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1.  Glutathione S transferase theta1 and mu1 gene polymorphisms and phenotypic expression of asthma in Egyptian children: a case–control study 
Background
Asthma is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic variants that confer susceptibility. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1 and GSTM1) are phase II enzymes thought to protect the airways from oxidative stress. Few and contradictory data are available on the association between asthma development and GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms in different ethnic groups. The current study aimed to investigate whether these polymorphisms are associated with asthma development in the Egyptian population.
Methods
The cross-sectional study was performed on 94 asthmatic children 6 -12 yrs and 90 matched healthy controls. Candidates were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of absolute blood eosinophilic count, total serum IgE, and GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotype by multiplex PCR technique.
Results
The results for GSTT1 null genotype were 87.2% and 97.2% for asthmatic children and controls respectively and showed to be significantly more in controls (P =0.007, OR:0.683, CI: 0.034 -0.715). The results for GSTM1 null genotype were 50% and 61.1% for asthmatic children and controls respectively and showed to be nonsignificant (p = 0.130, OR: 1.000, CI: 0.54- 1.86). Also, no association was detected between GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and atopic conditions or asthma severity.
Conclusion
The significant detection of GSTT1 null genotype more in controls than in asthmatics with no association with other atopic manifestations or asthma severity and the lack of association detected between GSTM1 polymorphism in relation to asthma, atopy or asthma severity confirm the uncertain role of those genes in the development of asthma.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-40-22
PMCID: PMC3974057  PMID: 24559168
Asthma; Children; Egyptian; Glutathione S-transferase; Polymorphism
2.  Variation in the GST mu Locus and Tobacco Smoke Exposure as Determinants of Childhood Lung Function 
Rationale: The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important detoxification enzymes.
Objectives: To investigate effects of variants in GST mu genes on lung function and assess their interactions with tobacco smoke exposure.
Methods: In this prospective study, 14,836 lung function measurements were collected from 2,108 children who participated in two Southern California cohorts. For each child, tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTM4, and GSTM5 loci were genotyped. Using principal components and haplotype analyses, the significance of each locus in relation to level and growth of FEV1, maximum midexpiratory flow rate (MMEF), and FVC was evaluated. Interactions between loci and tobacco smoke on lung function were also investigated.
Measurements and Main Results: Variation in the GST mu family locus was associated with lower FEV1 (P = 0.01) and MMEF (0.04). Two haplotypes of GSTM2 were associated with FEV1 and MMEF, with effect estimates in opposite directions. One haplotype in GSTM3 showed a decrease in growth for MMEF (−164.9 ml/s) compared with individuals with other haplotypes. One haplotype in GSTM4 showed significantly decreased growth in FEV1 (−51.3 ml), MMEF (−69.1 ml/s), and FVC (−44.4 ml), compared with all other haplotypes. These results were consistent across two independent cohorts. Variation in GSTM2 was particularly important for FVC and FEV1 among children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy.
Conclusions: Genetic variation across the GST mu locus is associated with 8-year lung function growth. Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy and had variation in GSTM2 had lower lung function growth.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200809-1384OC
PMCID: PMC2720124  PMID: 19151192
FEV1; in utero; glutathione S-transferase; tobacco smoke
3.  Effects of GSTM1 in Rheumatoid Arthritis; Results from the Swedish EIRA study 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e17880.
Objective
Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in tobacco smoke detoxification, interestingly approximately 50% of individuals in most human populations lack the gene GSTM1 due to copy number variation (CNV). We aimed to investigate GSTM1 CNV in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in relation to smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope; the two best known risk factors for RA and in addition, to perform subanalyses in patients where relations between variations in GSTM1 and RA have previously been described.
Methods
qPCR was performed using TaqMan Copy Number assays (Applied Biosystems) for 2426 incident RA cases and 1257 controls from the Swedish EIRA. Odds ratio (OR) together with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated and used as a measure of the relative risk of developing RA.
Results
No association between RA and GSTM1 CNV was observed when analyzing whole EIRA. However, ≥1 copy of GSTM1 appears to be a significant risk factor for autoantibody positive RA in non-smoking females ≥60 years (OR: 2.00 95% CI: 1.07–3.74), a population where such relationships have previously been described. Our data further suggest a protective effect of GSTM1 in ACPA-negative smoking men (OR: 0.56 95% CI: 0.35–0.90).
Conclusion
We assessed the exact number of GSTM1 gene copies in relation to development and severity of RA. Our data provide support for the notion that variations in copy numbers of GSTM1 may influence risk in certain subsets of RA, but do not support a role for GSTM1 CNV as a factor that more generally modifies the influence of smoking on RA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017880
PMCID: PMC3062563  PMID: 21445357
4.  Glutathione S transferase deficiency and passive smoking increase childhood asthma 
Thorax  2004;59(7):569-573.
Background: It has been suggested that the genetically determined deficiency of glutathione S transferase (GST) enzymes involved in the detoxification of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) components may contribute to the development of asthma.
Methods: A large population of German schoolchildren (n = 3054) was genotyped for deficiencies of the GST isoforms M1 and T1. The association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and asthma as well as atopy was investigated with respect to current and in utero ETS exposure.
Results: In children lacking the GSTM1 allele who were exposed to current ETS the risk for current asthma (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 18.6) and asthma symptoms such as wheeze ever (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 6.0), current wheezing (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 12.6) and shortness of breath (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.1 to 38.4) was higher than in GSTM1 positive individuals without ETS exposure. Hints of an interaction between ETS exposure and GSTM1 deficiency were identified. In utero smoke exposure in GSTT1 deficient children was associated with significant decrements in lung function compared with GSTT1 positive children not exposed to ETS.
Conclusions: GSTM1 and GSTT1 deficiency may increase the adverse health effects of in utero and current smoke exposure.
doi:10.1136/thx.2003.016667
PMCID: PMC1747082  PMID: 15223862
5.  The human glutathione S-transferase supergene family, its polymorphism, and its effects on susceptibility to lung cancer. 
Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a supergene family of dimeric enzymes capable of detoxifying a number of carcinogenic electrophiles. Of the numerous components of tobacco smoke, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appear to be the principal compounds that yield substrates for these enzymes, GSTM1-1 being effective with those PAH derivatives so far studied; however, the gene locus for GSTM1 is polymorphic, containing two well-characterized expressing genes and a null allele. Use of cDNA for GSTM1-1 or appropriate fragments of genomic clones as probes in Southern blots indicated that the null allele is due to the absence of GSTM1. In preliminary experiments, described here, with lung tissue from smokers, levels of 32P-postlabeled nuclease P1-enhanced DNA adducts were inversely correlated with levels of antigen cross-reacting with antibody to GSTM1-1, suggesting that initiation depends on the expression of GSTM1-1. Since similar quantities of DNA adducts and GSTM1-1 activity have been shown to occur in bronchial and peripheral lung, however, the development of malignancy, which is usually in the bronchial region, presumably depends on additional factors that bring about promotion and progression, which are not necessarily affected by GSTM1 expression. Two epidemiological studies have been carried out in which a possible correlation between the absence of GSTM1 and lung cancer incidence is considered. In the first, involving a U.S. population sample, smokers with and without lung cancer were phenotyped, and a highly significant correlation between the absence of GSTM1-1 activity and adenocarcinoma of the lung was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1519626  PMID: 1486868
6.  Asthmatic Airway Neutrophilia after Allergen Challenge Is Associated with the Glutathione S-Transferase M1 Genotype 
Rationale: Asthma is a heterogeneous lung disorder characterized by airway inflammation and airway dysfunction, manifesting as hyperresponsiveness and obstruction. Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) is a multifunctional phase II enzyme and regulator of stress-activated cellular signaling relevant to asthma pathobiology. A common homozygous deletion polymorphism of the GSTM1 gene eliminates enzyme activity.
Objectives: To determine the effect of GSTM1 on airway inflammation and reactivity in adults with established atopic asthma in vivo.
Methods: Nineteen GSTM1 wild-type and eighteen GSTM1-null individuals with mild atopic asthma underwent methacholine and inhaled allergen challenges, and endobronchial allergen provocations through a bronchoscope.
Measurements and Main Results: The influx of inflammatory cells, panels of cytokines and chemokines linked to asthmatic inflammation, F2-isoprostanes (markers of oxidative stress), and IgE were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at baseline and 24 hours after allergen instillation. Individuals with asthma with the GSTM1 wild-type genotype had greater baseline and allergen-provoked airway neutrophilia and concentrations of myeloperoxidase than GSTM1-null patients. In contrast, the eosinophilic inflammation was unaffected by GSTM1. The allergen-stimulated generation of acute-stress and proneutrophilic mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α, CXCL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6, was also greater in the GSTM1 wild-type patients. Moreover, post-allergen airway concentrations of IgE and neutrophil-generated mediators, matrix metalloproteinase-9, B-cell activating factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and elastase were higher in GSTM1 wild-type individuals with asthma. Total airway IgE correlated with B-cell activating factor concentrations. In contrast, levels of F2-isoprostane were comparable in both groups. Finally, GSTM1 wild-type individuals with asthma required lower threshold concentrations of allergen to produce bronchoconstriction.
Conclusions: The functional GSTM1 genotype promotes neutrophilic airway inflammation in humans with atopic asthma in vivo.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201204-0786OC
PMCID: PMC3570644  PMID: 23204253
atopic asthma; GSTM1 polymorphism; inflammatory asthma phenotypes; neutrophilic airway inflammation
7.  Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, glutathione S‐transferase P1, traffic and childhood asthma 
Thorax  2007;62(12):1050-1057.
Background
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) metabolises xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Functional variants at this locus have been associated with respiratory diseases. The effects of EPHX1 variants may depend upon exposures from tobacco smoke and traffic emissions that contain PAHs as well as variants in other enzymes in the PAH metabolic pathway such as glutathione S‐transferase (GST) genes. A study was undertaken to investigate associations of variants in EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 with asthma and the relationships between asthma, EPHX1 metabolic phenotypes and exposure to sources of PAHs.
Methods
Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate the associations of genetic variants and exposures with asthma phenotypes using data from 3124 children from the Children's Health Study.
Results
High EPHX1 activity was associated with an increased risk for lifetime asthma (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.98) which varied by GSTP1 Ile105Val genotype and by residential proximity to major roads (p for interaction = 0.006 and 0.03, respectively). Among children with GSTP1 105Val/Val genotype, those who had high EPHX1 phenotype had a fourfold (95% CI 1.97 to 8.16) increased risk of lifetime asthma than children with low/intermediate EPHX1 phenotype. Among children living within 75 metres of a major road, those with high EPHX1 activity had a 3.2‐fold (95% CI 1.75 to 6.00) higher lifetime asthma risk than those with low/intermediate activity. The results were similar for current, early persistent and late onset asthma. Children with high EPHX1 phenotype, GSTP1 Val/Val genotype who lived <75 metres from a major road were at the highest asthma risk.
Conclusion
EPHX1 and GSTP1 variants contribute to the occurrence of childhood asthma and increase asthma susceptibility to exposures from major roads.
doi:10.1136/thx.2007.080127
PMCID: PMC2094290  PMID: 17711870
8.  Functional compensation of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null by another GST superfamily member, GSTM2 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2704.
The gene for glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 (GSTM1), a member of the GST-superfamily, is widely studied in cancer risk with regard to the homozygous deletion of the gene (GSTM1 null), leading to a lack of corresponding enzymatic activity. Many of these studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding its association with cancer risk. Therefore, we employed in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches to investigate whether the absence of a functional GSTM1 enzyme in a null variant can be compensated for by other family members. Through the in silico approach, we identified maximum structural homology between GSTM1 and GSTM2. Total plasma GST enzymatic activity was similar in recruited individuals, irrespective of their GSTM1 genotype (positive/null). Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR, western blotting, and GSTM2 overexpression following transient knockdown of GSTM1 in HeLa cells confirmed that the absence of GSTM1 activity can be compensated for by the overexpression of GSTM2.
doi:10.1038/srep02704
PMCID: PMC3776957  PMID: 24048194
9.  GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 Gene Variants and Risk of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in North India 
Disease markers  2009;26(2):85-91.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of various toxic compounds like carcinogens in cigarette smoke and tobacco by conjugating to toxic compounds and inactivating their hazardous effect. Variation in Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs) genes may alter the catalytic efficiency of GST isoenzymes leading to potential increase in cancer susceptibility due to various carcinogens. We therefore, investigated association of GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 variants with susceptibility to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and cigarette, tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption as confounding factors in 141 BPH and 184 healthy controls. Results showed increased risk for BPH susceptibility in patients with GSTM1 null genotype (OR-2.03, p = 0.013) and smoking (OR-3.12, p = 0.028), tobacco chewing (OR-2.54, p = 0.039) and alcohol habits (OR-3.39, p = 0.010). Null genotype of GSTM1 with cigarette, tobacco and alcohol habits predisposed increased risk for BPH.
doi:10.3233/DMA-2009-0611
PMCID: PMC3833420  PMID: 19407363
Glutathione S-transferases; benign prostate hyperplasia; genotype; polymorphism; smoking; multiplex PCR
10.  Glutathione S-Transferases M1 and P1 Prevent Aggravation of Allergic Responses by Secondhand Smoke 
Rationale: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) and traffic-related air pollutants are associated with asthma and allergy. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and SHS can interact with allergens in exacerbating allergic airway diseases through generation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize reactive oxygen species and detoxify electrophilic xenobiotics present in SHS and DEPs.
Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that functional GSTM1-null genotype and GSTP1 codon 105 variants (Ile105 and Val105) are determinants of allergic responses to SHS, and that responses to SHS and DEPs are correlated.
Methods and Measurements: In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 19 ragweed allergen–sensitive subjects who had previously participated in a DEP trial were challenged intranasally with allergen after having been exposed to either clean air or SHS at separate visits. Nasal allergen–specific IgE, histamine, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels were measured before and after allergen challenge.
Main Results: Individuals with GSTM1-null or GSTP1 Ile105 genotypes showed larger nasal responses to allergens with SHS compared with clean air. GSTM1-null subjects had a larger increase in IgE than GSTM1-present subjects (median, 173.3 vs. 46.7 U/ml; p = 0.03), and the Ile105 GSTP1 genotype subjects had increased histamine (median, 10.2 vs. 4.6 nM; p = 0.01) after SHS plus allergen challenge. Responses to SHS and DEPs were correlated. Enhancement of IgE and histamine was greatest in the subjects with both the GSTM1-null and GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes.
Conclusions: GSTM1 and GSTP1 are important cytoprotective factors that reduce SHS and DEP exacerbation of allergic responses.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200509-1424OC
PMCID: PMC2648296  PMID: 17023730
GSTM1; GSTP1; histamine, IgE; tobacco smoke
11.  Low level maternal smoking and infant birthweight reduction: genetic contributions of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms 
Background
Genetic susceptibility to tobacco smoke might modify the effect of smoking on pregnancy outcomes.
Methods
We conducted a case–control study of 543 women who delivered singleton live births in Kaunas (Lithuania), examining the association between low-level tobacco smoke exposure (mean: 4.8 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy, GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and birthweight of the infant. Multiple linear-regression analysis was performed adjusting for gestational age, maternal education, family status, body mass index, blood pressure, and parity. Subsequently, we tested for the interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes polymorphisms with birthweight by adding all the product terms in the regression models.
Results
The findings suggested a birthweight reduction among light-smoking with the GSTT1–null genotype (−162.9 g, P = 0.041) and those with the GSTM1–null genotype (−118.7 g, P = 0.069). When a combination of these genotypes was considered, birthweight was significantly lower for infants of smoking women the carriers of the double-null genotypes (−311.2 g, P = 0.008). The interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes was marginally significant on birthweight (−234.5 g, P = 0.078). Among non-smokers, genotype did not independently confer an adverse effect on infant birthweight.
Conclusions
The study shows the GSTT1–null genotype, either presents only one or both with GSTM1–null genotype in a single subject, have a modifying effect on birthweight among smoking women even though their smoking is low level. Our data also indicate that identification of the group of susceptible subjects should be based on both environmental exposure and gene polymorphism. Findings of this study add additional evidence on the interplay among two key GST genes and maternal smoking on birth weight of newborns.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-161
PMCID: PMC3562502  PMID: 23268570
Birthweight; GST polymorphisms; Smoking; Interaction
12.  The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype modulates ozone-induced airway inflammation in humans 
Background
The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. However, it is not known if GSTM1 modulates these ozone responses in vivo in humans
Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine if the GSTM1 null genotype modulates ozone responses in humans.
Methods
Thirty-five normal volunteers were genotyped for the GSTM1 null mutation and underwent a standard ozone exposure protocol to determine if lung function and inflammatory responses to ozone were different between the 19 GSTM1 normal and 16 GSTM1 null volunteers.
Results
GSTM1 did not modulate lung function responses to acute ozone. Granulocyte influx 4 hours after challenge was similar between GSTM1 normal and null volunteers. However, GSTM1 null volunteers had significantly increased airway neutrophils 24 hours after challenge, as well as increased expression of HLA-DR on airway macrophages and dendritic cells.
Conclusion
The GSTM1 null genotype is associated with increased airways inflammation 24 hours following ozone exposure, consistent with the lag time observed between increased ambient air ozone exposure and exacerbations of lung disease.
Clinical Implications
These observations suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype likely confers increased risk for exacerbation of ozone-induced lung disease through promoting an enhanced neutrophilic and monocytic inflammatory response to ozone.
Capsule summary
The GSTM1 null genotype is associated with increased risk for ozone-induced lung disease. We report the GSTM1 genotype modulates ozone-induced inflammation but not lung function, and may predict persons at risk for environmental lung disease.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.07.036
PMCID: PMC3038610  PMID: 19796798
Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1; Ozone; Pollution; Inflammation; Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil; Macrophage; Dendritic cell
13.  Occupational sunlight exposure, polymorphism of glutathione S‐transferase M1, and senile cataract risk 
Background
The pathogenesis of cataract is influenced by a number of factors including oxidative stress. Glutathione S‐transferase (GST) catalyses the nucleophilic addition of the thiol of GST to electrophilic acceptors. It is important for detoxification of xenobiotics in order to protect tissues from oxidative damage.
Objectives
To examine whether the interaction of polymorphism of GSTM1 gene and occupational sunlight exposure modulate the risk of cataract.
Methods
Blood samples from 95 subjects with cataract and 95 age and sex matched healthy persons were collected. The genotypes of GSTM1 were determined using PCR.
Results
The null genotype of GSTM1 was associated with an increase in cataract risk in the indoor workplace, but this association was not significant in the outdoor subjects.
Conclusion
The active genotype of GSTM1 has lost its protective role in persons who work outdoors. It is suggested that activity of the GSTμ enzyme may be inhibited in the human lens after occupational exposure to UV light.
doi:10.1136/oem.2005.022343
PMCID: PMC2092504  PMID: 16551760
cataract; ultraviolet; genetic polymorphism; GSTM1
14.  Association of the Glutathione S-Transferase M1, T1 Polymorphisms with Cancer: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78707.
Background
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of many xenobiotics, including a wide range of environmental carcinogens. While the null genotypes in GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been implicated in tumorigenesis, it remains inconsistent and inconclusive. Herein, we aimed to assess the possible associations of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype in cancer risks.
Methods
A meta-analysis based on 506 case-control studies was performed. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association.
Results
The null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were associated with a significantly increased risk in cancer (for GSTM1: OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.14–1.21; for GSTT1: OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 1.11–1.21, respectively). When the analysis was performed based on their smoking history, the risk associated of GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes with cancer is further increased (for GSTM1: OR = 2.66; 95%CI = 2.19–3.24; for GSTT1: OR = 2.46; 95%CI = 1.83–3.32, respectively).
Conclusions
These findings indicate that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms may play critical roles in the development of cancer, especially in smokers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078707
PMCID: PMC3826727  PMID: 24250808
15.  GSTM1 copy number and promoter haplotype as predictors for risk of recurrence and/or second primary tumor in patients with head and neck cancer 
The objective of this study was to determine copy number variant (CNV) and promoter genetic variants in glutathione S-transferase Mu class 1 (GSTM1) and the risk of recurrence (REC)/second primary tumor (SPT) in patients with previously diagnosed early stage head and neck cancer. Among 441 subjects, 133 experienced REC and/or an SPT, while 308 had single primary disease. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the exact copy number of GSTM1 and direct sequencing was used to determine genetic variants in the GSTM1 promoter region. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with copy number and genetic variants. REC/SPT-free survival times were compared by constructing Kaplan–Meier curves and differences between curves were tested by logrank test. Results showed a significantly decreased REC/SPT (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.35–0.95) and longer REC/SPT-free survival in subjects with at least two copies of GSTM1 compared with the GSTM1 homozygous deletion, but not in those with one copy of GSTM1. The −498G, −426G, and −339T alleles were significantly associated with REC/SPT, with HRs of 0.11 (0.02–0.85), 0.28 (0.11–0.74) and 2.02 (1.07–3.82), respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the −498G, −426G, and −339C alleles were also significantly associated with increased REC/SPT-free survival. Further haplotype analysis showed the haplotype P−498G-−426G-−339C carriers had decreased REC/SPT with a HR of 0.09 (95% CI 0.01–0.71) and increased REC/SPT-free survival compared with those with haplotype P−498C-−426A-−339T. The P−498C-−426A-−339T-containing reporter construct had significantly increased luciferase expression. These results suggest that the GSTM1 CNV and promoter haplotype are better predictors of REC/SPTs of head and neck cancer than just measuring the presence/absence of GSTM1.
doi:10.2147/PGPM.S35949
PMCID: PMC3596140  PMID: 23526580
GSTM1; copy number variant; REC; SPT; single nucleotide polymorphism
16.  GSTM1 null genotype in COPD and lung cancer: evidence of a modifier or confounding effect? 
Background
Studies over the past two decades have reported associations between GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase mu 1) null genotype and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. However, a modifier or confounding effect from COPD mediating the GSTM1 association with lung cancer has not been previously explored.
Aim and methods
This variant was examined in a case-control study of current or former smokers with COPD (n = 669), lung cancer (n = 454), or normal lung function (n = 488). Sex, age, and smoking history were comparable between groups.
Results
The GSTM1 null genotype was found to be more frequent in smokers with COPD alone (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.66, P = 0.031) and lung cancer (OR 1.26, 95% CI 0.96–1.65, P = 0.083) than in matched smokers with normal lung function (62%, 61%, and 56%, respectively). However, when smokers with lung cancer were subgrouped according to the presence of COPD, then the association with all COPD subjects (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.70, P = 0.010) and with COPD and lung cancer (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06–2.12, P = 0.018) continued to be significant while that with lung cancer only was reduced (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.78–1.56, P = 0.55). These associations were independent of age, sex, height, lung function, and smoking history.
Conclusion
Findings suggest that COPD is an important subphenotype of lung cancer and may underlie previously reported associations with the GSTM1 null genotype.
doi:10.2147/TACG.S21517
PMCID: PMC3681185  PMID: 23776374
lung cancer; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GSTM1; association study; polymorphism; copy number variant
17.  Childhood Brain Tumors and Maternal Cured Meat Consumption in Pregnancy: Differential Effect by Glutathione S-Transferases 
Background
Some epidemiologic studies suggest that maternal consumption of cured meat during pregnancy may increase risk of brain tumors in offspring. We explored whether this possible association was modified by fetal genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) that may inactivate nitroso compounds.
Methods
We assessed six GST variants: GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1I105V (rs1695), GSTP1A114V (rs1138272), GSTM3*B (3 bp deletion), and GSTM3A-63C (rs1332018) within a population-based case-control study with data on maternal prenatal cured meat consumption (202 cases and 286 controls born in California or Washington, 1978-1990).
Results
Risk of childhood brain tumor increased with increasing cured meat intake by the mother during pregnancy among children without GSTT1 (odds ratio [OR]=1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.57 for each increase in the frequency of consumption per week) or with potentially reduced GSTM3 (any -63C allele, OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26), whereas no increased risk was observed among those with GSTT1 or presumably normal GSTM3 levels (interaction p=0.01 for each).
Conclusions
Fetal ability to deactivate nitrosoureas may modify the association between childhood brain tumors and maternal prenatal consumption of cured meats.
Impact
These results support the hypothesis that maternal avoidance during pregnancy of sources of some nitroso compounds or their precursors may reduce risk of brain tumors in some children.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0196
PMCID: PMC3397426  PMID: 21914837
brain neoplasms; child; glutathione transferase; meat; nitro compounds
18.  Association of GST Genes Polymorphisms with Asthma in Tunisian Children 
Mediators of Inflammation  2007;2007:19564.
Background. A positive association between genetic polymorphism and asthma may not be extrapolated from one ethnic group to another based on intra- and interethnic allelic and genotype frequencies differences. Objective. We assessed whether polymorphisms of GST genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) are associated with asthma and atopy among Tunisian children. Methods. 112 unrelated healthy individuals and 105 asthmatic (73 atopic and 32 nonatopic) children were studied. Genotyping the polymorphisms in the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was performed using the multiplex PCR. The GSTP1 ILe105Val polymorphism was determined using PCR-RFLP. Results. GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with the increased risk of asthma (P = .002). Asthmatic children had a higher prevalence of the GSTP1Ile105 allele than the control group (43.8% and 33.5%, respectively; P = .002). Also, the presence of the GSTP1 homozygote Val/Val was less common in subjects with asthma than in control group. We have found that GSTT1 null genotype (GSTT1 *0/*0) was significantly associated with atopy (P = .008). Conclusion. Polymorphisms within genes of the GST superfamily were associated with risk of asthma and atopy in Tunisia.
doi:10.1155/2007/19564
PMCID: PMC1852884  PMID: 17497028
19.  GSTM1 and GSTT1 Null Polymorphisms and Childhood Acute Leukemia Risk: Evidence from 26 Case-Control Studies 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e78810.
Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between glutathione S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) null polymorphisms and childhood acute leukemia; however, the conclusions remain controversial. We performed an extensive meta-analysis on 26 published case-control studies with a total of 3252 cases and 5024 controls. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval were used to assess the strength of association between childhood acute leukemia risk and polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1. With respect to GSTM1 polymorphism, significantly increased risk of childhood acute leukemia was observed in the overall analysis (OR = 1.30; 95%CI, 1.11-1.51). Furthermore, a stratification analysis showed that the risk of GSTM1 polymorphism are associated with childhood acute leukemia in group of Asians (OR = 1.94; 95%CI, 1.53-2.46), Blacks (OR = 1.76; 95%CI, 1.07-2.91), ALL (OR = 1.33; 95%CI, 1.13-1.58), ‘< 100 cases and <100 controls’ (OR = 1.79; 95%CI, 1.21-2.64), ‘≥ 100 cases and ≥ 100 controls’ (OR = 1.25; 95%CI, 1.02-1.52), and population-based control source (OR = 1.40; 95%CI, 1.15-1.69). With respect to GSTT1 polymorphism, significant association with childhood acute leukemia risk was only found in subgroup of Asian. This meta-analysis supports that GSTM1 null polymorphism is capable of causing childhood acute leukemia susceptibility.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078810
PMCID: PMC3806859  PMID: 24194954
20.  GSTM1 and GSTP1 Polymorphisms as Potential Factors for Modifying the Effect of Smoking on Inflammatory Response 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1021-1027.
Inflammation has been known to be an important underlying condition for development of various diseases including cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate whether tobacco smoke exposure increases the level of inflammation biomarkers and the GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory response due to tobacco smoke exposure. We measured urinary cotinine level in 300 healthy university students. Total serum TNF-α levels and blood WBC counts were determined to evaluate inflammatory response. Allelic loss of the GSTM1 and the GSTP1 (Ile105Val) polymorphism were determined by PCR and RFLP. Tobacco smoke exposure was found to be associated with increase of both TNF-α level and WBC count. Particularly, smokers with combination of GSTM1 null and GSTP1 AG or GG genotypes showed higher TNF-α level than those with the other genotype combinations (p=0.07). This result suggests that smoking may induce inflammation measured as TNF-α level or WBC count and combinations of the GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may modify the effect of smoking on serum TNF-α level.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.6.1021
PMCID: PMC2721922  PMID: 17179680
Smoking; Inflammation; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Leukocytes; glutathione S-transferase M1; Glutathione S-Transferase pi; Polymorphism, Genetic
21.  Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells 
Background
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1β proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression were also investigated.
Methods
IL-8 and IL-1β protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting.
Results
Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100 μg/ml DEP for 24 h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1β protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation could be increased by GSTM1 knockdown. In addition, pretreatment of HBEC with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly inhibited DEP-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, and subsequent IL-8 and IL-1β expression.
Conclusion
GSTM1 regulates DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells by modulation of ROS, ERK and Akt signaling.
doi:10.1186/1743-8977-9-31
PMCID: PMC3480908  PMID: 22867088
Diesel exhaust particles; ROS; GSTM1; ERK; Akt
22.  The GSTM1 Null Genotype Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Based on 46 Studies 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81403.
Background
Glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) is an important phase II metabolizing enzyme. The null genotype of GSTM1 causes total loss of GSTM1 enzyme activity and numerous studies have investigated the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk.
Methods
This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between GSTM1 null genotype and susceptibility to gastric cancer and assess the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, Lauren’s classification, and other factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength.
Results
A total of 46 eligible studies were indentified and analyzed in this meta-analysis, including 8138 cases of gastric cancer and 13867 controls. Pooled results showed that the GSTM1 null genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.217, 95% CI: 1.113-1.331, Pheterogeneity<0.001). Sub-group analysis suggested that the significant association was only observed in Asians (OR=1.273, 95%: 1.137-1.426, Pheterogeneity = 0.002), but not in Caucasians. The increased risk was found among H. pylori positive population (OR=1.928, 95% CI: 1.028-3.615, Pheterogeneity=0.065), while no association was found among H. pylori negative population (OR=0.969, 95% CI: 0.618-1.521, Pheterogeneity=0.168). For smoking status, the GSTM1 null genotype increased risk of gastric cancer in both ever-smokers and non-smokers. Source of control, sample size, location of tumor and Lauren’s classification did not modify the association.
Conclusions
In this meta-analysis based on 46 epidemiological studies, we show that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer among Asians but not among Caucasians. H. pylori infection but not smoking status could modify the association.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081403
PMCID: PMC3820558  PMID: 24244742
23.  GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms and risk of salivary gland carcinoma 
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes detoxify and metabolize carcinogens, including oxygen free radicals which may contribute to salivary gland carcinogenesis. This cancer center-based case-control association study included 166 patients with incident salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) and 511 cancer-free controls. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based polymorphism genotyping assays for GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, tobacco use, family history of cancer, alcohol use and radiation exposure. In our results, 27.7% of the SGC cases and 20.6% of the controls were null for the GSTT1 (P = 0.054), and 53.0% of the SGC cases and 50.9% of the controls were null for the GSTM1 (P = 0.633). The results of the adjusted multivariale regression analysis suggested that having GSTT1 null genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for SGC (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0–2.3). Additionally, 13.9% of the SGC cases but only 8.4% of the controls were null for both genes and the results of the adjusted multivariable regression analysis suggested that having both null genotypes was significantly associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk for SGC (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.0–3.5). The presence of GSTT1 null genotype and the simultaneous presence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes appear associated with significantly increased SGC risk. These findings warrant further study with larger sample sizes.
PMCID: PMC2680049  PMID: 19436833
Glutathione S-transferase (GST); single nucleotide polymorphism; salivary gland carcinoma (SGC); genetic susceptibility; molecular epidemiology
24.  Five Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Variants in 23,452 Cases of Lung Cancer and 30,397 Controls: Meta-Analysis of 130 Studies 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(4):e91.
Background
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are known to abolish or reduce the activities of intracellular enzymes that help detoxify environmental carcinogens, such as those found in tobacco smoke. It has been suggested that polymorphisms in the GST genes are risk factors for lung cancer, but a large number of studies have reported apparently conflicting results.
Methods and Findings
Literature-based meta-analysis was supplemented by tabular data from investigators of all relevant studies of five GST polymorphisms ( GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, I105V, and A114V polymorphisms in the GSTP1 genes, and GSTM3 intron 6 polymorphism) available before August, 2005, with investigation of potential sources of heterogeneity. Included in the present meta-analysis were 130 studies, involving a total of 23,452 lung cancer cases and 30,397 controls. In a combined analysis, the relative risks for lung cancer of the GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null polymorphisms were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–1.23) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02–1.16), respectively, but in the larger studies they were only 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95–1.14) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.86–1.11), respectively. In addition to size of study, ethnic background was a significant source of heterogeneity among studies of the GSTM1 null genotype, with possibly weaker associations in studies of individuals of European continental ancestry. Combined analyses of studies of the 105V, 114V, and GSTM3*B variants showed no significant overall associations with lung cancer, yielding per-allele relative risks of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.99–1.09), 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.39), and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89–1.23), respectively.
Conclusions
The risk of lung cancer is not strongly associated with the I105V and A114V polymorphisms in the GSTP1 gene or with GSTM3 intron 6 polymorphism. Given the non-significant associations in the larger studies, the relevance of the weakly positive overall associations with the GSTM1 null and the GSTT1 null polymorphisms is uncertain. As lung cancer has important environmental causes, understanding any genetic contribution to it in general populations will require the conduct of particularly large and comprehensive studies.
Large meta-analysis finds little evidence for a link between gene variants encoding inactive or less active variants of detoxifying enzymes and lung cancer risk.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030091
PMCID: PMC1391981  PMID: 16509765
25.  GSTM1 null polymorphism at the glutathione S-transferase M1 locus: phenotype and genotype studies in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. 
Gut  1993;34(4):549-553.
Studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that the GSTM1 null phenotype at the mu (mu) class glutathione S-transferase 1 locus is associated with an increased predisposition to primary biliary cirrhosis. Starch gel electrophoresis was used to compare the prevalence of GSTM1 null phenotype 0 in patients with end stage primary biliary cirrhosis and a group of controls without evidence of liver disease. The prevalence of GSTM1 null phenotype in the primary biliary cirrhosis and control groups was similar; 39% and 45% respectively. In the primary biliary cirrhosis group all subjects were of the common GSTM1 0, GSTM1 A, GSTM1 B or GSTM1 A, B phenotypes while in the controls, one subject showed an isoform with an anodal mobility compatible with it being a product of the putative GSTM1*3 allele. As the GSTM1 phenotype might be changed by the disease process, the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the exon 4-exon 5 region of GSTM1 and show that in 13 control subjects and 11 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, GSTM1 positive and negative genotypes were associated with corresponding GSTM1 expressing and non-expressing phenotypes respectively. The control subject with GSTM1 3 phenotype showed a positive genotype.
Images
PMCID: PMC1374319  PMID: 8491405

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