patients is the dose being evaluated in global studies of veliparib. Preliminary efficacy suggests veliparib may enhance carboplatin and paclitaxel activity, providing benefit to patients with NSCLC.
PMCID: PMC4612330  PMID: 26433581
Veliparib (ABT-888); NSCLC; PARP; Carboplatin; Paclitaxel
7.  Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody figitumumab in patients with refractory adrenocortical carcinoma 
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling through upregulation of the stimulatory ligand IGF-II has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma. As there is a paucity of effective therapies, this dose expansion cohort of a phase 1 study was undertaken to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects on endocrine markers of figitumumab in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
Figitumumab was administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle at the maximal feasible dose (20 mg/kg) to a cohort of patients with metastatic, refractory adrenocortical carcinoma. Serum glucose, insulin, and growth hormone were measured pre-study, at cycle 4 and study end. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed during cycles 1 and 4.
Fourteen patients with adrenocortical carcinoma received 50 cycles of figitumumab at the 20 mg/kg. Treatment- related toxicities were generally mild and included hyperglycemia, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia. Single episodes of grade 4 hyperuricemia, proteinuria, and elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Pharmacokinetics of figitumumab was comparable to patients with solid tumors other than adrenocortical carcinoma. Treatment with figitumumab increased serum insulin and growth hormone levels. Eight of 14 patients (57%) had stable disease.
The side effect profile and pharmacokinetics of figitumumab were similar in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in comparison to patients with other solid tumors. While hyperglycemia was the most common adverse event, no clear patterns predicting severity were observed. The majority of patients receiving protocol therapy with single agent figitumumab experienced stability of disease, warranting further evaluation.
PMCID: PMC2875253  PMID: 19649631
IGF-1R; Adrenocortical carcinoma; Monoclonal antibody; CP-751,871; Figitumumab
8.  Phase I Study of Induction Chemotherapy and Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy with Irinotecan, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
The aim of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose limiting toxicities (DLTs), and determine the phase II dose for the combination of irinotecan-carboplatin-paclitaxel given as induction chemotherapy and with concomitant chest radiotherapy for patients with Stage III non-small cell lung cancer.
Patients with Cancer and Leukemia Group B performance status of 0 to 2, stage IIIA and IIIB NSCLC patients with resectable or unresectable disease were treated with induction chemotherapy (irinotecan 100 mg/m2, carboplatin AUC 5, and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 days 1 and 22) followed by concomitant chemotherapy (irinotecan, carboplatin, and paclitaxel) and chest radiotherapy (66 Gy for unresectable and 50 Gy for resectable disease) beginning on week 7. The primary objective was to escalate the dose of irinotecan during chemoradiation in sequential cohorts to determine the DLT and MTD of the regimen.
Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (median age 63 years, 57% male, 41% performance status 0, 30% resectable). Induction chemotherapy was tolerable and active (response rate 26%; stable disease 60%). Eight patients did not receive concurrent chemoradiotherapy because of progressive disease (5), death (1), hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel (1), and withdrawal of consent (1). Twenty-nine patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The concomitant administration of chest radiotherapy with weekly irinotecan, carboplatin, and paclitaxel was not feasible at the first, second, and third dose levels. DLT was failure to achieve recovery to ≤ grade 1 absolute neutrophil count by the day of scheduled chemotherapy administration. Dose de-escalation to irinotecan 30 mg/m2, paclitaxel 40 mg/m2 (with omission of carboplatin) delivered on weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 of radiotherapy was the MTD. After induction chemotherapy, partial responses, stable disease, and progressive disease was observed in 26%, 60%, and 14% of patients, respectively. After chemoradiotherapy, partial responses were attained in 16 (55%) patients, whereas 12 patients (41%) attained disease stabilization. Median overall survival was 21 months for the entire cohort. Resectable patients had a median survival of 24 months, whereas unresectable patients had a median survival of 19 months. Differences in overall and progression-free survival rates between resectable and unresectable patients was not statistically significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.90, respectively).
Carboplatin, paclitaxel, and irinotecan with concurrent chemoradiotherapy was poorly tolerated as a result of neutropenia. Although dose de-escalation was required for delivery of the regimen, the response rates and survival outcomes were comparable to other similar regimens.
PMCID: PMC3742080  PMID: 18166842
Non-small cell lung cancer; Irinotecan; Radiation therapy; Multimodality therapy
9.  Heterodimerization of Glycosylated Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptors and Insulin Receptors in Cancer Cells Sensitive to Anti-IGF1R Antibody 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33322.
Identification of predictive biomarkers is essential for the successful development of targeted therapy. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) has been examined as a potential therapeutic target for various cancers. However, recent clinical trials showed that anti-IGF1R antibody and chemotherapy are not effective for treating lung cancer.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In order to define biomarkers for predicting successful IGF1R targeted therapy, we evaluated the anti-proliferation effect of figitumumab (CP-751,871), a humanized anti-IGF1R antibody, against nine gastric and eight hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Out of 17 cancer cell lines, figitumumab effectively inhibited the growth of three cell lines (SNU719, HepG2, and SNU368), decreased p-AKT and p-STAT3 levels, and induced G 1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, these cells showed co-overexpression and altered mobility of the IGF1R and insulin receptor (IR). Immunoprecipitaion (IP) assays and ELISA confirmed the presence of IGF1R/IR heterodimeric receptors in figitumumab-sensitive cells. Treatment with figitumumab led to the dissociation of IGF1-dependent heterodimeric receptors and inhibited tumor growth with decreased levels of heterodimeric receptors in a mouse xenograft model. We next found that both IGF1R and IR were N-linked glyosylated in figitumumab-sensitive cells. In particular, mass spectrometry showed that IGF1R had N-linked glycans at N913 in three figitumumab-sensitive cell lines. We observed that an absence of N-linked glycosylation at N913 led to a lack of membranous localization of IGF1R and figitumumab insensitivity.
Conclusion and Significance
The data suggest that the level of N-linked glycosylated IGF1R/IR heterodimeric receptor is highly associated with sensitivity to anti-IGF1R antibody in cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC3306383  PMID: 22438913
10.  The IGF-1 Receptor Targeting Antibody, CP-751,871, Suppresses Tumor-Derived VEGF and Synergizes with Rapamycin in Models of Childhood Sarcoma 
Cancer research  2009;69(19):7662-7671.
Signaling through the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) occurs in many human cancers, including childhood sarcomas. As a consequence, targeting the IGF-1R has become a focus for cancer drug development. We examined the antitumor activity of CP-751,871, a human antibody that blocks IGF-1R ligand binding, alone and in combination with rapamycin against sarcoma cell lines in vitro and xenograft models in vivo. In Ewing sarcoma (EWS) cell lines CP751,871 inhibited growth poorly (<50%), but prevented rapamycin-induced hyperphosphorylation of AKT(Ser473) and induced greater than additive apoptosis. Rapamycin treatment also increased secretion of IGF-1 resulting in phosphorylation of IGF-1R (Tyr1136) that was blocked by CP751,871. In vivo CP-751,871, rapamycin or the combination waere evaluated against EWS, osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts. CP751871 induced significant growth inhibition (EFS(T/C) >2) in four models. Rapamycin induced significant growth inhibition (EFS(T/C) >2) in nine models. Although neither agent given alone caused tumor regressions. in combination these agents had greater than additive activity against 5/13 xenografts and induced complete remissions (CR) in one model each of rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, and in three of four osteosarcoma models. CP751,871 caused complete IGF-1R downregulation, suppression of AKT phosphorylation and dramatically suppressed tumor-derived VEGF in some sarcoma xenografts. Rapamycin treatment did not markedly suppress VEGF in tumors and synergized only in tumor lines where VEGF was dramatically inhibited by CP751,871. These data suggest a model in which blockade of IGF-1R suppresses tumor-derived VEGF to a level where rapamycin can effectively suppress the response in vascular endothelial cells.
PMCID: PMC3003871  PMID: 19789339
11.  A phase I, open-label dose-escalation study of continuous treatment with BIBF 1120 in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer 
Annals of Oncology  2012;23(8):2094-2102.
BIBF 1120 is an oral potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, the three key receptor families involved in angiogenesis. This phase I, open-label dose-escalation study investigated BIBF 1120 combined with paclitaxel (Taxol) and carboplatin in first-line patients with advanced (IIIB/IV) non-small-cell lung cancer.
Patients and methods
Patients received BIBF 1120 (starting dose 50 mg b.i.d.) on days 2–21 and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin [area under curve (AUC) = 6 mg/ml/min] on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Primary end points were safety and BIBF 1120 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in this combination. Pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles were evaluated.
Twenty-six patients were treated (BIBF 1120 50–250 mg b.i.d.). BIBF 1120 MTD was 200 mg b.i.d. in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Six dose-limiting toxicity events occurred during treatment cycle 1 (liver enzyme elevations, thrombocytopenia, abdominal pain, and rash). Best responses included 7 confirmed partial responses (26.9 % ); 10 patients had stable disease. BIBF 1120 200 mg b.i.d. had no clinically relevant influence on the PK of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 6 mg/ml/min and vice versa.
BIBF 1120 MTD was 200 mg b.i.d when given with paclitaxel and carboplatin; this combination demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. No relevant changes in PK parameters of the backbone chemotherapeutic agents or BIBF 1120 were observed.
PMCID: PMC4141207  PMID: 22345119
angiogenesis; BIBF 1120; chemotherapy; NSCLC; pharmacokinetics; phase I
12.  A phase I trial of dasatinib, a Src-family kinase Inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced or recurrent ovarian cancer 
We conducted a phase I study of dasatinib, an oral SRC-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in advanced and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
Experimental Design
The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary objectives included defining toxicity, response rate (RR), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Using a “3+3” design, cohorts of 3–6 patients received paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and carboplatin (AUC 6) every three weeks with escalating doses of dasatinib (100, 120, 150 mg daily), followed by an 8 patient expansion cohort.
Twenty patients were enrolled between 06/07 and 12/09. The median age was 61 years (42–82) with a median of 2 prior regimens (0–6), and 71% had platinum-sensitive disease. There were 3–6 patients in each cohort, and 8 in the expansion cohort. Pharmacokinetics were observed over the first 2 cycles of therapy. One DLT was observed in the 100 mg dasatinib cohort (grade 3 myalgia). Other toxicities in all cycles included neutropenia (95% grade 3–4; 91% in the 150 mg dosing cohort), thrombocytopenia (35% grade 3–4), and fatigue (10% grade 3). The RR was 40% (3 complete responses, (15%); 5 partial responses, (25%)),10 (50%) had stable disease, and 2 were not evaluable. The PFS6-month actuarial estimate was 86%. The median PFS and OS were 7.8 and 16.2 months, respectively.
Due to the high incidence of myelosuppression with subsequent cycles the recommended phase II dose of dasatinib is 150 mg daily in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin. The combination was safe with evidence of clinical activity.
PMCID: PMC3463759  PMID: 22837181
dasatinib; chemotherapy; ovarian cancer
13.  A Phase I Trial and In Vitro Studies Combining ABT-751 with Carboplatin in Previously Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients 
Chemotherapy  2012;58(4):321-329.
ABT-751 is a novel antimitotic agent that confers cytotoxic effects in pre-clinical studies. Carboplatin has efficacy in treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with other drugs.
Lung cancer cell lines were treated with ABT-751 and/or carboplatin to investigate their impact on cell growth. Phase I study with an expansion cohort was conducted in previously treated NSCLC patients. The primary objective was the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), secondary objectives were objective response rates, median survival, time to tumor progression (TTP), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacodynamic evaluation of buccal swabs.
Combining ABT-751 with carboplatin significantly reduced growth and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines. Twenty advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled. MTD was ABT-751 125 mg orally twice daily for 7 days with carboplatin AUC 6. DLTs included fatigue, ileus, neutropenia and pneumonitis. Two patients had confirmed partial responses. Median overall survival was 11.7 months (95% CI 5.9–27.0). TTP was 2.8 months (95% CI 2.0–2.7). Four of 6 patients showed decreased cyclin D1 protein in post-treatment versus pre-treatment buccal swabs.
Combining ABT-751 with carboplatin suppressed growth of lung cancer cell lines and had modest clinical anti-tumor activity in advanced NSCLC previously treated predominantly with carboplatin. Further studies of this combination are not recommended while investigations of biomarkers in different patient populations, alternative schedules and combinations may be pursued.
PMCID: PMC3570826  PMID: 23147218
ABT-751; carboplatin; phase I clinical trial; non-small cell lung cancer
14.  Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of sorafenib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer 
Investigational New Drugs  2009;28(6):844-853.
Objectives Unsatisfactory efficacy of current treatments for advanced lung cancer has prompted the search for new therapies, with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, being one candidate drug. This phase I trial was conducted to evaluate drug safety and pharmacokinetics as well as tumor response of sorafenib in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Eligible patients received paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC]of 6 mg min mL−1) on day 1 and sorafenib (400 mg, twice daily) on days 2 through 19 of a 21-day cycle. Results Four of the initial six patients (cohort 1) experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), resulting in amendment of the treatment protocol. An additional seven patients (cohort 2) were enrolled, two of whom developed DLTs. DLTs included erythema multiforme, hand-foot skin reaction, and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase in cohort 1 as well as gastrointestinal perforation at a site of metastasis and pneumonia in cohort 2. Most adverse events were manageable. One complete and six partial responses were observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Coadministration of the three drugs had no impact on their respective pharmacokinetics. Conclusion The present study confirmed that sorafenib at 400 mg once daily in combination with carboplatin AUC 5 mg min mL−1 and paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 is feasible in Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC. The results of this study also showed that this combination therapy had encouraging antitumor activity and was not associated with relevant pharmacokinetic interaction in Japanese NSCLC patients.
PMCID: PMC2955234  PMID: 19760364
Carboplatin; Lung cancer; Paclitaxel; Pharmacokinetics; Safety; Sorafenib
15.  Pre-treatment levels of circulating free IGF-1 identify NSCLC patients who derive clinical benefit from figitumumab 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;104(1):68-74.
Phase III trials of the anti-insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) antibody figitumumab (F) in unselected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were recently discontinued owing to futility. Here, we investigated a role of free IGF-1 (fIGF-1) as a potential predictive biomarker of clinical benefit from F treatment.
Materials and method:
Pre-treatment circulating levels of fIGF-1 were tested in 110 advanced NSCLC patients enrolled in a phase II study of paclitaxel and carboplatin given alone (PC) or in combination with F at doses of 10 or 20 mg kg−1 (PCF10, PCF20).
Cox proportional hazards model interactions were between 2.5 and 3.5 for fIGF-1 criteria in the 0.5–0.9 ng ml−1 range. Patients above each criterion had a substantial improvement in progression-free survival on PCF20 related to PC alone. Free IGF-1 correlated inversely with IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1, ρ=−0.295, P=0.005), and the pre-treatment ratio of insulin to IGFBP-1 was also predictive of F clinical benefit. In addition, fIGF-1 levels correlated with tumour vimentin expression (ρ=0.594, P=0.021) and inversely with E-cadherin (ρ=–0.389, P=0.152), suggesting a role for fIGF-1 in tumour de-differentiation.
Free IGF-1 may contribute to the identification of a subset of NSCLC patients who benefit from F therapy.
PMCID: PMC3039819  PMID: 21102589
IGF-IR; IGF-1; figitumumab; NSCLC
16.  Phase 1 study of lenvatinib combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;109(3):538-544.
This dose-finding study evaluated lenvatinib, an oral multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with carboplatin/paclitaxel in chemotherapy-naïve non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Patients and Methods:
Patients received lenvatinib twice daily (BID) with carboplatin (area under the curve 6 mg ml−1 min−1, day 1)/paclitaxel (200 mg m−2, day 1) every 3 weeks. The initial dose of lenvatinib was 6 mg BID. The primary end point was maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenvatinib. At the MTD, the cohort was expanded by 16 patients. Safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor effects were evaluated.
Twenty-eight patients were treated. At 6 mg BID, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included febrile neutropenia/gingival infection (n=2). No DLTs occurred with 4 mg BID, the recommended MTD for the expansion. Common grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia, leukopenia, hypertension, and thrombocytopenia. The combination had no significant impact on individual drug pharmacokinetics. Response rate and median progression-free survival were 68% and 9.0 months, respectively, with 4 mg BID. In the plasma biomarker analysis, stromal cell-derived factor 1α, stem cell factor, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor correlated with antitumor activity.
The MTD for lenvatinib with carboplatin/paclitaxel is 4 mg BID in advanced NSCLC patients. This regimen demonstrated manageable tolerability and encouraging antitumor activity.
PMCID: PMC3738144  PMID: 23860537
angiogenesis inhibitor; carboplatin; lenvatinib; lung cancer; paclitaxel; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
17.  nab-Paclitaxel in Combination With Weekly Carboplatin With Concurrent Radiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
The Oncologist  2015;20(5):491-492.
Lessons Learned
The concomitant use of weekly nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin with concurrent radiotherapy was demonstrated to be a safe therapeutic approach in this phase I trial of 10 evaluable patients with stage III NSCLC.
Despite the lack of systemic glucocorticoids, there were no reported infusion reactions or cases of peripheral neuropathy in this trial, both of which are known to occur with the use of paclitaxel.
Unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a 5-year survival rate of 20%, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy results in significant toxicity with the use of current chemotherapeutic agents. nab-Paclitaxel was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 2012 for use along with carboplatin in advanced NSCLC. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of weekly nab-paclitaxel given in combination with carboplatin and concurrent radiotherapy in patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC.
Escalating doses of once-weekly nab-paclitaxel were given along with once-weekly carboplatin area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) of 2 and concurrent radiotherapy 66 Gy in 33 fractions, followed by 2 cycles of carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel consolidation chemotherapy.
Eleven patients were enrolled and received treatment per protocol, with 10 evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. At dose level 1 (nab-paclitaxel 60 mg/m2), 2 DLTs were observed: esophagitis and radiation dermatitis. Six patients were enrolled at dose level 0 (nab-paclitaxel 40 mg/m2) with no DLTs. Nine of 10 evaluable patients had a partial response.
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with nab-paclitaxel 40 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 2 is a safe and well-tolerated therapeutic regimen in patients with stage III NSCLC. A separate phase I/II study to evaluate the efficacy of this regimen is under way.
PMCID: PMC4425395  PMID: 25845992
18.  Randomized phase I pharmacokinetic study of ipilimumab with or without one of two different chemotherapy regimens in patients with untreated advanced melanoma 
Cancer Immunity  2013;13:7.
We describe a randomized three-arm phase I study of ipilimumab administered alone (I group) or in combination with dacarbazine (D group) or carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP group) in patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma. The primary objective was to estimate the effect of ipilimumab on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dacarbazine and paclitaxel and, conversely, to estimate the effects of dacarbazine and carboplatin/paclitaxel on the PK of ipilimumab. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the safety and anti-tumor activity of ipilimumab when administered alone or with either dacarbazine or carboplatin/paclitaxel, and assessment of pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of ipilimumab on the immune system when administered alone or with either of the two chemotherapies. Ipilimumab was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg intravenously (IV) every 3 weeks for up to 4 doses. Patients in the D group received dacarbazine 850 mg/m2 IV every 3 weeks. Patients in the CP group received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin [AUC=6] IV every 3 weeks. Starting at week 24, patients without dose-limiting toxicities were eligible to receive maintenance ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg every 12 weeks until disease progressed or toxicity required discontinuation. Of 59 randomized patients, 18 (30.5%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Response rates by modified WHO criteria were 29.4% (I group), 27.8% (D group), and 11.1% (CP group). No major PK or PD interactions were observed when ipilimumab was administered with dacarbazine or with the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination. This study demonstrated that ipilimumab can be combined safely with two chemotherapy regimens commonly used in advanced melanoma.
PMCID: PMC3700777  PMID: 23833564
pharmacokinetics; chemotherapy; T cell; antibody; immunotherapy
19.  A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess the feasibility of intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study☆,☆☆,★ 
Gynecologic oncology  2011;125(1):54-58.
To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) paclitaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin, and IP paclitaxel in women with newly diagnosed Stages II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma.
Patients received escalating doses of paclitaxel IV and carboplatin IP on day 1 and paclitaxel IP 60 mg/m2 on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the escalation phase. A two-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Patient-reported neurotoxicity was assessed pre and post treatment.
Patients were treated with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin IP from AUC 5–7 on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. The MTD was estimated at carboplatin AUC 6 IP and 25 patients enrolled at this dose level. Within the first 4 cycles, seven (35%) of twenty evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 3 neutropenic fever (3), >2 week delay due to ANC recovery (1), grade 3 LFT (1), and grade 3 infection (1). De-escalation to paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV was given to improve the safety. After six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles without a DLT, bevacizumab was added and six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles with one DLT (grade 3 hyponatremia).
Paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP day 8 yield 18–56% patients with DLTs. The tolerability of the regimen in combination with bevacizumab was indicated in a small cohort.
PMCID: PMC3670678  PMID: 22155262
Phase I trial; Intraperitoneal chemotherapy; Carboplatin; Paclitaxel; Ovarian cancer
20.  Safety and pharmacology of paclitaxel in patients with impaired liver function: a population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic study 
What is already known about this subjectThere are few data about the safety of paclitaxel in patients with clinically significant liver impairment. A study by Venook and colleagues (J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 1811–19) studied paclitaxel pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in patients with liver impairment. The results were mainly descriptive, as detailed PK–PD data were available for only a subgroup of patients.Another study by Wilson and colleagues found a correlation between tumour involvement of the liver, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin concentrations and reduced paclitaxel clearance in 48 patients with advanced breast cancer in an early combined Phase I/II study (J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 1621–9).Finally, the study by Huizing and colleagues (Ann Oncol 1995; 6: 699–704) described two advanced breast cancer patients with liver impairment who experienced higher paclitaxel AUC concentrations and more severe neuropathywhen exposed to paclitaxel 250 mg m−2 as a 3-h infusion.Liver impairment has been studied as a covariate within population models of paclitaxel in patients with normal or mildly impaired liver function (Henningsson et al. Eur JCancer 2003; 39: 1105–14; Joerger et al. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12: 2150–7). Both studies found a negative correlation between total bilirubin concentrations and paclitaxel elimination.What this study addsA direct relationship between liver impairment, paclitaxel elimination and susceptibility to neutropenia/thrombopenia.As a result of PK–PD simulations, suggestions could be made for (further) dose adaptations for patients with more severe liver impairment.
To assess quantitatively the safety and pharmacology of paclitaxel in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment.
Solid tumour patients were enrolled into five liver function cohorts as defined by liver transaminase and total bilirubin concentrations. Paclitaxel was administered as a 3-h intravenous infusion at doses ranging from 110 to 175 mg m−2, depending on liver impairment. Covariate and semimechanistic pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) population modelling was used to describe the impact of liver impairment on the pharmacology and safety of paclitaxel.
Thirty-five patients were included in the study, and PK data were assessed for 59 treatment courses. Most patients had advanced breast cancer (n = 22). Objective responses to paclitaxel were seen in four patients (11%). Patients in higher categories of liver impairment had a significantly lower paclitaxel elimination capacity (R2 = −0.38, P = 0.05), and total bilirubin was a significant covariate to predict decreased elimination capacity with population modelling (P = 0.002). Total bilirubin was also a significant predictor of increased haematological toxicity within the integrated population PK–PD model (P < 10−4). Data simulations were used to calculate safe initial paclitaxel doses, which were lower than the administered doses for liver impairment cohorts III–V.
Total bilirubin is a good predictor of paclitaxel elimination capacity and of individual susceptibility to paclitaxel-related myelosuppression in cancer patients with moderate to severe liver impairment. The proposed, adapted paclitaxel doses need validation in prospective trials.
PMCID: PMC2203269  PMID: 17935602
drug safety; liver impairment; paclitaxel; pharmacokinetics; population analysis
21.  A Phase I Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Correlative Study of the Antisense Bcl-2 Oligonucleotide G3139, in Combination with Carboplatin and Paclitaxel, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors 
This phase I trial assessed the safety and tolerability of G3139 when administered in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. The effect of G3139 treatment on Bcl-2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and paired tumor biopsies was also determined.
Experimental Design
Patients with advanced solid malignancies received various doses of G3139 (continuous i.v. infusion days 1–7), carboplatin (day 4), and paclitaxel (day 4), repeated in 3-week cycles, in a standard cohort-of-three dose-escalation schema. Changes in Bcl-2/Bax transcription/expression were assessed at baseline and day 4 (pre-chemotherapy) in both PBMCs and paired tumor biopsies. The pharmacokinetic interactions between G3139 and carboplatin/paclitaxel were measured.
Forty-two patients were evaluable for safety analysis. Primary toxicities were hematological (myelosuppression and thrombocytopenia). Dose-escalation was stopped with G3139 at 7 mg/kg/day, carboplatin at AUC 6, and paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 due to significant neutropenia seen in cycle 1, and safety concerns in further escalating chemotherapy in this phase I population. With G3139 at 7 mg/kg/day, 13 patients underwent planned tumor biopsies, of which 12 matched pairs were obtained. Quantitative increases in intratumoral G3139 with decreases in intratumoral Bcl-2 gene expression were seen. This paralleled a decrease in Bcl-2 protein expression observed in PBMCs.
Although the MTD was not reached, the observed toxicities were consistent with what one would expect from carboplatin and paclitaxel alone. In addition, we show that achievable intratumoral G3139 concentrations can result in Bcl-2 down-regulation in solid tumors and PBMCs.
PMCID: PMC2950700  PMID: 18451239
22.  Phase I and pharmacokinetic trial of carboplatin and albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007 (Abraxane®) on three treatment schedules in patients with solid tumors 
Albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007 (Abraxane ®), has a different toxicity profile than solvent-based paclitaxel, including a lower rate of severe neutropenia. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin may have significant activity in a variety of tumor types including non-small and small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ABI-007, on three different schedules in combination with carboplatin.
Forty-one patients with solid tumors were enrolled, and received ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin AUC of 6 on day 1. Group A received ABI-007 at doses ranging from 220 to 340 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days; group B received ABI-007 at 100 or 125 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days; and group C received ABI-007 125 or 150 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed after the first cycle. Doses were escalated in cohorts of three to six patients. Fifteen patients participated in a pharmacokinetic study investigating the effects of the sequence of infusion. ABI-007 was infused first followed by carboplatin in cycle 1, and vice versa in cycle 2.
The MTD of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin was 300, 100, and 125 mg/m2 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Myelosuppression was the primary dose limiting toxicity. No unexpected or new toxicities were reported. Sequence of infusion did not affect either the pharmacokinetics of ABI-007 or the degree of neutropenia. Responses were seen in melanoma, lung, bladder, esophageal, pancreatic, breast cancer, and cancer of unknown primary.
The recommended dose for phase II studies of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin (AUC of 6) is 300, 100, 125 mg/m2 for the schedules A, B, and C, respectively. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin is well tolerated and active in this heavily pretreated patient population.
PMCID: PMC2860386  PMID: 17285317
Dose-limiting toxicity; Maximum tolerated dose; Melanoma; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Small-cell lung cancer; Clinical trial
23.  Phase I study of the CD40 agonist antibody CP-870,893 combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors 
Oncoimmunology  2013;2(1):e23033.
CD40 is a cell-surface molecule that critically regulates immune responses. CP-870,893 is a fully human, CD40-specific agonist monoclonal antibody (mAb) exerting clinical antineoplastic activity. Here, the safety of CP-870,893 combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel was assessed in a Phase I study. Patients with advanced solid tumors received standard doses of paclitaxel and carboplatin on day 1 followed by either 0.1 mg/Kg or 0.2 mg/Kg CP-870,893 on day 3 (Schedule A) or day 8 (Schedule B), repeated every 21 d. The primary objective was to determine safety and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of CP-870,893. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of antitumor responses, pharmacokinetics and immune modulation. Thirty-two patients were treated with CP-870,893, 16 patients on each schedule. Two dose-limiting toxicities were observed (grade 3 cytokine release and transient ischemic attack), each at the 0.2 mg/Kg dose level, which was estimated to be the MTD. The most common treatment-related adverse event was fatigue (81%). Of 30 evaluable patients, 6 (20%) exhibited partial responses constituting best responses as defined by RECIST. Following CP-870,893 infusion, the peripheral blood manifested an acute depletion of B cells associated with upregulation of immune co-stimulatory molecules. T-cell numbers did not change significantly from baseline, but transient tumor-specific T-cell responses were observed in a small number of evaluable patients. The CD40 agonist mAb CP-870,893, given on either of two schedules in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin, was safe for patients affected with advanced solid tumors. Biological and clinical responses were observed, providing a rationale for Phase II studies.
PMCID: PMC3583942  PMID: 23483678
CD40; chemotherapy; clinical trial; CP-870,893; monoclonal antibody; T cells
24.  A clinical and pharmacokinetic study of the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel for epithelial ovarian cancer. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;75(2):287-294.
The aim of this phase I study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a 3-h infusion of paclitaxel, combined with carboplatin at a fixed AUC of 7 mg ml-1 min every 4 weeks for up to six cycles and to evaluate any possible pharmacokinetic interaction. Twelve chemonaive patients with ovarian cancer were treated with paclitaxel followed by a 30-min infusion of carboplatin. Paclitaxel dose was escalated from 150 mg m-2 to 225 mg m-2 in cohorts of three patients. Carboplatin dose was based on renal function. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in nine patients (at least two at each dose level). A total of 66 courses were evaluable for assessment. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was seen in 70% of the courses, however hospitalization was not required. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 24% of the courses. Alopecia, myalgia and peripheral neuropathy were common but rarely severe. The pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel was non-linear and did not appear to be influenced by co-administration of carboplatin. The AUC of carboplatin was 7.0 +/- 1.4 mg ml-1 min, indicating that there was no pharmacokinetic interaction. The combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel may be administered as first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. Although myelosuppression is the dose-limiting toxicity of the component drugs, the severity of thrombocytopenia was less than anticipated. The results of this study, with only a small number of patients, need to be confirmed in future investigations.
PMCID: PMC2063279  PMID: 9010040
25.  Randomised phase II study of ASA404 combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel in previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;99(12):2006-2012.
ASA404 (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid or DMXAA) is a small-molecule tumour-vascular disrupting agent (Tumour-VDA). This randomised phase II study evaluated ASA404 plus standard therapy of carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with histologically confirmed stage IIIb or IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not previously treated with chemotherapy. Patients were randomised to receive ⩽6 cycles of carboplatin area under the plasma concentration–time curve 6 mg ml−1 min and paclitaxel 175 mg m−2 (CP, n=36) or standard therapy plus ASA404 1200 mg m−2 (ASA404-CP, n=37). There was little change in the systemic exposure of either total or free carboplatin or paclitaxel on addition of ASA404. Safety profiles were similar and manageable in both groups, with most adverse effects attributed to standard therapy. Tumour response rate (31 vs 22%), median time to tumour progression (5.4 vs 4.4 months) and median survival (14.0 vs 8.8 months, hazard ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.39, 1.38) were improved in the ASA404 combination group compared with the standard therapy group. In conclusion, this study establishes the feasibility of combining ASA404 with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated, advanced NSCLC, demonstrating a manageable safety profile and lack of adverse pharmacokinetic interactions. The results indicate that there may be a benefit associated with ASA404, but this needs to be evaluated in a larger trial.
PMCID: PMC2607218  PMID: 19078952
ASA404; AS1404; DMXAA; VDA; tumour-VDA; non-small cell lung cancer

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