Objectives The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous tumor types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Figitumumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody against IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Methods This phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00603538) assessed the safety and tolerability of figitumumab (6, 10 and 20 mg/kg) in combination with carboplatin (area under the curve: 6 mg·min/mL) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) in Japanese patients (N = 19) with chemotherapy-naïve, advanced NSCLC. Treatments were administered intravenously on day 1 of a 21-day cycle for four to six cycles. Pharmacokinetics, biomarkers, and antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results Figitumumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel was well tolerated at doses up to 20 mg/kg; no dose-limiting toxicities were observed at this dose level. When given in combination, figitumumab plasma exposure increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. The approximate 2-fold accumulation following repeated administration supported the 21-day regimen as appropriate for figitumumab administration. Serum total IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations increased following figitumumab dosing, but a clear dose-dependent relationship was not demonstrated. Seven of 18 evaluable patients experienced a partial response. Conclusions Figitumumab 20 mg/kg in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel was well tolerated in chemotherapy-naïve Japanese patients with NSCLC. Further analysis of biomarker data is necessary for the development of figitumumab therapy.
Carboplatin; Figitumumab; Non-small cell lung cancer; Paclitaxel
This phase Ib trial assessed safety, tolerability, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of figitumumab (CP-751,871), a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR), in combination with docetaxel.
Patients with advanced solid tumours were treated with escalating dose levels of figitumumab plus 75 mg m–2 docetaxel every 21 days. Safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and biomarker responses were evaluated.
In 46 patients, no dose-limiting toxicities were attributable to the treatment combination. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included neutropaenia (n=28), febrile neutropaenia (n=11), fatigue (n=10), leukopaenia (n=7), diarrhoea (n=5), hyperglycaemia, lymphopaenia, cellulitis, DVT, and pain (all n=1). The MTD was not reached. Four partial responses were observed; 12 patients had disease stabilisation of ⩾6 months. Pharmacokinetic and biomarker analyses showed a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure, and complete sIGF-IR downregulation at doses of ⩾3 mg kg–1. Pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in combination was similar to when given alone. Out of 18 castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, 10 (56%) had ⩾5 circulating tumour cells (CTCs) per 7.5 ml of blood at baseline: 6 out of 10 (60%) had a decline from ⩾5 to <5 CTCs and 9 out of 10 (90%) had a ⩾30% decline in CTCs after therapy.
Figitumumab and docetaxel in combination are well tolerated. Further evaluation is warranted.
figitumumab (CP-751,871); insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR); chemosensitisation; monoclonal antibody; docetaxel
Figitumumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth-factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Preclinical data suggest a dependence on insulin-like growth-factor signalling for sarcoma subtypes, including Ewing’s sarcoma, and early reports show antitumour activity of IGF-1R-targeting drugs in these diseases.
Between January, 2006, and August, 2008, patients with refractory, advanced sarcomas received figitumumab (20 mg/kg) in two single-stage expansion cohorts within a solid-tumour phase 1 trial. The first cohort (n=15) included patients with multiple sarcoma subtypes, age 18 years or older, and the second cohort (n=14) consisted of patients with refractory Ewing’s sarcoma, age 9 years or older. The primary endpoint was to assess the safety and tolerability of figitumumab. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic profiling and preliminary antitumour activity (best response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours [RECIST]) in evaluable patients who received at least one dose of medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00474760.
29 patients, 16 of whom had Ewing’s sarcoma, were enrolled and received a total of 177 cycles of treatment (median 2, mean 6·1, range 1–24). Grade 3 deep venous thrombosis, grade 3 back pain, and grade 3 vomiting were each noted once in individual patients; one patient had grade 3 increases in aspartate aminotransferase and gammaglutamyltransferase concentrations. This patient also had grade 4 increases in alanine aminotransferase concentrations. The only other grade 4 adverse event was raised concentrations of uric acid, noted in one patient. Pharmacokinetics were comparable between patients with sarcoma and those with other solid tumours. 28 patients were assessed for response; two patients, both with Ewing’s sarcoma, had objective responses (one complete response and one partial response) and eight patients had disease stabilisation (six with Ewing’s sarcoma, one with synovial sarcoma, and one with fibrosarcoma) lasting 4 months or longer.
Figitumumab is well tolerated and has antitumour activity in Ewing’s sarcoma, warranting further investigation in this disease.
Pfizer Global Research and Development.
This phase I dose-finding trial evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, combined with platinum doublets in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other solid tumours.
In all, 49 patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) with paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin in 3-week cycles. Following determination of the maximum tolerated dose, a squamous cell NSCLC expansion cohort was enroled and received axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. with paclitaxel/carboplatin.
Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: febrile neutropenia (n=1) in the paclitaxel/carboplatin cohort and fatigue (n=1) in the gemcitabine/cisplatin cohort. Common nonhaematologic treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (36.7%), diarrhoea (34.7%) and fatigue (28.6%). No grade⩾3 haemoptysis occurred among 12 patients with squamous cell NSCLC. The objective response rate was 37.0% for patients receiving axitinib/paclitaxel/carboplatin (n=27) and 23.8% for patients receiving axitinib/gemcitabine/cisplatin (n=21). Pharmacokinetics of axitinib and chemotherapeutic agents were similar when administered alone or in combination.
Axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. may be combined with standard paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin regimens without evidence of overt drug–drug interactions. Both combinations demonstrated clinical efficacy and were well tolerated.
axitinib; chemotherapy; pharmacokinetics; solid tumours; non-small cell lung cancer
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling through upregulation of the stimulatory ligand IGF-II has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma. As there is a paucity of effective therapies, this dose expansion cohort of a phase 1 study was undertaken to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects on endocrine markers of figitumumab in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
Figitumumab was administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle at the maximal feasible dose (20 mg/kg) to a cohort of patients with metastatic, refractory adrenocortical carcinoma. Serum glucose, insulin, and growth hormone were measured pre-study, at cycle 4 and study end. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed during cycles 1 and 4.
Fourteen patients with adrenocortical carcinoma received 50 cycles of figitumumab at the 20 mg/kg. Treatment- related toxicities were generally mild and included hyperglycemia, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia. Single episodes of grade 4 hyperuricemia, proteinuria, and elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Pharmacokinetics of figitumumab was comparable to patients with solid tumors other than adrenocortical carcinoma. Treatment with figitumumab increased serum insulin and growth hormone levels. Eight of 14 patients (57%) had stable disease.
The side effect profile and pharmacokinetics of figitumumab were similar in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in comparison to patients with other solid tumors. While hyperglycemia was the most common adverse event, no clear patterns predicting severity were observed. The majority of patients receiving protocol therapy with single agent figitumumab experienced stability of disease, warranting further evaluation.
IGF-1R; Adrenocortical carcinoma; Monoclonal antibody; CP-751,871; Figitumumab
The aim of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose limiting toxicities (DLTs), and determine the phase II dose for the combination of irinotecan-carboplatin-paclitaxel given as induction chemotherapy and with concomitant chest radiotherapy for patients with Stage III non-small cell lung cancer.
Patients with Cancer and Leukemia Group B performance status of 0 to 2, stage IIIA and IIIB NSCLC patients with resectable or unresectable disease were treated with induction chemotherapy (irinotecan 100 mg/m2, carboplatin AUC 5, and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 days 1 and 22) followed by concomitant chemotherapy (irinotecan, carboplatin, and paclitaxel) and chest radiotherapy (66 Gy for unresectable and 50 Gy for resectable disease) beginning on week 7. The primary objective was to escalate the dose of irinotecan during chemoradiation in sequential cohorts to determine the DLT and MTD of the regimen.
Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (median age 63 years, 57% male, 41% performance status 0, 30% resectable). Induction chemotherapy was tolerable and active (response rate 26%; stable disease 60%). Eight patients did not receive concurrent chemoradiotherapy because of progressive disease (5), death (1), hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel (1), and withdrawal of consent (1). Twenty-nine patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The concomitant administration of chest radiotherapy with weekly irinotecan, carboplatin, and paclitaxel was not feasible at the first, second, and third dose levels. DLT was failure to achieve recovery to ≤ grade 1 absolute neutrophil count by the day of scheduled chemotherapy administration. Dose de-escalation to irinotecan 30 mg/m2, paclitaxel 40 mg/m2 (with omission of carboplatin) delivered on weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 of radiotherapy was the MTD. After induction chemotherapy, partial responses, stable disease, and progressive disease was observed in 26%, 60%, and 14% of patients, respectively. After chemoradiotherapy, partial responses were attained in 16 (55%) patients, whereas 12 patients (41%) attained disease stabilization. Median overall survival was 21 months for the entire cohort. Resectable patients had a median survival of 24 months, whereas unresectable patients had a median survival of 19 months. Differences in overall and progression-free survival rates between resectable and unresectable patients was not statistically significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.90, respectively).
Carboplatin, paclitaxel, and irinotecan with concurrent chemoradiotherapy was poorly tolerated as a result of neutropenia. Although dose de-escalation was required for delivery of the regimen, the response rates and survival outcomes were comparable to other similar regimens.
Non-small cell lung cancer; Irinotecan; Radiation therapy; Multimodality therapy
Identification of predictive biomarkers is essential for the successful development of targeted therapy. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) has been examined as a potential therapeutic target for various cancers. However, recent clinical trials showed that anti-IGF1R antibody and chemotherapy are not effective for treating lung cancer.
In order to define biomarkers for predicting successful IGF1R targeted therapy, we evaluated the anti-proliferation effect of figitumumab (CP-751,871), a humanized anti-IGF1R antibody, against nine gastric and eight hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Out of 17 cancer cell lines, figitumumab effectively inhibited the growth of three cell lines (SNU719, HepG2, and SNU368), decreased p-AKT and p-STAT3 levels, and induced G 1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, these cells showed co-overexpression and altered mobility of the IGF1R and insulin receptor (IR). Immunoprecipitaion (IP) assays and ELISA confirmed the presence of IGF1R/IR heterodimeric receptors in figitumumab-sensitive cells. Treatment with figitumumab led to the dissociation of IGF1-dependent heterodimeric receptors and inhibited tumor growth with decreased levels of heterodimeric receptors in a mouse xenograft model. We next found that both IGF1R and IR were N-linked glyosylated in figitumumab-sensitive cells. In particular, mass spectrometry showed that IGF1R had N-linked glycans at N913 in three figitumumab-sensitive cell lines. We observed that an absence of N-linked glycosylation at N913 led to a lack of membranous localization of IGF1R and figitumumab insensitivity.
Conclusion and Significance
The data suggest that the level of N-linked glycosylated IGF1R/IR heterodimeric receptor is highly associated with sensitivity to anti-IGF1R antibody in cancer cells.
We conducted a phase I study of dasatinib, an oral SRC-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in advanced and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary objectives included defining toxicity, response rate (RR), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Using a “3+3” design, cohorts of 3–6 patients received paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and carboplatin (AUC 6) every three weeks with escalating doses of dasatinib (100, 120, 150 mg daily), followed by an 8 patient expansion cohort.
Twenty patients were enrolled between 06/07 and 12/09. The median age was 61 years (42–82) with a median of 2 prior regimens (0–6), and 71% had platinum-sensitive disease. There were 3–6 patients in each cohort, and 8 in the expansion cohort. Pharmacokinetics were observed over the first 2 cycles of therapy. One DLT was observed in the 100 mg dasatinib cohort (grade 3 myalgia). Other toxicities in all cycles included neutropenia (95% grade 3–4; 91% in the 150 mg dosing cohort), thrombocytopenia (35% grade 3–4), and fatigue (10% grade 3). The RR was 40% (3 complete responses, (15%); 5 partial responses, (25%)),10 (50%) had stable disease, and 2 were not evaluable. The PFS6-month actuarial estimate was 86%. The median PFS and OS were 7.8 and 16.2 months, respectively.
Due to the high incidence of myelosuppression with subsequent cycles the recommended phase II dose of dasatinib is 150 mg daily in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin. The combination was safe with evidence of clinical activity.
dasatinib; chemotherapy; ovarian cancer
BIBF 1120 is an oral potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, the three key receptor families involved in angiogenesis. This phase I, open-label dose-escalation study investigated BIBF 1120 combined with paclitaxel (Taxol) and carboplatin in first-line patients with advanced (IIIB/IV) non-small-cell lung cancer.
Patients and methods
Patients received BIBF 1120 (starting dose 50 mg b.i.d.) on days 2–21 and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin [area under curve (AUC) = 6 mg/ml/min] on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Primary end points were safety and BIBF 1120 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in this combination. Pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles were evaluated.
Twenty-six patients were treated (BIBF 1120 50–250 mg b.i.d.). BIBF 1120 MTD was 200 mg b.i.d. in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Six dose-limiting toxicity events occurred during treatment cycle 1 (liver enzyme elevations, thrombocytopenia, abdominal pain, and rash). Best responses included 7 confirmed partial responses (26.9 % ); 10 patients had stable disease. BIBF 1120 200 mg b.i.d. had no clinically relevant influence on the PK of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 6 mg/ml/min and vice versa.
BIBF 1120 MTD was 200 mg b.i.d when given with paclitaxel and carboplatin; this combination demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. No relevant changes in PK parameters of the backbone chemotherapeutic agents or BIBF 1120 were observed.
angiogenesis; BIBF 1120; chemotherapy; NSCLC; pharmacokinetics; phase I
Signaling through the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) occurs in many human cancers, including childhood sarcomas. As a consequence, targeting the IGF-1R has become a focus for cancer drug development. We examined the antitumor activity of CP-751,871, a human antibody that blocks IGF-1R ligand binding, alone and in combination with rapamycin against sarcoma cell lines in vitro and xenograft models in vivo. In Ewing sarcoma (EWS) cell lines CP751,871 inhibited growth poorly (<50%), but prevented rapamycin-induced hyperphosphorylation of AKT(Ser473) and induced greater than additive apoptosis. Rapamycin treatment also increased secretion of IGF-1 resulting in phosphorylation of IGF-1R (Tyr1136) that was blocked by CP751,871. In vivo CP-751,871, rapamycin or the combination waere evaluated against EWS, osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts. CP751871 induced significant growth inhibition (EFS(T/C) >2) in four models. Rapamycin induced significant growth inhibition (EFS(T/C) >2) in nine models. Although neither agent given alone caused tumor regressions. in combination these agents had greater than additive activity against 5/13 xenografts and induced complete remissions (CR) in one model each of rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, and in three of four osteosarcoma models. CP751,871 caused complete IGF-1R downregulation, suppression of AKT phosphorylation and dramatically suppressed tumor-derived VEGF in some sarcoma xenografts. Rapamycin treatment did not markedly suppress VEGF in tumors and synergized only in tumor lines where VEGF was dramatically inhibited by CP751,871. These data suggest a model in which blockade of IGF-1R suppresses tumor-derived VEGF to a level where rapamycin can effectively suppress the response in vascular endothelial cells.
ABT-751 is a novel antimitotic agent that confers cytotoxic effects in pre-clinical studies. Carboplatin has efficacy in treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with other drugs.
Lung cancer cell lines were treated with ABT-751 and/or carboplatin to investigate their impact on cell growth. Phase I study with an expansion cohort was conducted in previously treated NSCLC patients. The primary objective was the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), secondary objectives were objective response rates, median survival, time to tumor progression (TTP), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacodynamic evaluation of buccal swabs.
Combining ABT-751 with carboplatin significantly reduced growth and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines. Twenty advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled. MTD was ABT-751 125 mg orally twice daily for 7 days with carboplatin AUC 6. DLTs included fatigue, ileus, neutropenia and pneumonitis. Two patients had confirmed partial responses. Median overall survival was 11.7 months (95% CI 5.9–27.0). TTP was 2.8 months (95% CI 2.0–2.7). Four of 6 patients showed decreased cyclin D1 protein in post-treatment versus pre-treatment buccal swabs.
Combining ABT-751 with carboplatin suppressed growth of lung cancer cell lines and had modest clinical anti-tumor activity in advanced NSCLC previously treated predominantly with carboplatin. Further studies of this combination are not recommended while investigations of biomarkers in different patient populations, alternative schedules and combinations may be pursued.
ABT-751; carboplatin; phase I clinical trial; non-small cell lung cancer
Objectives Unsatisfactory efficacy of current treatments for advanced lung cancer has prompted the search for new therapies, with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, being one candidate drug. This phase I trial was conducted to evaluate drug safety and pharmacokinetics as well as tumor response of sorafenib in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Eligible patients received paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC]of 6 mg min mL−1) on day 1 and sorafenib (400 mg, twice daily) on days 2 through 19 of a 21-day cycle. Results Four of the initial six patients (cohort 1) experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), resulting in amendment of the treatment protocol. An additional seven patients (cohort 2) were enrolled, two of whom developed DLTs. DLTs included erythema multiforme, hand-foot skin reaction, and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase in cohort 1 as well as gastrointestinal perforation at a site of metastasis and pneumonia in cohort 2. Most adverse events were manageable. One complete and six partial responses were observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Coadministration of the three drugs had no impact on their respective pharmacokinetics. Conclusion The present study confirmed that sorafenib at 400 mg once daily in combination with carboplatin AUC 5 mg min mL−1 and paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 is feasible in Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC. The results of this study also showed that this combination therapy had encouraging antitumor activity and was not associated with relevant pharmacokinetic interaction in Japanese NSCLC patients.
Carboplatin; Lung cancer; Paclitaxel; Pharmacokinetics; Safety; Sorafenib
This dose-finding study evaluated lenvatinib, an oral multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with carboplatin/paclitaxel in chemotherapy-naïve non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Patients and Methods:
Patients received lenvatinib twice daily (BID) with carboplatin (area under the curve 6 mg ml−1 min−1, day 1)/paclitaxel (200 mg m−2, day 1) every 3 weeks. The initial dose of lenvatinib was 6 mg BID. The primary end point was maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenvatinib. At the MTD, the cohort was expanded by 16 patients. Safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor effects were evaluated.
Twenty-eight patients were treated. At 6 mg BID, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included febrile neutropenia/gingival infection (n=2). No DLTs occurred with 4 mg BID, the recommended MTD for the expansion. Common grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia, leukopenia, hypertension, and thrombocytopenia. The combination had no significant impact on individual drug pharmacokinetics. Response rate and median progression-free survival were 68% and 9.0 months, respectively, with 4 mg BID. In the plasma biomarker analysis, stromal cell-derived factor 1α, stem cell factor, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor correlated with antitumor activity.
The MTD for lenvatinib with carboplatin/paclitaxel is 4 mg BID in advanced NSCLC patients. This regimen demonstrated manageable tolerability and encouraging antitumor activity.
angiogenesis inhibitor; carboplatin; lenvatinib; lung cancer; paclitaxel; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Phase III trials of the anti-insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) antibody figitumumab (F) in unselected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were recently discontinued owing to futility. Here, we investigated a role of free IGF-1 (fIGF-1) as a potential predictive biomarker of clinical benefit from F treatment.
Materials and method:
Pre-treatment circulating levels of fIGF-1 were tested in 110 advanced NSCLC patients enrolled in a phase II study of paclitaxel and carboplatin given alone (PC) or in combination with F at doses of 10 or 20 mg kg−1 (PCF10, PCF20).
Cox proportional hazards model interactions were between 2.5 and 3.5 for fIGF-1 criteria in the 0.5–0.9 ng ml−1 range. Patients above each criterion had a substantial improvement in progression-free survival on PCF20 related to PC alone. Free IGF-1 correlated inversely with IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1, ρ=−0.295, P=0.005), and the pre-treatment ratio of insulin to IGFBP-1 was also predictive of F clinical benefit. In addition, fIGF-1 levels correlated with tumour vimentin expression (ρ=0.594, P=0.021) and inversely with E-cadherin (ρ=–0.389, P=0.152), suggesting a role for fIGF-1 in tumour de-differentiation.
Free IGF-1 may contribute to the identification of a subset of NSCLC patients who benefit from F therapy.
IGF-IR; IGF-1; figitumumab; NSCLC
We describe a randomized three-arm phase I study of ipilimumab administered alone (I group) or in combination with dacarbazine (D group) or carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP group) in patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma. The primary objective was to estimate the effect of ipilimumab on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dacarbazine and paclitaxel and, conversely, to estimate the effects of dacarbazine and carboplatin/paclitaxel on the PK of ipilimumab. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the safety and anti-tumor activity of ipilimumab when administered alone or with either dacarbazine or carboplatin/paclitaxel, and assessment of pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of ipilimumab on the immune system when administered alone or with either of the two chemotherapies. Ipilimumab was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg intravenously (IV) every 3 weeks for up to 4 doses. Patients in the D group received dacarbazine 850 mg/m2 IV every 3 weeks. Patients in the CP group received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin [AUC=6] IV every 3 weeks. Starting at week 24, patients without dose-limiting toxicities were eligible to receive maintenance ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg every 12 weeks until disease progressed or toxicity required discontinuation. Of 59 randomized patients, 18 (30.5%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Response rates by modified WHO criteria were 29.4% (I group), 27.8% (D group), and 11.1% (CP group). No major PK or PD interactions were observed when ipilimumab was administered with dacarbazine or with the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination. This study demonstrated that ipilimumab can be combined safely with two chemotherapy regimens commonly used in advanced melanoma.
pharmacokinetics; chemotherapy; T cell; antibody; immunotherapy
To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) paclitaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin, and IP paclitaxel in women with newly diagnosed Stages II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma.
Patients received escalating doses of paclitaxel IV and carboplatin IP on day 1 and paclitaxel IP 60 mg/m2 on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the escalation phase. A two-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Patient-reported neurotoxicity was assessed pre and post treatment.
Patients were treated with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin IP from AUC 5–7 on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. The MTD was estimated at carboplatin AUC 6 IP and 25 patients enrolled at this dose level. Within the first 4 cycles, seven (35%) of twenty evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 3 neutropenic fever (3), >2 week delay due to ANC recovery (1), grade 3 LFT (1), and grade 3 infection (1). De-escalation to paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV was given to improve the safety. After six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles without a DLT, bevacizumab was added and six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles with one DLT (grade 3 hyponatremia).
Paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP day 8 yield 18–56% patients with DLTs. The tolerability of the regimen in combination with bevacizumab was indicated in a small cohort.
Phase I trial; Intraperitoneal chemotherapy; Carboplatin; Paclitaxel; Ovarian cancer
This phase I trial assessed the safety and tolerability of G3139 when administered in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. The effect of G3139 treatment on Bcl-2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and paired tumor biopsies was also determined.
Patients with advanced solid malignancies received various doses of G3139 (continuous i.v. infusion days 1–7), carboplatin (day 4), and paclitaxel (day 4), repeated in 3-week cycles, in a standard cohort-of-three dose-escalation schema. Changes in Bcl-2/Bax transcription/expression were assessed at baseline and day 4 (pre-chemotherapy) in both PBMCs and paired tumor biopsies. The pharmacokinetic interactions between G3139 and carboplatin/paclitaxel were measured.
Forty-two patients were evaluable for safety analysis. Primary toxicities were hematological (myelosuppression and thrombocytopenia). Dose-escalation was stopped with G3139 at 7 mg/kg/day, carboplatin at AUC 6, and paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 due to significant neutropenia seen in cycle 1, and safety concerns in further escalating chemotherapy in this phase I population. With G3139 at 7 mg/kg/day, 13 patients underwent planned tumor biopsies, of which 12 matched pairs were obtained. Quantitative increases in intratumoral G3139 with decreases in intratumoral Bcl-2 gene expression were seen. This paralleled a decrease in Bcl-2 protein expression observed in PBMCs.
Although the MTD was not reached, the observed toxicities were consistent with what one would expect from carboplatin and paclitaxel alone. In addition, we show that achievable intratumoral G3139 concentrations can result in Bcl-2 down-regulation in solid tumors and PBMCs.
CD40 is a cell-surface molecule that critically regulates immune responses. CP-870,893 is a fully human, CD40-specific agonist monoclonal antibody (mAb) exerting clinical antineoplastic activity. Here, the safety of CP-870,893 combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel was assessed in a Phase I study. Patients with advanced solid tumors received standard doses of paclitaxel and carboplatin on day 1 followed by either 0.1 mg/Kg or 0.2 mg/Kg CP-870,893 on day 3 (Schedule A) or day 8 (Schedule B), repeated every 21 d. The primary objective was to determine safety and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of CP-870,893. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of antitumor responses, pharmacokinetics and immune modulation. Thirty-two patients were treated with CP-870,893, 16 patients on each schedule. Two dose-limiting toxicities were observed (grade 3 cytokine release and transient ischemic attack), each at the 0.2 mg/Kg dose level, which was estimated to be the MTD. The most common treatment-related adverse event was fatigue (81%). Of 30 evaluable patients, 6 (20%) exhibited partial responses constituting best responses as defined by RECIST. Following CP-870,893 infusion, the peripheral blood manifested an acute depletion of B cells associated with upregulation of immune co-stimulatory molecules. T-cell numbers did not change significantly from baseline, but transient tumor-specific T-cell responses were observed in a small number of evaluable patients. The CD40 agonist mAb CP-870,893, given on either of two schedules in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin, was safe for patients affected with advanced solid tumors. Biological and clinical responses were observed, providing a rationale for Phase II studies.
CD40; chemotherapy; clinical trial; CP-870,893; monoclonal antibody; T cells
Albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007 (Abraxane ®), has a different toxicity profile than solvent-based paclitaxel, including a lower rate of severe neutropenia. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin may have significant activity in a variety of tumor types including non-small and small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ABI-007, on three different schedules in combination with carboplatin.
Forty-one patients with solid tumors were enrolled, and received ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin AUC of 6 on day 1. Group A received ABI-007 at doses ranging from 220 to 340 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days; group B received ABI-007 at 100 or 125 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days; and group C received ABI-007 125 or 150 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed after the first cycle. Doses were escalated in cohorts of three to six patients. Fifteen patients participated in a pharmacokinetic study investigating the effects of the sequence of infusion. ABI-007 was infused first followed by carboplatin in cycle 1, and vice versa in cycle 2.
The MTD of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin was 300, 100, and 125 mg/m2 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Myelosuppression was the primary dose limiting toxicity. No unexpected or new toxicities were reported. Sequence of infusion did not affect either the pharmacokinetics of ABI-007 or the degree of neutropenia. Responses were seen in melanoma, lung, bladder, esophageal, pancreatic, breast cancer, and cancer of unknown primary.
The recommended dose for phase II studies of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin (AUC of 6) is 300, 100, 125 mg/m2 for the schedules A, B, and C, respectively. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin is well tolerated and active in this heavily pretreated patient population.
Dose-limiting toxicity; Maximum tolerated dose; Melanoma; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Small-cell lung cancer; Clinical trial
The aim of this phase I study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a 3-h infusion of paclitaxel, combined with carboplatin at a fixed AUC of 7 mg ml-1 min every 4 weeks for up to six cycles and to evaluate any possible pharmacokinetic interaction. Twelve chemonaive patients with ovarian cancer were treated with paclitaxel followed by a 30-min infusion of carboplatin. Paclitaxel dose was escalated from 150 mg m-2 to 225 mg m-2 in cohorts of three patients. Carboplatin dose was based on renal function. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in nine patients (at least two at each dose level). A total of 66 courses were evaluable for assessment. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was seen in 70% of the courses, however hospitalization was not required. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 24% of the courses. Alopecia, myalgia and peripheral neuropathy were common but rarely severe. The pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel was non-linear and did not appear to be influenced by co-administration of carboplatin. The AUC of carboplatin was 7.0 +/- 1.4 mg ml-1 min, indicating that there was no pharmacokinetic interaction. The combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel may be administered as first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. Although myelosuppression is the dose-limiting toxicity of the component drugs, the severity of thrombocytopenia was less than anticipated. The results of this study, with only a small number of patients, need to be confirmed in future investigations.
ASA404 (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid or DMXAA) is a small-molecule tumour-vascular disrupting agent (Tumour-VDA). This randomised phase II study evaluated ASA404 plus standard therapy of carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with histologically confirmed stage IIIb or IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not previously treated with chemotherapy. Patients were randomised to receive ⩽6 cycles of carboplatin area under the plasma concentration–time curve 6 mg ml−1 min and paclitaxel 175 mg m−2 (CP, n=36) or standard therapy plus ASA404 1200 mg m−2 (ASA404-CP, n=37). There was little change in the systemic exposure of either total or free carboplatin or paclitaxel on addition of ASA404. Safety profiles were similar and manageable in both groups, with most adverse effects attributed to standard therapy. Tumour response rate (31 vs 22%), median time to tumour progression (5.4 vs 4.4 months) and median survival (14.0 vs 8.8 months, hazard ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.39, 1.38) were improved in the ASA404 combination group compared with the standard therapy group. In conclusion, this study establishes the feasibility of combining ASA404 with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated, advanced NSCLC, demonstrating a manageable safety profile and lack of adverse pharmacokinetic interactions. The results indicate that there may be a benefit associated with ASA404, but this needs to be evaluated in a larger trial.
ASA404; AS1404; DMXAA; VDA; tumour-VDA; non-small cell lung cancer
Standard chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is a combination of platinum-paclitaxel. One strategy to improve the outcome for patients is to add other agents to standard therapy. Doxil is active in relapsed disease and has a response rate of 25% in platinum-resistant relapsed disease. A dose finding study of doxil-carboplatin-paclitaxel was therefore undertaken in women receiving first-line therapy. Thirty-one women with epithelial ovarian cancer or mixed Mullerian tumours of the ovary were enrolled. The doses of carboplatin, paclitaxel and doxil were as follows: carboplatin AUC 5 and 6; paclitaxel, 135 and 175 mg m−2; doxil 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg m−2. Schedules examined included treatment cycles of 21 and 28 days, and an alternating schedule of carboplatin-paclitaxel (q 21) with doxil being administered every other course (q 42). The dose-limiting toxicities were found to be neutropenia, stomatitis and palmar plantar syndrome and the maximum tolerated dose was defined as; carboplatin AUC 5, paclitaxel 175 mg m−2 and doxil 30 mg m−2 q 21. Reducing the paclitaxel dose to 135 mg m−2 did not allow the doxil dose to be increased. Delivering doxil on alternate cycles at doses of 40 and 50 mg m−2 also resulted in dose-limiting toxicities. The recommended doses for phase II/III trials are carboplatin AUC 6, paclitaxel 175 mg m−2, doxil 30 mg m−2 q 28 or carboplatin AUC 5, paclitaxel 175 mg m−2, doxil 20 mg m−2 q 21. Grade 3/4 haematologic toxicity was common at the recommended phase II doses but was short lived and not clinically important and non-haematologic toxicities were generally mild and consisted of nausea, paraesthesiae, stomatitis and palmar plantar syndrome.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1379–1384. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600250 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
ovarian cancer; liposomal doxorubicin; carboplatin; paclitaxel
This phase I study assessed the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and pharmacokinetics of belinostat with carboplatin and paclitaxel and the anti-tumour activity of the combination in solid tumours.
Cohorts of three to six patients were treated with escalating doses of belinostat administered intravenously once daily, days 1–5 q21 days; on day 3, carboplatin (area under the curve (AUC) 5) and/or paclitaxel (175 mg m−2) were administered 2–3 h after the end of the belinostat infusion.
In all 23 patients received 600–1000 mg m−2 per day of belinostat with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel. No DLT was observed. The maximal administered dose of belinostat was 1000 mg m−2 per day for days 1–5, with paclitaxel (175 mg m−2) and carboplatin AUC 5 administered on day 3. Grade III/IV adverse events were (n; %): leucopenia (5; 22%), neutropenia (7; 30%), thrombocytopenia (3; 13%) anaemia (1; 4%), peripheral sensory neuropathy (2; 9%), fatigue (1; 4%), vomiting (1; 4%) and myalgia (1; 4%). The pharmacokinetics of belinostat, paclitaxel and carboplatin were unaltered by the concurrent administration. There were two partial responses (one rectal cancer and one pancreatic cancer). A third patient (mixed mullerian tumour of ovarian origin) showed a complete CA-125 response. In addition, six patients showed a stable disease lasting ⩾6 months.
The combination was well tolerated, with no evidence of pharmacokinetic interaction. Further evaluation of anti-tumour activity is warranted.
HDAC; belinostat; carboplatin; paclitaxel; BelCaP
As a prelude to combination studies aimed at resistance reversal, this dose-escalation/dose-expansion study investigated the selective Src kinase inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) in combination with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel.
Patients with advanced solid tumours received saracatinib once-daily oral tablets in combination with either carboplatin AUC 5 every 3 weeks (q3w), paclitaxel 175 mg m−2 q3w, paclitaxel 80 mg m−2 every 1 week (q1w), or carboplatin AUC 5 plus paclitaxel 175 mg m−2 q3w. The primary endpoint was safety/tolerability.
A total of 116 patients received saracatinib 125 (N=20), 175 (N=44), 225 (N=40), 250 (N=9), or 300 mg (N=3). There were no clear dose-related trends within each chemotherapy regimen group in number or severity of adverse events (AEs). However, combining all groups, the occurrence of grade ⩾3 asthenic AEs (all causality) was dose-related (125 mg, 10% 175 mg, 20% ⩾225 mg, 33%), and grade ⩾3 neutropenia occurred more commonly at doses ⩾225 mg. There was no evidence that saracatinib affected exposure to carboplatin or paclitaxel, or vice versa. Objective responses were seen in 5 out of 44 patients (11%) receiving carboplatin plus paclitaxel q3w, and 5 out of 24 (21%) receiving paclitaxel q1w.
Saracatinib doses up to 175 mg with paclitaxel with/without carboplatin showed acceptable toxicity in most patients, and are suitable for further trials.
carboplatin; combination chemotherapy; paclitaxel; saracatinib; Src
This phase I/II study examined the safety and efficacy of Sepantronium Bromide (S), a small-molecule selective survivin suppressant, administered in combination with carboplatin (C) and paclitaxel (P).
Patients and methods
Forty-one patients were treated on study. Twenty-two patients received escalating doses of S (3.6–12 mg/m2) and 19 with untreated stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with the maximum tolerated dose of 10 mg/m2 in combination with standard doses of C (AUC6) and P (200 mg/m2) for six cycles. S was administered as a continuous intravenous infusion (CIVI) over 72 h in 21-day treatment cycles. Study end points included safety and toxic effect, response rate, progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS), as well as exploratory pharmacodynamic correlates.
Treatment with S was well tolerated, and toxic effects were mostly hematological in the phase II study. Two (11%) partial responses were observed with a median PFS of 5.7 months and median OS 16.1 months. Pharmacodynamic analysis did not demonstrate an association with response.
The combination of S (10 mg/m2/day 72-h CIVI) administered with C and P every 3 weeks exhibited a favorable safety profile but failed to demonstrate an improvement in response rate in advanced NSCLC.
Clinical trial number
survivin; non-small-cell lung cancer; apoptosis; sepantronium bromide