Rationale: The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important detoxification enzymes.
Objectives: To investigate effects of variants in GST mu genes on lung function and assess their interactions with tobacco smoke exposure.
Methods: In this prospective study, 14,836 lung function measurements were collected from 2,108 children who participated in two Southern California cohorts. For each child, tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTM4, and GSTM5 loci were genotyped. Using principal components and haplotype analyses, the significance of each locus in relation to level and growth of FEV1, maximum midexpiratory flow rate (MMEF), and FVC was evaluated. Interactions between loci and tobacco smoke on lung function were also investigated.
Measurements and Main Results: Variation in the GST mu family locus was associated with lower FEV1 (P = 0.01) and MMEF (0.04). Two haplotypes of GSTM2 were associated with FEV1 and MMEF, with effect estimates in opposite directions. One haplotype in GSTM3 showed a decrease in growth for MMEF (−164.9 ml/s) compared with individuals with other haplotypes. One haplotype in GSTM4 showed significantly decreased growth in FEV1 (−51.3 ml), MMEF (−69.1 ml/s), and FVC (−44.4 ml), compared with all other haplotypes. These results were consistent across two independent cohorts. Variation in GSTM2 was particularly important for FVC and FEV1 among children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy.
Conclusions: Genetic variation across the GST mu locus is associated with 8-year lung function growth. Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy and had variation in GSTM2 had lower lung function growth.
FEV1; in utero; glutathione S-transferase; tobacco smoke
Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a supergene family of dimeric enzymes capable of detoxifying a number of carcinogenic electrophiles. Of the numerous components of tobacco smoke, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appear to be the principal compounds that yield substrates for these enzymes, GSTM1-1 being effective with those PAH derivatives so far studied; however, the gene locus for GSTM1 is polymorphic, containing two well-characterized expressing genes and a null allele. Use of cDNA for GSTM1-1 or appropriate fragments of genomic clones as probes in Southern blots indicated that the null allele is due to the absence of GSTM1. In preliminary experiments, described here, with lung tissue from smokers, levels of 32P-postlabeled nuclease P1-enhanced DNA adducts were inversely correlated with levels of antigen cross-reacting with antibody to GSTM1-1, suggesting that initiation depends on the expression of GSTM1-1. Since similar quantities of DNA adducts and GSTM1-1 activity have been shown to occur in bronchial and peripheral lung, however, the development of malignancy, which is usually in the bronchial region, presumably depends on additional factors that bring about promotion and progression, which are not necessarily affected by GSTM1 expression. Two epidemiological studies have been carried out in which a possible correlation between the absence of GSTM1 and lung cancer incidence is considered. In the first, involving a U.S. population sample, smokers with and without lung cancer were phenotyped, and a highly significant correlation between the absence of GSTM1-1 activity and adenocarcinoma of the lung was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in tobacco smoke detoxification, interestingly approximately 50% of individuals in most human populations lack the gene GSTM1 due to copy number variation (CNV). We aimed to investigate GSTM1 CNV in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in relation to smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope; the two best known risk factors for RA and in addition, to perform subanalyses in patients where relations between variations in GSTM1 and RA have previously been described.
qPCR was performed using TaqMan Copy Number assays (Applied Biosystems) for 2426 incident RA cases and 1257 controls from the Swedish EIRA. Odds ratio (OR) together with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated and used as a measure of the relative risk of developing RA.
No association between RA and GSTM1 CNV was observed when analyzing whole EIRA. However, ≥1 copy of GSTM1 appears to be a significant risk factor for autoantibody positive RA in non-smoking females ≥60 years (OR: 2.00 95% CI: 1.07–3.74), a population where such relationships have previously been described. Our data further suggest a protective effect of GSTM1 in ACPA-negative smoking men (OR: 0.56 95% CI: 0.35–0.90).
We assessed the exact number of GSTM1 gene copies in relation to development and severity of RA. Our data provide support for the notion that variations in copy numbers of GSTM1 may influence risk in certain subsets of RA, but do not support a role for GSTM1 CNV as a factor that more generally modifies the influence of smoking on RA.
The gene for glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 (GSTM1), a member of the GST-superfamily, is widely studied in cancer risk with regard to the homozygous deletion of the gene (GSTM1 null), leading to a lack of corresponding enzymatic activity. Many of these studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding its association with cancer risk. Therefore, we employed in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches to investigate whether the absence of a functional GSTM1 enzyme in a null variant can be compensated for by other family members. Through the in silico approach, we identified maximum structural homology between GSTM1 and GSTM2. Total plasma GST enzymatic activity was similar in recruited individuals, irrespective of their GSTM1 genotype (positive/null). Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR, western blotting, and GSTM2 overexpression following transient knockdown of GSTM1 in HeLa cells confirmed that the absence of GSTM1 activity can be compensated for by the overexpression of GSTM2.
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) metabolises xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Functional variants at this locus have been associated with respiratory diseases. The effects of EPHX1 variants may depend upon exposures from tobacco smoke and traffic emissions that contain PAHs as well as variants in other enzymes in the PAH metabolic pathway such as glutathione S‐transferase (GST) genes. A study was undertaken to investigate associations of variants in EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 with asthma and the relationships between asthma, EPHX1 metabolic phenotypes and exposure to sources of PAHs.
Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate the associations of genetic variants and exposures with asthma phenotypes using data from 3124 children from the Children's Health Study.
High EPHX1 activity was associated with an increased risk for lifetime asthma (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.98) which varied by GSTP1 Ile105Val genotype and by residential proximity to major roads (p for interaction = 0.006 and 0.03, respectively). Among children with GSTP1 105Val/Val genotype, those who had high EPHX1 phenotype had a fourfold (95% CI 1.97 to 8.16) increased risk of lifetime asthma than children with low/intermediate EPHX1 phenotype. Among children living within 75 metres of a major road, those with high EPHX1 activity had a 3.2‐fold (95% CI 1.75 to 6.00) higher lifetime asthma risk than those with low/intermediate activity. The results were similar for current, early persistent and late onset asthma. Children with high EPHX1 phenotype, GSTP1 Val/Val genotype who lived <75 metres from a major road were at the highest asthma risk.
EPHX1 and GSTP1 variants contribute to the occurrence of childhood asthma and increase asthma susceptibility to exposures from major roads.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of various toxic compounds like carcinogens in cigarette smoke and tobacco by conjugating to toxic compounds and inactivating their hazardous effect. Variation in Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs) genes may alter the catalytic efficiency of GST isoenzymes leading to potential increase in cancer susceptibility due to various carcinogens. We therefore, investigated association of GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 variants with susceptibility to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and cigarette, tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption as confounding factors in 141 BPH and 184 healthy controls. Results showed increased risk for BPH susceptibility in patients with GSTM1 null genotype (OR-2.03, p = 0.013) and smoking (OR-3.12, p = 0.028), tobacco chewing (OR-2.54, p = 0.039) and alcohol habits (OR-3.39, p = 0.010). Null genotype of GSTM1 with cigarette, tobacco and alcohol habits predisposed increased risk for BPH.
Glutathione S-transferases; benign prostate hyperplasia; genotype; polymorphism; smoking; multiplex PCR
Background: It has been suggested that the genetically determined deficiency of glutathione S transferase (GST) enzymes involved in the detoxification of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) components may contribute to the development of asthma.
Methods: A large population of German schoolchildren (n = 3054) was genotyped for deficiencies of the GST isoforms M1 and T1. The association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and asthma as well as atopy was investigated with respect to current and in utero ETS exposure.
Results: In children lacking the GSTM1 allele who were exposed to current ETS the risk for current asthma (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 18.6) and asthma symptoms such as wheeze ever (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 6.0), current wheezing (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 12.6) and shortness of breath (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.1 to 38.4) was higher than in GSTM1 positive individuals without ETS exposure. Hints of an interaction between ETS exposure and GSTM1 deficiency were identified. In utero smoke exposure in GSTT1 deficient children was associated with significant decrements in lung function compared with GSTT1 positive children not exposed to ETS.
Conclusions: GSTM1 and GSTT1 deficiency may increase the adverse health effects of in utero and current smoke exposure.
Rationale: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) and traffic-related air pollutants are associated with asthma and allergy. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and SHS can interact with allergens in exacerbating allergic airway diseases through generation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize reactive oxygen species and detoxify electrophilic xenobiotics present in SHS and DEPs.
Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that functional GSTM1-null genotype and GSTP1 codon 105 variants (Ile105 and Val105) are determinants of allergic responses to SHS, and that responses to SHS and DEPs are correlated.
Methods and Measurements: In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 19 ragweed allergen–sensitive subjects who had previously participated in a DEP trial were challenged intranasally with allergen after having been exposed to either clean air or SHS at separate visits. Nasal allergen–specific IgE, histamine, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels were measured before and after allergen challenge.
Main Results: Individuals with GSTM1-null or GSTP1 Ile105 genotypes showed larger nasal responses to allergens with SHS compared with clean air. GSTM1-null subjects had a larger increase in IgE than GSTM1-present subjects (median, 173.3 vs. 46.7 U/ml; p = 0.03), and the Ile105 GSTP1 genotype subjects had increased histamine (median, 10.2 vs. 4.6 nM; p = 0.01) after SHS plus allergen challenge. Responses to SHS and DEPs were correlated. Enhancement of IgE and histamine was greatest in the subjects with both the GSTM1-null and GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes.
Conclusions: GSTM1 and GSTP1 are important cytoprotective factors that reduce SHS and DEP exacerbation of allergic responses.
GSTM1; GSTP1; histamine, IgE; tobacco smoke
Genetic susceptibility to tobacco smoke might modify the effect of smoking on pregnancy outcomes.
We conducted a case–control study of 543 women who delivered singleton live births in Kaunas (Lithuania), examining the association between low-level tobacco smoke exposure (mean: 4.8 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy, GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and birthweight of the infant. Multiple linear-regression analysis was performed adjusting for gestational age, maternal education, family status, body mass index, blood pressure, and parity. Subsequently, we tested for the interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes polymorphisms with birthweight by adding all the product terms in the regression models.
The findings suggested a birthweight reduction among light-smoking with the GSTT1–null genotype (−162.9 g, P = 0.041) and those with the GSTM1–null genotype (−118.7 g, P = 0.069). When a combination of these genotypes was considered, birthweight was significantly lower for infants of smoking women the carriers of the double-null genotypes (−311.2 g, P = 0.008). The interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes was marginally significant on birthweight (−234.5 g, P = 0.078). Among non-smokers, genotype did not independently confer an adverse effect on infant birthweight.
The study shows the GSTT1–null genotype, either presents only one or both with GSTM1–null genotype in a single subject, have a modifying effect on birthweight among smoking women even though their smoking is low level. Our data also indicate that identification of the group of susceptible subjects should be based on both environmental exposure and gene polymorphism. Findings of this study add additional evidence on the interplay among two key GST genes and maternal smoking on birth weight of newborns.
Birthweight; GST polymorphisms; Smoking; Interaction
The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. However, it is not known if GSTM1 modulates these ozone responses in vivo in humans
The purpose of this study was to determine if the GSTM1 null genotype modulates ozone responses in humans.
Thirty-five normal volunteers were genotyped for the GSTM1 null mutation and underwent a standard ozone exposure protocol to determine if lung function and inflammatory responses to ozone were different between the 19 GSTM1 normal and 16 GSTM1 null volunteers.
GSTM1 did not modulate lung function responses to acute ozone. Granulocyte influx 4 hours after challenge was similar between GSTM1 normal and null volunteers. However, GSTM1 null volunteers had significantly increased airway neutrophils 24 hours after challenge, as well as increased expression of HLA-DR on airway macrophages and dendritic cells.
The GSTM1 null genotype is associated with increased airways inflammation 24 hours following ozone exposure, consistent with the lag time observed between increased ambient air ozone exposure and exacerbations of lung disease.
These observations suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype likely confers increased risk for exacerbation of ozone-induced lung disease through promoting an enhanced neutrophilic and monocytic inflammatory response to ozone.
The GSTM1 null genotype is associated with increased risk for ozone-induced lung disease. We report the GSTM1 genotype modulates ozone-induced inflammation but not lung function, and may predict persons at risk for environmental lung disease.
Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1; Ozone; Pollution; Inflammation; Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil; Macrophage; Dendritic cell
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of many xenobiotics, including a wide range of environmental carcinogens. While the null genotypes in GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been implicated in tumorigenesis, it remains inconsistent and inconclusive. Herein, we aimed to assess the possible associations of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype in cancer risks.
A meta-analysis based on 506 case-control studies was performed. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association.
The null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were associated with a significantly increased risk in cancer (for GSTM1: OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.14–1.21; for GSTT1: OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 1.11–1.21, respectively). When the analysis was performed based on their smoking history, the risk associated of GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes with cancer is further increased (for GSTM1: OR = 2.66; 95%CI = 2.19–3.24; for GSTT1: OR = 2.46; 95%CI = 1.83–3.32, respectively).
These findings indicate that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms may play critical roles in the development of cancer, especially in smokers.
The pathogenesis of cataract is influenced by a number of factors including oxidative stress. Glutathione S‐transferase (GST) catalyses the nucleophilic addition of the thiol of GST to electrophilic acceptors. It is important for detoxification of xenobiotics in order to protect tissues from oxidative damage.
To examine whether the interaction of polymorphism of GSTM1 gene and occupational sunlight exposure modulate the risk of cataract.
Blood samples from 95 subjects with cataract and 95 age and sex matched healthy persons were collected. The genotypes of GSTM1 were determined using PCR.
The null genotype of GSTM1 was associated with an increase in cataract risk in the indoor workplace, but this association was not significant in the outdoor subjects.
The active genotype of GSTM1 has lost its protective role in persons who work outdoors. It is suggested that activity of the GSTμ enzyme may be inhibited in the human lens after occupational exposure to UV light.
cataract; ultraviolet; genetic polymorphism; GSTM1
The objective of this study was to determine copy number variant (CNV) and promoter genetic variants in glutathione S-transferase Mu class 1 (GSTM1) and the risk of recurrence (REC)/second primary tumor (SPT) in patients with previously diagnosed early stage head and neck cancer. Among 441 subjects, 133 experienced REC and/or an SPT, while 308 had single primary disease. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the exact copy number of GSTM1 and direct sequencing was used to determine genetic variants in the GSTM1 promoter region. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with copy number and genetic variants. REC/SPT-free survival times were compared by constructing Kaplan–Meier curves and differences between curves were tested by logrank test. Results showed a significantly decreased REC/SPT (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.35–0.95) and longer REC/SPT-free survival in subjects with at least two copies of GSTM1 compared with the GSTM1 homozygous deletion, but not in those with one copy of GSTM1. The −498G, −426G, and −339T alleles were significantly associated with REC/SPT, with HRs of 0.11 (0.02–0.85), 0.28 (0.11–0.74) and 2.02 (1.07–3.82), respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the −498G, −426G, and −339C alleles were also significantly associated with increased REC/SPT-free survival. Further haplotype analysis showed the haplotype P−498G-−426G-−339C carriers had decreased REC/SPT with a HR of 0.09 (95% CI 0.01–0.71) and increased REC/SPT-free survival compared with those with haplotype P−498C-−426A-−339T. The P−498C-−426A-−339T-containing reporter construct had significantly increased luciferase expression. These results suggest that the GSTM1 CNV and promoter haplotype are better predictors of REC/SPTs of head and neck cancer than just measuring the presence/absence of GSTM1.
GSTM1; copy number variant; REC; SPT; single nucleotide polymorphism
Studies over the past two decades have reported associations between GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase mu 1) null genotype and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. However, a modifier or confounding effect from COPD mediating the GSTM1 association with lung cancer has not been previously explored.
Aim and methods
This variant was examined in a case-control study of current or former smokers with COPD (n = 669), lung cancer (n = 454), or normal lung function (n = 488). Sex, age, and smoking history were comparable between groups.
The GSTM1 null genotype was found to be more frequent in smokers with COPD alone (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.66, P = 0.031) and lung cancer (OR 1.26, 95% CI 0.96–1.65, P = 0.083) than in matched smokers with normal lung function (62%, 61%, and 56%, respectively). However, when smokers with lung cancer were subgrouped according to the presence of COPD, then the association with all COPD subjects (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.70, P = 0.010) and with COPD and lung cancer (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06–2.12, P = 0.018) continued to be significant while that with lung cancer only was reduced (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.78–1.56, P = 0.55). These associations were independent of age, sex, height, lung function, and smoking history.
Findings suggest that COPD is an important subphenotype of lung cancer and may underlie previously reported associations with the GSTM1 null genotype.
lung cancer; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GSTM1; association study; polymorphism; copy number variant
Some epidemiologic studies suggest that maternal consumption of cured meat during pregnancy may increase risk of brain tumors in offspring. We explored whether this possible association was modified by fetal genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) that may inactivate nitroso compounds.
We assessed six GST variants: GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1I105V (rs1695), GSTP1A114V (rs1138272), GSTM3*B (3 bp deletion), and GSTM3A-63C (rs1332018) within a population-based case-control study with data on maternal prenatal cured meat consumption (202 cases and 286 controls born in California or Washington, 1978-1990).
Risk of childhood brain tumor increased with increasing cured meat intake by the mother during pregnancy among children without GSTT1 (odds ratio [OR]=1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.57 for each increase in the frequency of consumption per week) or with potentially reduced GSTM3 (any -63C allele, OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26), whereas no increased risk was observed among those with GSTT1 or presumably normal GSTM3 levels (interaction p=0.01 for each).
Fetal ability to deactivate nitrosoureas may modify the association between childhood brain tumors and maternal prenatal consumption of cured meats.
These results support the hypothesis that maternal avoidance during pregnancy of sources of some nitroso compounds or their precursors may reduce risk of brain tumors in some children.
brain neoplasms; child; glutathione transferase; meat; nitro compounds
Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between glutathione S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) null polymorphisms and childhood acute leukemia; however, the conclusions remain controversial. We performed an extensive meta-analysis on 26 published case-control studies with a total of 3252 cases and 5024 controls. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval were used to assess the strength of association between childhood acute leukemia risk and polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1. With respect to GSTM1 polymorphism, significantly increased risk of childhood acute leukemia was observed in the overall analysis (OR = 1.30; 95%CI, 1.11-1.51). Furthermore, a stratification analysis showed that the risk of GSTM1 polymorphism are associated with childhood acute leukemia in group of Asians (OR = 1.94; 95%CI, 1.53-2.46), Blacks (OR = 1.76; 95%CI, 1.07-2.91), ALL (OR = 1.33; 95%CI, 1.13-1.58), ‘< 100 cases and <100 controls’ (OR = 1.79; 95%CI, 1.21-2.64), ‘≥ 100 cases and ≥ 100 controls’ (OR = 1.25; 95%CI, 1.02-1.52), and population-based control source (OR = 1.40; 95%CI, 1.15-1.69). With respect to GSTT1 polymorphism, significant association with childhood acute leukemia risk was only found in subgroup of Asian. This meta-analysis supports that GSTM1 null polymorphism is capable of causing childhood acute leukemia susceptibility.
Background. A positive association between genetic polymorphism and asthma may not be extrapolated from one ethnic group to another based on intra- and interethnic allelic and genotype frequencies differences.
Objective. We assessed whether polymorphisms of GST genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) are associated with asthma and atopy among Tunisian children. Methods. 112 unrelated healthy individuals and 105 asthmatic (73 atopic and 32 nonatopic) children were studied. Genotyping the polymorphisms in the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was performed using the multiplex PCR. The GSTP1 ILe105Val polymorphism was determined using PCR-RFLP. Results.
GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with the increased risk of asthma (P = .002). Asthmatic children had a higher prevalence of the GSTP1Ile105 allele than the control group (43.8% and 33.5%, respectively; P = .002). Also, the presence of the GSTP1 homozygote Val/Val was less common in subjects with asthma than in control group. We have found that GSTT1 null genotype (GSTT1 *0/*0) was significantly associated with atopy (P = .008). Conclusion. Polymorphisms within genes of the GST superfamily were associated with risk of asthma and atopy in Tunisia.
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1β proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression were also investigated.
IL-8 and IL-1β protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting.
Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100 μg/ml DEP for 24 h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1β protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation could be increased by GSTM1 knockdown. In addition, pretreatment of HBEC with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly inhibited DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, and subsequent IL-8 and IL-1β expression.
GSTM1 regulates DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells by modulation of ROS, ERK and Akt signaling.
Diesel exhaust particles; ROS; GSTM1; ERK; Akt
Glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) is an important phase II metabolizing enzyme. The null genotype of GSTM1 causes total loss of GSTM1 enzyme activity and numerous studies have investigated the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk.
This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between GSTM1 null genotype and susceptibility to gastric cancer and assess the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, Lauren’s classification, and other factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength.
A total of 46 eligible studies were indentified and analyzed in this meta-analysis, including 8138 cases of gastric cancer and 13867 controls. Pooled results showed that the GSTM1 null genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.217, 95% CI: 1.113-1.331, Pheterogeneity<0.001). Sub-group analysis suggested that the significant association was only observed in Asians (OR=1.273, 95%: 1.137-1.426, Pheterogeneity = 0.002), but not in Caucasians. The increased risk was found among H. pylori positive population (OR=1.928, 95% CI: 1.028-3.615, Pheterogeneity=0.065), while no association was found among H. pylori negative population (OR=0.969, 95% CI: 0.618-1.521, Pheterogeneity=0.168). For smoking status, the GSTM1 null genotype increased risk of gastric cancer in both ever-smokers and non-smokers. Source of control, sample size, location of tumor and Lauren’s classification did not modify the association.
In this meta-analysis based on 46 epidemiological studies, we show that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer among Asians but not among Caucasians. H. pylori infection but not smoking status could modify the association.
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes detoxify and metabolize carcinogens, including oxygen free radicals which may contribute to salivary gland carcinogenesis. This cancer center-based case-control association study included 166 patients with incident salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) and 511 cancer-free controls. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based polymorphism genotyping assays for GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, tobacco use, family history of cancer, alcohol use and radiation exposure. In our results, 27.7% of the SGC cases and 20.6% of the controls were null for the GSTT1 (P = 0.054), and 53.0% of the SGC cases and 50.9% of the controls were null for the GSTM1 (P = 0.633). The results of the adjusted multivariale regression analysis suggested that having GSTT1 null genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for SGC (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0–2.3). Additionally, 13.9% of the SGC cases but only 8.4% of the controls were null for both genes and the results of the adjusted multivariable regression analysis suggested that having both null genotypes was significantly associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk for SGC (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.0–3.5). The presence of GSTT1 null genotype and the simultaneous presence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes appear associated with significantly increased SGC risk. These findings warrant further study with larger sample sizes.
Glutathione S-transferase (GST); single nucleotide polymorphism; salivary gland carcinoma (SGC); genetic susceptibility; molecular epidemiology
Studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that the GSTM1 null phenotype at the mu (mu) class glutathione S-transferase 1 locus is associated with an increased predisposition to primary biliary cirrhosis. Starch gel electrophoresis was used to compare the prevalence of GSTM1 null phenotype 0 in patients with end stage primary biliary cirrhosis and a group of controls without evidence of liver disease. The prevalence of GSTM1 null phenotype in the primary biliary cirrhosis and control groups was similar; 39% and 45% respectively. In the primary biliary cirrhosis group all subjects were of the common GSTM1 0, GSTM1 A, GSTM1 B or GSTM1 A, B phenotypes while in the controls, one subject showed an isoform with an anodal mobility compatible with it being a product of the putative GSTM1*3 allele. As the GSTM1 phenotype might be changed by the disease process, the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the exon 4-exon 5 region of GSTM1 and show that in 13 control subjects and 11 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, GSTM1 positive and negative genotypes were associated with corresponding GSTM1 expressing and non-expressing phenotypes respectively. The control subject with GSTM1 3 phenotype showed a positive genotype.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are known to abolish or reduce the activities of intracellular enzymes that help detoxify environmental carcinogens, such as those found in tobacco smoke. It has been suggested that polymorphisms in the
GST genes are risk factors for lung cancer, but a large number of studies have reported apparently conflicting results.
Methods and Findings
Literature-based meta-analysis was supplemented by tabular data from investigators of all relevant studies of five
GST polymorphisms (
GSTT1 null, I105V, and A114V polymorphisms in the
GSTP1 genes, and
GSTM3 intron 6 polymorphism) available before August, 2005, with investigation of potential sources of heterogeneity. Included in the present meta-analysis were 130 studies, involving a total of 23,452 lung cancer cases and 30,397 controls. In a combined analysis, the relative risks for lung cancer of the
GSTM1 null and
GSTT1 null polymorphisms were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–1.23) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02–1.16), respectively, but in the larger studies they were only 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95–1.14) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.86–1.11), respectively. In addition to size of study, ethnic background was a significant source of heterogeneity among studies of the
GSTM1 null genotype, with possibly weaker associations in studies of individuals of European continental ancestry. Combined analyses of studies of the 105V, 114V, and
GSTM3*B variants showed no significant overall associations with lung cancer, yielding per-allele relative risks of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.99–1.09), 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.39), and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89–1.23), respectively.
The risk of lung cancer is not strongly associated with the I105V and A114V polymorphisms in the
GSTP1 gene or with
GSTM3 intron 6 polymorphism. Given the non-significant associations in the larger studies, the relevance of the weakly positive overall associations with the
GSTM1 null and the
GSTT1 null polymorphisms is uncertain. As lung cancer has important environmental causes, understanding any genetic contribution to it in general populations will require the conduct of particularly large and comprehensive studies.
Large meta-analysis finds little evidence for a link between gene variants encoding inactive or less active variants of detoxifying enzymes and lung cancer risk.
Glutathione S-transferase (GST)M1, a member of the μ class GST gene family, has been shown to be polymorphic because of a partial gene deletion. This results in a failure to express the GSTM1 gene in 50-60% of individuals. Several studies have demonstrated a possible link with the GSTM1-null genotype and susceptibility to cancer. Furthermore, a GSTM1 isoenzyme has been positively associated with protective effect against mutagenic drugs, such as alkylating agents and anthracyclines.
To determine whether GSTM1 polymorphisms are associated with tumour characteristics and survival in advanced breast cancer patients, and whether it may constitute a prognostic factor.
We genotyped 92 patients receiving primary chemotherapy, which included cyclophosphamide, doxorubicine and 5-fluorouracil. The relationships between allelism at GSTM1 and clinicopathological parameters including age, menopausal status, tumour size, grade hormone receptors, involved nodes and p53 gene mutations were analysed. Of the patients with GSTM1-positive genotype, tissue samples obtained before and after treatment were available from 28 cases, allowing RNA extraction and GSTM1 expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Relationships with clinical response to chemotherapy, and disease-free and overall survival were also evaluated. The data obtained was analysed using logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval.
Of 92 patients, 57.6% (n = 53) were classified as heritably GSTM1-deficient, and 42.4% (n = 39) were of the GSTM1-positive genotype. There were no statistically significant relationships between GSTM1-null genotype and the clinicopathological parameters analysed. No relationship was observed between GSTM1 RNA expression and objective clinical response to chemotherapy. Objective clinical response to chemotherapy was related only to clinical tumour size (P = 0.0177) and to the absence of intraductal carcinoma (P = 0.0013). GSTM1-null genotype had no effect on disease-free or overall survival. The absence of hormone receptors (P = 0.002), the presence of a mutated p53 gene (P = 0.0098) and lack of response to primary chemotherapy (P = 0.0086) were the only factors associated with reduced disease-free or overall survival.
GSTM1-null genotype alone had no effect on tumour characteristics and outcome of patients with advanced breast cancers. The lack of correlation of GSTM1 genotype with clinical tumour features, clinical response to chemotherapy and survival exclude a role for GSTM1 polymorphism as a prognostic factor in advanced breast cancer.
advanced breast cancer; GSTM1 polymorphism; p53 gene mutations; prognosis; response to chemotherapy
About half of the world’s population is exposed to smoke from heating or cooking with coal, wood, or biomass. These exposures, and fumes from cooking oil use, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in the detoxification of a wide range of human carcinogens in these exposures. Functional polymorphisms have been identified in the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes, which may alter the risk of lung cancer among individuals exposed to coal, wood and biomass smoke and cooking oil fumes. We performed a meta-analysis of six published studies (912 cases; 1063 controls) from regions in Asia where indoor air pollution makes a substantial contribution to lung cancer risk, and evaluated the association between the GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and GSTP1 105Val polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Using a random effects model, we found that carriers of the GSTM1 null genotype had a borderline significant increased lung cancer risk (odds ratio (OR), 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95–1.79; p=0.100), which was particularly evident in the summary risk estimate for the four studies carried out in regions of Asia that use coal for heating and cooking (OR, 1.64; 95%CI, 1.25–2.14; p=0.0003). The GSTT1 null genotype was also associated with an increased lung cancer risk (OR, 1.49; 95%CI, 1.17–1.89; p=0.001), but no association was observed for the GSTP1 105Val allele. Previous meta- and pooled-analyses suggest at most a small association between the GSTM1 null genotype and lung cancer risk carried out in populations where the vast majority of lung cancer is attributed to tobacco, and where indoor air pollution from domestic heating and cooking is much less than in developing Asian countries. Our results suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype may be associated with a more substantial risk of lung cancer in populations with coal exposure.
coal; heating and cooking; nonsmoking lung cancer; GSTM1; GSTT1; GSTP1
Genetic variation within GSTM2-5 genes may interfere with detoxification of environmental compounds, thereby having a detrimental effect on lung function following exposures such as tobacco smoke. We aim to investigate the influence of variants and associated methylation in the GSTM gene cluster with changes in lung function growth during adolescence.
Growth in forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and change in FEV1/FVC ratio measures were obtained from children in the Isle of Wight birth cohort at ages 10 and 18. Illumina GoldenGate assays were used to genotype 10 tagging polymorphisms from GSTM2 (rs574344 and rs12024479), GSTM3 (rs1537236, rs7483, and rs10735234), GSTM4 (rs668413, rs560018, and rs506008), and GSTM5 (rs929166 and rs11807) genes. Diplotypes were generated in the software Phase 3.0.2. DNA methylation was measured in over 450,000 CpG sites using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina 450K) in a subsample of 245 18-year olds from the Isle of Wight birth cohort. Gender, age, in utero smoke exposure, secondhand smoke exposure (SHS), and current smoking status were assessed via questionnaire; smoke exposures were validated with urine cotinine. We used linear mixed models to estimate the effect of GSTM diplotypes on lung function across time and examine interactions with tobacco smoke.
1,121 (77%) out of 1,456 children had information on lung function at ages 10 or 18. After adjustment for false discovery rate, one diplotype in GSTM3 had a detrimental effect on changes in FEV1 (p=0.03), and another diplotype in GSTM3 reduced FVC (p=0.02) over time. No significant interactions with smoking were identified. SHS significantly modified the relationship between diplotypes and methylation levels in one GSTM2 CpG site; however, this site did not predict lung function outcomes at age 18. Joint effects of GSTM loci and CpG sites located within these loci on adolescent lung growth were detected.
Diplotypes within GSTM2-5 genes are associated with lung function growth across adolescence, but do not appear to modify the effect of tobacco smoke exposures on adolescent lung growth. Interactions between DNA methylation and diplotypes should be taken into account to gain further understanding on lung function in adolescence.
Smoking; Lung function; Diplotype; Human; Longitudinal study; Epigenetics; Methylation quantitative trait loci