Our objective is to identify genes regulating metastasis of osteogenic sarcoma (OGS) since metastasis is the primary cause of mortality among patients with OGS. To identify such genes, we first created a database of differentially expressed genes between six low-grade and six high-grade OGS tumors, and between a normal immortalized osteoblast cell line (FOB) and four commercially available OGS-derived cell lines. We specifically searched for surface-proteins over-expressed in high-grade OGS, since we hypothesize that tumor-cell specific surface markers are key to metastasis. A gene encoding Tumor Endothelial Marker7 (TEM7) was selected as a candidate for further study. TEM7 expression pattern was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining. TEM7 mRNA was abundantly expressed in SAOS cells (derived from high-grade OGS), but not in FOB or MG63 cells (derived from low-grade OGS). Virtually no expression of TEM7 protein was observed in FOB cells but abundant expression was noted in SAOS and TE85 cells. Employing immunostaining of 92 human OGS specimens (50 high grade and 42 low-grade) collected before chemotherapy show 97% (37 of 38) of high-grade OGS specimens with metastasis have high TEM7 staining. Further, we found that elevated expression of TEM7 correlated with poor survival (p<0.04) of affected patients. Inhibiting TEM7 function by siRNA inhibited invasion and migration of OGS cells with metastatic potential. Our results suggest TEM7 expression level closely parallels histology-based prognostication of OGS metastasis and, therefore, it is a therapeutic target. This is the first demonstration of a link between TEM7 and cancer metastasis.
TEM7; Osteogenic sarcoma; Metastasis; siRNA; Tumor marker
To analyze the expression profile of tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG).
To investigate the expression profile of TEM7 in the spinal cord and DRG of adult and developing rats.
Overview of Literature
Tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) is a putative transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in the tumor endothelium and in cerebellar neurons.
In the present study, the expression profile of TEM7 in the spinal cord and DRG of the rat was investigated using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, the secreted recombinant ectodomain of TEM7 was employed to label the expression of a putative ligand of TEM7 in the spinal cord and DRG.
Specific TEM7 mRNA localization was observed in the motor neurons of the spinal cord and sensory neurons of the DRG. Glial cells and vascular endothelial cells did not show hybridization signals. Immunohistochemical analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody revealed a similar localization profile for TEM7 mRNA expression. In the spinal cord, weak labeling was observed in the gray matter. The TEM7 ectodomain localized the expression of a putative ligand of TEM7 in the neurilemmal structures and perineurium of the spinal nerve roots. In the DRG, ligand labeling was observed in the endoneurium and perineurium of the spinal nerves, and extracellular matrix around the sensory neurons. A developmental study has shown that TEM7 mRNA expression in the motor neurons of the spinal cord and DRG increased with age during postnatal development.
These findings indicate that TEM7 plays a role as a transmembrane receptor in neuronal populations of the spinal cord and DRG.
Tumor endothelial marker; Spinal cord; Dorsal root ganglion; Ligand
Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is an integrin-like cell surface protein upregulated on tumor blood vessels and a potential vascular target for cancer therapy. Here, we found that the ability of an anti-TEM8 antibody, clone SB5, to recognize the extracellular domain of TEM8 on the cell surface depends on other host-cell factors. By taking advantage of SB5’s ability to distinguish different forms of cell-surface TEM8, we identified alpha-smooth muscle actin and transgelin, an actin binding protein, as intracellular factors able to alter TEM8 cell surface structure. Overexpression of either of these proteins in cells converted TEM8 from an SB5-exposed to an SB5-masked form and protected cells from SB5-saporin immunotoxins. Because the predominant form of TEM8 on the cell surface is not recognized by SB5, we also developed a new monoclonal antibody, called AF334, which is able to recognize both the SB5-exposed and the SB5-masked forms of TEM8. AF334-saporin selectively killed TEM8-positive cells independent of TEM8 cell surface structure. These studies reveal that TEM8 exists in different forms at the cell surface, a structure dependent on interactions with components of the actin cytoskeleton, and should aid in the rational design of the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic anti-TEM8 monoclonal antibodies.
Angiogenesis; endothelial; actin cytoskeleton; TEM8; ANTXR1
Tumors are thought to be sustained by a reservoir of self-renewing cells, termed tumor initiating cells or cancer stem cells. Osteosarcomas are high-grade sarcomas derived from osteoblast progenitor cells and are the most common pediatric bone malignancy. In this report we show that the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is highly expressed in human and murine osteosarcoma cell lines as well as in tumor samples. Osteosarcoma cells have increased ability to grow in suspension as osteospheres, that are greatly enriched in expression of Sox2 and the stem cell marker, Sca-1. Depletion of Sox2 by shRNAs in independent murine osteosarcoma-derived cells drastically reduces their transformed properties in vitro and their ability to form tumors. Sox2-depleted osteosarcoma cells can no longer form osteospheres, and differentiate into mature osteoblasts. Concomitantly, they exhibit decreased Sca-1 expression and upregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, despite other mutations, these tumor cells maintain a proliferative requirement for Sox2. Our data indicate that Sox2 is required for osteosarcoma cell self-renewal, and that Sox2 antagonizes the pro-differentiation Wnt pathway, that can in turn reduce Sox2 expression. These studies define Sox2 as a survival factor and a novel biomarker of self-renewal in osteosarcomas, and support a tumor suppressive role for the Wnt pathway in tumors of mesenchymal origin. Our findings could provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies based on inhibiting Sox2 or enhancing Wnt signaling for the treatment of osteosarcomas.
Sox2; osteosarcoma; Wnt signaling; cancer stem cell; tumor initiating cell; mesenchymal tumors; differentiation; sarcosphere
Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8; ANTXR1) is one of two anthrax toxin receptors; the other is capillary morphogenesis gene 2 protein (CMG2; ANTXR2). TEM8 shows enhanced expression in certain tumor endothelia, and is thought to be a player in tumor vasculature formation. However, a comprehensive expression profile of individual TEM8 variants in normal or cancerous tissues is lacking. In this work we carried out an extensive analysis of all splice variants of human TEM8 in 12 digestive tissues, and 8 each fetal and adult tissues, 6 of them cognate pairs. Using variant-specific primers, we first ascertained the status of full-length transcripts by nested PCR. We then carried out quantitative analysis of each transcript by real-time PCR. Three splice variants of TEM8 were reported before, two single-pass integral membrane forms (V1 and V2) and one secreted (V3). Our analysis has revealed two new variants, one encoding a membrane-bound form of the receptor and the other secreted, which we have designated V4 and V5, respectively. All tissues had V1, V2, V3, and V4, but only prostate had V5. Real-time PCR revealed that all variants are present at different levels in various tissues. V3 appeared the most abundant of all. To ascertain its functionality for anthrax toxin, we expressed the newly identified form V4 in a receptor-negative host cell, and included V1 and V2 for comparison. Cytotoxicity, toxin binding, and internalization assays showed V4 to be as efficient a receptor as V1 and V2.
Anthrax toxin, a three-component protein toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, assembles into toxic complexes at the surface of receptor-bearing eukaryotic cells. The protective antigen (PA) protein binds to receptors, either tumor endothelial cell marker 8 (TEM8) or capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2), and orchestrates the delivery of the lethal and edema factors into the cytosol. TEM8 is reported to be over-expressed during tumor angiogenesis, whereas CMG2 is more widely expressed in normal tissues. To extend prior work on targeting of tumor with modified anthrax toxins, we used phage display to select PA variants that preferentially bind to TEM8 as compared to CMG2. Substitutions were randomly introduced into residues 605-729 of PA, within the C-terminal domain 4 of PA, which is the principal region that contacts receptor. Candidates were characterized in cellular cytotoxicity assays with CHO cells expressing either TEM8 or CMG2. A PA mutant having the substitutions R659S and M662R had enhanced specificity toward TEM8 over-expressing CHO cells. This PA variant also displayed broad and potent tumoricidal activity to various human tumor cells, especially to HeLa and A549/ATCC cells. By contrast, the substitution N657Q significantly reduced toxicity to TEM8 but not CMG2 over-expressing CHO cells. Our results indicate that certain amino acid substitutions within PA domain 4 create anthrax toxins that selectively kill human tumor cells. The PA R659S/M662R protein may be useful as a therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.
Autocrine motility factor (AMF) plays an important role in the development of metastasis by regulating tumor cell motility. The expression of AMF is associated with metastasis in malignant musculoskeletal tumors including osteosarcoma. Recent studies indicated that hyperthermia contributes to the improvement of the prognosis of patients with soft tissue sarcomas; however, few reports have evaluated the impact of hyperthermia on tumor cell motility, which is an important factor of metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperthermia with or without heat shock protein (HSP) inhibitors on the motility and AMF expression in an osteosarcoma cell line. Hyperthermia was carried out at 41°C for 24 h. According to microarray results, HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma cells under hyperthermia. The intracellular, secreted AMF, mRNA of AMF and cell motility were evaluated by western blotting, ELISA, RT-PCR, wound healing and phagokinetic track assays, respectively. The protein secretion and mRNA levels of AMF and tumor cell motility were significantly decreased by hyperthermia. Of note, the downregulated AMF expression and motility were recovered by the addition of an HSP27 inhibitor. By contrast, the HSP90 and HSP70/72/105 inhibitors had no effect on AMF expression and motility downregulated by hyperthermia. In conclusion, hyperthermia reduced AMF expression and tumor cell motility via HSP27 and may therefore be applied as osteosarcoma treatment.
autocrine motility factor; heat shock protein; hyperthermia; metastasis; motility; osteosarcoma
Mechanisms for receptor-mediated anthrax toxin internalization and delivery to the cytosol are well understood. However, far less is known about the fate followed by anthrax toxin receptors prior and after cell exposure to the toxin. We report that Anthrax Toxin Receptor 1/Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) localized at steady state in Rab11a-positive and transferrin receptor-containing recycling endosomes. TEM8 followed a slow constitutive recycling route of ∼30 minutes as determined by pulsed surface biotinylation and chase experiments. A Rab11a dominant negative mutant and Myosin Vb tail expression impaired TEM8 recycling by sequestering TEM8 in intracellular compartments. Sequestration of TEM8 in intracellular compartments with monensin coincided with increased TEM8 association with a multi-protein complex isolated with antibodies against transferrin receptor. Addition of the cell-binding component of anthrax toxin, Protective Antigen, reduced TEM8 half-life from seven to three hours, without preventing receptor recycling. Pharmacological and molecular perturbation of recycling endosome function using monensin, dominant negative Rab11a, or myosin Vb tail, reduced PA-binding efficiency and TEM8-dependent cell spreading on PA-coated surfaces without affecting toxin delivery to the cytosol. These results indicate that the intracellular fate of TEM8 differentially affect its cell adhesion and cell intoxication functions.
TEM8; anthrax toxin; Rab11; Transferrin Receptor; cell spreading
TEM1/endosialin is an emerging microvascular marker of tumor angiogenesis. We characterized the expression pattern of TEM1/endosialin in astrocytic and metastatic brain tumors and investigated its role as a therapeutic target in human endothelial cells and mouse xenograft models.
In situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IH) and immunofluorescence (IF) were used to localize TEM1/endosialin expression in grade II-IV astrocytomas and metastatic brain tumors on tissue microarrays. Changes in TEM1/endosialin expression in response to pro-angiogenic conditions were assessed in human endothelial cells grown in vitro. Intracranial U87MG glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts were analyzed in nude TEM1/endosialin knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice.
TEM1/endosialin was upregulated in primary and metastatic human brain tumors, where it localized primarily to the tumor vasculature and a subset of tumor stromal cells. Analysis of 275 arrayed grade II-IV astrocytomas demonstrated TEM1/endosialin expression in 79% of tumors. Robust TEM1/endosialin expression occurred in 31% of glioblastomas (grade IV astroctyomas). TEM1/endosialin expression was inversely correlated with patient age. TEM1/endosialin showed limited co-localization with CD31, αSMA and fibronectin in clinical specimens. In vitro, TEM1/endosialin was upregulated in human endothelial cells cultured in matrigel. Vascular Tem1/endosialin was induced in intracranial U87MG GBM xenografts grown in mice. Tem1/endosialin KO vs WT mice demonstrated equivalent survival and tumor growth when implanted with intracranial GBM xenografts, although Tem1/endosialin KO tumors were significantly more vascular than the WT counterparts.
TEM1/endosialin was induced in the vasculature of high-grade brain tumors where its expression was inversely correlated with patient age. Although lack of TEM1/endosialin did not suppress growth of intracranial GBM xenografts, it did increase tumor vascularity. The cellular localization of TEM1/endosialin and its expression profile in primary and metastatic brain tumors support efforts to therapeutically target this protein, potentially via antibody mediated drug delivery strategies.
Endometrial cancer is one of the more frequent and most lethal gynaecological cancer types. Since it occurs more frequently in elderly and overweight patients, a pre-operative staging method would be beneficial. The growth of solid neoplasms is always accompanied by neovascularisation. Tumour endothelial markers (TEMs) are a group of recently described endothelial cell surface markers that appear to be specific to neoplastic tissue. This study aimed to investigate the potential usefulness of TEM assessment in the endometrium by comparing the transcriptional expression of TEMs in the normal endometrium with endometroid adenocarcinoma tissue. Tissues were lysed and the RNA was extracted, assessed and reverse transcribed in one batch. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed for TEM-1, -2, -6, -7, -7r and -8. GAPDH, β-actin and ribosomal protein L13A (RPL13A) were used as control genes. TEM-8 showed the highest expression level in all of the groups. TEM-1 showed higher expression levels in the normal endometrium than in the tumour tissues. For the remaining TEMs, we found a higher expression in the cancer samples than in the normal endometria. Statistical significance of this difference was achieved for TEM-1, -2 and-7. No clear correlation was noted between the tumour stage and the level of TEM-1, -6 and -8 expression. Apart from TEM-6, the highest expression in FIGO I cancer stages was noted in the remaining TEMs. Our results showed that for most of these tumour endothelial markers, gene expression was slightly higher in the endometrial carcinoma tissue samples than in the endometrium of normal cycling women. However, with the possible exception of TEM-8 and -6, absolute expression levels were generally low, indicating that most TEMs may only be specifically expressed in a restricted number of cancer types (e.g., colorectal). Therefore, TEMs may not be useful in the context of endometrial cancer.
tumour endothelial markers; endometrium; endometrial cancer
The metastatic tumor antigen (MTA) gene is a recently identified metastasis-associated gene which has implications in the signal transduction or regulation of gene expression. However, the expression of MTA in osteosarcoma and its potential relationship with metastasis have not been examined, forming the basis of this study.
Materials and Methods
We compared the expression levels of the MTA1 protein between 32 cases of high-grade osteosarcomas and 21 cases of low-grade osteosarcomas by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of MTA1, 2, 3 in these osteosarcoma cell lines and control fibroblasts were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR.
MTA1 immunoreactivity was present in 81.25% of high-grade osteosarcoma specimens. Its expression was predominantly localized to the nucleus or cytoplasm of osteosarcoma cells. Thirteen (86.6%) of 15 patients who died of osteosarcomas displayed strong MTA1 expression. Both primary bone and pulmonary metastatic lesions exhibited MTA1 expression. All low-grade osteosarcomas were negative for MTA1 except for focal weak reactivity in two cases. The tested high-grade osteosarcoma cell lines showed marked amplification of MTA1 and MTA2 mRNA compared to control cells.
These results suggest that MTA might be involved in the progression of high-grade osteosarcoma, particularly in hematogenous metastasis of osteosarcoma.
Metastatic tumor antigen (MTA); Osteosarcoma
Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) has been reported to be upregulated in both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in several cancer types. TEM8 antagonists and TEM8-targeted delivery of toxins have been developed as effective cancer therapeutics. The ability to image TEM8 expression would be of use in evaluating TEM8-targeted cancer therapy.
A 13-meric peptide, KYNDRLPLYISNP (QQM), identified from the small loop in domain IV of protective antigen of anthrax toxin was evaluated for TEM8 binding and labeled with 18F for small-animal PET imaging in both UM-SCC1 head-and-neck cancer and MDA-MB-435 melanoma models.
A modified ELISA showed that QQM peptide bound specifically to the extracellular vWA domain of TEM8 with an IC50 value of 304 nM. Coupling 4-nitrophenyl 2-18F-fluoropropionate with QQM gave almost quantitative yield and a high specific activity (79.2±7.4 TBq/mmol, n=5) of 18F-FP-QQM at the end of synthesis. 18F-FP-QQM showed predominantly renal clearance and had significantly higher accumulation in TEM8 high-expressing UM-SCC1 tumors (2.96±0.84 %ID/g at 1 h after injection) than TEM8 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 tumors (1.38±0.56 %ID/g at 1 h after injection).
QQM peptide bound specifically to the extracellular domain of TEM8. 18F-FP-QQM peptide tracer would be a promising lead compound for measuring TEM8 expression. Further efforts to improve the affinity and specificity of the tracer and to increase its metabolic stability are warranted.
Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8); Small-animal PET; 18F; Peptide
Cathepsin L is a kind of cystein proteases which are known to facilitate the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells by degrading the components of basement membrane and extracellular matrix. This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of cathepsin L by Northern blot analysis with radiolabeled cDNA specific for cathepsin L in six normal tissues, two osteosarcoma cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2, six primary bone tumors and six metastatic bone tumors. In six normal tissues, the highest level of cathepsin L was expressed in liver with the descending order of liver > lung > thymus > ovary > kidney > esophagus. One of the two osteosarcoma cell lines established from the primary sites expressed a high level of cathepsin L mRNA. Out of six primary bone tumors, three (50%) expressed cathepsin L mRNA, while all (100%) of six metastatic bone tumors expressed the mRNA. These results demonstrating the higher frequency of expression of cathepsin L in metastatic bone tumors suggest that cathepsin L may participate in tumor invasion and metastasis.
Tumor Endothelial Marker 8/Anthrax Toxin Receptor 1 (TEM8/ANTXR1) expression is induced in the vascular compartment of multiple tumors and therefore, is a candidate molecule to target tumor therapies. This cell surface molecule mediates anthrax toxin internalization, however, its physiological function in blood vessels remains largely unknown. We identified the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a model system to study the endogenous function of TEM8 in blood vessels as we found that TEM8 expression was induced transiently between day 10 and 12 of embryonic development, when the vascular tree is undergoing final development and growth. We used the cell-binding component of anthrax toxin, Protective Antigen (PA), to engage endogenous TEM8 receptors and evaluate the effects of PA-TEM8 complexes on vascular development. PA applied at the time of highest TEM8 expression reduced vascular density and disrupted hierarchical branching as revealed by quantitative morphometric analysis of the vascular tree after 48h. PA-dependent reduced branching phenotype was partially mimicked by Wnt3a application and ameliorated by the Wnt antagonist, Dikkopf-1. These results implicate TEM8 expression in endothelial cells in regulating the canonical Wnt signaling pathway at this day of CAM development. Consistent with this model, PA increased beta catenin levels acutely in CAM blood vessels in vivo and in TEM8 transfected primary human endothelial cells in vitro. TEM8 expression in Hek293 cells, which neither express endogenous PA-binding receptors nor Wnt ligands, stabilized beta catenin levels and amplified beta catenin-dependent transcriptional activity induced by Wnt3a. This agonistic function is supported by findings in the CAM, where the increase in TEM8 expression from day 10 to day 12 and PA application correlated with Axin 2 induction, a universal reporter gene for canonical Wnt signaling. We postulate that the developmentally controlled expression of TEM8 modulates endothelial cell response to canonical Wnt signaling to regulate vessel patterning and density.
To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer.
mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1.
MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20). In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41) and 36.6% (15/41), while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41) and 14.6% (6/41). In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7) and 14.3% (1/7). The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P < 0.05). Gene expression rate was not correlated with menopause or lymph node metastasis. Positive expression of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was positively correlated with tumor differentiation and the clinical stage of the ovarian cancer. In addition, the positive expression rate of BAGE was significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients with ascites (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression profiles of MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian carcinoma cell lines SKOV3, A2780 and COC1 varied, but there was at least one gene expressed in each cell line.
Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. These genes can be used as one of the important indicators for early diagnosis, efficacy evaluation and prognostic determination of ovarian cancer.
Solid tumors require new blood vessels for growth and metastasis, yet the biology of tumor-specific endothelial cells is poorly understood. We have isolated tumor endothelial cells from mice which spontaneously develop prostate tumors. Clonal populations of tumor endothelial cells expressed hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers and differentiated to form cartilage and bone-like tissues. Chondrogenic differentiation was accompanied by an up-regulation of cartilage-specific col 2a1 and sox 9, whereas osteocalcin and the metastasis marker osteopontin were up-regulated during osteogenic differentiation. In human and mouse prostate tumors, ectopic vascular calcification was predominately luminal and co-localized with the endothelial marker CD31. Thus, prostate tumor endothelial cells are atypically multi-potent and can undergo a mesenchymal-like transition.
endothelial cell; tumor; angiogenesis; stem cell; progenitor; mesenchymal transition; TRAMP; tumor stroma; prostate cancer; metastasis; tumor microenvironment
Metastatic disease is the primary cause of mortality among patients with osteogenic sarcoma (OGS). In this study, we aimed to identify the relationship of COPS3 gene expression to metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining for COPS3 was performed on 65 OGS samples (37 without and 28 with metastatic disease); 18.9% (7/37) of specimens from patients with no metastasis and 57.1% (16/28) of specimens from patients with metastasis showed intense staining of COPS3. Comparison of COPS3 expression between a poorly metastatic osteosarcoma cell line (SAOS-2) and highly metastatic osteosarcoma cell line (HOS) showed stronger expression of COPS3 in HOS cells. Inhibiting COPS3 function by siRNA resulted in reduced proliferation and migration of HOS cells. Inhibition of COPS3 gene downregulated expression of the MAPK signaling pathway, which has an important role in metastasis of OGS. Our results suggested that overexpression of the COPS3 gene might have important roles in metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.
COPS3; osteogenic sarcoma; metastasis; immunostaining; siRNA
The anthrax toxin receptors tumor endothelial marker-8 (TEM-8) and capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG-2) are responsible for allowing entry of anthrax toxin into host cells. However, these receptors were first discovered due to their enhanced expression on endothelial cells undergoing blood vessel growth or angiogenesis in in vitro or in vivo model systems. Targeting and inhibiting angiogenesis is an important strategy for current anti-cancer therapies and treatment of retinal diseases. Structures, tissue expression, and interactions of the TEM-8 and CMG-2 proteins have been documented, and functional roles for these receptors in angiogenesis have recently emerged. TEM-8 appears to regulate endothelial cell migration and tubule formation whereas a role for CMG-2 in endothelial proliferation has been documented. TEM-8 and CMG-2 bind differentially to extracellular matrix proteins including collagen I, collagen IV and laminin and these properties may be responsible for their apparent roles in regulating endothelial cell behavior during angiogenesis. TEM-8-binding moieties have also been suggested to be useful in selectively targeting anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic therapies to tumor endothelium. Additionally, studies of modified forms of lethal toxin (LeTx) have demonstrated that targeted inhibition of MAPKs within tumor vessels may represent an efficacious anti-angiogenic strategy.
Endothelial; angiogenesis; anthrax; intracellular signaling; extracellular matrix
To characterize the expression of fibroblast growth factor binding protein (FGF-BP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to study the association of FGF-BP with vascularity.
The expression of FGF-BP mRNA in HNSCC was studied in 35 primary and 8 metastatic HNSCC specimens and 7 control tissues using in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microvessels in tumor specimens were identified with endothelial cell markers (von Willebrand factor [vWF] and CD34-specific antibodies). Correlates between FGF-BP and microvessel counts were evaluated statistically.
University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics.
Forty-two surgically treated patients with HNSCC.
The patients were routinely treated in the study hospitals and clinics.
Main Outcome Measures
The expression of FGF-BP and angiogenesis in tumors were evaluated.
In situ hybridization and RT-PCR demonstrated that FGF-BP mRNA transcripts were expressed in 34 of 35 primary HNSCC specimens and 5 of 8 metastatic tumor specimens but not in adjacent control tissues. The microvessel counts in HNSCC specimens were closely related to the expression level of FGF-BP (P<.001).
The expression of FGF-BP is statistically linked to the angiogenesis of HNSCC, suggesting that FGF-BP participates in the angiogenesis of HNSCC.
AIM: To investigate the angiogenesis-related protein expression profile characterizing metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with the aim of identifying prognostic markers.
METHODS: The expression of 44 angiogenesis-secreted factors was measured by a novel cytokine antibody array methodology. The study evaluated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR)-1 protein levels by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in a panel of 16 CRC cell lines. mRNA VEGF and VEGF-A isoforms were quantified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Metastasis-derived CRC cell lines expressed a distinctive molecular profile as compared with those isolated from a primary tumor site. Metastatic CRC cell lines were characterized by higher expression of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), macrophage chemoattractant proteins-3/4 (MCP-3/4), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and the chemokines interferon γ inducible T cell α chemoattractant protein (I-TAC), monocyte chemoattractant protein I-309, and interleukins interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-1α, as compared to primary tumor cell lines. In contrast, primary CRC cell lines expressed higher levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IL-6, leptin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), thrombopoietin, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and VEGF-D, as compared with the metastatic cell lines. VEGF expression does not significantly differ according to the CRC cellular origin in normoxia. Severe hypoxia induced VEGF expression up-regulation but contrary to expectations, metastatic CRC cell lines did not respond as much as primary cell lines to the hypoxic stimulus. In CRC primary-derived cell lines, we observed a two-fold increase in VEGF expression between normoxia and hypoxia as compared to metastatic cell lines. CRC cell lines express a similar pattern of VEGF isoforms (VEGF121, VEGF165 and VEGF189) despite variability in VEGF expression, where the major transcript was VEGF121. No relevant expression of VEGFR-2 was found in CRC cell lines, as compared to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and sVEGFR-1 expression did not depend on the CRC cellular origin.
CONCLUSION: A distinct angiogenesis-related expression pattern characterizes metastatic CRC cell lines. Factors other than VEGF appear as prognostic markers and intervention targets in the metastatic CRC setting.
Colorectal cancer metastasis; Cytokine-antibody array; Angiogenesis; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Biomarkers
Osteosarcoma is a high-grade malignant bone tumor that manifests ingravescent clinical behavior. The intrinsic events that confer malignant properties on osteosarcoma cells have remained unclear, however. We previously established two lines of mouse osteosarcoma cells: AX cells, which are able to form tumors in syngeneic mice, and AXT cells, which were derived from such tumors and acquired an increased tumorigenic capacity during tumor development. We have now identified Igf2 mRNA-binding protein3 (Imp3) as a key molecule responsible for this increased tumorigenicity of AXT cells in vivo. Imp3 is consistently up-regulated in tumors formed by AX cells, and its expression in these cells was found to confer malignant properties such as anchorage-independent growth, loss of contact inhibition, and escape from anoikis in vitro. The expression level of Imp3 also appeared directly related to tumorigenic ability in vivo which is the critical determination for tumor-initiating cells. The effect of Imp3 on tumorigenicity of osteosarcoma cells did not appear to be mediated through Igf2-dependent mechanism. Our results implicate Imp3 as a key regulator of stem-like tumorigenic characteristics in osteosarcoma cells and as a potential therapeutic target for this malignancy.
Growth of human malignant gliomas is stringently dependent on an angiogenic process that probably involves vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Expressions of mRNA coding for the different forms of VEGF were analyzed in surgical specimens from human astrocytomas. Low levels of placental growth factor (PGF) and VEGFC mRNA were observed in polymerase chain reaction, but not in Northern blot experiments. VEGF mRNA was found in some but not all grade and grade IV astrocytomas. VEGFB mRNA was observed in all tissue samples analyzed irrespective of the tumor grade. A new splice variant of VEGFB (VEGFB155) that lacks exons 5 and 6 is described. Expressions of VEGF mRNA in cultured glioblastomas cells were upregulated by hypoxia, but the sensitivity of the cells to hypoxia was reduced as compared with normal rat astrocytes. VEGF expression was depressed by dexamethasone. Expressions of VEGFB mRNA were affected neither by hypoxia nor by dexamethasone. The results indicate a coexpression of VEGF mRNA and VEGFB mRNA in human astrocytomas. Expression of VEGFB is markedly different from that of VEGF. Possible roles of VEGFB as a cofactor for hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in human astrocytomas are discussed.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent studies have shown that extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) promotes adhesion, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumor cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of EMMPRIN/CD147 expression on prognosis and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with osteosarcoma. The expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 in 55 surgical specimens from patients with osteosarcoma at stage IIA or above, 15 non-tumor rib bone tissues, three human osteosarcoma cell lines (Saos-2, U-2OS and MG-63), the human osteoblast cell line HOB and the malignant melanoma cell line A375 were examined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and ELISA, respectively. The potential association of the levels of EMMPRIN/CD147 expression in osteosarcoma specimens with the overall survival of patients was statistically analyzed. We found that the EMMPRIN/CD147 was expressed in 45 out of 55 osteosarcomas, with immunoreactivity primarily within the membrane and cytoplasm of tumor cells, but not in the non-tumor bone tissues. We also observed that EMMPRIN/CD147 was expressed in Saos-2, U-2OS, MG-63 and A375, but not in HOB cells. The levels of EMMPRIN/CD147 expression correlated positively with the pathological degree of osteosarcoma and negatively with the survival period of patients with osteosarcoma. The expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 is a potential factor in the development and prognosis of osteosarcoma and may be a novel therapeutic target of human osteosarcoma.
extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer; osteosarcoma; prognosis; overall survival
To study abnormalities of the FHIT gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), eight liver cancer cell lines, 18 matched tumorous and non-tumorous tissues from patients with HCC and three normal liver tissues were analysed by microsatellite polymorphism analysis and reverse transcription of FHIT mRNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the products. No loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 3p14.2 as defined by markers D3S1300 and D3S1312 was detected in any of the specimens. In addition, a normal transcript of the gene without any sequence change was found to be expressed in all the cell lines, 17 of the 18 tumorous and all 21 non-tumorous liver tissues tested. Although five out of eight liver cancer cell lines (62.5%), 12 out of 18 HCC tissues (66.7%) and 8 out of 18 paired non-tumorous liver tissues (44.4%) displayed abnormal faint bands of smaller size, sequence analysis revealed that they were aberrant FHIT transcripts lacking three or more exons and might represent alternatively spliced transcripts only. In conclusion, these studies indicate that abnormalities of the FHIT gene transcripts occur in a fairly high frequency of tumorous and non-tumorous liver tissues. However, it might not be causally related to the hepatocarcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Application of the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identification of circulating tumour cells in colorectal cancer. AIMS: To assess whether circulating malignant cells in patients with colorectal liver metastasis could be identified by RT-PCR recognition of mRNA coding for the tumour marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). PATIENTS: A total of 31 with colorectal liver metastases and 22 no-cancer controls. METHODS: Specific cDNA primers for CEA transcripts were used to apply RT-PCR to tissue biopsy specimens, colon carcinoma cell lines, and peripheral blood samples from patients with colorectal liver metastases. A strongly CEA-expressive HT115 colorectal carcinoma cell line was used to spike blood samples from no-cancer control subjects. RESULTS: The limit for detection of CEA cDNA by Southern blotting using HT115 cells was 50 cells per 14 ml of spiked blood. There was a significant difference (p = 0.007) in RT-PCR positive expression between patients with liver metastasis (26/31) compared with controls (5/22). There was no significant relation between the prevalence of CEA cDNA amplification and serum CEA level or metastasis volume in patients with liver metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to suggest that identification of circulating colorectal cancer cells using RT-PCR for detection of CEA cDNA is feasible.