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1.  The German Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children (PCS-C) – psychometric analysis and evaluation of the construct 
GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine  2013;10:Doc07.
Objective: The Pain Catastrophizing Scale, adapted for children (PCS-C) by Crombez et al. (2003), was translated into German (SKS-D) and evaluated regarding its factorial structure, its reliability and validity. The association of catastrophizing with various pain characteristics and disability measures was examined as well as its association to neighboring constructs.
Method: The paper-and-pencil version of the SKS-D was used in two different samples of children and adolescents. Analyses were conducted on a subgroup of participants from an epidemiological sample [n=898; age: M=12.9 (SD=1.4)] who had experienced monthly headaches in the 6-months period before and a clinical sample [n=60; age: M=12.6 (SD=0.8)] seeking treatment for recurrent headaches.
Results: Exploratory factor analysis (PCA) suggested a one-factor model in contrast to the 3-factor model suggested by Crombez et al. (2003). The unidimensional scale showed distinct homogeneity and satisfying reliability. The clinical sample showed significantly higher scores than the epidemiological group. Also girls scored higher than boys. The catastrophizing explained a considerable amount of variance in pain and disability parameters in both samples thus underlining its validity.
The psychological variables internalising, anxiety sensitivity and somatosensory amplification showed significant small to moderate associations with pain catastrophizing and also with pain and disability. After controlling for the above mentioned psychological variables, catastrophizing still yielded an independent contribution to the explanation of variance in pain and disability parameters.
Conclusions: The PCS-C in its German form is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing catastrophizing in children with recurrent pain, in particular headache, in the age of 10–16 years. Pain catastrophizing is suggested to be assessed especially in pediatric pain patients as it is a significant moderator of pain and disability. In children with a distinct tendency to catastrophize cognitive restructuring should become a target of pediatric pain therapy, as a reduction of catastrophizing cognitions may indirectly help to ameliorate pain and disability.
doi:10.3205/psm000097
PMCID: PMC3734764  PMID: 23922617
pain catastrophizing; PCS-C German version; psychometric standards; factor analysis; SKS-D
2.  Pain catastrophizing predicts poor response to topical analgesics in patients with neuropathic pain 
The prevalence of neuropathic pain approaches 10% in Canada and the United States. Given the aging population and the increasing survival rates following interventions for neuropathic pain, the prevalence of neuropathic pain conditions is expected to rise significantly over the next 20 years. Although pharmacological interventions represent the dominant treatment approach for neuropathic pain, as many as 50% of patients are partially or completely refractory to the available treatments. Pain catastrophizing has been associated with heightened pain experiences in patients with neuropathic pain conditions; however, the clinical relevance of the relationship between catastrophizing and poor treatment outcomes is, to date, unclear. Accordingly, using a numerical rating scale, this study aimed to examine this relationship in patients with varied neuropathic pain conditions who completed a measure of catastrophizing before initiating a course of topical analgesic.
BACKGROUND:
Previous research suggests that high levels of pain catastrophizing might predict poorer response to pharmacological interventions for neuropathic pain.
OBJECTIVE:
The present study sought to examine the clinical relevance of the relation between catastrophizing and analgesic response in individuals with neuropathic pain. Clinically meaningful reductions were defined in terms of the magnitude of reductions in pain through the course of treatment, and in terms of the number of patients whose end-of-treatment pain ratings were below 4/10.
METHODS:
Patients (n=82) with neuropathic pain conditions completed a measure of pain catastrophizing at the beginning of a three-week trial examining the efficacy of topical analgesics for neuropathic pain.
RESULTS:
Consistent with previous research, high scores on the measure of pain catastrophizing prospectively predicted poorer response to treatment. Fewer catastrophizers than noncatastrophizers showed moderate (≥2 points) or substantial reductions in pain ratings through the course of treatment. Fewer catastrophizers than noncatastrophizers achieved end-of-treatment pain ratings below 4/10.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results of the present study suggest that the development of brief interventions specifically targeting catastrophic thinking might be useful for enhancing the effects of pharmacological interventions for neuropathic pain. Furthermore, failure to account for the level of catastrophizing might contribute to null findings in clinical trials of analgesic medication.
PMCID: PMC3299037  PMID: 22518362
Catastrophizing; Neuropathic pain; Topical analgesics; Treatment efficacy
3.  Defining Catastrophic Costs and Comparing Their Importance for Adverse Tuberculosis Outcome with Multi-Drug Resistance: A Prospective Cohort Study, Peru 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(7):e1001675.
Tom Wingfield and colleagues investigate the relationship between catastrophic costs and tuberculosis outcomes for patients receiving free tuberculosis care in Peru.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Even when tuberculosis (TB) treatment is free, hidden costs incurred by patients and their households (TB-affected households) may worsen poverty and health. Extreme TB-associated costs have been termed “catastrophic” but are poorly defined. We studied TB-affected households' hidden costs and their association with adverse TB outcome to create a clinically relevant definition of catastrophic costs.
Methods and Findings
From 26 October 2002 to 30 November 2009, TB patients (n = 876, 11% with multi-drug-resistant [MDR] TB) and healthy controls (n = 487) were recruited to a prospective cohort study in shantytowns in Lima, Peru. Patients were interviewed prior to and every 2–4 wk throughout treatment, recording direct (household expenses) and indirect (lost income) TB-related costs. Costs were expressed as a proportion of the household's annual income. In poorer households, costs were lower but constituted a higher proportion of the household's annual income: 27% (95% CI = 20%–43%) in the least-poor houses versus 48% (95% CI = 36%–50%) in the poorest. Adverse TB outcome was defined as death, treatment abandonment or treatment failure during therapy, or recurrence within 2 y. 23% (166/725) of patients with a defined treatment outcome had an adverse outcome. Total costs ≥20% of household annual income was defined as catastrophic because this threshold was most strongly associated with adverse TB outcome. Catastrophic costs were incurred by 345 households (39%). Having MDR TB was associated with a higher likelihood of incurring catastrophic costs (54% [95% CI = 43%–61%] versus 38% [95% CI = 34%–41%], p<0.003). Adverse outcome was independently associated with MDR TB (odds ratio [OR] = 8.4 [95% CI = 4.7–15], p<0.001), previous TB (OR = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.3–3.5], p = 0.005), days too unwell to work pre-treatment (OR = 1.01 [95% CI = 1.00–1.01], p = 0.02), and catastrophic costs (OR = 1.7 [95% CI = 1.1–2.6], p = 0.01). The adjusted population attributable fraction of adverse outcomes explained by catastrophic costs was 18% (95% CI = 6.9%–28%), similar to that of MDR TB (20% [95% CI = 14%–25%]). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that existing catastrophic costs thresholds (≥10% or ≥15% of household annual income) were not associated with adverse outcome in our setting. Study limitations included not measuring certain “dis-saving” variables (including selling household items) and gathering only 6 mo of costs-specific follow-up data for MDR TB patients.
Conclusions
Despite free TB care, having TB disease was expensive for impoverished TB patients in Peru. Incurring higher relative costs was associated with adverse TB outcome. The population attributable fraction indicated that catastrophic costs and MDR TB were associated with similar proportions of adverse outcomes. Thus TB is a socioeconomic as well as infectious problem, and TB control interventions should address both the economic and clinical aspects of this disease.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Caused by the infectious microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (or TB) is a global health problem. In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people fell ill with TB, and 1.3 million were estimated to have died because of the disease. Poverty is widely recognized as an important risk factor for TB, and developing nations shoulder a disproportionate burden of both poverty and TB disease. For example, in Lima (the capital of Peru), the incidence of TB follows the poverty map, sparing residents living in rich areas of the city while spreading among poorer residents that live in overcrowded households.
The Peruvian government, non-profit organizations, and the World Health Organization (WHO) have extended healthcare programs to provide free diagnosis and treatment for TB and drug-resistant strains of TB in Peru, but rates of new TB cases remain high. For example, in Ventanilla (an area of 16 shantytowns located in northern Lima), the rate of infection was higher during the study period, at 162 new cases per 100,000 people per year, than the national average. About one-third of the 277,895 residents of Ventanilla live on under US$1 per day.
Why Was This Study Done?
Poverty increases the risks associated with contracting TB infection, but the disease also affects the most economically productive age group, and the income of TB-affected households often decreases post-diagnosis, exacerbating poverty. A recent WHO consultation report proposed a target of eradicating catastrophic costs for TB-affected families by 2035, but hidden TB-related costs remain understudied, and there is no international consensus defining catastrophic costs incurred by patients and households affected by TB. Lost income and the cost of transport are among hidden costs associated with free treatment programs; these costs and their potential impact on patients and their households are not well defined. Here the researchers sought to clarify and characterize TB-related costs and explore whether there is a relationship between the hidden costs associated with free TB treatment programs and the likelihood of completing treatment and becoming cured of TB.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Over a seven-year period (2002–2009), the researchers recruited 876 study participants with TB diagnosed at health posts located in Ventanilla. To provide a comparative control group, a sample of 487 healthy individuals was also recruited to participate. Participants were interviewed prior to treatment, and households' TB-related direct expenses and indirect expenses (lost income attributed to TB) were recorded every 2–4 wk. Data were collected during scheduled household visits.
TB patients were poorer than controls, and analysis of the data showed that accessing free TB care was expensive for TB patients, especially those with multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB. Total expenses were similar pre-treatment compared to during treatment for TB patients, despite receiving free care (1.1 versus 1.2 times the same household's monthly income). Even though direct expenses (for example, costs of medical examinations and medicines other than anti-TB therapy) were lower in the poorest households, their total expenses (direct and indirect) made up a greater proportion of their household annual income: 48% for the poorest households compared to 27% in the least-poor households.
The researchers defined costs that were equal to or above one-fifth (20%) of household annual income as catastrophic because this threshold marked the greatest association with adverse treatment outcomes such as death, abandoning treatment, failing to respond to treatment, or TB recurrence. By calculating the population attributable fraction—the proportional reduction in population adverse treatment outcomes that could occur if a risk factor was reduced to zero—the authors estimate that adverse TB outcomes explained by catastrophic costs and MDR TB were similar: 18% for catastrophic costs and 20% for MDR TB.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The findings of this study indicate a potential role for social protection as a means to improve TB disease control and health, as well as defining a novel, evidence-based threshold for catastrophic costs for TB-affected households of 20% or more of annual income. Addressing the economic impact of diagnosis and treatment in impoverished communities may increase the odds of curing TB.
Study limitations included only six months of follow-up data being gathered on costs for each participant and not recording “dissavings,” such as selling of household items in response to financial shock. Because the study was observational, the authors aren't able to determine the direction of the association between catastrophic costs and TB outcome. Even so, the study indicates that TB is a socioeconomic as well as infectious problem, and that TB control interventions should address both the economic and clinical aspects of the disease.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001675.
The World Health Organization provides information on all aspects of tuberculosis, including the Global Tuberculosis Report 2013
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has information about tuberculosis
Médecins Sans Frontières's TB&ME blog provides patients' stories of living with MDR TB
TB Alert, a UK-based charity that promotes TB awareness worldwide, has information on TB in several European, African, and Asian languages
More information is available about the Innovation For Health and Development (IFHAD) charity and its research team's work in Peru
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001675
PMCID: PMC4098993  PMID: 25025331
4.  Changes in pain catastrophizing predict later changes in fibromyalgia clinical and experimental pain report: cross-lagged panel analyses of dispositional and situational catastrophizing 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(5):R231.
Introduction
Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by wide-spread diffuse pain and sensory abnormalities, is associated with elevated indices of distress and pain-related catastrophizing compared to both pain-free samples and those with chronic pain conditions. Catastrophizing is a pervasive negative mental set, and is a strong predictor of negative pain-related outcomes such as clinical pain intensity, and physical disability. Situational catastrophizing, measured in the context of experimentally-induced pain, is strongly related to enhanced pain sensitivity, a core aspect of the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. However, little is known regarding the temporal course of the association between catastrophizing and pain-related "outcomes". Most studies involve only static assessments of pain and catastrophizing at a single time point, which provides little insight into the direction of the observed associations. We sought to investigate the temporal relationships between catastrophizing and indices of both clinical pain (substudy 1) and experimentally-induced pain (substudy 2) in a larger randomized controlled longitudinal trial.
Methods
Fifty-seven patients with FM completed catastrophizing, depression, and pain questionnaires as well as laboratory cold pressor pain testing at baseline, post-intervention and three month follow-up during a lifestyle physical activity study. Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to address these temporal relationships.
Results
In substudy 1, analyses revealed that pre-to-post changes in dispositional catastrophizing ratings prospectively accounted for unique variance in subsequent post-to-follow-up changes in clinical pain ratings (p = 0.005), while pre-to-post changes in pain ratings did not account for unique variance in post-to-follow-up changes in catastrophizing ratings. An identical pattern was observed experimentally in substudy 2, with pre-to-post changes in situational catastrophizing ratings prospectively accounting for unique variance in subsequent post-to-follow-up changes in experimental pain ratings (p = 0.014), while pre-to-post changes in pain ratings did not account for unique variance in post-to-follow-up changes in catastrophizing ratings. Specifically, initial alterations in catastrophizing were associated with subsequent alterations in clinical and experimentally induced pain. Controlling for levels of depression did not affect the results.
Conclusions
These findings provide empirical evidence that catastrophizing processes might precede and contribute to subsequent alterations in the pain experience for FM patients.
Trial Registration
clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00383084.
doi:10.1186/ar4073
PMCID: PMC3580543  PMID: 23098173
5.  The Interplay of Parent and Adolescent Catastrophizing and Its Impact on Adolescents’ Pain, Functioning, and Pain Behavior 
The Clinical journal of pain  2013;29(8):681-688.
Objectives
Catastrophizing is a coping style linked to poorer patient outcomes. Little attention has focused on the parent-adolescent dyad and catastrophizing as a shared coping style. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of adolescent and parent pain catastrophizing on adolescent functioning and (2) explore concordance in catastrophizing in parent-adolescent dyads, with equal interest in outcomes of dyads with discordant coping styles.
Methods
Pain intensity, catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and pain behaviors were assessed in adolescents (ages 11 to 17) presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (N = 240).
Results
Significant correlations between (1) parent and adolescent catastrophizing; (2) catastrophizing and pain behaviors; and (3) catastrophizing and adolescent outcomes were found. Parents and adolescents were classified into concordant or discordant dyads based on catastrophizing with a majority of dyads (> 70%) showing concordant coping styles. Among discordant dyads, functional disability and depressive symptoms were significantly higher in a dyad with a high catastrophizing adolescent and low catastrophizing parent.
Discussion
Results provide further support for catastrophizing being a maladaptive coping strategy for adolescents with pain and their parents. Greater adolescent catastrophizing was related to increased pain behaviors and poorer adolescent functioning. Parent catastrophizing also seems related to poorer adolescent outcomes, and most parent-adolescent dyads showed concordance in use of catastrophizing, which may suggest a shared tendency for adaptive or maladaptive styles of coping with pain. Future research should investigate pain coping at a dyadic or family level to explore how family coping styles magnify distress and disability or buffer adolescents from such problems.
doi:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3182757720
PMCID: PMC3730260  PMID: 23370064
catastrophizing; pain behaviors; discordance; pediatric chronic pain
6.  Persistent pain in a community-based sample of children and adolescents: Sex differences in psychological constructs 
The prevalence of persistent and recurrent pain among children and adolescents has important economic, social and psychological repercussions. The impact of chronic pain in children extends beyond the affected individuals – more than one-third of parents of children with pain report clinically significant levels of stress and depression. Although many pain-related psychological factors have been examined in chronic pediatric pain populations, much of that research involved clinical samples. Community-based research, however, is necessary to uncover the way pain is experienced by youth, regardless of whether treatment is sought or is available. This study aimed to ascertain the lifetime prevalence of pediatric pain in a Canadian community-based sample, and to explore age and sex differences in children who report persistent pain and those who do not with respect to several constructs believed to play important roles in the development and maintenance of persistent pain.
BACKGROUND:
Very few studies have investigated the psychological factors associated with the pain experiences of children and adolescents in community samples.
OBJECTIVES:
To examine the lifetime prevalence of, and psychological variables associated with, persistent pain in a community sample of children and adolescents, and to explore differences according to sex, age and pain history.
METHODS:
Participants completed the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI), the Child Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (CPASS), the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-10 (MASC-10), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children (PCS-C) and a pain history questionnaire that assessed chronicity and pain frequency. After research ethics board approval, informed consent/assent was obtained from 1022 individuals recruited to participate in a study conducted at the Ontario Science Centre (Toronto, Ontario).
RESULTS:
Of the 1006 participants (54% female, mean [± SD] age 11.6±2.7 years) who provided complete data, 27% reported having experienced pain that lasted for three months or longer. A 2×2×2 (pain history, age and sex) multivariate ANOVA was conducted, with the total scores on the CASI, the CPASS, the MASC-10 and the PCS-C as dependent variables. Girls with a history of persistent pain expressed higher levels of anxiety sensitivity (P<0.001) and pain catastrophizing (P<0.001) than both girls without a pain history and boys regardless of pain history. This same pattern of results was found for anxiety and pain anxiety in the older, but not the younger, age group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Boys and girls appear to differ in terms of how age and pain history relate to the expression of pain-related psychological variables. Given the prevalence of persistent pain found in the study, more research is needed regarding the developmental implications of persistent pain in childhood and adolescence.
PMCID: PMC3206778  PMID: 22059200
Children; Persistent pain; Psychosocial factors; Sex differences
7.  Moderators of the Negative Effects of Catastrophizing in Arthritis 
Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)  2010;11(4):591-599.
Objectives
Pain is among the most frequently-reported, bothersome, and disabling symptoms described by patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and the experience of pain is partially shaped by catastrophizing, a set of cognitive and emotional pain-related processes. However, other variables may moderate catastrophizing’s influence on the experience of pain. In this study, we investigated a variety of factors that might buffer or magnify catastrophizing’s deleterious consequences among patients with RA.
Methods
A total of 185 RA patients were surveyed to determine levels of catastrophizing, pain, general psychological distress, and physical functioning.
Results
Catastrophizing was associated with increased pain severity and psychological distress, and with poorer physical functioning. Some of these relationships were significantly moderated by education and social functioning; among RA patients with above-average social functioning and a college education, minimal relationships of catastrophizing with pain and distress symptoms were observed, while these associations were highly significant (p’s< .001) among patients with lower levels of education or social functioning.
Conclusions
Collectively, educational achievement and positive social interactions may protect against some of the deleterious effects of catastrophizing. The design of future interventions to reduce catastrophizing, or ameliorate its impact on pain outcomes, may benefit from further study of these subgroups of patients.
doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00804.x
PMCID: PMC2868122  PMID: 20210869
Pain; Coping; Catastrophizing; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Education
8.  Pain Catastrophizing Mediates the Relation Between Self-Reported Strenuous Exercise Involvement and Pain Ratings: The Moderating Role of Anxiety Sensitivity 
Psychosomatic medicine  2009;71(9):1018-1025.
Objective
Exercise involvement has been shown to have hypoalgesic effects and cognitive factors may partially explain this effect. Particularly, alterations in pain catastrophizing have been found to mediate the positive pain outcomes of multidisciplinary treatments incorporating exercise. Further, recent evidence suggests that exercise involvement and anxiety sensitivity may act together, as interacting factors, to exert an effect on catastrophizing and pain outcomes; however, further research is needed to clarify the nature of this interaction. In this study we developed a model to investigate the cross-sectional associations among self-reported weekly strenuous exercise bouts, anxiety sensitivity, and their interaction with pain catastrophizing and pain responses to the cold pressor task (CPT) in healthy, ethnically diverse young adults (N = 79).
Methods
Prior to the CPT, participants were asked to complete the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Following the CPT participants completed a modified version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire.
Results
At a high level of anxiety sensitivity, controlling for depressive symptoms, CPT immersion time, and sex differences, a bias-corrected (BC), bootstrapped confidence interval revealed that pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the relation between self-reported weekly strenuous exercise bouts and pain response (95% BC Confidence Interval: (−9.558, −0.800) with 1000 resamples). At intermediate and low levels of anxiety sensitivity, no significant mediation effects were found.
Conclusions
These findings support that for pain catastrophizing to mediate the strenuous exercise-pain response relation, individuals must possess a high level of anxiety sensitivity.
doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181bc62
PMCID: PMC2784988  PMID: 19779141
strenuous exercise; pain catastrophizing; anxiety sensitivity; moderated mediation; bootstrap
9.  Domain Specific Self-Efficacy Mediates the Impact of Pain Catastrophizing on Pain and Disability in Overweight and Obese Osteoarthritis Patients 
This study examined whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain and disability. Participants were 192 individuals diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knees who were overweight or obese. Multiple mediator analyses were conducted to simultaneously test self-efficacy for pain control, physical function, and emotional symptoms as mediators while controlling for demographic and medical status variables. Higher pain catastrophizing was associated with lower self-efficacy in all three domains (ps< .05). Self-efficacy for pain control fully mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain (β=.08, Sobel test Z=1.97, p<.05). The relationship between pain catastrophizing and physical disability was fully mediated by self-efficacy for physical function (β=.06, Sobel test Z=1.95, p=.05). Self-efficacy for emotional symptoms partially mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and psychological disability (β=.12, Sobel test Z=2.92, p<.05). These results indicate that higher pain catastrophizing contributed to greater pain and disability via lower domain-specific self-efficacy. Efforts to reduce pain and improve functioning in OA patients should consider addressing pain catastrophizing and domain specific self-efficacy. Pain catastrophizing may be addressed through cognitive therapy techniques and self-efficacy may be enhanced through practice of relevant skills and personal accomplishments.
Perspective
This paper found that higher pain catastrophizing contributed to great pain and disability via domain specific self-efficacy. These results suggest that treatment efforts to reduce pain and improve functioning in OA patients who are overweight or obese should consider addressing both pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2008.05.008
PMCID: PMC2581839  PMID: 18602871
Catastrophizing; Self-efficacy; Pain; Disability; Osteoarthritis; Obesity
10.  Pain Coping Skills Training for Patients with Elevated Pain Catastrophizing who are Scheduled for Knee Arthroplasty: A Quasi-Experimental Study 
Objectives
To (1) describe a behavioral intervention designed for patients with elevated pain catastrophizing who are scheduled for knee arthroplasty, and (2) use a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the potential efficacy of the intervention on pain severity, catastrophizing cognitions, and disability.
Design
Quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design with a 2 month follow-up.
Setting
Two university-based Orthopedic Surgery departments.
Participants
Adults scheduled for knee replacement surgery who reported elevated levels of pain catastrophizing. Patients were recruited from two clinics and were assessed prior to surgery and 2 months following surgery.
Intervention
A group of 18 patients received a psychologist directed pain coping skills training intervention comprising 8 sessions and the other group, a historical cohort of 45 patients, received usual care.
Main Outcome Measures
WOMAC Pain and Disability scores as well as scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale.
Results
Two months following surgery, the patients who received pain coping skills training reported significantly greater reductions in pain severity and catastrophizing, and greater improvements in function as compared to the usual care cohort.
Conclusion
Pain catastrophizing is known to increase risk of poor outcome following knee arthroplasty. The findings provide preliminary evidence that the treatment may be highly efficacious for reducing pain, catastrophizing, and disability, in patients reporting elevated catastrophizing prior to knee arthroplasty. A randomized clinical trial is warranted to confirm these effects.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.003
PMCID: PMC3104058  PMID: 21530943
knee; arthroplasty; distress; pain; arthritis; catastrophizing
11.  Pain-related Catastrophizing and Perceived Social Responses: Inter-relationships in the Context of Chronic Pain 
Pain  2006;127(3):234-242.
Pain-related coping, particularly catastrophizing, plays a significant role in shaping pain responses. One way catastrophizing is hypothesized to amplify pain and disability is via its effect on patients, social environments (e.g., communal coping model), though empirical support is limited. The present study tested whether the association between catastrophizing and deleterious pain-related outcomes was mediated by patients’ perceptions of significant others’ responses to their pain in a sample of 1,356 pain patients. Regression analyses showed that perceived significant other punishing responses partially mediated catastrophizing’s relationship with pain-related disability, and with depressive symptoms. Further, several variables moderated the association between catastrophizing and perceived social responses to pain. Catastrophizing was more strongly associated with greater perceived solicitous responses for patients of relatively short pain duration. Also, higher catastrophizing was more strongly associated with perceived punishing responses among patients perceiving lower social support. In addition, the mediational effects of perceived punishing responses on catastrophizing’s relationship with depressive symptoms, and with pain-related disability were only found in individuals reporting low levels of perceived social support. In sum, perceived social responses were found to play a small role in mediating the relationship between catastrophizing and pain-related outcomes, and these mediational effects may be strongest in particular patient subgroups. The present data suggest that interpersonal mechanisms may not constitute a primary route by which catastrophizing exerts its maladaptive effects on pain responses. The study and further understanding of what principal factors mediate catastrophizing’s deleterious effects on pain will be important in illuminating the biopsychosocial model of pain.
doi:10.1016/j.pain.2006.08.018
PMCID: PMC1866270  PMID: 17011706
Chronic Pain; Pain; Catastrophizing; Communal Coping Model; Solicitous Responses; Punishing Responses
12.  The association of greater dispositional optimism with less endogenous pain facilitation is indirectly transmitted through lower levels of pain catastrophizing 
Dispositional optimism has been shown to beneficially influence various experimental and clinical pain experiences. One possibility that may account for decreased pain sensitivity among individuals who report greater dispositional optimism is less use of maladaptive coping strategies like pain catastrophizing, a negative cognitive/affective response to pain. An association between dispositional optimism and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), a measure of endogenous pain inhibition, has previously been reported. However, it remains to be determined whether dispositional optimism is also associated with temporal summation (TS), a measure of endogenous pain facilitation. The current study examined whether pain catastrophizing mediated the association between dispositional optimism and TS among 140 older, community-dwelling adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Individuals completed measures of dispositional optimism and pain catastrophizing. TS was then assessed using a tailored heat pain stimulus on the forearm. Greater dispositional optimism was significantly related to lower levels of pain catastrophizing and TS. Bootstrapped confidence intervals revealed that less pain catastrophizing was a significant mediator of the relation between greater dispositional optimism and diminished TS. These findings support the primary role of personality characteristics such as dispositional optimism in the modulation of pain outcomes by abatement of endogenous pain facilitation and less use of catastrophizing.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2012.10.007
PMCID: PMC3592576  PMID: 23218934
Optimism; Catastrophizing; Pain Facilitation; Temporal Summation; Osteoarthritis
13.  Pain Catastrophizing in Patients with Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: Relationships with Pain, Anxiety, and Disability 
Psychosomatic medicine  2009;71(8):861-868.
Objective
This study examined the contributions of chest pain, anxiety, and pain catastrophizing to disability in 97 patients with non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). We also tested whether chest pain and anxiety were indirectly related to greater disability via pain catastrophizing.
Methods
Participants completed daily diaries measuring chest pain for seven days prior to completing measures of pain catastrophizing, trait anxiety, and disability. Linear path model analyses examined the contributions of chest pain, trait anxiety, and catastrophizing to physical disability, psychosocial disability, and disability in work, home, and recreational activities.
Results
Path models accounted for a significant amount of the variability in disability scales (R2=.35 to .52). Chest pain and anxiety accounted for 46% of the variance in pain catastrophizing. Both chest pain (β=.18, Sobel test Z=2.58, p<.01) and trait anxiety (β=.14, Sobel test Z=2.11, p<.05) demonstrated significant indirect relationships with physical disability via pain catastrophizing. Chest pain demonstrated a significant indirect relationship with psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing (β=.12, Sobel test Z=1.96, p=.05). After controlling for the effects of chest pain and anxiety, pain catastrophizing was no longer related to disability in work, home, and recreational activities.
Conclusions
Chest pain and anxiety were directly related to greater disability and indirectly related to physical and psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing. Efforts to improve functioning in NCCP patients should consider addressing pain catastrophizing.
doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181b49584
PMCID: PMC2762482  PMID: 19737857
non-cardiac chest pain; catastrophizing; anxiety; disability
14.  Conditioned Pain Modulation and Situational Pain Catastrophizing as Preoperative Predictors of Pain following Chest Wall Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e90185.
Background
Variability in patients' postoperative pain experience and response to treatment challenges effective pain management. Variability in pain reflects individual differences in inhibitory pain modulation and psychological sensitivity, which in turn may be clinically relevant for the disposition to acquire pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing on postoperative pain and pain persistency.
Methods
Preoperatively, 42 healthy males undergoing funnel chest surgery completed the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory before undergoing a sequential conditioned pain modulation paradigm. Subsequently, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was introduced and patients were instructed to reference the conditioning pain while answering. Ratings of movement-evoked pain and consumption of morphine equivalents were obtained during postoperative days 2–5. Pain was reevaluated at six months postoperatively.
Results
Patients reporting persistent pain at six months follow-up (n = 15) were not significantly different from pain-free patients (n = 16) concerning preoperative conditioned pain modulation response (Z = 1.0, P = 0.3) or level of catastrophizing (Z = 0.4, P = 1.0). In the acute postoperative phase, situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain, independently of anxiety and depression (β = 1.0, P = 0.007) whereas conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption (β = −0.005, P = 0.001).
Conclusions
Preoperative conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing were not associated with the development of persistent postoperative pain following funnel chest repair. Secondary outcome analyses indicated that conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption and situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain intensity in the acute postoperative phase. These findings may have important implications for developing strategies to treat or prevent acute postoperative pain in selected patients. Pain may be predicted and the malfunctioning pain inhibition mechanism as tested with CPM may be treated with suitable drugs augmenting descending inhibition.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090185
PMCID: PMC3935997  PMID: 24587268
15.  Situational vs. dispositional measurement of catastrophizing: Associations with pain responses in multiple samples 
Catastrophizing is widely recognized as an important risk factor for adverse pain-related outcomes. However, questions remain surrounding the details of its assessment. In particular, recent laboratory studies suggest that evaluation of “situational” catastrophizing (i.e., catastrophizing measured during or directly after the administration of noxious stimulation) may provide information distinct from that obtained by standard, or “dispositional” measures which assess individuals’ recall of catastrophizing in daily life. However, comparatively little research has systematically investigated the inter-relationships and properties of these two different forms of pain-related catastrophizing. The current study evaluated both situational and dispositional catastrophizing measures within multiple samples: healthy individuals (N=84), patients with painful temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD; N=48), and patients with painful arthritis (N=43). All participants first completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)49, and then underwent psychophysical pain testing, which included heat, cold, and pressure pain. Participants then completed a situational catastrophizing measure with reference to the laboratory pain he/she had just undergone. Situational catastrophizing scores were not significantly correlated with dispositional PCS scores in the healthy participants and arthritis patients, though they were associated in TMD patients. Situational catastrophizing was more strongly associated with experimental pain responses than dispositional PCS scores for the healthy subjects and arthritis patients. In general, higher levels of situational catastrophizing were associated with lower pain thresholds and higher pain ratings across all 3 samples. The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessment of pain-related catastrophizing, and suggests a role for measuring catastrophizing related to specific, definable events.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.08.009
PMCID: PMC2898132  PMID: 20439057
Situational Catastrophizing; Dispositional Catastrophizing; TMD; Arthritis; experimental pain
16.  Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction 
Pain  2010;149(2):202-207.
Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain + Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the “pain alone” session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time.
doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.11.012
PMCID: PMC2860661  PMID: 20188470
Experimental pain; Behavioral analgesia; Distraction; Catastrophizing; Capsaicin
17.  Women with knee osteoarthritis have more pain and poorer function than men, but similar physical activity prior to total knee replacement 
Background
Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men. Women also perform worse than men on function measures such as the 6-minute walk and timed up and go tests. Differences in pain sensitivity, pain during function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity levels are unclear. Further the ability of various biopsychosocial variables to explain physical activity, function and pain is unknown.
Methods
This study examined differences in pain, pain sensitivity, function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity between women and men with knee osteoarthritis (N = 208) immediately prior to total knee arthroplasty. We assessed: (1) pain using self-report measures and a numerical rating scale at rest and during functional tasks, (2) pain sensitivity using quantitative sensory measures, (3) function with self-report measures and specific function tasks (timed walk, maximal active flexion and extension), (4) psychosocial measures (depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and social support), and (5) physical activity using accelerometry. The ability of these mixed variables to explain physical activity, function and pain was assessed using regression analysis.
Results
Our findings showed significant differences on pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and function tasks, but not on psychosocial measures or physical activity. Women had significantly worse pain and more impaired function than men. Their levels of depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, social support, and physical activity, however, did not differ significantly. Factors explaining differences in (1) pain during movement (during gait speed test) were pain at rest, knee extension, state anxiety, and pressure pain threshold; (2) function (gait speed test) were sex, age, knee extension, knee flexion opioid medications, pain duration, pain catastrophizing, body mass index (BMI), and heat pain threshold; and (3) physical activity (average metabolic equivalent tasks (METS)/day) were BMI, age, Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Physical Function, Kellgren-Lawrence osteoarthritis grade, depression, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain subscale.
Conclusions
Women continue to be as physically active as men prior to total knee replacement even though they have significantly more pain, greater pain sensitivity, poorer perceived function, and more impairment on specific functional tasks.
doi:10.1186/2042-6410-2-12
PMCID: PMC3228720  PMID: 22074728
18.  Alexithymia and fear of pain independently predict heat pain intensity ratings among undergraduate university students 
BACKGROUND:
Alexithymia is a disturbance in awareness and cognitive processing of affect that is associated with over-reporting of physical symptoms, including pain. The relationship between alexithymia and other psychological constructs that are often associated with pain has yet to be evaluated.
OBJECTIVES:
The present study examined the importance of alexithymia in the pain experience in relation to other integral psychological components of Turk’s diathesis-stress model of chronic pain and disability, including fear of pain, anxiety sensitivity, pain avoidance and pain catastrophizing.
METHODS:
Heat pain stimuli, using a magnitude estimation procedure, and five questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Fear of Pain Questionnaire III, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, avoidance subscale of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20) were administered to 67 undergraduate students (44 women) with a mean (± SD) age of 20.39±3.77 years.
RESULTS:
Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sex, fear of pain and alexithymia were the only significant predictors of average heat pain intensity (F[6, 60]=5.43; R2=0.35; P=0.008), accounting for 6.8%, 20.0% and 9.6% of unique variance, respectively. Moreover, the difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings subscales, but not the externally oriented thinking subscale of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 significantly predicted average heat pain intensity.
CONCLUSIONS:
Individuals with higher levels of alexithymia or increased fear of pain reported higher average pain intensity ratings. The relationship between alexithymia and pain intensity was unrelated to other psychological constructs usually associated with pain. These findings suggest that difficulties with emotion regulation, either through reduced emotional awareness via alexithymia or heightened emotional awareness via fear of pain, may negatively impact the pain experience.
PMCID: PMC2734517  PMID: 19714270
Alexithymia; Fear of pain; Heat pain stimulation; Pain intensity; Undergraduates
19.  Sensitization of catastrophic cognition in cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder 
BMC Psychiatry  2007;7:70.
Background
Cognitive model of panic disorder have proposed that panic attacks result from the catastrophic misinterpretation of certain bodily sensations. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for panic disorder aims to change these catastrophic cognitions. CBT intervention successfully caused reduction of catastrophic cognitions and symptomatic improvement in the majority of cases. However there are some patients who fail to modify their catastrophic cognitions or rather experience an increase in them during CBT treatment. It is clinically and theoretically important to understand about cognitive sensitization of panic disorder during CBT sessions. The purpose of the present study is 1) to clarify the baseline characteristics of panic patients who would experience sensitization of their catastrophic cognitions through the CBT treatment, and 2) to examine the course of symptomatic changes for them.
Methods
Of ninety-five outpatients with panic disorder started the group CBT program for treatment of panic disorder, seventy-nine completer were classified as "cognitively sensitized (CS)" or "cognitive responding (CR)" or "no-responder" according to the difference of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire score across treatment. We compared the CS and CR patients in terms of their baseline clinical characteristics. Then we assessed the symptomatic and functional changes for both groups.
Results
At the start of the CBT program, despite of the same degree of panic disorder severity, CS scored significantly lower on ACQ score than CR. CS also showed significantly lower score on anticipatory anxiety compared to CR. At the end of treatment CS showed significant improvement in severity of panic disorder, although the degree of improvement was smaller than that for CR. Then CS would progressively reduce their agoraphobic fear and avoidance, and would improve their functional impairment up to three month of follow-up.
Conclusion
Panic patients who would experience sensitization of their catastrophic cognitions through the CBT treatment could nonetheless gradually improve. They showed a relatively low level of catastrophic cognition and anticipatory anxiety before starting the CBT program. We might conclude that temporary sensitization of catastrophic cognition may be necessary before improvement especially among those with initially low catastrophic body sensation fears and that we need not be concerned too much with temporary increase in catastrophic cognition in the process of CBT for panic disorder.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-7-70
PMCID: PMC2211294  PMID: 18067686
20.  Pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain 
Frontiers in Psychology  2014;5:1421.
Background: Pain frequency has been shown to influence sensitization, psychological distress, and pain modulation. The present study examined if pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain.
Method: A non-clinical (247 students) and a clinical (223 pain patients) sample completed the Danish versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Beck Depression Inventory, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and rated pain intensity, unpleasantness and frequency.
Results: In both samples, high pain frequency was found to moderate the association between pain catastrophizing and pain intensity, whereas low pain frequency did not. The psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Danish version of the PCS were confirmed.
Conclusions: This is the first study to validate the Danish version of the PCS and to show that pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and reported pain in both non-clinical and clinical populations.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01421
PMCID: PMC4297917  PMID: 25646089
frequency; pain catastrophizing scale; depression; anxiety; danish validation
21.  Pain catastrophizing and pain coping among methadone-maintained patients* 
Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)  2010;12(1):79-86.
Objective
The aim of this study was to examine the association of pain catastrophizing and pain coping strategies with characteristic pain intensity (an average of worst, least, and typical pain intensity in the past week) and recent pain-related disability (an average of three measures of past week pain interference) in opioid dependent patients enrolled in a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) who reported recent pain.
Design
Cross-sectional survey.
Patients
One hundred and eight MMTP patients who reported recent pain.
Measures
Participants completed measures of demographics, pain status (i.e. “chronic severe pain” [pain lasting at least 6 months with at least moderate pain intensity or significant pain interference in the past week] vs. “some pain” [pain in the past week not meeting the threshold of chronic severe pain]), characteristic pain intensity, recent pain-related disability, somatization, depression, catastrophizing, and pain coping strategies.
Results
Catastrophizing explained a significant proportion of the variance in characteristic pain intensity (14%) and recent pain-related disability (11%) after controlling for demographics, pain status, somatization, and depression. Mirroring the findings of studies of non-opioid dependent chronic pain patients, greater catastrophizing was associated with greater pain intensity and increases in recent pain-related disability. On average, the chronic severe pain group reported higher levels of catastrophizing than the some pain group.
Conclusion
Consistent with studies of patients with chronic pain who are not opioid dependent, our findings emphasize the importance of assessing and addressing catastrophizing in MMTP patients with pain.
doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.01002.x
PMCID: PMC3059771  PMID: 21087402
pain; opioid dependence; catastrophizing; coping; methadone
22.  Comparing Postoperative Pain Experiences of the Adolescent and Adult Athlete After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery 
Journal of Athletic Training  2003;38(2):154-157.
Objective:
To examine age-related differences in pain, catastrophizing, and affective distress (depression and anxiety) after athletic injury and knee surgery.
Design and Setting:
Participants were assessed with measures of pain intensity, pain-related catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety symptoms at 24 hours after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery.
Subjects:
Twenty patients (10 adolescents, 10 adults) with an acute complete tear of the ACL.
Measurements:
Pain was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), catastrophizing with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety with the state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S).
Results:
At 24 hours postsurgery, adolescents reported greater pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety than adults. Ancillary analyses showed that helplessness and rumination were significant contributors to the differences in catastrophizing. Further, an analysis of covariance showed that controlling for the effects of catastrophizing, the adolescent and adult differences in pain scores were reduced to a null effect.
Conclusions:
After ACL surgery, athletic adolescents and adults differed significantly in pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety. Catastrophizing seemed to be a particularly strong factor in postoperative pain differences between adolescents and adults, with clinical-management implications. These data indicate the need for continued research into specific pain- and age-related factors during the acute postoperative period for athletes undergoing ACL surgery.
PMCID: PMC164905  PMID: 12937527
catastrophizing; knee surgery
23.  Virtual reality exposure therapy as treatment for pain catastrophizing in fibromyalgia patients: proof-of-concept study (Study Protocol) 
Background
Albeit exercise is currently advocated as one of the most effective management strategies for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS); the implementation of exercise as a FMS treatment in reality is significantly hampered by patients' poor compliance. The inference that pain catastrophizing is a key predictor of poor compliance in FMS patients, justifies considering the alteration of pain catastrophizing in improving compliance towards exercises in FMS patients. The aim of this study is to provide proof-of-concept for the development and testing of a novel virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) program as treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS patients.
Methods
Two interlinked experimental studies will be conducted. Study 1 aims to objectively ascertain if neurophysiological changes occur in the functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophizing, when catastrophizing FMS subjects are exposed to visuals of exercise activities. Study 2 aims to ascertain the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of exposure to visuals of exercise activities as a treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS subjects. Twenty subjects will be selected from a group of FMS patients attending the Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa and randomly allocated to either the VRET (intervention) group or waiting list (control) group. Baseline neurophysiological activity for subjects will be collected in study 1 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In study 2, clinical improvement in pain catastrophizing will be measured using fMRI (objective) and the pain catastrophizing scale (subjective).
Discussion
The premise is if exposing FMS patients to visuals of various exercise activities trigger the functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophizing; then as a treatment, repeated exposure to visuals of the exercise activities using a VRET program could possibly decrease exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS patients. Proof-of-concept will either be established or negated. The results of this project are envisaged to revolutionize FMS and pain catastrophizing research and in the future, assist health professionals and FMS patients in reducing despondency regarding FMS management.
Trial registration
PACTR201011000264179
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-85
PMCID: PMC3114800  PMID: 21529375
fibromyalgia syndrome; pain catastrophizing; virtual reality exposure therapy; exercise and compliance
24.  Association of Catastrophizing with Interleukin-6 Responses to Acute Pain 
Pain  2008;140(1):135-144.
Catastrophizing exerts its deleterious effects on pain via multiple pathways, and some researchers have reported that high levels of catastrophizing are associated with enhanced physiological reactivity to painful stimulation. In this project, 42 generally healthy adults underwent a series of psychophysical pain testing procedures assessing responses to noxious mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli. Pain-catastrophizing cognitions were assessed prior to and then immediately after the various pain induction procedures. Blood samples were taken at baseline and then at several time points from the end of the procedures to 1 hour post-testing. Samples were assayed for serum levels of cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Both cortisol and IL-6 increased from baseline during the post-testing period (p’s< .05), with cortisol returning to baseline by 1 hour post-testing and IL-6 remaining elevated. Pain catastrophizing, measured immediately after the pain procedures, was unrelated to cortisol reactivity, but was strongly related to IL-6 reactivity (p< .01), with higher levels of catastrophizing predicting greater IL-6 reactivity. In multivariate analyses, the relationship between catastrophizing and IL-6 reactivity was independent of pain ratings. Collectively, these findings suggest that cognitive and emotional responses during the experience of pain can shape pro-inflammatory immune system responses to noxious stimulation. This pathway may represent one important mechanism by which catastrophizing and other psychosocial factors shape the experience of both acute and chronic pain in a variety of settings.
doi:10.1016/j.pain.2008.07.024
PMCID: PMC2659503  PMID: 18778895
Experimental Pain; Pro-Inflammatory; Interleukin-6; Cortisol; Catastrophizing
25.  Sensitivity to pain traumatization: A higher-order factor underlying pain-related anxiety, pain catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity among patients scheduled for major surgery 
BACKGROUND:
The present article addresses two related developments in the psychology of pain, and integrates them into a coherent framework to better understand the relationship between pain and trauma. The first is an emerging conceptualization regarding the nature of the hierarchical organization of major pain-related anxiety constructs. The second is the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence linking pain and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
OBJECTIVES:
To explore the underlying hierarchical factor structure of commonly used pain-related anxiety measures including the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI); and to relate this structure to post-traumatic stress disorder in patients scheduled for major surgery.
METHODS:
Measures were completed by 444 patients scheduled to undergo major surgery. Exploratory factor analysis and subsequent higher-order analysis using the Schmid-Leiman transformation were conducted to investigate the underlying factor structure of the ASI, the PCS and the PASS-20.
RESULTS:
Twenty items from the ASI, the PASS-20 and the PCS loaded exclusively on one higher-order factor. The authors suggest the term ‘sensitivity to pain traumatization’ (SPT) for the underlying construct based in part on the strong, significant positive correlation between SPT scores and scores on the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version. Finally, the total SPT score was significantly higher for patients with a history of pain than for those without a history of pain, both before surgery and one year after surgery. SPT describes the propensity to develop anxiety-related somatic, cognitive, emotional and behavioural responses to pain that resemble features of a traumatic stress reaction. Together, the results of the present study provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of SPT.
PMCID: PMC3198110  PMID: 21766066
Anxiety sensitivity; Factor analysis; Pain anxiety; Pain catastrophizing; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Surgery

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