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1.  CHRONIC SPONTANEOUS LUMBAR EPIDURAL HEMATOMA SIMULATING EXTRADURAL SPINAL TUMOR : A CASE REPORT 
Nagoya Journal of Medical Science  2014;76(1-2):195-201.
ABSTRACT
Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disorder, and chronic SEHs are rarer than acute SEHs. However, there is few reported involving the bone change of the vertebral body in chronic SEHs. We present a case report of lumbar epidural hematoma that required differentiation from extramedullary spinal tumors by a long process because the CT scan revealed scalloping of the vertebral body and review the relevant literature. A 78-year-old man had experienced a gradual onset of low back pain and excruciating pain in both legs. Lumbar MRI on T1-weighted images revealed a space-occupying lesion with a hyperintense signal relative to the spinal cord with no enhancement on gadolinium adminisration. Meanwhile, T2-weighted images revealed a heterogeneous intensity change, accompanying a central area of hyperintense signals with a hypointense peripheral border at the L4 vertebra. Moreover, the CT scan demonstrated scalloping of the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body which is generally suspected as the CT finding of spainal tumor. During the epidural space exploration, we found a dark red-colored mass surrounded by a capsular layer, which was fibrous and adhered to the flavum and dura mater. Microscopic histological examination of the resected mass revealed a mixture of the relatively new hematoma and the hematoma that was moving into the connective tissue. Accordingly, the hematoma was diagnosed as chronic SEH. The particular MRI findings of chronic SEHs are helpful for making accurate preoperative diagnoses of this pathology.
PMCID: PMC4345727  PMID: 25130006
chronic lumbar epidural hematoma; spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma; scalloping; MRI findings
2.  Case Report: Cauda Equina Syndrome Associated With an Interspinous Device 
Background
Although postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is not uncommon, hematomas that require surgery are rare. Cauda equina syndrome (CES) may be associated with postoperative SEH. In these cases, early recognition and emergency decompression can prevent further damage and better neurologic recovery.
Case Description
A 41-year-old man underwent two-level discectomy with insertion of an interspinous spacer at L3-4 and L4-5 because of low back pain and radiculopathy. Eight hours after the operation, the patient developed CES. MRI revealed SEH compressing posteriorly at the L3-4 level. On emergency decompression and hematoma evacuation, the interspinous spacer had obstructed the laminotomy site at L3-4 completely, blocking drainage to the drain. The patient experienced complete neurologic recovery by 2 months followup.
Literature Review
Many studies report risk factors for SEH. However, postoperative SEH can also be encountered in patients without these risks. One study reported a critical ratio (preoperative versus postoperative cross-sectional area) correlated with postoperative symptoms, especially in those with CES. The propensity to develop CES is likely dependent on a number of patient-specific factors.
Clinical Relevance
Surgeons should be aware that patients without risk factors may develop acute CES. Wider laminotomy (larger than half of the device size) may help to prevent this complication when one uses the compressible type of device, especially in patients with relatively small lamina.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2031-7
PMCID: PMC3348300  PMID: 21870210
3.  Infected epidural hematoma of the lumbar spine associated with invasive pneumococcal disease 
Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) are neurologic emergencies with distinct etiologies and treatment. Despite similarities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), their differentiation is usually possible with meticulous history taking and neurologic examinations. We report an unusual case of SEA that developed from preceding SEH, posing a diagnostic challenge to physicians. A 65-year-old diabetic man suddenly experienced back pain and weakness of both legs when he lifted heavy luggage. He was afebrile, and his laboratory tests were mostly unremarkable. Spinal MRI consisting of T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images revealed an epidural mass over the L2-L4 spinous process. He was diagnosed with SEH based on his symptoms and MRI findings, and was treated conservatively using steroid pulse therapy. Despite initial improvement, he suddenly developed into septic shock and coma on the 10th hospital day, and died shortly thereafter. An autopsy revealed massive pus accumulation in the lumbar epidural space and brain, and a postmortem diagnosis of infected SEH associated with invasive pneumococcal disease was established. Serial MRI studies, including diffusion-weighted and/or gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images are warranted in patients with a presumed diagnosis of SEH receiving steroid therapy to detect such infectious transformation.
doi:10.4103/1793-5482.151527
PMCID: PMC4352647  PMID: 25767594
Invasive pneumococcal disease; magnetic resonance imaging; spinal epidural abscess; spinal epidural hematoma
4.  Symptomatic Extensive Thoracolumbar Epidural Hematoma Following Lumbar Disc Surgery Treated by Single Level Laminectomy 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):152-155.
Spinal epidural hematomas (SEHs) are rare complications following spine surgery, especially for single level lumbar discectomies. The appropriate surgical management for such cases remains to be investigated. We report a case of an extensive spinal epidural hematoma from T11-L5 following a L3-L4 discectomy. The patient underwent a single level L4. A complete evacuation of the SEH resulted in the patient's full recovery. When presenting symptoms limited to the initial surgical site reveal an extensive postoperative SEH, we propose: to tailor the surgical exposure individually based on preoperative findings of the SEH; and to begin the surgical exposure with a limited laminectomy focused on the symptomatic levels that may allow an efficient evacuation of the SEH instead of a systematic extensive laminectomy based on imaging.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.2.152
PMCID: PMC3372553  PMID: 22708022
Epidural; Hematoma; Spine; Surgery; Management; Emergency; Postoperative
5.  Chronic pure radiculopathy in patient with organizing epidural hematoma around C8 nerve root 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(Suppl 4):450-452.
Spontaneously occurring spinal epidural hematomas are uncommon clinical findings, and the chronic form is the rarest and its most frequent location is the lumbar spine. Pure radicular involvement is far less frequent than myelopathy. We report a case of progressive radiculopathy in a 52-year-old man with spontaneously occurring cervical epidural hematoma (SCEH). The patient had left hand weakness and numbness for 4 months. MRI scan showed small space-occupying lesion around left 8th cervical nerve root. After surgery we confirmed chronic organizing epidural hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case in the worldwide literature of pure radiculopathy in a patient with chronic SCEH.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-2071-4
PMCID: PMC3369032  PMID: 22249307
Spontaneous epidural hematoma; Radiculopathy; Chronic
6.  Haemophilia A presenting as spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma in a 3-month-old infant 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr0520102997.
Spinal epidural haematoma (SEH) is a rare complication of haemophilia. A 3-month-old boy presenting with non-traumatic acute onset quadriparesis was found to have SEH on MRI scan. On further investigations, diagnosis of severe haemophilia A was confirmed. He responded well to conservative treatment with replacement of factor VIII without any need for surgical decompression. Neurological recovery was complete. We believe this is the youngest reported case of haemophilia presenting with spontaneous SEH. Another peculiarity of this case is absence of excessive bleeding due to forceps and vacuum application, circumcision and intramuscular injection, even in the presence of severe haemophilia. This case calls attention to the clinical features, radiological appearances and management options of this rare complication of SEH in people with haemophilia.
doi:10.1136/bcr.05.2010.2997
PMCID: PMC3027406  PMID: 22791488
7.  Lumbar puncture complicated by spinal epidural hematoma in a child with leukemia 
Clinical Case Reports  2015;3(6):388-391.
Key Clinical Message
We report a case of spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) preceded by diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP) in a 5-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MRI confirmed the presence of SEH between T7 and L5 levels, but the patient showed fast recovery during the next hours and conservative management was elected.
doi:10.1002/ccr3.239
PMCID: PMC4498848  PMID: 26185634
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; lumbar puncture; spinal epidural hematoma; thrombocytopenia
8.  Intracranial hemorrhage following lumbar spine surgery 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(10):2091-2096.
Background
Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious but rare complication of spinal surgery, which can occur in the intracerebral, cerebellar, epidural, or subdural compartment.
Purpose
To describe patients with intracranial hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery and present clinical and diagnostic imaging findings.
Methods
In this retrospective study, medical records of 1,077 patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery in our tertiary referral neurosurgery center between January 2003 and September 2010 were studied. The original presentations of the patients before the surgical intervention were herniated lumbar disc, spinal canal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, lumbar spinal trauma, and lumbar spine and epidural tumor. The operations performed consisted of discectomy, multiple level laminectomy, stabilization and fusion, lumbar instrumentation, and lumbar spinal and epidural tumor resection.
Results
Four cases developed intracranial hemorrhage including acute subdural hematoma (one case), epidural hematoma (one case), and remote cerebellar hemorrhage (two cases). The clinical and diagnostic imaging characteristics along with treatments performed and outcomes of these four patients are described and the pertinent literature regarding post-lumbar spinal surgery intracranial hemorrhages is reviewed.
Conclusion
Though rare, intracranial hemorrhage can occur following lumbar spinal surgery. This complication may be asymptomatic or manifest with intense headache at early stages any time during the first week after surgery. Dural tear, bloody CSF leakage, focal neurologic symptoms, and headache are indicators of potential intracranial hemorrhage, which should be considered during or following surgery and necessitate diagnostic imaging.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2187-1
PMCID: PMC3463703  PMID: 22349967
Intracranial hemorrhage; Lumbar spine surgery; Remote cerebellar hemorrhage; Subdural hematoma; Epidural hematoma
9.  Clinical Experience and Management of Cervico-Thoracic Epidural Hematoma 
Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) causing acute myelopathy is rare. The usual clinical presentation of a SEH is sudden severe neck or back pain that progresses toward paraparesis or quadriparesis, depending on the level of the lesion. Recent studies have shown that early decompressive surgery is very important for patient's recovery. We experienced five patients of cervico-thoracic epidural hematomas associated with neurologic deficits that were treated successfully with surgical intervention.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.5.381
PMCID: PMC2883060  PMID: 20539799
Intraspinal; Epidural; Hematoma; Laminectomy
10.  Cervicothoracic Spinal Epidural Hematoma after Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery 
The purpose of this case report is to describe a rare case of a cervicothoracic spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) after anterior cervical spine surgery. A 60-year-old man complained of severe neck and arm pain 4 hours after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the C5-6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a postoperative SEH extending from C1 to T4. Direct hemostasis and drainage of loculated hematoma at the C5-6 level completely improved the patient's condition. When a patient complains of severe neck and/or arm pain after anterior cervical spinal surgery, though rare, the possibility of a postoperative SEH extending to non-decompressed, adjacent levels should be considered as with our case.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.541
PMCID: PMC3053552  PMID: 21430984
Cervical spine; Complication; Hematoma
11.  Non Traumatic Spinal Epidural Haematoma in a Woman with HELLP Syndrome: A Case Report 
Spinal epidural haematomas (SEH) is a potentially reversible cause of spinal cord and nerve root compression which needs prompt surgical decompression for satisfactory neurological recovery. SEH occurs very rarely in pregnant woman with HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet levels). Most of the SEH cases reported in HELLP syndrome in the literature are due to iatrogenic interventions. We report a still rarer case of non traumatic spinal epidural haematoma in a pregnant woman with HELLP Syndrome.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10415.5307
PMCID: PMC4316316  PMID: 25654010
HELLP syndrome; Non traumatic; Spinal epidural haematoma
12.  Spontaneous Resolution of Non-traumatic Cervical Spinal Subdural Hematoma Presenting Acute Hemiparesis: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2012;9(3):257-260.
Spontaneous cervical SDH with no underlying pathology is a very unusual condition. To the best of the authors' knowledge, only two cases have been previously reported. A 48-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room due to severe neck pain following standing up position with rapid onset of hemiparesis. MRI revealed a dorsolateral subdural hematoma from C3-C5 with cord compression. An emergency laminectomy was planned, but motor weakness gradually improved during surgical preparation. The patient showed substantial clinical improvement and complete recovery was confirmed after 7 days of conservative management without surgical treatment. To determine a differential diagnosis distinct from other conditions such as cervical epidural hematoma, a lumbar spinal puncture was performed. Follow-up MRI performed 10 days after admission revealed complete resolution of the hematoma. We report an extremely rare case of spontaneous cervical spinal subdural hematoma (SDH), present a review of relevant literature, and discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis of this case.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2012.9.3.257
PMCID: PMC4431013  PMID: 25983826
Cervical; Spontaneous; Subdural hematoma
13.  Complications and pitfalls of lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections 
Lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections are used in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain and other lumbar spinal pain syndromes. Complications from these procedures arise from needle placement and the administration of medication. Potential risks include infection, hematoma, intravascular injection of medication, direct nerve trauma, subdural injection of medication, air embolism, disc entry, urinary retention, radiation exposure, and hypersensitivity reactions. The objective of this article is to review the complications of lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections and discuss the potential pitfalls related to these procedures. We performed a comprehensive literature review through a Medline search for relevant case reports, clinical trials, and review articles. Complications from lumbar epidural injections are extremely rare. Most if not all complications can be avoided by careful technique with accurate needle placement, sterile precautions, and a thorough understanding of the relevant anatomy and contrast patterns on fluoroscopic imaging.
doi:10.1007/s12178-008-9035-2
PMCID: PMC2682416  PMID: 19468908
Back pain; Spinal injection; Epidural steroid injection; Lumbar interlaminar epidural; Lumbar transforaminal epidural; Complications; Safety; Risk management
14.  Spontaneous chronic epidural hematoma of the lumbar spine mimicking an extradural spine tumour 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(Suppl 3):337-340.
Purpose
Spontaneous chronic epidural hematomas are extremely rare and can be extremely challenging to diagnose and differentiate. The clinical findings, computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging does not always enough to complete differentiate this condition. Our purpose is to report a case of a spontaneous chronic epidural hematoma presenting as an extradural mass leading to compressive radicular symptoms with images of bony scalloping which are sparsely reported in the literature.
Methods
We describe a 61-year-old woman who was evaluated after 18-month history of pain, disestesias and mild weakness in both lower extremities with significant radicular symptoms on the right side associated to neurogenic claudication.
Results
CT scans revealed a nodular image of soft tissue density located in the right anterolateral epidural space at the L4–L5 level demonstrating resorption of the bony margins. MRI studies revealed a round mass in the vertebral canal displacing the dural sac and scalloping the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body. Diagnosis was established between a degenerative cyst versus an atypical neurinoma. Surgical findings demonstrated an isolated well-formed chronic hematoma.
Conclusion
Spontaneous chronic epidural hematomas are rare, even more when they produce scalloping of bony structures becoming a diagnostic challenge. Therefore they should be always considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with extradural chronic compressions taking into account that also chronic epidural hematomas can cause bone involvement.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2402-0
PMCID: PMC3641257  PMID: 22718047
Tumour; Spine, epidural; Hematoma
15.  Delayed Onset Neurological Deterioration due to a Spinal Epidural Hematoma after a Spine Fracture 
Asian Spine Journal  2007;1(2):98-101.
There are no reports of a 7-day delay in the onset of neurological deterioration because of a spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) after a spinal fracture. A hematoma was detected from the T12 to L2 area in a 36-year-old male patient with a T12 burst fracture. On the same day, the patient underwent in situ posterior pedicle instrumentation on T10-L3 with no additional laminectomy. On the seventh postoperative day, the patient suddenly developed weakness and sensory changes in both extremities, together with a sharp pain. A MRI showed that the hematoma had definitely increased in size. A partial laminectomy was performed 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Two days after surgery, recovery of neurological function was noted. This case shows that spinal surgeons need to be aware of the possible occurrence of a delayed aggravated SEH and neurological deterioration after a spinal fracture.
doi:10.4184/asj.2007.1.2.98
PMCID: PMC2857477  PMID: 20411132
Spinal epidural hematoma; Spine fracture; Neurology
16.  Hemiparesis Caused by Cervical Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma: A Report of 3 Cases 
Advances in Orthopedics  2011;2011:516382.
We report three cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) with hemiparesis. The first patient was a 73-year-old woman who presented with left hemiparesis, neck pain, and left shoulder pain. A cervical MRI scan revealed a left posterolateral epidural hematoma at the C3–C6 level. The condition of the patient improved after laminectomy and evacuation of the epidural hematoma. The second patient was a 62-year-old man who presented with right hemiparesis and neck pain. A cervical MRI scan revealed a right posterolateral dominant epidural hematoma at the C6-T1 level. The condition of the patient improved after laminectomy and evacuation of the epidural hematoma. The third patient was a 60-year-old woman who presented with left hemiparesis and neck pain. A cervical MRI scan revealed a left posterolateral epidural hematoma at the C2–C4 level. The condition of the patient improved with conservative treatment. The classical clinical presentation of SSEH is acute onset of severe irradiating back pain followed by progression to paralysis, whereas SSEH with hemiparesis is less common. Our cases suggest that acute cervical spinal epidural hematoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with clinical symptoms of sudden neck pain and radicular pain with progression to hemiparesis.
doi:10.4061/2011/516382
PMCID: PMC3170783  PMID: 21991415
17.  Spontaneous epidural hematoma of thoracic spine presenting as Brown-Séquard syndrome: report of a case with review of the literature 
Background
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon clinical entity. It produces a severe neurological deficit and prompt decompression is usually the first choice of treatment. Brown-Séquard syndrome is commonly seen in the setting of spinal trauma or an extramedullary spinal neoplasm, but rarely caused by SSEH.
Methods
Case report and literature review.
Findings
A previously healthy man presented with Brown-Séquard syndrome below T5–T6 cord segment secondary to spontaneous epidural hematoma. He opted for conservative treatment, which was followed by rapid resolution.
Conclusions
Although Brown-Séquard syndrome as a presenting feature of SSEH is rare, it does exist in exceptional case, which should be taken into consideration for differential diagnosis. Prompt surgical decompression is an absolute surgical indication widely accepted for patient with progressive neurological deficit. However, SSEH presenting with incomplete neurological insult such as Brown-Séquard syndrome might have a benign course. Successful non-operative management of this problem does not make it a standard of care, and surgical decompression remains the standard treatment for SSEH.
doi:10.1179/107902611X13069205199468
PMCID: PMC3152816  PMID: 21903018
Spinal epidural hematoma; Brown-Séquard syndrome; Thoracic vertebra; Spinal cord; Methylprednisolone; Paraparesis
18.  Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors and Heart Failure 
Cardiovascular therapeutics  2011;29(2):99-111.
Cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of death in the Western societies. Heart failure (HF) is due primarily to progressive myocardial dysfunction accompanied by myocardial remodeling. Once heart failure develops, the condition is, in most cases, irreversible and is associated with a very high mortality rate. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid through the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway. EETs have been shown to have vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. When EETs are hydrolyzed by sEH to corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), their cardioprotective activities become less pronounced. In line with the recent genetic study that has identified sEH as a susceptibility gene for heart failure, the sEH enzyme has received considerable attention as an attractive therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, sEH inhibition has been demonstrated to have anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory actions, presumably due to the increased bioavailability of endogenous EETs and other epoxylipids, and several potent sEH inhibitors have been developed and tested in animal models of cardiovascular disease including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia/reperfusion injury. sEH inhibitor treatment has been shown to effectively prevent pressure overload- and angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and reverse the pre-established cardiac hypertrophy caused by chronic pressure overload. Application of sEH inhibitors in several cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury models reduced infarct size and prevented the progressive cardiac remodeling. Moreover, the use of sEH inhibitors prevented the development of electrical remodeling and ventricular arrhythmias associated with cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The data published to date support the notion that sEH inhibitors may represent a promising therapeutic approach for combating detrimental cardiac remodeling and heart failure.
doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2010.00150.x
PMCID: PMC3325372  PMID: 20433684
19.  Solitary spinal epidural cavernous angioma: report of nine surgically treated cases and review of the literature 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(3):542-547.
Purpose
We intend to report the largest series of spinal epidural cavernomas (SEC), discuss their clinical features, imaging characteristics, surgical findings, outcome analysis and compare them with similar reports in the literature.
Methods
Among the cases of spinal tumors treated surgically by the authors, there have been nine cases of SEC’s. All the data were collected prospectively and the cases have been followed after surgery up to the time of this analysis.
Results
There were six female and three male patients with the ages ranging between 13 and 74 years. The lesions were located in the thoracic spine (4 cases), lumbar spine (4 cases) and one at the sacral level. Clinical presentations included acute spinal pain and paraparesis in two, low back pain and radiculopathy in five, and slowly progressive myelopathy in the other two cases. The lesion was iso-intense with the spinal cord in T1W images and hyperintense in T2W images and showed strong homogeneous enhancement after contrast medium injection in most of our cases. In the presence of hemorrhage inside the lesion, it was hyperintense in both T1W and T2W MR sequences as in our case 6. In the single case presenting with acute hemorrhage, epidural hematoma was the only finding, our case 1. Complete surgical removal was achieved in all our cases, and confirmed by postoperative MRI.
Conclusion
SEC is hard to be differentiated from other epidural spinal lesions before intervention but should be considered in the list of differential diagnosis regarding its favorable outcome.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2526-2
PMCID: PMC3585645  PMID: 23053760
Cavernous angioma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Spinal epidural cavernoma; Spinal epidural lesion
20.  Genetic Deletion of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Obstructive Nephropathy 
Mediators of Inflammation  2015;2015:693260.
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is abundantly expressed in kidney and plays a potent role in regulating inflammatory response in inflammatory diseases. However, the role of sEH in progression of chronic kidney diseases such as obstructive nephropathy is still elusive. In current study, wild-type (WT) and sEH deficient (sEH−/−) mice were subjected to the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery and the kidney injury was evaluated by histological examination, western blotting, and ELISA. The protein level of sEH in kidney was increased in UUO-treated mice group compared to nonobstructed group. Additionally, UUO-induced hydronephrosis, renal tubular injury, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated in sEH−/− mice with the exception of glomerulosclerosis. Moreover, sEH−/− mice with UUO showed lower levels of inflammation-related and fibrosis-related protein such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, collagen 1A1, and α-actin. The levels of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as NADPH oxidase activity were also decreased in UUO kidneys of sEH−/− mice compared to that observed in WT mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that sEH plays an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental obstructive nephropathy and may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of obstructive nephropathy-related diseases.
doi:10.1155/2015/693260
PMCID: PMC4320902  PMID: 25688176
21.  Hemophilia A in a Senior Patient: A Case Report of Spinal Epidural Hematoma as First Presentation 
Asian Spine Journal  2015;9(3):452-455.
Hemophilia A is a hereditary coagulation disorder. Most cases are diagnosed at birth or at least during childhood. A spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma was developed in a 74-year-old male patient who hadn't had a family or past medical history of bleeding disorders. On magnetic resonance imaging, epidural hematoma at L1-2 was accompanied by spinal stenosis at L4-5 and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at L5. Hematoma evacuation and surgery for distal lumbar lesions were performed at once. After transient improvement, complete paraplegia was developed due to redevelopment of large epidural hematomas at L1-2 and L4-S1 which blocked epidural canal completely. Emergency evacuation was performed and we got to know that he had a hemophilia A. Factor VIII was 28% of normal value. Mild type hemophilia A could have not been diagnosed until adulthood. Factor VIII should have been replaced before the surgical decompression.
doi:10.4184/asj.2015.9.3.452
PMCID: PMC4472596  PMID: 26097663
Hemophilia A; Hematoma; Epidural; Spinal; Spontaneous; Senior
22.  Estimating the Incidence of Suspected Epidural Hematoma and the Hidden Imaging Cost of Epidural Catheterization: A Retrospective Review of 43,200 Cases 
Introduction
Hematoma associated with epidural catheterization is rare, but the diagnosis might be suspected relatively frequently. We sought to estimate the incidence of suspected epidural hematoma after epidural catheterization, and to determine the associated cost of excluding or diagnosing an epidural hematoma through radiologic imaging.
Methods
We conducted an electronic retrospective chart review of 43,200 patient charts using 4 distinct search strategies and cost analysis, all from a single academic institution from 2001 through 2009. Charts were reviewed for use of radiological imaging studies to identify patients with suspected and confirmed epidural hematomas. Costs for imaging to exclude or confirm the diagnosis were related to the entire cohort.
Results
In our analysis, over a 9-year period that included 43,200 epidural catheterizations, 102 patients (1:430) underwent further imaging studies to exclude or confirm the presence of an epidural hematoma—revealing 6 confirmed cases and an overall incidence (per 10,000 epidural blocks) of epidural hematoma of 1.38 (95% CI 0, 0.002). Among our patients, 207 imaging studies, primarily lumbar spine MRI, were performed. Integrating Medicare cost expenditure data, the estimated additional cost over a 9-year period for imaging and hospital charges related to identifying epidural hematomas nets to approximately $232,000 or an additional $5.37 per epidural.
Discussion
About 1 in 430 epidural catheterization patients will be suspected to have an epidural hematoma. The cost of excluding the diagnosis, when suspected, is relatively low when allocated across all epidural catheterization patients.
doi:10.1097/AAP.0b013e31829ecfa6
PMCID: PMC3799821  PMID: 23924685
23.  Surgical management of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma 
European Spine Journal  2006;15(6):998-1004.
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare disease entity; its causative factors and the factors determining the outcome are still controversial. We reviewed our clinical experiences and analyzed the various factors related to the outcome for SSEH. We investigated 14 patients (11 men and 3 women) who underwent hematoma removal for SSEH from April 1998 to August 2004. We reviewed age, gender, hypertension, anticoagulant use and the preoperative neurological status using the Japanese Orthopaedics Association score by examining medical records, operative records, pathology reports, and radiographies, retrospectively. We were checking for factors such as the degree of cord compression owing to hematoma and the extent and location of the hematoma. Most patients included in the study were in their twenties or fifties. Four hematoma were located in the cervical region (29%), three were cervicothoracic (21%), four were thoracic (29%) and three were in the lumbar (21%) region and also 12 were located at the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord. In all cases, the neurological outcome improved after the surgical operation. There was a statistically significant difference between the incomplete and complete neurological injury for the preoperative status (P<0.05). The neurological outcome was good in those cases that had their hematoma removed within 24 h (P<0.05). The patients with incomplete neurological injury who had a surgical operation performed within 12 h had an excellent surgical outcome (P<0.01). Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma was favorably treated by the means of a surgical operation. The favorable factors for SSEH operations were incomplete neurological injury at the time of the preoperative status and the short operative time interval.
doi:10.1007/s00586-005-0965-8
PMCID: PMC3489451  PMID: 16758110
Epidural hematoma; Cord injury; Operative time interval; Spine surgery
24.  A posterior epidural mass causing paraparesis in a 20-year-old healthy individual 
We present a case of a posterior epidural abscess at the thoracic vertebral level causing paraparesia in a young, healthy individual with no otherwise predisposing factors, with normal laboratory findings, as diagnosed using fat-suppressed MR imaging. Spinal epidural abscess is a rare condition, encountered mostly in the midthoracic or lower lumbar vertebral levels of elderly patients, that has a high mortality and morbidity (18-31%) when diagnosis and treatment is delayed. It is rarely spontaneous and is usually accompanied by spinal osteomyelitis. Diagnosis is rather easy in cases of vertebral osteomyelitis or when classical clinical, laboratory and imaging findings are present. However, cases of spontaneous development, with no predisposing factors, and lack of abscess suggesting clinical and laboratory findings may be a diagnostic challenge. In such cases, other posterior epidural masses such as schwannoma, neurofibroma, meningioma and hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Both the clinician and the radiology physician should have a high suspicion of epidural abscesses, because their early diagnosis and treatment is important. In addition to routine MR images, fat-suppressed MR images prove helpful in the diagnosis of spontaneous epidural abscesses by showing the inflammatory changes in the paraspinal area.
doi:10.1007/s12245-009-0121-z
PMCID: PMC2760701  PMID: 20157473
Posterior epidural mass; MRI; Spontaneous epidural abscesses
25.  Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma: Risk Factor and Clinical Outcome 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(3):326-332.
We report a series of epidural hematomas which cause neurologic deterioration after spinal surgery, and have taken risk factors and prognostic factors into consideration. We retrospectively reviewed the database of 3720 cases of spine operation in a single institute over 7 years (1998 April-2005 July). Nine patients who demonstrated neurologic deterioration after surgery and required surgical decompression were identified. Factors postulated to increase the postoperative epidural hematoma and to improve neurologic outcome were investigated. The incidence of postoperative epidural hematoma was 0.24%. Operation sites were cervical 3 cases, thoracic 2 cases, and lumbar 4 cases. Their original diagnoses were tumor 3 cases, cervical stenosis 2 cases, lumbar stenosis 3 cases and herniated lumbar disc 1case. The symptoms of epidural hematomas were neurologic deterioration and pain. After decompression, clinical outcome revealed complete recovery in 3 cases (33.3%), incomplete recovery in 5 cases (55.6%) and no change in 1 case (11.1%). Factors increasing the risk of postoperative epidural hematoma were coagulopathy from medical illness or anticoagulation therapy (4 cases, 44.4%) and highly vascularized tumor (3 cases, 33.3%). The time interval to evacuation of complete recovery group (29.3 hours) was shorter than incomplete recovery group (66.3 hours). Patients with coagulopathy and highly vascularized tumor were more vulnerable to spinal epidural hematoma. The postoperative outcome was related to the preoperative neurological deficit and the time interval to the decompression.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.3.326
PMCID: PMC2688151  PMID: 16807981
Clinical outcome; risk factor; postoperative; spinal epidural hematoma; spine surgery

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