Skeletal muscle resistance to the key metabolic hormones, leptin and insulin, is an early defect in obesity. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a major negative regulator of both leptin and insulin signaling, thereby implicating SOCS3 in the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities. Here, we demonstrate that SOCS3 mRNA expression is increased in murine skeletal muscle in the setting of diet-induced and genetic obesity, inflammation, and hyperlipidemia. To further evaluate the contribution of muscle SOCS3 to leptin and insulin resistance in obesity, we generated transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of SOCS3 (MCK/SOCS3 mice). Despite similar body weight, MCK/SOCS3 mice develop impaired systemic and muscle-specific glucose homeostasis and insulin action based on glucose and insulin tolerance tests, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, and insulin signaling studies. With regards to leptin action, MCK/SOCS3 mice exhibit suppressed basal and leptin-stimulated activity and phosphorylation of alpha2 AMP-activated protein kinase (α2AMPK) and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Muscle SOCS3 overexpression also suppresses leptin-regulated genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial function. These studies demonstrate that SOC3 within skeletal muscle is a critical regulator of leptin and insulin action and that increased SOCS may mediate insulin and leptin resistance in obesity.
A major component of obesity-related insulin resistance is the establishment of a chronic inflammatory state with invasion of white adipose tissue by mononuclear cells. This results in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn leads to insulin resistance in target tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver. To determine the role of insulin action in macrophages and monocytes in obesity-associated insulin resistance, we conditionally inactivated the insulin receptor (IR) gene in myeloid lineage cells in mice (IRΔmyel-mice). While these animals exhibit unaltered glucose metabolism on a normal diet, they are protected from the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance upon high fat feeding. Euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp studies demonstrate that this results from decreased basal hepatic glucose production and from increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, IRΔmyel-mice exhibit decreased concentrations of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and thus reduced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in skeletal muscle upon high fat feeding, reflecting a dramatic reduction of the chronic and systemic low-grade inflammatory state associated with obesity. This is paralleled by a reduced accumulation of macrophages in white adipose tissue due to a pronounced impairment of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression and activity in these cells. These data indicate that insulin action in myeloid cells plays an unexpected, critical role in the regulation of macrophage invasion into white adipose tissue and in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance.
Obesity represents a major health burden with steadily increasing incidence. While it is associated with numerous co-morbidities, type 2 diabetes mellitus represents one of the major life-threatening, obesity-related conditions. Over the last years, it has become clear that during the course of obesity development not only does fat mass increase, but also fat composition changes qualitatively, leading to an influx of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, into adipose tissue. Macrophages in turn secrete inflammatory mediators, which inhibit insulin action in skeletal muscle, liver, and even the central nervous system to ultimately cause insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of insulin action and resistance in these inflammatory cell types themselves has not been addressed. To this end, we have generated and analyzed mice with inactivation of the insulin receptor specifically in myeloid cell-derived, inflammatory cells. Surprisingly, these animals are protected from the development of obesity-associated deterioration of glucose metabolism, thereby defining insulin action in inflammatory cells as a novel and promising target for therapeutic intervention against obesity-associated diabetes mellitus.
Transgenic expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) in skeletal muscle leads to protection against fat-induced insulin resistance despite accumulation of intramuscular triglyceride, a phenomenon similar to what is known as the “athlete paradox.” The primary objective of this study is to determine how DGAT1 affects muscle fatty acid oxidation in relation to whole-body energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We first quantified insulin sensitivity and the relative tissue contributions to the improved whole-body insulin sensitivity in muscle creatine kisase (MCK)-DGAT1 transgenic mice by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Metabolic consequences of DGAT1 overexpression in skeletal muscles were determined by quantifying triglyceride synthesis/storage (anabolic) and fatty acid oxidation (catabolic), in conjunction with gene expression levels of representative marker genes in fatty acid metabolism. Whole-body energy metabolism including food consumption, body weights, oxygen consumption, locomotor activity, and respiration exchange ratios were determined at steady states.
MCK-DGAT1 mice were protected against muscle lipoptoxicity, although they remain susceptible to hepatic lipotoxicity. While augmenting triglyceride synthesis, DGAT1 overexpression also led to increased muscle mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation efficiency, as compared with wild-type muscles. On a high-fat diet, MCK-DGAT1 mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates and 5–10% lower body weights compared with wild-type littermates, whereas food consumption was not different.
DGAT1 overexpression in skeletal muscle led to parallel increases in triglyceride synthesis and fatty acid oxidation. Seemingly paradoxical, this phenomenon is characteristic of insulin-sensitive myofibers and suggests that DGAT1 plays an active role in metabolic “remodeling” of skeletal muscle coupled with insulin sensitization.
To investigate the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78/BiP in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Male Grp78+/− mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) regimen. Pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes was examined by multiple approaches of metabolic phenotyping. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was analyzed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Molecular mechanism was explored via immunoblotting and tissue culture manipulation.
Grp78 heterozygosity increases energy expenditure and attenuates HFD-induced obesity. Grp78+/− mice are resistant to diet-induced hyperinsulinemia, liver steatosis, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and hyperglycemia. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that Grp78 heterozygosity improves glucose metabolism independent of adiposity and following an HFD increases insulin sensitivity predominantly in WAT. As mechanistic explanations, Grp78 heterozygosity in WAT under HFD stress promotes adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), attenuates translational block, and upregulates ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase–like protein (EDEM) and ER chaperones, thus improving ER quality control and folding capacity. Further, overexpression of the active form of ATF6 induces protective UPR and improves insulin signaling upon ER stress.
HFD-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes are improved in Grp78+/− mice. Adaptive UPR in WAT could contribute to this improvement, linking ER homeostasis to energy balance and glucose metabolism.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Obesity-related insulin resistance contributes to cardiovascular disease. Cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) blockade improves insulin sensitivity in obese animals and people, suggesting endocannabinoid involvement. We explored the role of hepatic CB1 in insulin resistance and inhibition of insulin signaling pathways.
Wild-type mice and mice with disruption of CB1 (CB1−/− mice) or with hepatocyte-specific deletion or transgenic overexpression of CB1 were maintained on regular chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis was used to analyze the role of the liver and hepatic CB1 in HFD-induced insulin resistance. The cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance were analyzed in mouse and human isolated hepatocytes using small interfering or short hairpin RNAs and lentiviral knockdown of gene expression.
The HFD induced hepatic insulin resistance in wild-type mice, but not in CB1−/− mice or mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of CB1. CB1−/− mice that overexpressed CB1 specifically in hepatocytes became hyperinsulinemic as a result of reduced insulin clearance due to down-regulation of the insulin-degrading enzyme. However, they had increased hepatic glucose production due to increased glycogenolysis, indicating hepatic insulin resistance; this was further increased by the HFD. In mice with hepatocytes that express CB1, the HFD or CB1 activation induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress response via activation of the Bip-PERK-eIF2α protein translation pathway. In hepatocytes isolated from human or mouse liver, CB1 activation caused endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent suppression of insulin-induced phosphorylation of akt-2 via phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine-307 and by inducing the expression of the serine and threonine phosphatase Phlpp1. Expression of CB1 was up-regulated in samples from patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Endocannabinoids contribute to diet-induced insulin resistance in mice via hepatic CB1-mediated inhibition of insulin signaling and clearance.
NASH; Signal Transduction; Mouse Model; Liver Disease
Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn−/− mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn−/− mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn−/− mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn−/− mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn−/− mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn−/− mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.
Obesity-related adipose inflammation has been thought to be a causal factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue of obese animals and humans are an important source for inflammatory cytokines. Clodronate liposomes can ablate macrophages by inducing apoptosis. In this study, we aim to determine whether peritoneal injection of clodronate liposomes has any beneficial effect on systemic glucose homeostasis/insulin sensitivity and whether macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue will be reduced in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.
Clodronate liposomes were used to deplete macrophages in lean and DIO mice. Macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue, metabolic parameters, glucose and insulin tolerance, adipose and liver histology, adipokine and cytokine production were examined. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was also performed to assess systemic insulin sensitivity. Peritoneal injection of clodronate liposomes significantly reduced blood glucose and insulin levels in DIO mice. Systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were mildly improved in both lean and DIO mice treated with clodronate liposomes by intraperitoneal (ip) injection. Hepatosteatosis was dramatically alleviated and suppression of hepatic glucose output was markedly increased in DIO mice treated with clodronate liposomes. Macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue of DIO mice was effectively decreased without affecting subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, levels of insulin sensitizing hormone adiponectin, including the high molecular weight form, were significantly elevated in circulation.
Intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes reduces visceral adipose tissue macrophages, improves systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice, which can be partially attributable to increased adiponectin levels.
OBJECTIVE—White adipose tissue is a critical regulator of whole-body glucose metabolism. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a secreted protein that inhibits adipocyte differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Pref-1 overexpression on whole-body glucose homeostasis and its contribution to the development of insulin resistance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—To gain insight into the role of Pref-1 on the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we measured body composition and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in Pref-1 transgenic and wild-type control mice fed a high-fat diet.
RESULTS—Mice overexpressing Pref-1 were resistant to high-fat diet–induced obesity, as reflected by a marked reduction in adipose tissue mass. However, Pref-1–overexpressing mice were severely insulin resistant, mainly because of a reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The aggravated insulin resistance was associated with impaired insulin signaling and increased diacylglycerol content in skeletal muscle.
CONCLUSIONS—Mice overexpressing Pref-1 are insulin resistant despite being protected from diet-induced obesity and may provide a new rodent model for the study of lipodystrophic disorders.
Diet-induced obesity is a rising health concern which can lead to the development of glucose intolerance and muscle insulin resistance and, ultimately, type II diabetes mellitus. This research investigates the associations between glucose intolerance or muscle insulin resistance and tissue specific changes during the progression of diet-induced obesity.
C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 3 or 8 weeks. Disease progression was monitored by measurements of body/tissue mass changes, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and ex vivo glucose uptake in intact muscles. Lipid metabolism was analyzed using metabolic chambers and ex vivo palmitate assays in intact muscles. Skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissues were analyzed for changes in inflammatory gene expression. Plasma was analyzed for insulin levels and inflammatory proteins. Histological techniques were used on muscle and liver cryosections to assess metabolic and morphological changes.
A rapid shift in whole body metabolism towards lipids was observed with HFD. Following 3 weeks of HFD, elevated total lipid oxidation and an oxidative fiber type shift had occurred in the skeletal muscle, which we propose was responsible for delaying intramyocellular lipid accumulation and maintaining muscle’s insulin sensitivity. Glucose intolerance was present after three weeks of HFD and was associated with an enlarged adipose tissue depot, adipose tissue inflammation and excess hepatic lipids, but not hepatic inflammation. Furthermore, HFD did not significantly increase systemic or muscle inflammation after 3 or 8 weeks of HFD suggesting that early diet-induced obesity does not cause inflammation throughout the whole body. Overall these findings indicate skeletal muscle did not contribute to the development of HFD-induced impairments in whole-body glucose tolerance following 3 weeks of HFD.
Obesity causes insulin resistance, which has been interpreted as reduced downstream insulin signaling. However, changes in access of insulin to sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle may also play a role. Insulin injected directly into skeletal muscle diffuses rapidly through the interstitial space to cause glucose uptake. When insulin resistance is induced by exogenous lipid infusion, this interstitial diffusion process is curtailed. Thus, the possibility exists that hyperlipidemia, such as that seen during obesity, may inhibit insulin action to muscle cells and exacerbate insulin resistance. Here we asked whether interstitial insulin diffusion is reduced in physiological obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Dogs were fed a regular diet (lean) or one supplemented with bacon grease for 9–12 weeks (HFD). Basal insulin (0.2 mU · min−1 · kg−1) euglycemic clamps were performed on fat-fed animals (n = 6). During clamps performed under anesthesia, five sequential doses of insulin were injected into the vastus medialis of one hind limb (INJ); the contralateral limb (NINJ) served as a control.
INJ lymph insulin showed an increase above NINJ in lean animals, but no change in HFD-fed animals. Muscle glucose uptake observed in lean animals did not occur in HFD-fed animals.
Insulin resistance induced by HFD caused a failure of intramuscularly injected insulin to diffuse through the interstitial space and failure to cause glucose uptake, compared with normal animals. High-fat feeding prevents the appearance of injected insulin in the interstitial space, thus reducing binding to skeletal muscle cells and glucose uptake.
Insulin resistance plays a primary role in the development of type 2 diabetes and may be related to alterations in fat metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that local accumulation of fat metabolites inside skeletal muscle may activate a serine kinase cascade involving protein kinase C–θ (PKC-θ), leading to defects in insulin signaling and glucose transport in skeletal muscle. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether mice with inactivation of PKC-θ are protected from fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin action as assessed during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps did not differ between WT and PKC-θ KO mice following saline infusion. A 5-hour lipid infusion decreased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake in the WT mice that was associated with 40–50% decreases in insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate–1 (IRS-1) and IRS-1–associated PI3K activity. In contrast, PKC-θ inactivation prevented fat-induced defects in insulin signaling and glucose transport in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that PKC-θ is a crucial component mediating fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and suggest that PKC-θ is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Adiponectin is an adipokine whose plasma levels are inversely related to degrees of insulin resistance (IR) or obesity. It enhances glucose disposal and mitochondrial substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle and its actions are mediated through binding to receptors, especially adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). However, the in vivo significance of adiponectin sensitivity and the molecular mechanisms of muscle insulin sensitization by adiponectin have not been fully established. We used in vivo electrotransfer to overexpress AdipoR1 in single muscles of rats, some of which were fed for 6 wk with chow or high-fat diet (HFD) and then subjected to hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. After 1 wk, the effects on glucose disposal, signaling, and sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in test vs. contralateral control muscles. AdipoR1 overexpression (OE) increased glucose uptake and glycogen accumulation in the basal and insulin-treated rat muscle and also in the HFD-fed rats, locally ameliorating muscle IR. These effects were associated with increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. AdipoR1 OE also caused increased phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase, and acetyl-coA carboxylase as well as increased protein levels of adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and leucine zipper motif-1 and adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and uncoupling protein-3, indicative of increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Although neither HFD feeding nor AdipoR1 OE caused generalized changes in sphingolipids, AdipoR1 OE did reduce levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate, ceramide 18:1, ceramide 20:2, and dihydroceramide 20:0, plus mRNA levels of the ceramide synthetic enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase and sphingolipid Δ-4 desaturase, changes that are associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data demonstrate that enhancement of local adiponectin sensitivity is sufficient to improve skeletal muscle IR.
OBJECTIVE—Skeletal muscle–specific LPL knockout mouse (SMLPL−/−) were created to study the systemic impact of reduced lipoprotein lipid delivery in skeletal muscle on insulin sensitivity, body weight, and composition.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Gene expression and insulin-signaling molecules were compared in skeletal muscle and liver of SMLPL−/− and control mice.
RESULTS—Nine-week-old SMLPL−/− mice showed no differences in body weight, fat mass, or whole-body insulin sensitivity, but older SMLPL−/− mice had greater weight gain and whole-body insulin resistance. High-fat diet feeding accelerated the development of obesity. In young SMLPL−/− mice, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased 58% in the skeletal muscle, but was reduced in white adipose tissue (WAT) and heart. Insulin action was also diminished in liver: 40% suppression of hepatic glucose production in SMLPL−/− vs. 90% in control mice. Skeletal muscle triglyceride was 38% lower, and insulin-stimulated phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) was twofold greater in SMLPL−/− mice without changes in IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Hepatic triglyceride and liver X receptor, carbohydrate response element–binding protein, and PEPCK mRNAs were unaffected in SMLPL−/− mice, but peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1α and interleukin-1β mRNAs were higher, and stearoyl–coenzyme A desaturase-1 and PPARγ mRNAs were reduced.
CONCLUSIONS—LPL deletion in skeletal muscle reduces lipid storage and increases insulin signaling in skeletal muscle without changes in body composition. Moreover, lack of LPL in skeletal muscle results in insulin resistance in other key metabolic tissues and ultimately leads to obesity and systemic insulin resistance.
We examined the role of butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid formed by fermentation in the large intestine, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In dietary-obese C57BL/6J mice, sodium butyrate was administrated through diet supplementation at 5% wt/wt in the high-fat diet. Insulin sensitivity was examined with insulin tolerance testing and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. Energy metabolism was monitored in a metabolic chamber. Mitochondrial function was investigated in brown adipocytes and skeletal muscle in the mice.
On the high-fat diet, supplementation of butyrate prevented development of insulin resistance and obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin tolerance were all preserved in the treated mice. Body fat content was maintained at 10% without a reduction in food intake. Adaptive thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were enhanced. An increase in mitochondrial function and biogenesis was observed in skeletal muscle and brown fat. The type I fiber was enriched in skeletal muscle. Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α expression was elevated at mRNA and protein levels. AMP kinase and p38 activities were elevated. In the obese mice, supplementation of butyrate led to an increase in insulin sensitivity and a reduction in adiposity.
Dietary supplementation of butyrate can prevent and treat diet-induced insulin resistance in mouse. The mechanism of butyrate action is related to promotion of energy expenditure and induction of mitochondria function.
Liraglutide is a glucagonlike peptide (GLP)-1 analog that reduces blood glucose levels, increases insulin secretion and improves insulin sensitivity through mechanisms that are not completely understood. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the metabolic impact and underlying mechanisms of liraglutide in a hypoadiponectinemia and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) model. Adiponectin gene targeting was achieved using adenovirus-transduced RNAi and was used to lower plasma adiponectin levels. Liraglutide (1 mg/kg) was given twice daily for 8 wks to HFD-fed apolipoprotein (Apo)E−/− mice. Insulin sensitivity was examined by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Gene mRNA and protein expressions were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Administration of liraglutide prevented hypoadiponectinemia-induced increases in plasma insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Liraglutide also attenuated hypoadiponectinemia-induced deterioration in peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and alterations in key regulatory factors implicated in glucose and lipid metabolism. These findings demonstrated for the first time that liraglutide could be used to rescue IR induced by hypoadiponectinemia and HFD via regulating gene and protein expression involved in glucose and lipid metabolism.
Insulin signaling is tightly controlled by tyrosine dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor through protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPs). DEP-1 is a PTP dephosphorylating tyrosine residues in a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we analyzed whether DEP-1 activity is differentially regulated in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue under high-fat diet (HFD), examined the role of DEP-1 in insulin resistance in vivo, and its function in insulin signaling.
Mice were fed an HFD for 10 weeks to induce obesity-associated insulin resistance. Thereafter, HFD mice were subjected to systemic administration of specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), highly accumulating in hepatic tissue, against DEP-1 or control ASOs. Targeting DEP-1 led to improvement of insulin sensitivity, reduced basal glucose level, and significant reduction of body weight. This was accompanied by lower insulin and leptin serum levels. Suppression of DEP-1 in vivo also induced hyperphosphorylation in the insulin signaling cascade of the liver. Moreover, DEP-1 physically associated with the insulin receptor in situ, and recombinant DEP-1 dephosphorylated the insulin receptor in vitro.
These results indicate that DEP-1 acts as an endogenous antagonist of the insulin receptor, and downregulation of DEP-1 results in an improvement of insulin sensitivity. DEP-1 may therefore represent a novel target for attenuation of metabolic diseases.
Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase; Density-enhanced phosphatase-1; Insulin resistance; Type 2 diabetes; Antisense oligonucleotides; Metabolic tissues; Insulin signaling; Insulin receptor; Obesity
Obesity caused by feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with an increased activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Activated JNK1 is implicated in the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance and the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Significantly, Jnk1−/− mice are protected against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here we show that an ablation of the Jnk1 gene in skeletal muscle does not influence HFD-induced obesity. However, muscle-specific JNK1-deficient (MKO) mice exhibit improved insulin sensitivity compared with control wild-type (MWT) mice. Thus, insulin-stimulated AKT activation is suppressed in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue of HFD-fed MWT mice but is suppressed only in the liver and adipose tissue of MKO mice. These data demonstrate that JNK1 in muscle contributes to peripheral insulin resistance in response to diet-induced obesity.
C57Bl/6 mice develop obesity and mild hyperglycemia when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Although diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a widely studied model of type 2 diabetes, little is known about β-cell failure in these mice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
DIO mice were separated in two groups according to body weight gain: low- and high-HFD responders (LDR and HDR). We examined whether mild hyperglycemia in HDR mice is due to reduced β-cell mass or function and studied islet metabolism and signaling.
HDR mice were more obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant, and hyperglycemic and showed a more altered plasma lipid profile than LDR. LDR mice largely compensated insulin resistance, whereas HDR showed perturbed glucose homeostasis. Neither LDR nor HDR mice showed reduced β-cell mass, altered islet glucose metabolism, and triglyceride deposition. Insulin secretion in response to glucose, KCl, and arginine was impaired in LDR and almost abolished in HDR islets. Palmitate partially restored glucose- and KCl-stimulated secretion. The glucose-induced rise in ATP was reduced in both DIO groups, and the glucose-induced rise in Ca2+ was reduced in HDR islets relatively to LDR. Glucose-stimulated lipolysis was decreased in LDR and HDR islets, whereas fat oxidation was increased in HDR islets only. Fatty acid esterification processes were markedly diminished, and free cholesterol accumulated in HDR islets.
β-Cell failure in HDR mice is not due to reduced β-cell mass and glucose metabolism or steatosis but to a secretory dysfunction that is possibly due to altered ATP/Ca2+ and lipid signaling, as well as free cholesterol deposition.
Insulin resistance associates with chronic inflammation, and participatory elements of the immune system are emerging. We hypothesized that bacterial elements acting on distinct intracellular pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) acting on nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins, contribute to insulin resistance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Metabolic and inflammatory properties were assessed in wild-type (WT) and NOD1/2−/− double knockout mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Insulin resistance was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps in mice injected with mimetics of meso-diaminopimelic acid–containing PGN or the minimal bioactive PGN motif, which activate NOD1 and NOD2, respectively. Systemic and tissue-specific inflammation was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in NOD ligand–injected mice. Cytokine secretion, glucose uptake, and insulin signaling were assessed in adipocytes and primary hepatocytes exposed to NOD ligands in vitro.
NOD1/2−/− mice were protected from HFD-induced inflammation, lipid accumulation, and peripheral insulin intolerance. Conversely, direct activation of NOD1 protein caused insulin resistance. NOD1 ligands induced peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance within 6 h in WT, but not NOD1−/−, mice. NOD2 ligands only modestly reduced peripheral glucose disposal. NOD1 ligand elicited minor changes in circulating proinflammatory mediators, yet caused adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance of muscle AS160 and liver FOXO1. Ex vivo, NOD1 ligand caused proinflammatory cytokine secretion and impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake directly in adipocytes. NOD1 ligand also caused inflammation and insulin resistance directly in primary hepatocytes from WT, but not NOD1−/−, mice.
We identify NOD proteins as innate immune components that are involved in diet-induced inflammation and insulin intolerance. Acute activation of NOD proteins by mimetics of bacterial PGNs causes whole-body insulin resistance, bolstering the concept that innate immune responses to distinctive bacterial cues directly lead to insulin resistance. Hence, NOD1 is a plausible, new link between innate immunity and metabolism.
Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with obesity. Increased concentrations of intracellular fatty acid metabolites have been postulated to interfere with insulin signaling by activation of a serine kinase cascade involving PKCθ in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been postulated to dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient and cause metabolic inefficiency. We therefore hypothesized that overexpression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle might protect against fat-induced insulin resistance in muscle by conversion of intramyocellular fat into thermal energy. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet were markedly insulin resistant, a result of defects in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in these tissues was associated with reduced insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1– (IRS-1–) and IRS-2–associated PI3K activity in muscle and liver, respectively. In contrast, UCP3-overexpressing mice were completely protected against fat-induced defects in insulin signaling and action in these tissues. Furthermore, these changes were associated with a lower membrane-to-cytosolic ratio of diacylglycerol and reduced PKCθ activity in whole-body fat–matched UCP3 transgenic mice. These results suggest that increasing mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle may be an excellent therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Insulin resistance is an integral feature of metabolic syndromes, including obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we evaluated whether the aloe component could reduce obesity-induced inflammation and the occurrence of metabolic disorders such as blood glucose and insulin resistance.
Male C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 54 days received a supplement of aloe formula (PAG, ALS, Aloe QDM, and Aloe QDM complex) or pioglitazone (PGZ) and were compared with unsupplemented controls (high-fat diet; HFD) or mice fed a regular diet (RD). RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to quantify the expression of obesity-induced inflammation.
Aloe QDM lowered fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with HFD. Obesity-induced inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, -6, -12, TNF-α) and chemokine (CX3CL1, CCL5) mRNA and protein were decreased markedly, as was macrophage infiltration and hepatic triglycerides by Aloe QDM. At the same time, Aloe QDM decreased the mRNA and protein of PPARγ/LXRα and 11β-HSD1 both in the liver and WAT.
Dietary aloe formula reduces obesity-induced glucose tolerance not only by suppressing inflammatory responses but also by inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the WAT and liver, both of which are important peripheral tissues affecting insulin resistance. The effect of Aloe QDM complex in the WAT and liver are related to its dual action on PPARγ and 11β-HSD1 expression and its use as a nutritional intervention against T2D and obesity-related inflammation is suggested.
Aloe QDM complex; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Obesity-induced inflammation; Insulin sensitivity
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced adipose tissue inflammation is a critical feature of diet-induced insulin resistance (IR); however, the contribution of interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI)-mediated signals to this phenotype has not been defined. We hypothesized that lack of IL-1RI may ameliorate HFD-induced IR by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Glucose homeostasis was monitored in chow- and HFD-fed wild-type (WT) and IL-1RI−/− mice by glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Macrophage recruitment and cytokine signature of adipose tissue macrophages was evaluated. Insulin sensitivity and cytokine secretion from adipose explants was quantified. Cytokine secretion and adipocyte insulin sensitivity was measured in cocultures of WT or IL-1RI−/− macrophages with 3T3L1 adipocytes. Synergistic effects of IL-1β with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on inflammation was monitored in WT and IL-1RI−/− bone-marrow macrophages and adipose explants.
Lean and obese IL-1RI−/− animals exhibited enhanced glucose homeostasis by glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test. M1/M2 macrophage number in adipose tissue was comparable between genotypes; however, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion was lower from IL-1RI−/− adipose tissue macrophages. IL-1RI−/− adipose exhibited enhanced insulin sensitivity, elevated pAKT, lower cytokine secretion, and attenuated induction of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and suppressor of cytokine signaling molecule 3 after HFD. Coculture of WT, but not IL-1RI−/− macrophages, with 3T3L1 adipocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-α secretion, reduced adiponectin secretion, and impaired adipocyte insulin sensitivity. TNF-α and IL-1β potently synergized to enhance inflammation in WT macrophages and adipose, an effect lost in the absence of IL-1RI.
Lack of IL-1RI protects against HFD-induced IR coincident with reduced local adipose tissue inflammation, despite equivalent immune cell recruitment.
Obesity promotes insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. Disrupting any of several distinct steps in lipid synthesis decreases adiposity, but it is unclear if this approach coordinately corrects the environment that propagates metabolic disease. We tested the hypothesis that inactivation of FAS in the hypothalamus prevents diet-induced obesity and systemic inflammation. Ten weeks of high-fat feeding to mice with inactivation of FAS (FASKO) limited to the hypothalamus and pancreatic β cells protected them from diet-induced obesity. Though high-fat fed FASKO mice had no β-cell phenotype, they were hypophagic and hypermetabolic, and they had increased insulin sensitivity at the liver but not the periphery as demonstrated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, and biochemically by increased phosphorylated Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, and FOXO1 compared with wild-type mice. High-fat fed FASKO mice had decreased excretion of urinary isoprostanes, suggesting less oxidative stress and blunted tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to endotoxin, suggesting less systemic inflammation. Pair-feeding studies demonstrated that these beneficial effects were dependent on central FAS disruption and not merely a consequence of decreased adiposity. Thus, inducing central FAS deficiency may be a valuable integrative strategy for treating several components of the metabolic syndrome, in part by correcting hepatic insulin resistance and suppressing inflammation.
metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Tissue inflammation is a key factor underlying insulin resistance in established obesity. Several models of immuno-compromised mice are protected from obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, it is unanswered whether inflammation triggers systemic insulin resistance or vice versa in obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess these questions.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to wild-type mice and three different immuno-compromised mouse models (lymphocyte-deficient Rag1 knockout, macrophage-depleted, and hematopoietic cell-specific Jun NH2-terminal kinase–deficient mice) and measured the time course of changes in macrophage content, inflammatory markers, and lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle along with systemic insulin sensitivity.
In wild-type mice, body weight and adipose tissue mass, as well as insulin resistance, were clearly increased by 3 days of HFD. Concurrently, in the short-term HFD period inflammation was selectively elevated in adipose tissue. Interestingly, however, all three immuno-compromised mouse models were not protected from insulin resistance induced by the short-term HFD. On the other hand, lipid content was markedly increased in liver and skeletal muscle at day 3 of HFD.
These data suggest that the initial stage of HFD-induced insulin resistance is independent of inflammation, whereas the more chronic state of insulin resistance in established obesity is largely mediated by macrophage-induced proinflammatory actions. The early-onset insulin resistance during HFD feeding is more likely related to acute tissue lipid overload.
Although interleukin (IL)-7 is mostly known as a key regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis, we recently demonstrated that it also contributes to body weight regulation through a hypothalamic control. Previous studies have shown that IL-7 is produced by the human obese white adipose tissue (WAT) yet its potential role on WAT development and function in obesity remains unknown. Here, we first show that transgenic mice overexpressing IL-7 have reduced adipose tissue mass associated with glucose and insulin resistance. Moreover, in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity model, a single administration of IL-7 to C57BL/6 mice is sufficient to prevent HFD-induced WAT mass increase and glucose intolerance. This metabolic protective effect is accompanied by a significant decreased inflammation in WAT. In lymphocyte-deficient HFD-fed SCID mice, IL-7 injection still protects from WAT mass gain. However, IL-7-triggered resistance against WAT inflammation and glucose intolerance is lost in SCID mice. These results suggest that IL-7 regulates adipose tissue mass through a lymphocyte-independent mechanism while its protective role on glucose homeostasis would be relayed by immune cells that participate to WAT inflammation. Our observations establish a key role for IL-7 in the complex mechanisms by which immune mediators modulate metabolic functions.